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Sample records for two-point discrimination test

  1. Two-point orientation discrimination versus the traditional two-point test for tactile spatial acuity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jonathan; Mao, Oliver; Goldreich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants' psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological assessment.

  2. Two-point orientation discrimination versus the traditional two-point test for tactile spatial acuity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological

  3. Extension of normal values on sensory function for facial areas using clinical tests on touch and two-point discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, J P M; van der Glas, H W

    2009-11-01

    The threshold value of a sensory test provides a numerical measure of the sensory function. In order to decide whether a threshold value from an affected site indicates 'abnormal' sensory function, it can be compared with normal values from a healthy control population. The aim of this study was to extend current information on normal values for static light touch and static two-point discrimination for facial sites. Using simple hand-held devices, 95% upper limits of confidence intervals of threshold values were determined for facial sites other than those studied previously and for a large sample of 100 healthy subjects. The MacKinnon-Dellon Disk-Criminator and the Aesthesiometer were used to measure novel normal values of two-point discrimination. As threshold values for two-point discrimination from the Aesthesiometer were similar to those obtained using the Disk-Criminator, the use of the Aesthesiometer might not be indicated. Apart from the Pressure Specified Sensory Device (a device with pressure control), Semmes-Weinstein nylon monofilaments and the Disk-Criminator are useful devices for studying sensory function, in particular under clinical test conditions in which easy and fast application are advantageous.

  4. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila G. Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls.Objective:To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests.Method:Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot.Results:No differences (p>0.05 were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01.Conclusion:Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging.

  5. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Franco,Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; André L. F. Rodacki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceiv...

  6. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20's.

  7. Exteroceptive aspects of nociception: insights from graphesthesia and two-point discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Coghill, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    The exteroceptive capabilities of the nociceptive system have long been thought to be considerably more limited than those of the tactile system. However, most investigations of spatio-temporal aspects of the nociceptive system have largely focused on intensity coding as consequence of spatial or temporal summation. Graphesthesia, the identification of numbers "written" on the skin, and assessment of the two-point discrimination thresholds were used to compare the exteroceptive capabilities of the tactile and nociceptive systems. Numbers were "written" on the forearm and the abdomen by tactile stimulation and by painful non-contact infrared laser heat stimulation. Subjects performed both graphesthesia tasks better than chance. The tactile graphesthesia tasks were performed with 89% (82-97%) correct responses on the forearm and 86% (79-94%) correct responses on the abdomen. Tactile graphesthesia tasks were significantly better than painful heat graphesthesia tasks that were performed with 31% (23-40%) and 44% (37-51%) correct responses on the forearm and abdomen, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the central nervous system is capable of assembling complex spatio-temporal patterns of nociceptive information from the body surface into unified mental objects with sufficient accuracy to enable behavioral discrimination.

  8. The influence of age on pressure perception of static and moving two-point discrimination in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Atsushi; Asai, Noriyoshi; Kanda, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of age on digital pressure perception as measured by two-point discrimination (2PD) testing. The subjects were 177 normal volunteers ranging in age from 20 to 79 years. Perceptible pressure of static and moving 2PD was measured on the index finger and little finger, using the Pressure-specifying Sensory Device. The threshold of pressure perception increased significantly with advancing age in both static and moving 2PD tests. There was a marked increase in subjects older than 60 years. Pressure perception was significantly higher for static 2PD than for moving 2PD in subjects 70-79 years of age. The threshold of pressure perception for static and moving 2PD gradually increased with advancing age, and was markedly elevated in subjects older than 60 years.

  9. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20’s. PMID:27134375

  10. Reprodutibilidade intra-avaliador do teste de discriminação de dois pontos na sola dos pés em idosos e jovens assintomáticos Intra-observer reproducibility of the feet soles two-point discrimination test in asymptomatic elderly and young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila G. Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Os primeiros sinais de comprometimento sensorial plantar decorrente do envelhecimento e de neuropatias periféricas são manifestados na sola dos pés e podem resultar em déficits no controle postural e no equilíbrio. Os testes de sensibilidade cutânea visam a avaliar a densidade da inervação sensorial na pele e têm sido utilizados para avaliação de segmentos distais. Alguns estudos têm aplicado o teste de discriminação de dois pontos (DDP na sola dos pés e diferenciado idosos com e sem históricos de quedas, porém sua reprodutibilidade ainda precisa ser determinada. OBJETIVO: Verificar a reprodutibilidade intra-avaliador do teste de DDP na sola dos pés em idosos e jovens assintomáticos. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 21 idosos ativos (67±5 anos; 1,56±0,08 m; 65,3±13,7 kg e 21 jovens ativos (24±3 anos; 1,69±0,09 m; 54,5±9,5 kg. Os participantes realizaram duas sessões de testes com procedimentos experimentais idênticos, com intervalo de 48 horas. Foi avaliada a sensibilidade cutânea da sola do pé direito por meio do teste de DDP. Para avaliar a reprodutibilidade intra-avaliador, foi aplicado o teste de Bland-Altman. RESULTADOS: Idosos e jovens apresentaram variações de 0,71% e 1,53%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Esses valores não excedem dois desvios-padrão, e o teste de DDP foi considerado como uma medida reprodutível para a avaliação da sensibilidade cutânea da sola dos pés de jovens e idosos fisicamente ativos.BACKGROUND: The first sign of plantar sensory impairment due to aging and peripheral neuropathies are manifested on the soles of the feet and can result in postural control and balance deficits. The aim of cutaneous sensitivity tests is to assess the skin sensory innervation density such as those of the distal segments. In some studies the two-point discrimination test (TPD have been applied on the soles of the feet and have proven to accurately distinguish elderly with and without

  11. Reprodutibilidade intra-avaliador do teste de discriminação de dois pontos na sola dos pés em idosos e jovens assintomáticos Intra-observer reproducibility of the feet soles two-point discrimination test in asymptomatic elderly and young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila G. Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Os primeiros sinais de comprometimento sensorial plantar decorrente do envelhecimento e de neuropatias periféricas são manifestados na sola dos pés e podem resultar em déficits no controle postural e no equilíbrio. Os testes de sensibilidade cutânea visam a avaliar a densidade da inervação sensorial na pele e têm sido utilizados para avaliação de segmentos distais. Alguns estudos têm aplicado o teste de discriminação de dois pontos (DDP na sola dos pés e diferenciado idosos com e sem históricos de quedas, porém sua reprodutibilidade ainda precisa ser determinada. OBJETIVO: Verificar a reprodutibilidade intra-avaliador do teste de DDP na sola dos pés em idosos e jovens assintomáticos. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 21 idosos ativos (67±5 anos; 1,56±0,08 m; 65,3±13,7 kg e 21 jovens ativos (24±3 anos; 1,69±0,09 m; 54,5±9,5 kg. Os participantes realizaram duas sessões de testes com procedimentos experimentais idênticos, com intervalo de 48 horas. Foi avaliada a sensibilidade cutânea da sola do pé direito por meio do teste de DDP. Para avaliar a reprodutibilidade intra-avaliador, foi aplicado o teste de Bland-Altman. RESULTADOS: Idosos e jovens apresentaram variações de 0,71% e 1,53%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Esses valores não excedem dois desvios-padrão, e o teste de DDP foi considerado como uma medida reprodutível para a avaliação da sensibilidade cutânea da sola dos pés de jovens e idosos fisicamente ativos.BACKGROUND: The first sign of plantar sensory impairment due to aging and peripheral neuropathies are manifested on the soles of the feet and can result in postural control and balance deficits. The aim of cutaneous sensitivity tests is to assess the skin sensory innervation density such as those of the distal segments. In some studies the two-point discrimination test (TPD have been applied on the soles of the feet and have proven to accurately distinguish elderly with and without

  12. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds.

  13. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  14. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  15. Assessment of styling performance in hair gels and hair sprays by means of a new two-point stiffness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoessel, Peter; Riemann, Solveig; Knebl, Robert; Schroeder, Jens; Schuh, Gerd; Castillo, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    A new two-point bending stiffness method on flat hair strands was developed and validated after application of hair styling gels and hair styling sprays. A special mold was used to align single hair fibers after applying the formulations to the hair. The styling gels used contain different commercially available thickeners and styling polymers, e.g., carbomer, acrylates/beheneth-25 methacrylate copolymer, Polyquaternium-86, PVP, VP/VA copolymers, and VP/methacrylamide/vinylimidazole copolymer. Evaluation of hair sprays was performed after spray application on flat hair strands. Commercially available hair styling resins were used, e.g. acrylates/t-butylacrylamide copolymer, octylacrylamide/acrylates/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, and VP/VA copolymer (30:70). The new stiffness test method provided the best correlation with practically relevant sensory assessments on hair strands and a panel test in which styling gels were evaluated. However, we did not observe a correlation between the new stiffness method on flat hair strands and practical assessments in hair spray application. We postulate that different polymer/hair composites are responsible for these discrepancies. Hairs on model heads for half-side testing are spot-welded after spray application, while hairs are seam-welded in the stiffness test after alignment of single hair fibers. This alignment is necessary to achieve reproducible results.

  16. Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination: What Does it Discriminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen Warren

    1979-01-01

    This study investigated auditory discrimination as a function of ethnic group membership within the same socioeconimic status (SES). Subjects were 126 six-year-old students attending schools in a lower SES community. Contrary to previous findings, there were no differences between the groups on the Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. (Author)

  17. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market....... It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  18. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  19. Two-Point Fuzzy Ostrowski Type Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amer Latif

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequalities are proved for fuzzy Hölder and fuzzy differentiable functions. The two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequality for M-lipshitzian mappings is also obtained. It is proved that only the two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequality for M-lipshitzian mappings is sharp and as a consequence generalize the two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequalities obtained for fuzzy differentiable functions.

  20. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptijn, R.; Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Silverstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chines

  1. Comparison of two point-of-care testing (POCT) methods for glycated haemoglobin(HbA1c) testing%糖化血红蛋白两种床旁检测方法性能的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 杨雪; 胡丽涛; 王治国

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较两种H bA1c床旁检测方法的性能.方法 通过对已发表的两种HbA1c床旁检测方法(POC A,POC B)与两种中心实验室仪器(Central X,Central Y)验证试验的数据分析得到两种HbA1c床旁检测仪器与中心实验室仪器相比的不精密度(CV%)、偏倚(Bias%),并将其与质量要求进行比较.结果 POC A测定HbA1c在6.0%和10.4%浓度水平时的变异系数(CV)分别为3.8%、3.7%,与中心实验室仪器(Central X)比对测得的偏倚分别为10.33%、13.58%,与中心实验室仪器(Central Y)比对得到的偏倚分别为7.83%、10.44%;POCB测定HbA1 c在5.5%和11.9%浓度水平时的CV分别为3.4%、7.3%,与CentralX比对测得的偏倚分别为0.45%、11.08%,与CentralY比对得到的偏倚分别为3.73%、9.57%.结论 两种HbA1c床旁检测方法的性能不能满足目前对HbA1 c检测的质量要求.%Objective To evaluate the performance of two point-of-care testing (POCT) methods for HbA1c testing. Methods Using published data from a study, the two POCT HbA1c devices with two central laboratory instruments for HbA1c measurement were compared. The imprecision bias for the two methods of POC A and POC B was determined by verification tests with two central laboratory instruments of Central X and Central Y, from the published data, and then was compared with the requirement of quality. Results At HbA, c level 6. 0% and 10. 4%, the total CV of POC A was 3. 8% and 3. 7% respectively and when comparing with Central X, the bias of POC A was 10. 33% and 13. 58%. Comparing with Central Y, the bias was 7. 83% and 10. 44%. At A,C level 5. 5% and 11. 9% the total CV of POC B was 3. 4%, 7. 3% respectively, and when comparing with Central X, the bias was 0. 45% and 11. 08%. Comparing with Central Y, the bias was 3. 73% and 9. 57%respectively. Conclusions The performance of the two methods for HbA1c testing cannot meet the current quality requirements for the HbA1c testing .

  2. An experimental test of filter-aided dichromatic color discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, S; Adams, A J

    1984-04-01

    Using derived formulas for dichromat colorimetry and related computer graphic colorimetric tools, predictions of color discrimination performance are made for a deuteranope and protanope standard observer for each of three commercial color deficiency "treatment" filters. Five deuteranopes and five protanopes then participated in two experiments. They were asked to order the caps of the D-15 test, and in a second experiment arrange color pairs (from the D-15 test) in order of difference. Predictions and subject performance reveal that although X-Chrom aided dichromats gain both luminous and chromatic information, all dichromats used predominantly chromaticity information in discrimination tasks. The colorimetric tools correctly predicted that protanopes would derive less useful luminous information from the X-Chrom filter compared with deuteranopes , and correctly predicted an increase in discrimination of blues and purples for both classes of red-green color deficients .

  3. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2010-01-01

    Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...... as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard...... linear contrast in a generalized linear model using the probit link function. All methods developed in the paper are implemented in our free R-package sensR (http://www.cran.r-project.org/package=sensR/). This includes the basic power and sample size calculations for these four discrimination tests...

  4. Sensory discrimination and intelligence: testing Spearman's other hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Bell, P Joseph; Bell, Andrew J; Campbell, Mary L; Fazal, Nicola D

    2004-01-01

    At the centenary of Spearman's seminal 1904 article, his general intelligence hypothesis remains one of the most influential in psychology. Less well known is the article's other hypothesis that there is "a correspondence between what may provisionally be called 'General Discrimination' and 'General Intelligence' which works out with great approximation to one or absoluteness" (Spearman, 1904, p. 284). Studies that do not find high correlations between psychometric intelligence and single sensory discrimination tests do not falsify this hypothesis. This study is the first directly to address Spearman's general intelligence-general sensory discrimination hypothesis. It attempts to replicate his findings with a similar sample of schoolchildren. In a well-fitting structural equation model of the data, general intelligence and general discrimination correlated .92. In a reanalysis of data published byActon and Schroeder (2001), general intelligence and general sensory ability correlated .68 in men and women. One hundred years after its conception, Spearman's other hypothesis achieves some confirmation. The association between general intelligence and general sensory ability remains to be replicated and explained.

  5. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  6. Two Point Pade Approximants and Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of two point Pade approximants to find expressions valid uniformly in coupling constant for theories with both weak and strong coupling expansions. In particular, one can use these approximants in models with a strong/weak duality, when the symmetries do not determine exact expressions for some quantity.

  7. Head to Head Comparison of Two Point-of-care Platelet Function Tests Used for Assessment of On-clopidogrel Platelet Reactivity in Chinese Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yao; Jia-Hui Zhang; Xiao-Fang Tang; Chen He; Yuan-Liang Ma; Jing-Jing Xu; Ying Song

    2016-01-01

    Background:Platelet function tests are widely used in clinical practice to guide personalized antiplatelet therapy.In China,the thromboelastography (TEG) test has been well accepted in clinics,whereas VerifyNow,mainly used for scientific research,has not been used in routine clinical practice.The aim of the current study was to compare these two point-of-care platelet function tests and to analyze the consistency between the two tests for evaluating on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods:A total of 184 patients admitted to Fuwai Hospital between August 2014 and May 2015 were enrolled in the study.On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was assessed 3 days after PCI by TEG and VerifyNow using adenosine diphosphate as an agonist.Based on the previous reports,an inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) <30% for TEG or a P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) >230 for VerifyNow was defined as high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR).An IPA >70% or a PRU <178 was defined as low on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (LPR).Correlation and agreement between the two methods were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) and kappa value (κ),respectively.Results:Our results showed that VerifyNow and TEG had a moderate but significant correlation in evaluating platelet reactivity (r =-0.511).A significant although poor agreement (κ =0.225) in identifying HPR and a significantly moderate agreement in identifying LPR (κ =0.412) were observed between TEG and VerifyNow.By using TEG as the reference for comparison,the cutoffvalues of VerifyNow for the Chinese patients in this study were identified as PRU >205 for HPR and PRU <169 for LPR.Conclusions:By comparing VerifyNow to TEG which has been widely used in clinics,VerifyNow could be an attractive alternative to TEG for monitoring on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese patients.

  8. Computational complexity for the two-point block method

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Phang Pei; Majid, Zanariah Abdul

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we discussed and compared the computational complexity for two-point block method and one-point method of Adams type. The computational complexity for both methods is determined based on the number of arithmetic operations performed and expressed in O(n). These two methods will be used to solve two-point second order boundary value problem directly and implemented using variable step size strategy adapted with the multiple shooting technique via three-step iterative method. Two numerical examples will be tested. The results show that the computational complexity of these methods is reliable to estimate the cost of these methods in term of the execution time. We conclude that the two-point block method has better computational performance compare to the one-point method as the total number of steps is larger.

  9. Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2012-01-01

    ... of discrimination in the labour market as well as to the mechanisms involved in discriminatory hiring practices. The design has several advantages compared to -‘single-method’ approaches and provides a more substantial understanding of the processes leading to ethnic inequality in the labour market.

  10. Two-point optical coherency matrix tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F; Kagalwala, Kumel H; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2014-04-15

    The two-point coherence of an electromagnetic field is represented completely by a 4×4 coherency matrix G that encodes the joint polarization-spatial-field correlations. Here, we describe a systematic sequence of cascaded spatial and polarization projective measurements that are sufficient to tomographically reconstruct G--a task that, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been realized. Our approach benefits from the correspondence between this reconstruction problem in classical optics and that of quantum state tomography for two-photon states in quantum optics. Identifying G uniquely determines all the measurable correlation characteristics of the field and, thus, lifts ambiguities that arise from reliance on traditional scalar descriptors, especially when the field's degrees of freedom are correlated or classically entangled.

  11. A comparison of stimulus presentation methods in temporal discrimination testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Govern, Eavan M; Butler, John S; Beiser, Ines; Williams, Laura; Quinlivan, Brendan; Narasiham, Shruti; Beck, Rebecca; O'Riordan, Sean; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which an individual detects two stimuli to be asynchronous (normal  =  30-50 ms). It has been shown to be abnormal in patients with disorders affecting the basal ganglia including adult onset idiopathic focal dystonia (AOIFD). Up to 97% of patients have an abnormal TDT with age- and sex-related penetrance in unaffected relatives, demonstrating an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. These findings support the use of the TDT as a pre-clinical biomarker for AOIFD. The usual stimulus presentation method involves the presentation of progressively asynchronous stimuli; when three sequential stimuli are reported asynchronous is taken as a participant's TDT. To investigate the robustness of the 'staircase' method of presentation, we introduced a method of randomised presentation order to explore any potential 'learning effect' that may be associated with this existing method. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in temporal discrimination using two methods of stimulus presentation. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited to the study (mean age 33.73  ±  3.4 years). Visual and tactile TDT testing using a staircase and randomised method of presentation order was carried out in a single session. There was a strong relationship between the staircase and random method for TDT values. This observed consistency between testing methods suggests that the existing experimental approach is a robust method of recording an individual's TDT. In addition, our newly devised randomised paradigm is a reproducible and more efficient method for data acquisition in the clinic setting. However, the two presentation methods yield different absolute TDT results and either of the two methods should be used uniformly in all participants in any one particular study.

  12. Strategies to Test for Private Student Loan Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about private student loan discrimination, in contrast to the relatively developed research on discrimination in other credit markets such as mortgages and credit cards. The private student lending market can play a key role in responding to changes in the policy or economic environment, and many students and their families turn to…

  13. Strategies to Test for Private Student Loan Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about private student loan discrimination, in contrast to the relatively developed research on discrimination in other credit markets such as mortgages and credit cards. The private student lending market can play a key role in responding to changes in the policy or economic environment, and many students and their families turn to…

  14. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  15. Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Hole, Arne Risa; Santos, Rita

    2011-07-01

    In 2008 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 89%, of those of male GPs. We estimate Oaxaca decompositions using OLS models of wages and 2SLS models of income and propose a set of new direct tests for within workplace gender discrimination. The direct tests are based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices with varying proportions of female GPs and with female or male senior partners. These tests provide only weak evidence for discrimination. We also propose a set of indirect tests for discrimination, including a comparison of a GP's actual income with the income they report as an acceptable reward for their job. The indirect tests provide no evidence for gender discrimination within practices.

  16. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Oral Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.

    In a study designed to validate oral language proficiency tests, it is planned to administer a series of tests to 100 native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (foreign students and their spouses). The tests will measure communicative competence in speaking (ability to speak, exhibiting control of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic rules;…

  17. Fitness testing as a discriminative tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, V A; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Ruiz, J R; Aranda, P; Tercedor, P; Delgado-Fernández, M; Ortega, F B

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to determine the ability of a set of physical fitness tests to discriminate between presence/absence of fibromyalgia (FM) and moderate/severe FM. The sample comprised 94 female FM patients (52 ± 8 years) and 66 healthy women (54 ± 6 years). We assessed physical fitness by means of the 30-s chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8-feet up and go, and 6-min walking tests. Patients were classified as having moderate FM if the score in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was <70 and as having severe FM if the FIQ was ≥70. FM patients and patients with severe FM performed worse in most of the fitness tests studied (P < 0.001). Except the back scratch test, all the tests were able to discriminate between presence and absence of FM [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.66 to 0.92; P ≤ 0.001], and four tests also discriminated FM severity (AUC = 0.62 to 0.66; P ≤ 0.05). The 30-s chair stand test showed the highest ability to discriminate FM presence and severity (AUC = 0.92, P < 0.001; and AUC = 0.66, P = 0.008, respectively), being the corresponding discriminating cutoffs 9 and 6 repetitions, respectively. Physical fitness in general, and particularly the 30-s chair stand test, is able to discriminate between women with FM from those without FM, as well as between those with moderate FM from their peers with severe FM.

  18. Life insurance and breast cancer risk assessment: adverse selection, genetic testing decisions, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Weber, Barbara; FitzGerald, Genevieve; Hershey, John C; Pauly, Mark V; Lemaire, Jean; Subramanian, Krupa; Asch, David A

    2003-07-30

    Life insurance industry access to genetic information is controversial. Consumer groups argue that access will increase discrimination in life insurance premiums and discourage individuals from undergoing genetic testing that may provide health benefits. Conversely, life insurers argue that without access to risk information available to individuals, they face substantial financial risk from adverse selection. Given this controversy, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of breast cancer risk information on life insurance purchasing, the impact of concerns about life insurance discrimination on use of BRCA1/2 testing, and the incidence of life insurance discrimination following participation in breast cancer risk assessment and BRCA1/2 testing. Study participants were 636 women who participated in genetic counseling and/or genetic testing at a University based clinic offering breast cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, and BRCA1/2 testing between January 1995 and May 2000. Twenty-seven women (4%) had increased and six (1%) had decreased their life insurance since participation in breast cancer risk assessment. The decision to increase life insurance coverage was associated with predicted breast cancer risk (adjusted OR 1.03 for each 1% absolute increase in risk, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and being found to carry a mutation in BRCA1/2 (OR 5.10, 95% CI 1.90-13.66). Concern about life insurance discrimination was inversely associated with the decision to undergo BRCA1/2 testing (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.85). No respondent reported having life insurance denied or canceled. In this cohort of women, these results indicate that information about increased breast cancer risk is associated with increase in life insurance purchasing, raising the possibility of adverse selection. Although fear of insurance discrimination is associated with the decision not to undergo BRCA1/2 testing, there was no evidence of actual insurance discrimination from BRCA1

  19. Holographic Two-Point Functions in Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ghodsi, Ahmad; Naseh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the holographic two-point functions of four dimensional conformal gravity. Precisely we calculate the two-point functions for Energy-Momentum (EM) and Partially Massless Response (PMR) operators that have been identified as two response functions for two independent sources in the dual CFT. The correlation function of EM with PMR tensors turns out to be zero which is expected according to the conformal symmetry. The two-point function of EM is that of a transverse and traceless tensor, and the two-point function of PMR which is a traceless operator contains two distinct parts, one for a transverse-traceless tensor operator and another one for a vector field, both of which fulfill criteria of a CFT. We also discuss about the unitarity of the theory.

  20. Perceptions of discrimination among persons who have undergone predictive testing for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penziner, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Bombard, Yvonne; Wallis, Anne; Beglinger, Leigh J; Hayden, Michael R; Paulsen, Jane S

    2008-04-05

    Potential discrimination from genetic testing may undermine technological advances for health care. Researching long-term consequences of testing for genetic conditions that may lead to discrimination is a public health priority. The consequences of genetic discrimination generate social, health, and economic burdens for society by diminishing opportunities for at-risk individuals in a range of contexts. The current study objective was to investigate perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination among persons who completed predictive testing for Huntington's disease (HD). Using semi-structured interviews and computerized qualitative analysis, the perceptions of 15 presymptomatic persons with a positive gene test predicting HD were examined with regard to differential treatment following testing. The sample comprised 11 women and 4 men, mostly married (73%), aged between 22 and 62 years, with an average education of 14.6 years (SD +/- 2.57) and residing in urban, rural and suburban settings of eight U.S. States. Participants reported perceptions of consequences following disclosure of genetic test results in three areas: employment, insurance, and social relationships. Although most employed participants (90%) revealed their test results to their employers, nearly all reported they would not disclose this information to future employers. Most (87%) participants disclosed test results to their physician, but a similar majority (83%) did not tell their genetic status to insurers. Most participants (87%) disclosed test results to family and peers; patterns of disclosure varied widely. Discrimination concerns remain high in this sample and point to the need for more information to determine the extent and scope of the problem.

  1. Racial Discrimination and Mental Health in the USA: Testing the Reverse Racism Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Bongki

    2017-08-15

    The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses. Non-Hispanic blacks reported the highest levels of experiencing racial discrimination, while Non-Hispanic whites reported the lowest. Exposure to racial discrimination was associated with higher odds of psychiatric disorders for non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics than it was for non-Hispanic whites, while non-Hispanic American Indians/Alaska Natives had lower odds of psychiatric disorders. Analyses indicated that racial discrimination poses stronger mental health disadvantages on racial/ethnic minorities than it does to non-Hispanic whites. This finding not only refutes the notion of reverse racism, but also calls for more efforts to close the racial/ethnic health gap for those exposed to racial discrimination.

  2. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  3. Application of multivariate statistics to vestibular testing: discriminating between Meniere's disease and migraine associated dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, P. S.; Wall, C. 3rd; Oas, J. G.; Rauch, S. D.

    2001-01-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) and migraine associated dizziness (MAD) are two disorders that can have similar symptomatologies, but differ vastly in treatment. Vestibular testing is sometimes used to help differentiate between these disorders, but the inefficiency of a human interpreter analyzing a multitude of variables independently decreases its utility. Our hypothesis was that we could objectively discriminate between patients with MD and those with MAD using select variables from the vestibular test battery. Sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test variables were reduced to three vestibulo-ocular reflex physiologic parameters: gain, time constant, and asymmetry. A combination of these parameters plus a measurement of reduced vestibular response from caloric testing allowed us to achieve a joint classification rate of 91%, independent quadratic classification algorithm. Data from posturography were not useful for this type of differentiation. Overall, our classification function can be used as an unbiased assistant to discriminate between MD and MAD and gave us insight into the pathophysiologic differences between the two disorders.

  4. Bedside Testing for Chronic Pelvic Pain: Discriminating Visceral from Somatic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    John Jarrell; Maria Adele Giamberardino; Magali Robert; Maryam Nasr-Esfahani

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study was done to evaluate three bedside tests in discriminating visceral pain from somatic pain among women with chronic pelvic pain. Study Design. The study was an exploratory cross-sectional evaluation of 81 women with chronic pelvic pain of 6 or more months' duration. Tests included abdominal cutaneous allodynia (aCA), perineal cutaneous allodynia (pCA), abdominal and perineal myofascial trigger points (aMFTP) and (pMFTP), and reduced pain thresholds (RPTs). Results. Eigh...

  5. Two-point functions on deformed space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Trampetic, Josip

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of one-loop photon (\\Pi) and neutrino (\\Sigma) two-point functions in a covariant and deformed U(1) gauge-theory on d-dimensional noncommutative spaces, determined by a constant antisymmetric tensor \\theta, and by a parameter-space (\\kappa_f,\\kappa_g), respectively. For the general fermion-photon S_f(\\kappa_f) and photon self-interaction S_g(\\kappa_g) the closed form results reveal two-point functions with all kind of pathological terms: the UV divergence, the quadratic UV/IR mixing terms as well as a logarithmic IR divergent term of the type ln(\\mu^2(\\theta p)^2). In addition, the photon-loop produces new tensor structures satisfying transversality condition by themselves. We show that the photon two-point function in four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime can be reduced to two finite terms by imposing a specific full rank of \\theta and setting deformation parameters (\\kappa_f,\\kappa_g)=(0,3). In this case the neutrino two-point function vanishes. Thus for a specific point (0,3) in the para...

  6. Similarity of solution branches for two-point semilinear problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available For semilinear autonomous two-point problems, we show that all Neumann branches and all Dirichlet branches with odd number of interior roots have the same shape. On the other hand, Dirichlet branches with even number of roots may look differently. While this result has been proved previously by Schaaf cite{S}, our approach appears to be simpler.

  7. A new discriminative criterion for the development of Franz diffusion tests for transdermal pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Bram; Boonen, Jente; Burvenich, Christian; Roche, Nathalie; Stillaert, Filip; Blondeel, Phillip; Van Boxclaer, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2010-01-01

    In vitro skin/membrane permeation profiling of topical pharmaceuticals is an important overall quality attribute in the evaluation of product consistency and it is also used for IVIVR (in vitro - in vivo relationship) purposes in product development and change control. Franz diffusion cell (FDC) experiments are emerging as a generally accepted methodology in this field, where the choice of operational conditions requires a data-supported justification towards the discriminating power of the test. A response function is therefore proposed to objectively quantify the discriminating power. We evaluated the usefulness of the proposed response function by studying one of the operational conditions, i.e. the influence of receptor medium composition, on the FDC in vitro penetration behaviour of the model compound testosterone formulated in four different topical preparations, using both artificial membranes and dermatomed human skin. From the obtained cumulative amount of testosterone in the receptor fluid versus time curves, the permeability coefficient Kp of testosterone from each formulation was calculated. The evaluation of the discriminating power of the different media was performed using our new objective response function based upon an equal spread criterion of normalised Kp values. We demonstrated significant differences in discriminating power between the different media used, with the overall best results obtained with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrine (HPBCD) containing media. The proposed new criterion was found to be useful for the rational design of an in vitro diffusion test for transdermal pharmaceuticals.

  8. Adapted Manual Wheelchair Circuit : Test-Retest Reliability and Discriminative Validity in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H.

    2011-01-01

    Cowan RE, Nash MS, de Groot S, van der Woude LH. Adapted manual wheelchair circuit: test-retest reliability and discriminative validity in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1270-80. Objective: To assess the test-retest reliability and discriminative validity of a 14-item

  9. Development and validation of discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Anumolu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of biorelevant and discriminating dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility is a useful technique for qualitative forecasting of the in vivo behavior of formulations. It also characterizes the drug product performance in pharmaceutical development. Lornoxicam, a BCS class-II drug is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug of the oxicam class, has no official dissolution media available in the literature. The objective of present work was to develop and validate a discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablet dosage forms. To quantify the lornoxicam in dissolution samples, UV spectrophotometric method was developed using 0.01M sodium hydroxide solution as solvent at λma× 376 nm. After evaluation of saturation solubility, dissolution, sink conditions and stability of lornoxicam bulk drug in different pH solutions and biorelevant media, the dissolution method was optimized using USP paddle type apparatus at 50 rpm rotation speed and 500 ml simulated intestinal fluid as discriminating and biorelevant dissolution medium. The similarity factor (f 2 were investigated for formulations with changes in composition and manufacturing variations, values revealed that dissolution method having discriminating power and method was validated as per standard guidelines. The proposed dissolution method can be effectively applied for routine quality control in vitro dissolution studies of lornoxicam in tablets and helpful to pharmacopoeias.

  10. Total Ossiculoplasty: Advantages of Two-Point Stabilization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Berenholz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate a porous polyethylene prosthesis with two-point stabilization in total ossiculoplasty. This approach utilizes a lateral as well as a medial graft to stabilize a total ossicular prosthesis (TOP. Study Design. Retrospective cohort review of total ossiculoplasty. Methods. All patients who underwent total ossiculoplasty during the years 2004–2007 were included in the study group. Only five patients (10% had primary surgery whereas 45 (90% underwent revision surgery. Cartilage grafts covering the prosthesis (Sheehy, Xomed laterally were used in all patients with areolar tissue being used for medial stabilization at the stapes footplate. Follow-up examination and audiometrics were performed a mean of 8.1 months following surgery. Results. The percentage of patients closing their ABG to within 10 dB was 44% with 66% closing their ABG to within 20 dB. The mean four-frequency hearing gain was 15.7 dB. The mean postoperative ABG was 15.7 dB. Conclusion. Audiometric results following total ossiculoplasty surgery using two-point stabilization exceeded results from the otologic literature. Proper two-point fixation with areolar tissue and stabilization utilizing cartilage were the keys to achieving a relatively high percentage of success in chronic ear disease in this sample.

  11. Social Media Monitoring of Discrimination and HIV Testing in Brazil, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, René Clausen; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mello, Maeve B; Paz, Josi; Pantin, Colin; Erkkola, Taavi

    2017-07-01

    Big data can be used to assess perceptions about public health issues. This study assessed social media data from Twitter to inform communication campaigns to promote HIV testing and reduce discrimination related to HIV/AIDS or towards key populations to the HIV epidemic, and its potential utility to evaluate such campaigns through HIV testing uptake. Tweets from Brazil were collected from January 2014 to March 2015 and filtered by four categories of keywords including discrimination, HIV prevention, HIV testing, and HIV campaigns. In total over 100,000 geo-located tweets were extracted and analyzed. A dynamic online dashboard updated daily allowed mapping trends, anomalies and influencers, and enabled its use for feedback to campaigns, including correcting misconceptions. These results encourage the use of social networking data for improved messaging in campaigns. Clinical HIV test data was collected monthly from the city of Curitiba and compared to the number of tweets mapped to the city showing a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.39). Results are limited due to the availability of the HIV testing data. The potential of social media as a proxy for HIV testing uptake needs further validation, which can only be done with higher frequency and higher spatial granularity of service delivery data, enabling comparisons with the social media data. Such timely information could empower early response immediate media messaging to support programmatic efforts, such as HIV prevention, testing, and treatment scale up.

  12. Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Zitek, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT, but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. Methods: This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Results: Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5] and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5] for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2] and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]. The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5] and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]. Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV, which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the

  13. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  14. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  15. Theory of resistor networks: the two-point resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F Y [Department of Physics, Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-07-02

    The resistance between two arbitrary nodes in a resistor network is obtained in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. Explicit formulae for two-point resistances are deduced for regular lattices in one, two and three dimensions under various boundary conditions including that of a Moebius strip and a Klein bottle. The emphasis is on lattices of finite sizes. We also deduce summation and product identities which can be used to analyse large-size expansions in two and higher dimensions.

  16. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2017-02-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N-point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  17. Objective Tests and Their Discriminating Power in Business Courses: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornachione Jr.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating students’ learning experiences outcomes cannot be considered a simple task. This paper aims at investigating students’ overall performance and the discriminating power of particular tests’ items in the context of business courses. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with this issue while analyzing it, with scientific approach, from an accounting information systems standpoint: two experiments based on a database management system (DBMS undergraduate course, involving 66 and 62 students (experiments E1 and E2, respectively. The discriminant analysis generated discriminant functions with high canonical correlations (E1=0.898 and E2= 0.789. As a result, high percentages of original grouped cases were correctly classified (E1=98.5% and E2= 95.2% based on a relatively small number of items: 7 out of 22 items from E1 (multiple-choice, and 3 out of 6 from E2 (short-answer. So, with only a few items from the analyzed instruments it is possible todiscriminate “good” or “bad” academic performance, and this is a measure of quality of the observed testing instruments. According to these findings, especially in business area, instructors and institutions, together, are able to analyze and act towards improving their assessment methods, to be of minimum influence whileevaluating students’ performance.

  18. Relative numerosity discrimination in the pigeon: further tests of the linear-exponential-ratio model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Keen, Richard

    2002-04-28

    This study tested a model of how animals discriminate the relative numerosity of stimuli in successive or sequential presentation tasks. In a discrete-trials procedure, pigeons were shown one light for nf times and then another for nl times. Next they received food for choosing the light that had occurred the least-number of times during the sample. At issue were (a) how performance varies with the interval between the two stimulus sets (the interblock interval) and the interval between the end of the sample and the beginning of the choice period (the retention interval); and (b) whether a simple mathematical model of the discrimination process could account for the data. The model assumed that the influence of a stimulus on choice increases linearly when the stimulus is presented, but decays exponentially when the stimulus is absent; choice probability is given by the ratio of the influence values of the two stimuli. The model also assumed that as the retention interval elapses there is an increasing probability that the ongoing discriminative process be disrupted and then the animal responds randomly. Results showed that increasing the interblock intervals reduced the probability of choosing the last stimulus of the sample as the least-frequent one. Increasing the retention interval reduced accuracy without inducing any stimulus bias. The model accounted well for the major trends in the data.

  19. A discrimination-association model for decomposing component processes of the implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Luca; Robusto, Egidio; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale

    2013-06-01

    A formal model is proposed that decomposes the implicit association test (IAT) effect into three process components: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. Both response accuracy and reaction time are considered. Four independent and parallel Poisson processes, one for each of the four label categories of the IAT, are assumed. The model parameters are the rate at which information accrues on the counter of each process and the amount of information that is needed before a response is given. The aim of this study is to present the model and an illustrative application in which the process components of a Coca-Pepsi IAT are decomposed.

  20. Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele, E-mail: calcagni@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: gielen@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: doriti@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2011-06-21

    The path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions is discussed, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology. Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.

  1. Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Gielen, Steffen [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    We discuss the path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.

  2. Two-point Correlator Fits on HISQ Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gamiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Lightman, M; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M; Simone, J N; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We present our methods to fit the two point correlators for light, strange, and charmed pseudoscalar meson physics with the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action. We make use of the least-squares fit including the full covariance matrix of the correlators and including Gaussian constraints on some parameters. We fit the correlators on a variety of the HISQ ensembles. The lattice spacing ranges from 0.15 fm down to 0.06 fm. The light sea quark mass ranges from 0.2 times the strange quark mass down to the physical light quark mass. The HISQ ensembles also include lattices with different volumes and with unphysical values of the strange quark mass. We use the results from this work to obtain our preliminary results of $f_D$, $f_{D_s}$, $f_{D_s}/f_{D}$, and ratios of quark masses presented in another talk [1].

  3. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  4. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  5. Difficulty and discrimination parameters of Boston naming test items in a consecutive clinical series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C; Ferman, Tanis J; Rush, Beth K; Lucas, John A

    2011-08-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability.

  6. Factor structure of the Benton Visual retention tests: dimensionalization of the Benton Visual retention test, Benton Visual retention test - multiple choice, and the Visual Form Discrimination Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Courtney A; Mansoor, Yael; Homer-Smith, Elizabeth; Moses, James A

    2011-01-01

    Six sequential experiments were conducted on archival data of 610 U.S. Veterans seen at the Palo Alto Veteran's Affairs Hospital, to understand the dimensionalization of the Benton Visual retention test in both the recall (BVRT) and multiple-choice (BVRT-MC) format as well as the Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFDT). These tests were dimensionalized by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) revealing a four-component model that explains 81.04% of the shared variance: the moderately difficult items (BVRT-MC and VFDT items 13-16) loaded with the WAIS-R Perceptual Organization, the easiest items (VFDT items 1-12, BVRT-MC items 1-12, and BVRT items 1-4) loaded separately with both WAIS-R Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility, and the most difficult items (BVRT items 3-10) loaded weakly with WAIS-R Perceptual Organization.

  7. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  8. Discrimination and Relocation of The 2013 North Korea Underground Nuclear Test: A New Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianipar, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We successfully give contribution in discriminating the 2013 North Korea underground nuclear test from natural earthquakes by using analysis of ratio of seismic energy and seismic moment (Ɵ) and analysis of the rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the shallow seismic event which occurred in the region of North Korea mainland and vicinity in last decade. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminated from a natural or tectonic earthquake. The 2013 North Korea test earthquake had 2.817822 x 1019 N.m of the seismic moment and 7.652314 x 1014 N.m of radiated seismic energy and -4.56 of the Ɵ value. The equivalent Ɵ value with the two previous nuclear events and differences with natural earthquakes was considered as an implication of the explosion event. The rupture duration value of this event was 11.13 s. The very low value of the rupture duration from the three nuclear tests event shows us the characteristic of the explosion. We also give contribution in determining the high precision location of the 2013 nuclear test earthquake using relocation algorithm of Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) and double difference using IMS CTBTO, BMKG, regional and global seismic stations respectively. We also compared the relative location results with absolute location method of Simulated Annealing (SA). Results of the all relocation method in this study show the locations with distance less than 7 km from the Punggye-ri nuclear test facility. A result was compared with the relocation results by all possible combination of seismic phase data and stations and by previous researchers and analyzed using topographic data satellite imagery. We proposed that the northwest of the Punggye-ri facility (named "A" location) in coordinate 129.04 E and 41.29 N with elevation around 2050-2150 meter is the high possibility location of the 2013 North Korea underground nuclear test.

  9. Do the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery episodic memory measures discriminate amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Facal, David; Reboredo, Alba; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Although visual recognition memory and visuospatial paired associates learning has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the sensitivity and specificity of the visual memory tests used to identify aMCI are not well defined. The current study attempted to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three visual episodic memory tests (Pattern Recognition Memory [PRM], Delayed Matching to Sample [DMS], and Paired Associated Learning [PAL]) from the CANTAB, in differentiating aMCI patients from control healthy participants. Seventy seven aMCI patients and 85 cognitive normal controls aged over 50 years performed the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to study the relationships between aMCI and visual memory measures. The three Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures significantly predicted aMCI. The optimal predictive model combined the total percent correct responses for PRM and DMS with the PAL total errors (six shapes adjusted), with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 83%, and achieved predictive accuracy of 80%. Visual episodic memory tasks such as those involved in the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests (included in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) may sensitively discriminate aMCI patients from normal controls. These tests may be useful for correct diagnosis of aMCI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A multiscale two-point flux-approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møyner, Olav; Lie, Knut-Andreas

    2014-10-01

    A large number of multiscale finite-volume methods have been developed over the past decade to compute conservative approximations to multiphase flow problems in heterogeneous porous media. In particular, several iterative and algebraic multiscale frameworks that seek to reduce the fine-scale residual towards machine precision have been presented. Common for all such methods is that they rely on a compatible primal-dual coarse partition, which makes it challenging to extend them to stratigraphic and unstructured grids. Herein, we propose a general idea for how one can formulate multiscale finite-volume methods using only a primal coarse partition. To this end, we use two key ingredients that are computed numerically: (i) elementary functions that correspond to flow solutions used in transmissibility upscaling, and (ii) partition-of-unity functions used to combine elementary functions into basis functions. We exemplify the idea by deriving a multiscale two-point flux-approximation (MsTPFA) method, which is robust with regards to strong heterogeneities in the permeability field and can easily handle general grids with unstructured fine- and coarse-scale connections. The method can easily be adapted to arbitrary levels of coarsening, and can be used both as a standalone solver and as a preconditioner. Several numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate that the MsTPFA method can be used to solve elliptic pressure problems on a wide variety of geological models in a robust and efficient manner.

  11. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, N.P

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au) 1 tab., 51 ills., 29 refs.

  12. Discrimination and Well-being: Testing the differential source and Organizational Justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.

    2013-01-01

    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on victi

  13. Discrimination and Well-being: Testing the differential source and Organizational Justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.

    2013-01-01

    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on victi

  14. Discrimination and Well-being: Testing the differential source and Organizational Justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.

    2013-01-01

    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on

  15. Sample Dimensionality Effects on d' and Proportion of Correct Responses in Discrimination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-09-01

    Products in the food and beverage industry have varying levels of dimensionality ranging from pure water to multicomponent food products, which can modify sensory perception and possibly influence discrimination testing results. The objectives of the study were to determine the impact of (1) sample dimensionality and (2) complex formulation changes on the d' and proportion of correct response of the 3-AFC and triangle methods. Two experiments were conducted using 47 prescreened subjects who performed either triangle or 3-AFC test procedures. In Experiment I, subjects performed 3-AFC and triangle tests using model solutions with different levels of dimensionality. Samples increased in dimensionality from 1-dimensional sucrose in water solution to 3-dimensional sucrose, citric acid, and flavor in water solution. In Experiment II, subjects performed 3-AFC and triangle tests using 3-dimensional solutions. Sample pairs differed in all 3 dimensions simultaneously to represent complex formulation changes. Two forms of complexity were compared: dilution, where all dimensions decreased in the same ratio, and compensation, where a dimension was increased to compensate for a reduction in another. The proportion of correct responses decreased for both methods when the dimensionality was increased from 1- to 2-dimensional samples. No reduction in correct responses was observed from 2- to 3-dimensional samples. No significant differences in d' were demonstrated between the 2 methods when samples with complex formulation changes were tested. Results reveal an impact on proportion of correct responses due to sample dimensionality and should be explored further using a wide range of sample formulations.

  16. The Byl-Cheney-Boczai Sensory Discriminator: reliability, validity, and responsiveness for testing stereognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, Nancy; Leano, Jennifer; Cheney, Laura K

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a new test of stereognosis (Byl-Cheney-Boczai Sensory Discriminator Test [BCBI]). Participants included 38 controls, 29 subjects with hand problems, and 3 raters. With eyes closed, after sweeping the digit over a design (10 mm x 10 mm) embedded in a plastic cube (13 mm x 13 mm), subjects matched the design palpated with a design on an answer sheet (10 trials/digits 2 and 4). The intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.997 and 0.994 for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. No significant performance differences were found by gender or side. Accuracy was significantly higher for digit 2 versus digit 4, younger subjects versus older subjects, and controls versus subjects with pathology. There were significant (1) positive correlations (+0.41 to +0.53) between the BCBI and tests of stereognosis and graphesthesia; (2) negative correlations (-0.44 to -0.51) between the BCBI and the Purdue and digital reaction time; and (3) gains on the BCBI and function with therapy. The BCBI seems to be a reliable, valid, and responsive test of stereognosis that can be administered in 15 minutes in the cinic.

  17. The discriminative power of the Interval Shuttle Run Test and the Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run Test for playing level of soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Verheijen, R.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the discriminative power of the recently developed Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) and the widely used Maximal Multistage 20 m Shuttle Run Test (MMSRT) for soccer players at different levels of competition. The main difference between the tests is that

  18. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease: discriminative validity and correlation with semantic memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A; Mortensen, E L; Gade, A; Waldemar, G

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score >22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS-cog memory test was equivalent in very mild AD. This may be because CCR did not tap more semantic processes, which are impaired in the earliest phases of AD, than a test of free recall.

  19. Testing of multidimensional tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams on fresh and altered rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Gómez M. Abdelaly

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated 55 multidimensional diagrams proposed during 2004-2013 for the tectonic discrimination of ultrabasic, basic, intermediate, and acid magmas. The Miocene to Recent rock samples for testing the diagrams had not been used for constructing them. Eighteen test studies (2 from ocean island; 2 from ocean island/continental rift; 6 from continental rift; 4 from continental arc; 2 from island arc; 1 from mid-ocean ridge, and 1 from collision of relatively fresh rocks fully confirmed the satisfactory functioning of these diagrams for all tectonic fields for which they were proposed. Eight additional case studies on hydrothermally altered or moderately to highly weathered rocks were also presented to achieve further understanding of the functioning of these diagrams. For these rocks as well, the diagrams indicated the expected tectonic setting. We also show that for testing or using these diagrams the freely-available geochemistry databases should be used with caution but certainly after ascertaining the correct magma types to select the appropriate diagram sets. The results encourage us to recommend these diagrams for deciphering the tectonic setting of older terranes or areas with complex or transitional tectonic settings.

  20. Competition and the Racial Wage Gap: Testing Becker's Model of Employer Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Guilherme; Soares, Rodrigo R.

    2016-01-01

    According to Becker's (1957) theory of taste-based employer discrimination, pure economic rents are necessary for discrimination to be observed in the labor market. Increased competition and reduced rents in the market for final goods should therefore lead to reduced labor market discrimination. We look at the natural experiment represented by the Brazilian trade liberalization from the early 1990s to study the effect of increased competition in the market for final goods on racial discrimina...

  1. Cross-site strain comparison of pharmacological deficits in the touchscreen visual discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Eric G; Ding, Zhiyong; Rueter, Lynne E; Chapin, Douglas; Young, Damon; Kozak, Rouba

    2015-11-01

    The low rate of success for identifying effective treatments for cognitive dysfunction has prompted recent efforts to improve pharmaceutical discovery and development. In particular, investigators have emphasized improving translation from pre-clinical to clinical research. A specific area of focus has been touchscreen technology; this computer-automated behavioral testing method provides an objective assessment of performance that can be used across species. As part of a larger multi-site study with partners from the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), two US sites, AbbVie and Pfizer, conducted a cross-site experiment with a common protocol for the visual discrimination (VD) task using identical testing equipment, stimuli, and rats of the same strains, sex, and age from the same supplier. As most touchscreen-based rodent experiments have used Lister-Hooded rats that are not readily available outside of Europe, a strain comparison with male Long-Evans rats was conducted as part of the study. Rats were trained for asymptotic performance, and test sessions were performed once per week in a full crossover design with cognition-impairing drugs. Drugs tested were phencyclidine and S-ketamine (N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists), D-amphetamine (indirect dopamine agonist), and scopolamine (muscarinic antagonist). Satellite brain and plasma samples were taken to confirm appropriate exposures. Results indicate that both rat strains show similar patterns of impairment, although Lister-Hooded rats were more sensitive than Long-Evans rats to three out of four drugs tested. This suggests that researchers should fully explore dose-response relationships in their strain of choice and use care in the interpretation of reversal of cognitive impairment.

  2. The validity of incremental exercise testing in discriminating of physiological profiles in elite runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; Munguía-Izquierdo, D; Carranza-García, L E; Reverter-Masía, J; Torres-Dávila, C G; Medina-Rodríguez, R E

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether traditional ergoespirometric incremental exercise testing carried out to the point of exhaustion could be useful in distinguishing the physiological profiles of elite runners that compete in races that lasted about 8 minutes versus those that lasted about 2 hours. Ten male marathon runners (performance time: 2:12:04, coefficient of variation (CV) = 2.33%) and 8 male 3000 m steeplechase runners (performance time: 8:37.83, CV = 2.12%) performed an incremental test on the treadmill (starting speed 10 km·h-1; increments, 2 km·h-1; increment duration, 3 min to exhaustion). Heart rate (HR), VO2, and lactate concentrations were measured at the end of each exercise level. At maximal effort, there were no differences between the groups regarding VO2max and maximal HR; however, the workload time, vVO2max and peak treadmill velocity were significantly higher in the 3000 m steeplechase group (ptesting was not sufficient for discriminating the physiological profiles of elite runners who competed in middle-distance versus long-distance events (e.g. in the marathon and the 3000 m steeplechase).

  3. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  4. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G

    2016-10-01

    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma.

  5. Bedside Testing for Chronic Pelvic Pain: Discriminating Visceral from Somatic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jarrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was done to evaluate three bedside tests in discriminating visceral pain from somatic pain among women with chronic pelvic pain. Study Design. The study was an exploratory cross-sectional evaluation of 81 women with chronic pelvic pain of 6 or more months' duration. Tests included abdominal cutaneous allodynia (aCA, perineal cutaneous allodynia (pCA, abdominal and perineal myofascial trigger points (aMFTP and (pMFTP, and reduced pain thresholds (RPTs. Results. Eighty-one women were recruited, and all women provided informed consent. There were 62 women with apparent visceral pain and 19 with apparent somatic sources of pain. The positive predictive values for pelvic visceral disease were aCA-93%, pCA-91%, aMFTP-93%, pMFTP-81%, and RPT-79%. The likelihood ratio (+ and 95% C.I. for the detection of visceral sources of pain were aCA-4.19 (1.46, 12.0, pCA-2.91 (1.19, 7.11, aMTRP-4.19 (1.46, 12.0, pMFTP-1.35 (0.86, 2.13, and RPT-1.14 (0.85, 1.52, respectively. Conclusions. Tests of cutaneous allodynia, myofascial trigger points, and reduced pain thresholds are easily applied and well tolerated. The tests for cutaneous allodynia appear to have the greatest likelihood of identifying a visceral source of pain compared to somatic sources of pain.

  6. Teste de figuras para discriminação fonêmica: uma proposta Phoneme Discrimination Picture Test: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz dos Santos-Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Propor um teste que avaliasse a discriminação fonêmica por meio de pares mínimos, abrangendo todos os fonemas do Português Brasileiro e utilizando-os em palavras que possam ser facilmente representadas por figuras. Buscou-se que este teste contribua para o diagnóstico de alterações fonoaudiológicas e para a pesquisa científica. Procurou-se fazer um teste que fosse de fácil aplicação, podendo ser utilizado em qualquer local de trabalho dos fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se pares mínimos que opusessem fonemas em relação ao valor binário de cada traço distintivo e às combinações possíveis entre os traços de lugar ([labial], [coronal], [dorsal] bem como pelas oposições de estruturas silábicas. Criou-se figuras que representam as palavras dos pares. RESULTADOS: Elaborou-se o Teste de Figuras para Discriminação Fonêmica, que avalia a habilidade de discriminação fonêmica em crianças de quatro a oito anos. Este teste contém 40 apresentações, das quais 30 são pares mínimos e dez pares de palavras iguais. Nestas 30 apresentações, opôs-se os traços distintivos [+/- soante], [+/- aproximante], [+/- contínuo], [+/- voz], [coronal+/-ant], [labial] x [coronal], [dorsal] x [coronal] e [labial] x [dorsal]. Igualmente foram opostas as seguintes estruturas silábicas: V x CV, CV x CCV, CV x CVC. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os objetivos deste trabalho foram alcançados com êxito, pois o Teste de Figura para Discriminação Fonêmica contempla tudo a que se propôs. Acredita-se que o teste deva ser aplicado em um estudo piloto para averiguar se as palavras e as figuras estão adequadas para a faixa etária. Posteriormente, deve ser aplicado em diversas regiões do país para ser devidamente padronizado.PURPOSE: To propose a test to evaluate phonemic discrimination using minimum pairs, comprising all Brazilian Portuguese phonemes and using them in words which can be easily represented by pictures. The

  7. Covalent docking using autodock: Two-point attractor and flexible side chain methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giulia; Forli, Stefano; Goodsell, David S; Olson, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    We describe two methods of automated covalent docking using Autodock4: the two-point attractor method and the flexible side chain method. Both methods were applied to a training set of 20 diverse protein-ligand covalent complexes, evaluating their reliability in predicting the crystallographic pose of the ligands. The flexible side chain method performed best, recovering the pose in 75% of cases, with failures for the largest inhibitors tested. Both methods are freely available at the AutoDock website (http://autodock.scripps.edu). © 2015 The Protein Society.

  8. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2...

  9. Discrimination of dementia with lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease using the clock drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A; Williams, Karren; Grace, Janet; Tremont, Geoffrey; Westervelt, Holly; Stern, Robert A

    2003-06-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of the Clock Drawing Test to discriminate Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Recent advances in medical treatments for dementia underscore the importance of differentiating among dementia subtypes. Clinically, Dementia with Lewy bodies can often be difficult to discriminate from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease because of similar and overlapping cognitive and motor features. While the Clock Drawing Test has been shown to discriminate dementia from normal aging fairly accurately, less is known about its ability to discriminate between various dementia groups. Patients with Alzheimer disease (n = 22), patients with cognitively impaired Parkinson disease (n = 17), and patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20), matched for age, education, and dementia severity, were compared on the Clock Drawing Test, scored for overall accuracy as well as the presence of specific error types. There were no significant group differences on a global quantitative measure of Clock Drawing Test performance. With regard to differences on the error types evaluated, the patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies were more likely to make conceptual errors than the patients with Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, and the patients with Parkinson disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies made more planning errors than the patients with Alzheimer disease. Classification accuracy was fair, with 69% overall classification for Alzheimer disease versus Dementia with Lewy bodies, and 68% overall classification for Parkinson disease versus Dementia with Lewy bodies. Although some differences may exist in the qualitative features of clock drawing performance between these patient groups, overall clock drawing performance is relatively similar, and as a single instrument, the Clock Drawing Test provides limited discrimination of Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  10. Utility of California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, recall discriminability indices in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Jacobus; Nienhuis, Jacob B

    2007-03-01

    The performance of 23 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury on the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II; Delis et al., 2000) was compared with that of 23 matched healthy controls to determine whether recall discriminability indices, which take into account both correct target recall and intrusive errors, would provide better diagnostic classification than traditional variables that are based exclusively on correct recall. Patients with traumatic brain injury recalled fewer correct words, and also made more intrusive errors, on CVLT-II short and long delay, free and cued recall trials (p recall discriminability indices yielded a classification of clinical versus control participants (72%) that was not significantly different from one based on traditional variables (74%). We conclude that CVLT-II recall discriminability indices do not routinely provide an advantage over traditional variables in patients with traumatic brain injury.

  11. Performance, usability and comparison of two versions of a new macular vision test: the handheld Radial Shape Discrimination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Y. Ku

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Central vision, critical for everyday tasks such as reading and driving, is impacted by age-related changes in the eye and by diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The detection of changes in macular function is therefore important. The Radial Shape Discrimination (RSD test measures the threshold at which distortions in a radial frequency pattern can be detected and there is evidence that it is more sensitive to macular pathology than visual acuity (VA. It also provides a more quantitative measure of macular function than the commonly available Amsler grid. Recently, handheld versions of the test (hRSD in which stimuli are presented on mobile devices (e.g., Apple iPod Touch, iPhone have been developed. We investigated the characteristics of the hRSD test in healthy participants. Methods Data were collected using both three-alternative forced choice (3AFC and 4AFC versions of the hRSD test, presented on an Apple iPod Touch. For the 3AFC version, data from a single test session were available for 186 (72 male; mean ± SD age 42 ± 17y; range 16–90y healthy participants. Test-retest data were available for subgroups of participants (intra-session: N = 74; tests approximately 2 months apart: N = 30; tests 39 months apart: N = 15. The 3AFC and 4AFC versions were directly compared in 106 participants who also completed a usability questionnaire. Distance and near VA and Pelli Robson Contrast Sensitivity (CS data were collected and undilated fundoscopy performed on the majority of participants. Results Mean (±SD 3AFC hRSD threshold was −0.77 ± 0.14 logMAR, and was statistically significantly correlated with age (Pearson r = 0.35; p < 0.001. The linear regression of hRSD threshold on age had a slope of +0.0026 compared to +0.0051 for near VA (which also correlated with age: r = 0.51; p < 0.001. There were no statistically significant differences in hRSD thresholds for any of the test-retest subgroups. We

  12. Two-point concrete resistivity measurements: interfacial phenomena at the electrode-concrete contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, W. J.; Taha, H. M.; Suryanto, B.; Starrs, G.

    2015-08-01

    Ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to critically examine the end-to-end (two-point) testing technique employed in evaluating the bulk electrical resistivity of concrete. In particular, this paper focusses on the interfacial contact region between the electrode and specimen and the influence of contacting medium and measurement frequency on the impedance response. Two-point and four-point electrode configurations were compared and modelling of the impedance response was undertaken to identify and quantify the contribution of the electrode-specimen contact region on the measured impedance. Measurements are presented in both Bode and Nyquist formats to aid interpretation. Concretes mixes conforming to BSEN206-1 and BS8500-1 were investigated which included concretes containing the supplementary cementitious materials fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. A measurement protocol is presented for the end-to-end technique in terms of test frequency and electrode-specimen contacting medium in order to minimize electrode-specimen interfacial effect and ensure correct measurement of bulk resistivity.

  13. Analysing H(z) data using two-point diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of the Hubble constant H(z) are increasingly being used to test the expansion rate predicted by various cosmological models. But the recent application of 2-point diagnostics, such as Om(z_i,z_j) and Omh^2(z_i,z_j), has produced considerable tension between LCDM's predictions and several observations, with other models faring even worse. Part of this problem is attributable to the continued mixing of truly model-independent measurements using the cosmic-chronomter approach, and model-dependent data extracted from BAOs. In this paper, we advance the use of 2-point diagnostics beyond their current status, and introduce new variations, which we call Delta h(z_i,z_j), that are more useful for model comparisons. But we restrict our analysis exclusively to cosmic-chronometer data, which are truly model independent. Even for these measurements, however, we confirm the conclusions drawn by earlier workers that the data have strongly non-Gaussian uncertainties, requiring the use of both "median" and "mean" statistical approaches. Our results reveal that previous analyses using 2-point diagnostics greatly underestimated the errors, thereby misinterpreting the level of tension between theoretical predictions and H(z) data. Instead, we demonstrate that as of today, only Einstein-de Sitter is ruled out by the 2-point diagnostics at a level of significance exceeding ~ 3 sigma. The R_h=ct universe is slightly favoured over the remaining models, including LCDM and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder, though all of them (other than Einstein-de Sitter) are consistent to within 1 sigma with the measured mean of the Delta h(z_i,z_j) diagnostics.

  14. Computer-adaptive balance testing improves discrimination between community-dwelling elderly fallers and nonfallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasaney, Poonam K; Ni, Pengsheng; Slavin, Mary D; Latham, Nancy K; Wagenaar, Robert C; Bean, Jonathan; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    To build an item response theory-based computer adaptive test (CAT) for balance from 3 traditional, fixed-form balance measures: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and dynamic gait index (DGI); and to examine whether the CAT's psychometric performance exceeded that of individual measures. Secondary analysis combining 2 existing datasets. Community based. Community-dwelling older adults (N=187) who were aged ≥65 years (mean age, 75.2±6.8y, 69% women). Not applicable. The BBS, POMA, and DGI items were compiled into an initial 38-item bank. The Rasch partial credit model was used for final item bank calibration. CAT simulations were conducted to identify the ideal CAT. CAT score accuracy, reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and validity were examined. Floor and ceiling effects and validity of the CAT and individual measures were compared. A 23-item bank met model expectations. A 10-item CAT was selected, showing a very strong association with full item bank scores (r=.97) and good overall reliability (.78). Reliability was better in low- to midbalance ranges as a result of better item targeting to balance ability when compared with the highest balance ranges. No floor effect was noted. The CAT ceiling effect (11.2%) was significantly lower than the POMA (40.1%) and DGI (40.3%) ceiling effects (Pbalance CAT showed excellent accuracy, good overall reliability, and excellent validity compared with individual measures, being the only measure to discriminate between fallers and nonfallers. Prospective examination, particularly in low-functioning older adults and clinical populations with balance deficits, is recommended. Development of an improved CAT based on an expanded item bank containing higher difficulty items is also recommended. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Deitz, Cori

    2015-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. An increasing number of research studies have investigated the mechanisms through which stigma-related stressors such as perceived discrimination are linked with adverse mental health outcomes for sexual minority populations. The integrative mediation framework proposed by Hatzenbuehler (2009) underscores the importance of identifying mediators in the association between stigma-related stressors and mental health outcomes. This study tested 3 mediators--expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion--in the perceived discrimination-distress link. Moreover, it examined associations among these mediators. A nationwide sample of 265 sexual minorities responded to an online survey. Structural equation modeling results supported the mediator roles of expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion. More specifically, perceived discrimination was associated with expectations of rejection, which, in turn, was associated with increased anger rumination and less self-compassion, resulting in greater psychological distress. The findings suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention with sexual minority individuals.

  16. Testing of the recently developed tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams from hydrothermally altered igneous rocks of 7 geothermal fields

    OpenAIRE

    PANDARINATH, Kailasa

    2014-01-01

    Recently developed multidimensional tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams based on log-ratio variables of chemical elements, discordant outlier-free databases, and probability-based boundaries have been shown to work better than the earlier diagrams. Hydrothermally altered drilled well rock cuttings obtained from different depths of geothermal fields were used to test these diagrams to compare the inferred tectonic setting with the expected one. In spite of the hydrothermal alteration effec...

  17. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  18. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  19. A study of perceived racial discrimination in Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and its association with healthcare utilization and HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, R; Wilton, L; Scott, H; Beauchamp, G; Wang, L; Betancourt, J; Lubensky, M; Wallace, J; Buchbinder, S

    2014-07-01

    In HPTN 061, a study of Black men who have sex with men (MSM), we evaluated the association of healthcare-specific racial discrimination with healthcare utilization and HIV testing among 1167 HIV-negative participants. Median age was 38 years, 41 % were uninsured, and 38 % had an annual household income racial discrimination directed toward family, friend, or self; 61 % saw a healthcare provider in the previous 6 months and 81 % HIV tested within the past year. Healthcare-specific racial discrimination was positively associated with seeing a provider [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4 (1.0, 2.0)] and HIV testing [AOR = 1.6 (1.1, 2.4)] suggesting that barriers other than racial discrimination may be driving health disparities related to access to medical care and HIV testing among Black MSM. These results contrast with previous studies, possibly due to measurement or cohort differences, strategies to overcome discrimination, or because of greater exposure to healthcare.

  20. MTB-DR-RIF 9G test: Detection and discrimination of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Cho, Nam Hoon; Sung, Nackmoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, Jeongseong; Kim, Taisun

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the novel MTB-DR-RIF 9G test for the accurate detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis (MTB-DR-RIF) in the clinical samples. The procedure included the amplification of a nucleotide fragment of the rpoB gene of the MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains and their hybridization with the immobilized probes. The MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was evaluated for its ability to detect and discriminate MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains in 113 known clinical samples. The accuracy of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 95.4% (89.5-98.5) and 100% (69.2-100), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 100% (85.0-95.9) and 66.7% (38.4-88.18), respectively. Sequencing analysis of all samples indicated that the mutations present in the regions identified with the MTB-DR-RIF 9G assay can be detected accurately.

  1. A new discriminative criterion for the development of Franz diffusion tests for transdermal pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Baert, Bram; Boonen, Jente; Burvenich, Christian; ROCHE, NATHALIE; Stillaert, Filip; Blondeel, Phillip; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. In vitro skin/membrane permeation profiling of topical pharmaceuticals is an important overall quality attribute in the evaluation of product consistency and it is also used for IVIVR (in vitro - in vivo relationship) purposes in product development and change control. Franz diffusion cell (FDC) experiments are emerging as a generally accepted methodology in this field, where the choice of operational conditions requires a data-supported justification towards the discriminating power...

  2. Experimental tests and radiometric calculations for the feasibility of fluorescence LIDAR-based discrimination of oil spills from UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Lognoli, David; Masini, Andrea; Simeone, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents experimental tests and radiometric calculations for the feasibility of an ultra-compact fluorescence LIDAR from an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for the characterisation of oil spills in natural waters. The first step of this study was to define the experimental conditions for a LIDAR and its budget constraints on the basis of the specifications of small UAVs already available on the market. The second step consisted of a set of fluorescence LIDAR measurements on oil spills in the laboratory in order to propose a simplified discrimination method and to calculate the oil fluorescence conversion efficiency. Lastly, the main technical specifications of the payload were defined and radiometric calculations carried out to evaluate the performances of both the payload and the proposed discrimination method.

  3. A discrimination task used as a novel method of testing decision-making behavior following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kris M; Vonder Haar, Cole; Hutsell, Blake A; Hoane, Michael R

    2012-10-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a multitude of deficits following injury. Some of the most pervasive in humans are the changes that affect frontally-mediated cognitive functioning, such as decision making. The assessment of decision-making behavior in rodents has been extensively tested in the field of the experimental analysis of behavior. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window following TBI, time-intensive operant paradigms are rarely incorporated into the battery of tests traditionally used, the majority of which assess motor and sensory functioning. The cognitive measures that are used are frequently limited to memory and do not account for changes in decision-making behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a simplified discrimination task that can assess deficits in decision-making behavior in rodents. For the task, rats were required to dig in cocoa-scented sand (versus unscented sand) for a reinforcer. Rats were given 12 sessions per day until a criterion level of 80% accuracy for 3 days straight was reached. Once the criterion was achieved, cortical contusion injuries were induced (frontal, parietal, or sham). Following a recovery period, the rats were re-tested on cocoa versus unscented sand. Upon reaching criterion, a reversal discrimination was evaluated in which the reinforcer was placed in unscented sand. Finally, a novel scent discrimination (basil versus coffee with basil reinforced), and a reversal (coffee) were evaluated. The results indicated that the Dig task is a simple experimental preparation that can be used to assess deficits in decision-making behavior following TBI.

  4. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  5. Reliability, construct and discriminative validity of clinical testing in subjects with and without chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, René; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reliability of clinical tests for the cervical spine has not been adequately evaluated. Six cervical clinical tests, which are low cost and easy to perform in clinical settings, were tested for intra- and inter-examiner reliability, and two performance tests were assessed for test......-Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT), Range of Movement (ROM), Joint Position Error (JPE), Gaze Stability (GS), Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test (SPNTT), and neuromuscular control of the Deep Cervical Extensors (DCE). Test-retest reliability was assessed for Postural Control (SWAY) and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) over...

  6. Discriminative ability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) in prospective young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) when discriminating among players in varying playing positions and different age categories in youth soccer. One-hundred and six prospective young soccer players, grouped on the basis of chronological age (under-13, under-14, under-15, under-16, under-17, under-18, and under-19) and playing position (center-backs, fullbacks, center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards), participated in the study. The players were administered a single Yo-Yo IR1 test at the beginning of the spring season. Analysis of variance revealed significant (F = 25.3; p young soccer players and (b) the Yo-Yo IR1 test proved to be valid, reliable, and easily available measurement tool of a player's soccer-specific endurance capacity.

  7. [The initial testing and the discrimination property of the UFMG Sydenham's Chorea Rating Scale (USCRS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Maia, Débora Palma; Cardoso, Francisco

    2005-09-01

    Recently we developed and validated the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Sydenham's chorea Rating Scale (USCRS) to systematically assess SC patients. In this study, we assessed 97 children and adults with SC (mean age +/- SD, 15.5 +/- 5.9; male/female, 31/66) seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic at UFMG employing the USCRS. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to their clinical status: acute (n=19), recurrent (n=17), persistent (n=19) and remission (n=42). The mean +/- SEM USCRS scores for each group were: 47.7 +/- 4.7 for acute group, 29.5 +/- 2.6 for recurrent group, 17.6 +/- 3.1 for persistent group and 1.1 +/- 0.2 for remission group. All pair comparisons were statistically significant (p<0.05). Our results indicate that the USRSC can reasonably discriminate groups of SC patients in different clinical stages of the disease.

  8. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  9. Finite-size scaling of two-point statistics and the turbulent energy cascade generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleve, Jochen; Dziekan, Thomas; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E; Pearson, Bruce R; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R; Greiner, Martin

    2005-02-01

    Within the framework of random multiplicative energy cascade models of fully developed turbulence, finite-size-scaling expressions for two-point correlators and cumulants are derived, taking into account the observationally unavoidable conversion from an ultrametric to an Euclidean two-point distance. The comparison with two-point statistics of the surrogate energy dissipation, extracted from various wind tunnel and atmospheric boundary layer records, allows an accurate deduction of multiscaling exponents and cumulants, even at moderate Reynolds numbers for which simple power-law fits are not feasible. The extracted exponents serve as input for parametric estimates of the probabilistic cascade generator. Various cascade generators are evaluated.

  10. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students: testing the moderating roles of ethnic and American identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Irene J K; Schwartz, Seth J; Lee, Richard M; Kim, May; Rodriguez, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    The present study tested the moderating roles of ethnic identity and American identity on the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students. Using data from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) collaborative, the sample included 1,362 East Asian and South Asian American college students. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Ethnic identity was not a significant moderator of the discrimination-antisocial behavior link, but American identity exacerbated the association between perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Interestingly, the explanatory power of the regression model was greater for South Asians than for East Asians in predicting antisocial behaviors. The importance of attending to American identity as a potential source of risk for Asian American college students exposed to racial/ethnic discrimination is discussed.

  11. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument.

  12. Approach to the origin of turbulence on the basis of two-point kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, S.

    1974-01-01

    Equations for the fluctuation correlation in an incompressible shear flow are derived on the basis of kinetic theory, utilizing the two-point distribution function which obeys the BBGKY hierarchy equation truncated with the hypothesis of 'ternary' molecular chaos. The step from the molecular to the hydrodynamic description is accomplished by a moment expansion which is a two-point version of the thirteen-moment method, and which leads to a series of correlation equations, viz., the two-point counterparts of the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equation, etc. For almost parallel shearing flows the two-point equation is separable and reduces to two Orr-Sommerfeld equations with different physical implications.

  13. New two-point scleral-fixation technique for foldable intraocular lenses with four hollow haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Ting; Jiang, Zheng-Xuan; Tao, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The study was to report a new two-point scleral-fixation technique for foldable intraocular lenses with four haptics. Lenses were slid into the anterior chamber from a 2.8 mm corneal incision and fixed under two sclera flaps at two opposite points. The postoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) of all patients were significantly better than their preoperative BCVA. The results demonstrate that two-point, scleral fixations of foldable, intraocular lenses might be practicable and effective.

  14. An Attempt to Derive the epsilon Equation from a Two-Point Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to derive the equation for the turbulence dissipation rate epsilon for a shear-driven flow. In 1961, Davydov used a one-point closure model to derive the epsilon equation from first principles but the final result contained undetermined terms and thus lacked predictive power. Both in 1987 and in 2001, attempts were made to derive the epsilon equation from first principles using a two-point closure, but their methods relied on a phenomenological assumption. The standard practice has thus been to employ a heuristic form of the equation that contains three empirical ingredients: two constants, c(sub 1 epsilon), and c(sub 2 epsilon), and a diffusion term D(sub epsilon) In this work, a two-point closure is employed, yielding the following results: 1) the empirical constants get replaced by c(sub 1), c(sub 2), which are now functions of Kappa and epsilon; 2) c(sub 1) and c(sub 2) are not independent because a general relation between the two that are valid for any Kappa and epsilon are derived; 3) c(sub 1), c(sub 2) become constant with values close to the empirical values c(sub 1 epsilon), c(sub epsilon 2), (i.e., homogenous flows); and 4) the empirical form of the diffusion term D(sub epsilon) is no longer needed because it gets substituted by the Kappa-epsilon dependence of c(sub 1), c(sub 2), which plays the role of the diffusion, together with the diffusion of the turbulent kinetic energy D(sub Kappa), which now enters the new equation (i.e., inhomogeneous flows). Thus, the three empirical ingredients c(sub 1 epsilon), c(sub epsilon 2), D (sub epsilon)are replaced by a single function c(sub 1)(Kappa, epsilon ) or c(sub 2)(Kappa, epsilon ), plus a D(sub Kappa)term. Three tests of the new equation for epsilon are presented: one concerning channel flow and two concerning the shear-driven planetary boundary layer (PBL).

  15. Evaluation of experimental factors that influence the application and discrimination capability of the product consistency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.; Piepel, G.F.

    1991-06-01

    It is desirable to have a means of monitoring possible changes in waste glass durability during protection so that the product remains within acceptable limits. A leach test called the Product Consistency test (PCT) was developed by Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) as such a production test for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report examines some of the experimental factors that may be used in the PCT that could influence test precision and its ability to function as intended. An experiment was performed to investigate the effects (on pH and elemental releases of Al, Fe, K, Na, Si, B, Li, and Mn) of modifications to the test conditions of the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The experiment was replicated three times; each replicate involved leach testing two glasses with each of 24 different sets of PCT conditions. 6 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  16. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; de Souza Batista Kida, Adriana; de Avila, Clara Regina Brandão; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis Augusto; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2013-01-01

    To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE). A total of 1,945 children (6-14 years of age), who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools) and Porto Alegre (22 schools) that participated in the 'High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders' project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856), from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44). Via Item Response Theory (IRT), the highest discriminating items ('a'>1.7) were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses) and discriminant (major depression diagnoses) measures. A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not-so-good, or poor performance on TDE reading and writing tasks. The three-class solution has been shown to be correlated with estimated IQ and to ADHD diagnosis. No association was observed between the latent class and major depression. The three-class solution showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. This work provides initial evidence of validity for an empirically derived categorical classification of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the TDE. A valid classification encourages further research investing correlates of reading and writing performance using the TDE.

  17. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; de Souza Batista Kida, Adriana; de Avila, Clara Regina Brandão; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis Augusto; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Aim To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE). Sample A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age), who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools) and Porto Alegre (22 schools) that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856), from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44). Methods Via Item Response Theory (IRT), the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7) were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses) and discriminant (major depression diagnoses) measures. Results A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not-so-good, or poor performance on TDE reading and writing tasks. The three-class solution has been shown to be correlated with estimated IQ and to ADHD diagnosis. No association was observed between the latent class and major depression. Conclusion The three-class solution showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. This work provides initial evidence of validity for an empirically derived categorical classification of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the TDE. A valid classification encourages further research investing correlates of reading and writing performance using the TDE. PMID:23983466

  18. "Paterniplex", a highly discriminative decaplex STR multiplex tailored for investigating special problems in paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Thomas; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Kleiber, Manfred; Klintschar, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The goal of the study was to develop a STR multiplex ("Paterniplex") that is--as supplement to commercially available multiplex kits like the Identifiler kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA)--suitable for solving complex paternity cases such as deficiency cases or cases with mutations. The Paterniplex comprises the nine highly polymorphic STRs D8S1132, D7S1517, D10S2325, D12S391, Se33, D17S976, Penta E, Penta D and FGA in addition to Amelogenin as sex determination marker. The loci were selected because of their high degree of polymorphism (higher than that of the widely used TH01 marker). Only one locus, FGA, is shared with the Identifiler kit to avoid sample mix up. The study further gives details on the population genetics of the loci in a German Caucasian population (allelic distribution, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and forensic efficiency markers such as the Discriminating Power) and three examples for cases that could not be solved using commercially available kits alone, but using the Paterniplex in addition to a commercial kit.

  19. Perceived empathy of service providers mediates the association between perceived discrimination and behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing again among men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gu

    Full Text Available HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM. The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36-.98 and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08 were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41-1.14, when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers.

  20. Perceived empathy of service providers mediates the association between perceived discrimination and behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing again among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Wu, Anise M S; Tan, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36-.98) and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08) were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41-1.14), when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers.

  1. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  2. Testing the discrimination and detection limits of WorldView-2 imagery on a challenging invasive plant target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. P.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Pracilio, G.; Brown, C.; Corner, R.; van Klinken, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    Invasive plants pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function globally, leading to costly monitoring and management effort. While remote sensing promises cost-effective, robust and repeatable monitoring tools to support intervention, it has been largely restricted to airborne platforms that have higher spatial and spectral resolutions, but which lack the coverage and versatility of satellite-based platforms. This study tests the ability of the WorldView-2 (WV2) eight-band satellite sensor for detecting the invasive shrub mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the north-west Pilbara region of Australia. Detectability was challenged by the target taxa being largely defoliated by a leaf-tying biological control agent (Gelechiidae: Evippe sp. #1) and the presence of other shrubs and trees. Variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores identified bands offering greatest capacity for discrimination were those covering the near-infrared, red, and red-edge wavelengths. Wavelengths between 400 nm and 630 nm (coastal blue, blue, green, yellow) were not useful for species level discrimination in this case. Classification accuracy was tested on three band sets (simulated standard multispectral, all bands, and bands with VIP scores ≥1). Overall accuracies were comparable amongst all band-sets (Kappa = 0.71-0.77). However, mesquite omission rates were unacceptably high (21.3%) when using all eight bands relative to the simulated standard multispectral band-set (9.5%) and the band-set informed by VIP scores (11.9%). An incremental cover evaluation on the latter identified most omissions to be for objects 16 m2 allows application for mapping mesquite shrubs and coalesced stands, the former not previously possible, even with 3 m resolution hyperspectral imagery. WV2 imagery offers excellent portability potential for detecting other species where spectral/spatial resolution or coverage has been an impediment. New generation satellite sensors are removing barriers

  3. Non-Gaussianity test for discriminating gravitational wave backgrounds around 0.1-1Hz

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    We propose a non-Gaussianity test for gravitational wave backgrounds by combining data streams of multiple detectors. This simple method allows us to check whether a detected background is "smooth" enough to be consistent with an inflation-type background, or is contaminated by individually undetectable weak burst signals. The proposed test would be quite useful for the Big Bang Observer or DECIGO whose primary target is a background from inflation at 0.1-1Hz where gravitational wave bursts from supernovae of population III stars might become a troublesome foreground.

  4. Gauge-fixing parameter dependence of two-point gauge variant correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, C

    1996-01-01

    The gauge-fixing parameter \\xi dependence of two-point gauge variant correlation functions is studied for QED and QCD. We show that, in three Euclidean dimensions, or for four-dimensional thermal gauge theories, the usual procedure of getting a general covariant gauge-fixing term by averaging over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions leads to a nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence in gauge variant two-point correlation functions (e.g. fermion propagators). This nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence modifies the large distance behavior of the two-point correlation functions by introducing additional exponentially decaying factors. These factors are the origin of the gauge dependence encountered in some perturbative evaluations of the damping rates and the static chromoelectric screening length in a general covariant gauge. To avoid this modification of the long distance behavior introduced by performing the average over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions, one can either choose ...

  5. Redundancy, Discrimination and Corruption in the Multibillion-Dollar Business of College Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Monica Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities require standardized entrance exams when making admissions decisions. Scores on these exams help determine if, when and where students will be allowed to pursue higher education. These scores are also used to determine eligibility for merit based financial aid. This testing persists even though half of the…

  6. A NEW METHOD TO CORRECT FOR FIBER COLLISIONS IN GALAXY TWO-POINT STATISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hong; Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    In fiber-fed galaxy redshift surveys, the finite size of the fiber plugs prevents two fibers from being placed too close to one another, limiting the ability to study galaxy clustering on all scales. We present a new method for correcting such fiber collision effects in galaxy clustering statistics based on spectroscopic observations. The target galaxy sample is divided into two distinct populations according to the targeting algorithm of fiber placement, one free of fiber collisions and the other consisting of collided galaxies. The clustering statistics are a combination of the contributions from these two populations. Our method makes use of observations in tile overlap regions to measure the contributions from the collided population, and to therefore recover the full clustering statistics. The method is rooted in solid theoretical ground and is tested extensively on mock galaxy catalogs. We demonstrate that our method can well recover the projected and the full three-dimensional (3D) redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) on scales both below and above the fiber collision scale, superior to the commonly used nearest neighbor and angular correction methods. We discuss potential systematic effects in our method. The statistical correction accuracy of our method is only limited by sample variance, which scales down with (the square root of) the volume probed. For a sample similar to the final SDSS-III BOSS galaxy sample, the statistical correction error is expected to be at the level of 1% on scales {approx}0.1-30 h {sup -1} Mpc for the 2PCFs. The systematic error only occurs on small scales, caused by imperfect correction of collision multiplets, and its magnitude is expected to be smaller than 5%. Our correction method, which can be generalized to other clustering statistics as well, enables more accurate measurements of full 3D galaxy clustering on all scales with galaxy redshift surveys.

  7. Holographic two-point functions for 4d log-gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Niklas; Zojer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We compute holographic one- and two-point functions of critical higher curvature gravity in four dimensions. The two most important operators are the stress tensor and its logarithmic partner, sourced by ordinary massless and by logarithmic non-normalisable gravitons, respectively. In addition, the logarithmic gravitons source two ordinary operators, one with spin-one and one with spin-zero. The one-point function of the stress tensor vanishes for all Einstein solutions, but has a non-zero contribution from logarithmic gravitons. The two-point functions of all operators match the expectations from a three-dimensional logarithmic conformal field theory.

  8. Numerical methods for stiff systems of two-point boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, J. E.; Omalley, R. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical procedures are developed for constructing asymptotic solutions of certain nonlinear singularly perturbed vector two-point boundary value problems having boundary layers at one or both endpoints. The asymptotic approximations are generated numerically and can either be used as is or to furnish a general purpose two-point boundary value code with an initial approximation and the nonuniform computational mesh needed for such problems. The procedures are applied to a model problem that has multiple solutions and to problems describing the deformation of thin nonlinear elastic beam that is resting on an elastic foundation.

  9. Verified solutions of two-point boundary value problems for nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Florian

    Using techniques introduced by Nakao [4], Oishi [5, 6] and applied by Takayasu, Oishi, Kubo [11, 12] to certain nonlinear two-point boundary value problems (see also Rump [7], Chapter 15), we provide a numerical method for verifying the existence of weak solutions of two-point boundary value problems of the form -u″ = a(x, u) + b(x, u)u‧, 0 b are functions that fulfill some regularity properties. The numerical approximation is done by cubic spline interpolation. Finally, the method is applied to the Duffing, the van der Pol and the Toda oscillator. The rigorous numerical computations were done with INTLAB [8].

  10. Adaptation of a two-point boundary value problem solver to a vector-multiprocessor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.J. (Mathematics Dept., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (US)); Pereyra, V. (Weidlinger Associates, Los Angeles, CA (US))

    1990-05-01

    Systems of linear equations arising from finite-difference discretization of two-point boundary value problems have coefficient matrices that are sparse, with most or all of the nonzeros clustered in blocks near the main diagonal. Some efficiently vectorizable algorithms for factorizing these types of matrices and solving the corresponding linear systems are described. The relative effectiveness of the different algorithms varies according to the distribution of initial, final, and coupled end conditions. The techniques described can be extended to handle linear systems arising from other methods for two-point boundary value problems, such as multiple shooting and collocation. An application to seismic ray tracing is discussed.

  11. A Computationally Efficient Approach for Calculating Galaxy Two-Point Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Demina, Regina; BenZvi, Segev; Hindrichs, Otto

    2016-01-01

    We develop a modification to the calculation of the two-point correlation function commonly used in the analysis of large scale structure in cosmology. An estimator of the two-point correlation function is constructed by contrasting the observed distribution of galaxies with that of a uniformly populated random catalog. Using the assumption that the distribution of random galaxies in redshift is independent of angular position allows us to replace pairwise combinatorics with fast integration over probability maps. The new method significantly reduces the computation time while simultaneously increasing the precision of the calculation.

  12. The forced-response test does not discriminate ears with different otitis media expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Seroky, James T; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2014-11-01

    Test the hypothesis that the eustachian tube (ET) function measured using standard manometric test methods is different between groups of ears with tympanostomy tubes inserted for recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) and for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). A cross-sectional study of ET function in populations of young children with different otitis media expressions. The results for forced-response testing of ET function were compared using a general linear model between 37 ears of 26 children and 34 ears of 26 children, aged 3 and 4 years, with ventilation tubes inserted for COME and RAOM, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in either the active measure of ET opening function, dilatory efficiency, or in the passive measures reflecting the magnitude of the forces that tend to hold the ET lumen closed, the opening and closing pressures, and passive trans-ET conductance. The results do not support the hypothesis that ET closing forces are less in ears with RAOM when compared to ears with COME, and from the results of earlier studies, ears without disease. Both groups were characterized by a low ET opening efficiency (referenced to ears of adults with no disease history). Because both disease expressions present the same pattern of ET dysfunction, other factors are required to explain why a subset of ears with that type of dysfunction develop RAOM, as opposed to the default expression of COME. 2b © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Fracture resistance, two point bending strength and morphological characteristics of pulpless teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tibúrcio Nunes Pires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fiber-reinforced composite posts (FRC posts have been used for tooth reinforcement after endodontic treatment. The mechanical characteristics of FRC posts can influence the clinical prognostic. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength and fracture resistance of commercially available FRC posts Material and methods: Fourteen human single-rooted premolars with completely formed apices were selected and received endodontic treatment. The specimens were divided into two groups related to the post system: i Group A – cylindrical-conical fiber-reinforced post (White post DC, FGM, and ii group B – conical fiber-reinforced post (EXACTO, Angelus. The fracture resistance was evaluated and two point bending tests were carried out. The glass fiber characteristics and the tag penetration of the luting material into the radicular dentin structure were evaluated through scanning electronic microscopy in an illustrative way. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: The values obtained for fracture resistance and two point bending test were, respectively, 399.29 N and 109.5 N for group A, and 386.25 N and 119.5 N for group B. No significant differences in strength values among the groups were found. Conclusion: There were no significant statistical differences between the two post groups regarding to fracture strength and two point bending strength. It can be concluded that the posts selected for this study performed satisfactorily in terms of mechanical properties so that they can be used for tooth reinforcement after endodontic treatment.

  14. Meta-conformal invariance and the boundedness of two-point correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Malte; Stoimenov, Stoimen

    2016-11-01

    The covariant two-point functions, derived from Ward identities in direct space, can be affected by consistency problems and can become unbounded for large time- or space-separations. This difficulty arises for several extensions of dynamical scaling, for example Schrödinger-invariance, conformal Galilei invariance or meta-conformal invariance, but not for standard ortho-conformal invariance. For meta-conformal invariance in (1+1) dimensions, which acts as a dynamical symmetry of a simple advection equation, these difficulties can be cured by going over to a dual space and an extension of these dynamical symmetries through the construction of a new generator in the Cartan sub-algebra. This provides a canonical interpretation of meta-conformally covariant two-point functions as correlators. Galilei-conformal correlators can be obtained from meta-conformal invariance through a simple contraction. In contrast, by an analogus construction, Schrödinger-covariant two-point functions are causal response functions. All these two-point functions are bounded at large separations, for sufficiently positive values of the scaling exponents.

  15. Meta-conformal invariance and the boundedness of two-point correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte

    2016-01-01

    The covariant two-point functions, derived from Ward identities in direct space, can be affected by consistency problems and can become unbounded for large time- or space-separations. This difficulty arises for several extensions of dynamical scaling, for example Schr\\"odinger-invariance, conformal Galilei invariance or meta-conformal invariance, but not for standard ortho-conformal invariance. For meta-conformal invariance in 1+1 dimensions, these difficulties can be cured by going over to a dual space and an extension of these dynamical symmetries through the construction of a new generator in the Cartan sub-algebra. This provides a canonical interpretation of meta-conformally covariant two-point functions as correlators. Galilei-conformal correlators can be obtained from meta-conformal invariance through a simple contraction. In contrast, by an analogus construction, Schr\\"odinger-covariant two-point functions are causal response functions. All these two-point functions are bounded at large separations, fo...

  16. Holographic two-point functions for 4d log-gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Niklas; Naseh, Ali; Zojer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We compute holographic one- and two-point functions of critical higher-curvature gravity in four dimensions. The two most important operators are the stress tensor and its logarithmic partner, sourced by ordinary massless and by logarithmic non-normalisable gravitons, respectively. In addition, the

  17. Solvability for a Class of Abstract Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Derived from Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lianwen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvability for a class of abstract two-point boundary value problems derived from optimal control is discussed. By homotopy technique existence and uniqueness results are established under some monotonic conditions. Several examples are given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

  18. Solvability for a Class of Abstract Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Derived from Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwen Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvability for a class of abstract two-point boundary value problems derived from optimal control is discussed. By homotopy technique existence and uniqueness results are established under some monotonic conditions. Several examples are given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

  19. Modification of the Two-Point Touch Cane Technique: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, William H.; Ehresman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Four blind adults were observed to determine the extent of the natural movement of their centers of gravity in relation to arc height during the two-point touch technique for long cane travel. The Ss learned and practiced a modified technique using their center of gravity as much as possible. (Author)

  20. Logarithmic two-Point Correlation Functions from a z = 2 Lifshitz Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingg, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Einstein-Proca action is known to have asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes as classical solutions. For dynamical exponent z=2, two-point correlation functions for fluctuations around such a geometry are derived analytically. It is found that the retarded correlators are stable in the sens

  1. Problem with two-point conditions for parabolic equation of second order on time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Symotyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The  correctness of a problem with two-point conditions ontime-variable and of  Dirichlet-type conditions  on spatialcoordinates for the linear  parabolic equations with variablecoefficients are established. The metric theorem on estimationsfrom below of small denominators of the problem (the notions of Hausdorff measure is proved.

  2. Assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores in the linear factor-analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere J. Ferrando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propuestas rigurosas y basadas en un modelo psicométrico para estudiar el impreciso concepto de "capacidad discriminativa" son escasas y generalmente limitadas a los modelos no-lineales para items binarios. En este artículo se propone un marco general para evaluar la capacidad discriminativa de las puntuaciones en ítems y tests que son calibrados mediante el modelo de un factor común. La propuesta se organiza en torno a tres criterios: (a tipo de puntuación, (b rango de discriminación y (c aspecto específico que se evalúa. Dentro del marco propuesto: (a se discuten las relaciones entre 16 medidas, de las cuales 6 parecen ser nuevas, y (b se estudian las relaciones entre ellas. La utilidad de la propuesta en las aplicaciones psicométricas que usan el modelo factorial se ilustra mediante un ejemplo empírico.

  3. Discriminating cognitive screening and cognitive testing from neuropsychological assessment: implications for professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cady K; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Pliskin, Neil; Boake, Corwin

    2017-04-01

    To provide clarification on the distinction between cognitive screening, cognitive testing, and neuropsychological assessment and highlight practical implications. Non-systematic brief clinical review. There is a present lack of explicit distinction between the various levels of measurement of cognitive functioning with regard to goals, indications for use, levels of complexity, and outcome. There is also a lack of guidance regarding the identification of who should be responsible for the administration and interpretation at each level. There is a growing awareness of the importance of cognitive health and disability, and of the importance of measurement of cognitive functions across the lifespan. For example, cognitive screening has been mandated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, and language contained within new psychiatric diagnostic criteria and healthcare regulatory changes reflect increased consideration of the importance of measurement of cognition. Changes such as these necessitate greater clarity on this important issue as it bears implications for professional practice, which ranges from education and training competencies, practice standards, and the way that neuropsychologists clarify and advocate for the value of specialty referrals for comprehensive assessment in a competitive and ever-changing healthcare market.

  4. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task" further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-07-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a series of test trials in order to contrast two timing models, Learning-to-Time (LeT) and Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET). The models made substantially different predictions particularly for the test trials in which the sample duration ranged from 1 s to 16 s and the choice keys were Green and Blue, the keys associated with the same 4-s samples: LeT predicted that preference for Green should increase with sample duration, a context effect, but SET predicted that preference for Green should not vary with sample duration. The results were consistent with LeT. The present study adds to the literature the finding that the context effect occurs even when the two basic discriminations are never combined in the same session.

  5. Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: Model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge Colour Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomori, Keizo; Panorgias, Athanasios; Werner, John S

    2016-03-01

    Age-related changes in chromatic discrimination along dichromatic confusion lines were measured with the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). One hundred and sixty-two individuals (16 to 88 years old) with normal Rayleigh matches were the major focus of this paper. An additional 32 anomalous trichromats classified by their Rayleigh matches were also tested. All subjects were screened to rule out abnormalities of the anterior and posterior segments. Thresholds on all three chromatic vectors measured with the CCT showed age-related increases. Protan and deutan vector thresholds increased linearly with age while the tritan vector threshold was described with a bilinear model. Analysis and modeling demonstrated that the nominal vectors of the CCT are shifted by senescent changes in ocular media density, and a method for correcting the CCT vectors is demonstrated. A correction for these shifts indicates that classification among individuals of different ages is unaffected. New vector thresholds for elderly observers and for all age groups are suggested based on calculated tolerance limits.

  6. Discriminant validity of constructs derived from the self-regulative model for evaluation anxiety for predicting clinical manifestations of test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Frank; Wendt, Julia; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-10-01

    Test anxiety is a highly prevalent and impairing syndrome. However, research on clinically relevant manifestations of test anxiety and especially on effective treatment components is still very sparse. In the present study we examined the predictive validity of constructs derived from the self-regulative model for evaluation anxiety proposed by Zeidner and Matthews (2007) for discriminating clinical and non-clinical levels of test anxiety. We compared self-report data from 47 clinically test anxious patients with those from 41 healthy university students. Results showed that learning goals, self-concept of abilities, self-incrimination, elaboration and perfectionism were the constructs that independently separated clinical from non-clinical levels of test anxiety, thus providing the strongest discriminant validity even when controlling for an effect of the global severity of mental health problems. These constructs spread across all three domains proposed in the model, thus providing important implications for possible targets of interventions to reduce clinical levels of test anxiety.

  7. Testing different discrimination methods between microearthquakes and quarry blasts - a case study in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalocsai, Lilla; Kiszely, Márta; Süle, Bálint; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Due to the development of seismological network, increasing number of events have been detected in the last years in Hungary. However about 50% of these shocks were quarry blasts. Therefore decontamination of catalogue for revealing the reliable natural seismicity has become an important task. We have studied the events occurring in the surroundings of Mecsek Hills. The goal of our research was to find the best method to separate earthquakes and quarry blasts. In the first step we have studied the diurnal distributions of the events. Because of different focal mechanisms, the waveforms and amplitudes of arriving phases of earthquakes and quarry blasts are different. We have tested the most typical parameter, the P and S amplitude ratio, which is often used for separation. The waveform similarities have been analyzed using cross-correlation matrix and dendrograms. The earthquakes and the blasts of different quarries have been arranged into different clusters. We have computed spectrograms and because the blasts were carried out by delay-fired technology we have computed binary spectrograms too. Computation of binary spectra is a useful visualization method to recognize the delay-fired explosions, because it emphasizes the long-duration modulations of the spectra. It is made from the original spectra by application of a filter that replaces the spectral amplitudes with a binary code, which simply reflects the local spectral highs and lows. The modulations were present in most of the spectra of blasts and in contrast to the earthquakes, the modulations have been observable until the end of the spectrogram. We also have studied the scalloping and steepness of the spectra.

  8. Educational Accountability Tests, Social and Legal Inclusion Approaches to Discrimination for Students with Disability: A National Case Study from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, J. Joy; Dickson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability promotes equal and full participation by children in education. Equity of educational access for all students, including students with disability, free from discrimination, is the first-stated national goal of Australian education. Australian federal disability discrimination law, the…

  9. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  10. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogo-Moreira H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Cogo-Moreira,1 Carolina Alves Ferreira Carvalho,2 Adriana de Souza Batista Kida,2 Clara Regina Brandão de Avila,2 Giovanni Abrahão Salum,3,5 Tais Silveira Moriyama,1,4 Ary Gadelha,1,5 Luis Augusto Rohde,3,5 Luciana Monteiro de Moura,1 Andrea Parolin Jackowski,1 Jair de Jesus Mari11Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Department of Hearing and Speech Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 5National Institute for Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescent, (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development, BrazilAim: To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE.Sample: A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age, who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA, and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools and Porto Alegre (22 schools that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856, from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44.Methods: Via Item Response Theory (IRT, the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7 were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses and discriminant (major depression diagnoses measures.Results: A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not

  11. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  12. Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based nois in LC-MS data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Van Kampen, A.A.; Reijmers, T.H.; Govorukhina, N.I; van der Zee, A.G.; Billingham, I.J; Bischoff, Rainer; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based noise in LC-MS data sets.Nyangoma SO, van Kampen AA, Reijmers TH, Govorukhina NI, van der Zee AG, Billingham LJ, Bischoff R, Jansen RC. University of Birmingham. Liq

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-POINT CONTACT BETWEEN WHEEL AND RAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Shouguang Sun; Xuesong Jin

    2009-01-01

    The elastic-plastic contact problem with rolling friction of wheel-rail is solved using the FE parametric quadratic programming method. Thus, the complex elastic-plastic contact problem can be calculated with high accuracy and efficiency, while the Hertz's hypothesis and the elastic semi-space assumption are avoided. Based on the 'one-point' contact calculation of wheel-rail, the computational model of 'two-point' contact are established and calculated when the wheel flange is close to the rail. In the case of 'two-point' contact, the changing laws of wheelrail contact are introduced and contact forces in various load cases are carefully analyzed. The main reason of wheel flange wear and rail side wear is found. Lubrication computational model of the wheel flange is constructed. Comparing with the result without lubrication, the contact force between wheel flange and rail decreases, which is beneficial for reducing the wear of wheel-rail.

  14. A NEW TWO-POINT ADAPTIVENONLINEAR APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuShutian

    2004-01-01

    A two-point adaptive nonlinear approximation (referred to as TANA4) suitable for reliability analysis is proposed. Transformed and normalized random variables in probabilistic analysis could become negative and pose a challenge to the earlier developed two-point approximations; thus a suitable method that can address this issue is needed. In the method proposed, the nonlinearity indices of intervening variables are limited to integers. Then, on the basis of the present method, an improved sequential approximation of the limit state surface for reliability analysis is presented. With the gradient projection method, the data points for the limit state surface approximation are selected on the original limit state surface, which effectively represents the nature of the original response function. On the basis of this new approximation, the reliability is estimated using a first-order second-moment method. Various examples, including both structural and non-structural ones, are presented to show the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  15. Equal-time two-point correlation functions in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnari, D; Reinhardt, H; Astorga, F; Schleifenbaum, W

    2009-01-01

    We apply a new functional perturbative approach to the calculation of the equal-time two-point correlation functions and the potential between static color charges to one-loop order in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory. The functional approach proceeds through a solution of the Schroedinger equation for the vacuum wave functional to order g^2 and derives the equal-time correlation functions from a functional integral representation via new diagrammatic rules. We show that the results coincide with those obtained from the usual Lagrangian functional integral approach, extract the beta function and determine the anomalous dimensions of the equal-time gluon and ghost two-point functions and the static potential under the assumption of multiplicative renormalizability to all orders.

  16. Two-point functions of conformal primary operators in $\\mathcal{N}=1$ superconformal theories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daliang

    2014-01-01

    In $\\mathcal{N}=1$ superconformal theories in four dimensions the two-point function of superconformal multiplets is known up to an overall constant. A superconformal multiplet contains several conformal primary operators, whose two-point function coefficients can be determined in terms of the multiplet's quantum numbers. In this paper we work out these coefficients in full generality, i.e. for superconformal multiplets that belong to any irreducible representation of the Lorentz group with arbitrary scaling dimension and R-charge. From our results we recover the known unitarity bounds, and also find all shortening conditions, even for non-unitary theories. For the purposes of our computations we have developed a Mathematica package for the efficient handling of expansions in Grassmann variables.

  17. State feedback control of surge oscillations of two-point mooring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, R. K.; Banik, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.

    2017-01-01

    Stability analysis of surge oscillations of two-point mooring system under state feedback control with time-delay is investigated. The two-point mooring system is harmonically excited and essentially represents a strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillator. In this paper, a frequency domain based method viz. incremental harmonic balance method along with arc-length continuation technique (IHBC) is first employed to identify the primary and higher order subharmonic responses which may be present in such system. The IHBC is then reformulated in a manner to treat two-point mooring system under state feedback control with time-delay and is applied to obtain control of responses in an efficient and systematic way. The stability of uncontrolled responses for primary and higher order subharmonic oscillations is obtained by Floquet's theory using Hsu' scheme; whereas the stability of controlled responses is obtained by applying semi-discretization method for delay differential equation. The study focussed on the controlling primary, higher order subharmonics and chaotic responses by considering appropriate feedback gains and delay by way of (i) appreciable reduction of primary, subharmonic responses, (ii) exclusion of all higher order subharmonics 2T, 3T, 5T and 9T (1/n subharmonics or period-n solutions), and (iii) reduction of the extent of domain of all instability phenomena represented by various type of bifurcation of solutions, jump phenomena, chaotic responses etc. In the study, negative velocity feedback is observed to be much effective than state feedback for better controlling of surge oscillation of two-point mooring system. Also, the effect of larger gain values is investigated by an extensive parametric study for vibration control with different delay values.

  18. Beyond Kaiser bias: mildly non-linear two-point statistics of densities in distant spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, C.; Codis, S.; Kim, J.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Park, C.; L'Huillier, B.

    2017-04-01

    We present simple parameter-free analytic bias functions for the two-point correlation of densities in spheres at large separation. These bias functions generalize the so-called Kaiser bias to the mildly non-linear regime for arbitrary density contrasts and grow as b(ρ) - b(1) ∝ (1 - ρ-13/21)ρ1 + n/3 with b(1) = -4/21 - n/3 for a power-law initial spectrum with index n. We carry out the derivation in the context of large-deviation statistics while relying on the spherical collapse model. We use a logarithmic transformation that provides a saddle-point approximation that is valid for the whole range of densities and show its accuracy against the 30 Gpc cube state-of-the-art Horizon Run 4 simulation. Special configurations of two concentric spheres that allow us to identify peaks are employed to obtain the conditional bias and a proxy for the BBKS extremum correlation functions. These analytic bias functions should be used jointly with extended perturbation theory to predict two-point clustering statistics as they capture the non-linear regime of structure formation at the per cent level down to scales of about 10 Mpc h-1 at redshift 0. Conversely, the joint statistics also provide us with optimal dark matter two-point correlation estimates that can be applied either universally to all spheres or to a restricted set of biased (over- or underdense) pairs. Based on a simple fiducial survey, we show that the variance of this estimator is reduced by five times relative to the traditional sample estimator for the two-point function. Extracting more information from correlations of different types of objects should prove essential in the context of upcoming surveys like Euclid, DESI and WFIRST.

  19. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  20. A rapid and accurate two-point ray tracing method in horizontally layered velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yue; CHEN Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for two-point ray tracing in horizontally layered velocity model is presented in this paper. Numerical experiments show that this method provides stable and rapid convergence with high accuracies, regardless of various 1-D velocity structures, takeoff angles and epicentral distances. This two-point ray tracing method is compared with the pseudobending technique and the method advanced by Kim and Baag (2002). It turns out that the method in this paper is much more efficient and accurate than the pseudobending technique, but is only applicable to 1-D velocity model. Kim(s method is equivalent to ours for cases without large takeoff angles, but it fails to work when the takeoff angle is close to 90o. On the other hand, the method presented in this paper is applicable to cases with any takeoff angles with rapid and accurate convergence. Therefore, this method is a good choice for two-point ray tracing problems in horizontally layered velocity model and is efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of seismic problems.

  1. Comparison of Optimization and Two-point Methods in Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Huang, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) is one of the soil hydraulic properties in which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Since, its measurement is unavoidable in study of environmental sciences i.e. investigation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and solute transport, in this study the attempt is to predict soil water retention curve from two measured points. By using Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method (two-point method) and an optimization method developed in this study on the basis of two points of SWRC, parameters of Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990) model (fractal dimension and air entry value) were estimated and then water content at different matric potentials were estimated and compared with their measured values (n=180). For each method, we used both 3 and 1500 kPa (case 1) and 33 and 1500 kPa (case 2) as two points of SWRC. The calculated RMSE values showed that in the Creswell and Paydar (1996) method, there exists no significant difference between case 1 and case 2. However, the calculated RMSE value in case 2 (2.35) was slightly less than case 1 (2.37). The results also showed that the developed optimization method in this study had significantly less RMSE values for cases 1 (1.63) and 2 (1.33) rather than Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method.

  2. Calculating two-point resistances in distance-regular resistor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarizadeh, M A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sufiani, R [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarizadeh, S [Department of Electrical and computer engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-11

    An algorithm for the calculation of the resistance between two arbitrary nodes in an arbitrary distance-regular resistor network is provided, where the calculation is based on stratification introduced in Jafarizadeh and Salimi (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 1-29) and the Stieltjes transform of the spectral distribution (Stieltjes function) associated with the network. It is shown that the resistances between a node {alpha} and all nodes {beta} belonging to the same stratum with respect to the {alpha} (R{sub {alpha}}{sub {beta}{sup (i)}}), {beta} belonging to the ith stratum with respect to the {alpha}) are the same. Also, the analytical formulae for two-point resistances R{sub {alpha}}{sub {beta}{sup (i)}}, i=1,2,3, are given in terms of the size of the network and corresponding intersection numbers. In particular, the two-point resistances in a strongly regular network are given in terms of its parameters (v, {kappa}, {lambda}, {mu}). Moreover, the lower and upper bounds for two-point resistances in strongly regular networks are discussed.

  3. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...... discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  4. Covariant and infrared-free graviton two-point function in de Sitter spacetime. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejhan, Hamed; Rahbardehghan, Surena

    2016-11-01

    The solution to the linearized Einstein equation in de Sitter (dS) spacetime and the corresponding two-point function are explicitly written down in a gauge with two parameters "a " and "b ". The quantization procedure, independent of the choice of the coordinate system, is based on a rigorous group theoretical approach. Our result takes the form of a universal spin-two (transverse-traceless) sector and a gauge-dependent spin-zero (pure-trace) sector. Scalar equations are derived for the structure functions of each part. We show that the spin-two sector can be written as the resulting action of a second-order differential operator (the spin-two projector) on a massless minimally coupled scalar field (the spin-two structure function). The operator plays the role of a symmetric rank-2 polarization tensor and has a spacetime dependence. The calculated spin-two projector grows logarithmically with distance and also no dS-invariant solution for either structure functions exist. We show that the logarithmically growing part and the dS-breaking contribution to the spin-zero part can be dropped out, respectively, for suitable choices of parameters "a " and "b ". Considering the transverse-traceless graviton two-point function, however, shows that dS breaking is universal (cannot be gauged away). More exactly, if one wants to respect the covariance and positiveness conditions, the quantization of the dS graviton field (as for any gauge field) cannot be carried out directly in a Hilbert space and involves unphysical negative norm states. However, a suitable adaptation (Krein spaces) of the Gupta-Bleuler scheme for massless fields, based on the group theoretical approach, enables us to obtain the corresponding two-point function satisfying the conditions of locality, covariance, transversality, index symmetrizer, and tracelessness.

  5. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  6. COMPUTER-ADAPTIVE BALANCE TESTING IMPROVES DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY FALLERS AND NON-FALLERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasaney, Poonam K.; Ni, Pengsheng; Slavin, Mary D.; Latham, Nancy K.; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Bean, Jonathan; Jette, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build an item response theory based computer-adaptive balance test (CAT) from three traditional, fixed-form balance measures: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI); and examine whether CAT psychometric performance exceeded that of individual measures. Design Secondary analysis combining two existing datasets. Setting Community-based. Participants 187 community-dwelling older adults, 65 years or older, mean age 75.2±6.8 years, 69% female. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) BBS, POMA, and DGI items were compiled into an initial 38-item bank. Rasch Partial Credit Model was used for final item bank calibration. CAT simulations were conducted to identify the ideal CAT. CAT score accuracy, reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and validity were examined. Floor and ceiling effects and validity of CAT and individual measures were compared. Results A 23-item bank met model expectations. A 10-item CAT was selected, showing very strong association with full item bank scores (r=0.97), and good overall reliability (0.78). Reliability was better in low- to mid-balance ranges due to better item targeting to balance ability, compared with highest balance ranges. No floor effect was noted. CAT ceiling effect (11.2%) was significantly lower than POMA (40.1%) and DGI (40.3%) ceiling effects (pbalance CAT showed excellent accuracy, good overall reliability, and excellent validity compared with individual measures, being the only measure to discriminate between fallers and non-fallers. Prospective examination, particularly in low- functioning elderly and clinical populations with balance deficits, is recommended. Development of an improved CAT based on an expanded item bank containing higher difficulty items is also recommended. PMID:24685388

  7. Futures market efficiency diagnostics via temporal two-point correlations. Russian market case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Kopytin; Evgeniy Kazantsev

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-point correlation technique, we study emergence of market efficiency in the emergent Russian futures market by focusing on lagged correlations. The correlation strength of leader-follower effects in the lagged inter-market correlations on the hourly time frame is seen to be significant initially (2009-2011) but gradually goes down, as the erstwhile leader instruments -- crude oil, the USD/RUB exchange rate, and the Russian stock market index -- seem to lose the leader status. An i...

  8. A Note on Reflection Positivity and the Kallen-Lehmann Representation of Two Point Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Kouta

    2012-01-01

    It will be proved that a model of lattice field theories which satisfies (A1) Hermiticity, (A2) translational invariance, (A3) reflection positivity, and (A4) polynomial boundedness of correlations, permits the Kallen-Lehmann representation of two point correlation functions with positive spectral density function. Then, we will also argue that positivity of spectral density functions is necessary for a lattice theory to satisfy conditions (A1) - (A4). As an example, a lattice overlap scalar boson model will be discussed. We will find that the overlap scalar boson violates the reflection positivity.

  9. Two-point Functions at Two Loops in Three Flavour Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Amorós, G; Talavera, P; Amoros, Gabriel; Bijnens, Johan; Talavera, Pere

    2000-01-01

    The vector and axial-vector two-point functions are calculated to next-to-next-to-leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory for three light flavours. We also obtain expressions at the same order for the masses, $m_\\pi^2$, $m_K^2$ and $m_\\eta^2$, and the decay constants, $F_\\pi$, $F_K$ and $F_\\eta$. We present some numerical results after a simple resonance estimate of some of the new ${\\cal O}(p^6)$ constants.

  10. Exact relation with two-point correlation functions and phenomenological approach for compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Supratik; Galtier, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Compressible isothermal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is analyzed under the assumption of statistical homogeneity and in the asymptotic limit of large kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Following Kolmogorov we derive an exact relation for some two-point correlation functions which generalizes the expression recently found for hydrodynamics. We show that the magnetic field brings new source and flux terms into the dynamics which may act on the inertial range similarly as a source or a sink for the mean energy transfer rate. The introduction of a uniform magnetic field simplifies significantly the exact relation for which a simple phenomenology may be given. A prediction for axisymmetric energy spectra is eventually proposed.

  11. Two-point correlators revisited: Fast and slow scales in multifield models of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghersi, José T Gálvez

    2016-01-01

    We study the structure of two-point correlators of the inflationary field fluctuations in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the existing spectral methods. We present a description motivated by the separation of the fast and slow evolving components of the spectrum. Our purpose is to rephrase all the relevant equations of motion in terms of slowly varying quantities. This is important in order to consider the contribution from high-frequency modes to the spectrum without affecting computational performance. The slow-roll approximation is not required to reproduce the main distinctive features in the power spectrum for each specific model of inflation.

  12. Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, pracial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members.

  13. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  14. New Approach for Solving a Class of Doubly Singular Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Using Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two new modified recursive schemes for solving a class of doubly singular two-point boundary value problems. These schemes are based on Adomian decomposition method (ADM and new proposed integral operators. We use all the boundary conditions to derive an integral equation before establishing the recursive schemes for the solution components. Thus we develop recursive schemes without any undetermined coefficients while computing successive solution components, whereas several previous recursive schemes have done so. This modification also avoids solving a sequence of nonlinear algebraic or transcendental equations for the undetermined coefficients with multiple roots, which is required to complete calculation of the solution by several earlier modified recursion schemes using the ADM. The approximate solution is computed in the form of series with easily calculable components. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested by considering four examples and results are compared with previous known results.

  15. Beyond Kaiser bias: mildly non-linear two-point statistics of densities in distant spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Uhlemann, C; Kim, J; Pichon, C; Bernardeau, F; Pogosyan, D; Park, C; L'Huillier, B

    2016-01-01

    Simple parameter-free analytic bias functions for the two-point correlation of densities in spheres at large separation are presented. These bias functions generalize the so-called Kaiser bias to the mildly non-linear regime for arbitrary density contrasts. The derivation is carried out in the context of large deviation statistics while relying on the spherical collapse model. A logarithmic transformation provides a saddle approximation which is valid for the whole range of densities and shown to be accurate against the 30 Gpc cube state-of-the-art Horizon Run 4 simulation. Special configurations of two concentric spheres that allow to identify peaks are employed to obtain the conditional bias and a proxy to BBKS extrema correlation functions. These analytic bias functions should be used jointly with extended perturbation theory to predict two-point clustering statistics as they capture the non-linear regime of structure formation at the percent level down to scales of about 10 Mpc/h at redshift 0. Conversely...

  16. Solving Directly Two Point Non Linear Boundary Value Problems Using Direct Adams Moulton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah A. Majid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a direct method of Adams Moulton type was developed for solving non linear two point Boundary Value Problems (BVPs directly. Most of the existence researches involving BVPs will reduced the problem to a system of first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. This approach is very well established but it obviously will enlarge the systems of first order equations. However, the direct method in this research will solved the second order BVPs directly without reducing it to first order ODEs. Approach: Lagrange interpolation polynomial was applied in the derivation of the proposed method. The method was implemented using constant step size via shooting technique in order to determine the approximated solutions. The shooting technique will employ the Newton’s method for checking the convergent of the guessing values for the next iteration. Results: Numerical results confirmed that the direct method gave better accuracy and converged faster compared to the existing method. Conclusion: The proposed direct method is suitable for solving two point non linear boundary value problems.

  17. Statistics of the two-point cross-covariance function of solar oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kaori; Sekii, Takashi; Gizon, Laurent; Birch, Aaron C.

    2016-09-01

    Context. The cross-covariance of solar oscillations observed at pairs of points on the solar surface is a fundamental ingredient in time-distance helioseismology. Wave travel times are extracted from the cross-covariance function and are used to infer the physical conditions in the solar interior. Aims: Understanding the statistics of the two-point cross-covariance function is a necessary step towards optimizing the measurement of travel times. Methods: By modeling stochastic solar oscillations, we evaluate the variance of the cross-covariance function as function of time-lag and distance between the two points. Results: We show that the variance of the cross-covariance is independent of both time-lag and distance in the far field, that is, when they are large compared to the coherence scales of the solar oscillations. Conclusions: The constant noise level for the cross-covariance means that the signal-to-noise ratio for the cross-covariance is proportional to the amplitude of the expectation value of the cross-covariance. This observation is important for planning data analysis efforts.

  18. Statistics of the two-point cross-covariance function of solar oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nagashima, Kaori; Gizon, Laurent; Birch, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Context: The cross-covariance of solar oscillations observed at pairs of points on the solar surface is a fundamental ingredient in time-distance helioseismology. Wave travel times are extracted from the cross-covariance function and are used to infer the physical conditions in the solar interior. Aims: Understanding the statistics of the two-point cross-covariance function is a necessary step towards optimizing the measurement of travel times. Methods: By modeling stochastic solar oscillations, we evaluate the variance of the cross-covariance function as function of time-lag and distance between the two points. Results: We show that the variance of the cross-covariance is independent of both time-lag and distance in the far field, i.e., when they are large compared to the coherence scales of the solar oscillations. Conclusions: The constant noise level for the cross-covariance means that the signal-to-noise ratio for the cross-covariance is proportional to the amplitude of the expectation value of the cross-...

  19. Workplace Support, Discrimination, and Person-Organization Fit: Tests of the Theory of Work Adjustment with LGB Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the links of 2 workplace contextual variables--perceptions of workplace heterosexist discrimination and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)-supportive climates--with job satisfaction and turnover intentions in a sample of LGB employees. An extension of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) was used as the conceptual framework…

  20. Logarithmic two-point correlation functions from a z=2 Lifshitz model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zingg, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht,Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-01-21

    The Einstein-Proca action is known to have asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes as classical solutions. For dynamical exponent z=2, two-point correlation functions for fluctuations around such a geometry are derived analytically. It is found that the retarded correlators are stable in the sense that all quasinormal modes are situated in the lower half-plane of complex frequencies. Correlators in the longitudinal channel exhibit features that are reminiscent of a structure usually obtained in field theories that are logarithmic, i.e. contain an indecomposable but non-diagonalizable highest weight representation. This provides further evidence for conjecturing the model at hand as a candidate for a gravity dual of a logarithmic field theory with anisotropic scaling symmetry.

  1. Inverted catenoid as a fluid membrane with two points pulled together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Guven, Jemal

    2007-07-01

    Under inversion in any (interior) point, a catenoid transforms into a deflated compact geometry which touches at two points (its poles). The catenoid is a minimal surface and, as such, is an equilibrium shape of a symmetric fluid membrane. The conformal symmetry of the Hamiltonian implies that inverted minimal surfaces are also equilibrium shapes. However, they will exhibit curvature singularities at their poles. Such singularities are the geometrical signature of the external forces required to pull the poles together. These forces will set up stresses in the inverted shapes. Tuning the force corresponds geometrically to the translation of the point of inversion. For any fixed surface area, there will be a maximum force. The associated shape is a symmetric discocyte. Lowering the external force will induce a transition from the discocyte to a cup-shaped stomatocyte.

  2. An improved iterative technique for solving nonlinear doubly singular two-point boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roul, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new iterative technique for solving nonlinear singular two-point boundary value problems with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. The method is based on the homotopy perturbation method and the integral equation formalism in which a recursive scheme is established for the components of the approximate series solution. This method does not involve solution of a sequence of nonlinear algebraic or transcendental equations for the unknown coefficients as in some other iterative techniques developed for singular boundary value problems. The convergence result for the proposed method is established in the paper. The method is illustrated by four numerical examples, two of which have physical significance: The first problem is an application of the reaction-diffusion process in a porous spherical catalyst and the second problem arises in the study of steady-state oxygen-diffusion in a spherical cell with Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics.

  3. A High Performance Spread Spectrum Clock Generator Using Two-Point Modulation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yao-Huang; Hsieh, Yi-Bin

    A new spread spectrum clock generator (SSCG) using two-point delta-sigma modulation is presented in this paper. Not only the divider is varied, but also the voltage controlled oscillator is modulated. This technique can enhance the modulation bandwidth so that the effect of EMI suppression is improved with lower order ΣΔ modulator and can simultaneously optimize the jitter and the modulation profile. In addition, the method of two-path is applied to the loop filter to reduce the capacitance value such that the total integration can be achieved. The proposed SSCG has been fabricated in a 0.35μm CMOS process. The clock of 400MHz with center spread ratios of 1.25% and 2.5% are verified. The peak EMI reduction is 19.73dB for the case of 2.5%. The size of chip area is 0.90×0.89mm2.

  4. Implementation of the Two-Point Angular Correlation Function on a High-Performance Reconfigurable Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Kindratenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a parallel implementation of an algorithm for calculating the two-point angular correlation function as applied in the field of computational cosmology. The algorithm has been specifically developed for a reconfigurable computer. Our implementation utilizes a microprocessor and two reconfigurable processors on a dual-MAP SRC-6 system. The two reconfigurable processors are used as two application-specific co-processors. Two independent computational kernels are simultaneously executed on the reconfigurable processors while data pre-fetching from disk and initial data pre-processing are executed on the microprocessor. The overall end-to-end algorithm execution speedup achieved by this implementation is over 90× as compared to a sequential implementation of the algorithm executed on a single 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon microprocessor.

  5. Two-point gauge invariant quark Green's functions with polygonal phase factor lines

    CERN Document Server

    Sazdjian, H

    2013-01-01

    Polygonal lines are used for the paths of the gluon field phase factors entering in the definition of gauge invariant quark Green's functions. This allows classification of the Green's functions according to the number of segments the polygonal lines contain. Functional relations are established between Green's functions with polygonal lines with different numbers of segments. An integrodifferential equation is obtained for the quark two-point Green's function with a path along a single straight line segment where the kernels are represented by a series of Wilson loop averages along polygonal contours. The equation is exactly and analytically solved in the case of two-dimensional QCD in the large-$N_c$ limit. The solution displays generation of an infinite number of dynamical quark masses accompanied with branch point singularities that are stronger than simple poles. An approximation scheme, based on the counting of functional derivatives of Wilson loops, is proposed for the resolution of the equation in fou...

  6. Applying inversion to construct planar, rational spirals that satisfy two-point G(2) Hermite data

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnosenko, A

    2010-01-01

    A method of two-point G(2) Hermite interpolation with spirals is proposed. To construct a sought for curve, the inversion is applied to an arc of some other spiral. To illustrate the method, inversions of parabola are considered in detail. The resulting curve is 4th degree rational. The method allows the matching of a wide range of boundary conditions, including those which require an inflection. Although not all G(2) Hermite data can be matched with a spiral generated from a parabolic arc, introducing one intermediate G(2) data solves the problem. Expanding the method by involving other spirals arcs is also discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymptotic behaviour of two-point functions in multi-species models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol K. Kozlowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We extract the long-distance asymptotic behaviour of two-point correlation functions in massless quantum integrable models containing multi-species excitations. For such a purpose, we extend to these models the method of a large-distance regime re-summation of the form factor expansion of correlation functions. The key feature of our analysis is a technical hypothesis on the large-volume behaviour of the form factors of local operators in such models. We check the validity of this hypothesis on the example of the SU(3-invariant XXX magnet by means of the determinant representations for the form factors of local operators in this model. Our approach confirms the structure of the critical exponents obtained previously for numerous models solvable by the nested Bethe Ansatz.

  8. Asymptotic behaviour of two-point functions in multi-species models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Karol K.; Ragoucy, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We extract the long-distance asymptotic behaviour of two-point correlation functions in massless quantum integrable models containing multi-species excitations. For such a purpose, we extend to these models the method of a large-distance regime re-summation of the form factor expansion of correlation functions. The key feature of our analysis is a technical hypothesis on the large-volume behaviour of the form factors of local operators in such models. We check the validity of this hypothesis on the example of the SU (3)-invariant XXX magnet by means of the determinant representations for the form factors of local operators in this model. Our approach confirms the structure of the critical exponents obtained previously for numerous models solvable by the nested Bethe Ansatz.

  9. Expansion schemes for gravitational clustering: computing two-point and three-point functions

    CERN Document Server

    Valageas, P

    2007-01-01

    We describe various expansion schemes that can be used to study gravitational clustering. Obtained from the equations of motion or their path-integral formulation, they provide several perturbative expansions that are organized in different fashion or involve different partial resummations. We focus on the two-point and three-point correlation functions, but these methods also apply to all higher-order correlation and response functions. We present the general formalism, which holds for the gravitational dynamics as well as for similar models, such as the Zeldovich dynamics, that obey similar hydrodynamical equations of motion with a quadratic nonlinearity. We give our explicit analytical results up to one-loop order for the simpler Zeldovich dynamics. For the gravitational dynamics, we compare our one-loop numerical results with numerical simulations. We check that the standard perturbation theory is recovered from the path integral by expanding over Feynman's diagrams. However, the latter expansion is organ...

  10. Quantization of fluctuations in DSR: the two-point function and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, Joao

    2015-01-01

    We show that the two-point function of a quantum field theory with de Sitter momentum space (herein called DSR) can be expressed as the product of a standard delta function and an energy-dependent factor. This is a highly non-trivial technical result in any theory without a preferred frame. Applied to models exhibiting running of the dimensionality of space, this result is essential in proving that vacuum fluctuations are generally scale-invariant at high energies whenever there is running to two dimensions. This is equally true for theories with and without a preferred frame, with differences arising only as we consider higher order correlators. Specifically, the three-point function of DSR has a unique structure of "open triangles", as shown here.

  11. Two-point resistance of a resistor network embedded on a globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong; Essam, J W; Wu, F Y

    2014-07-01

    We consider the problem of two-point resistance in an (m-1) × n resistor network embedded on a globe, a geometry topologically equivalent to an m × n cobweb with its boundary collapsed into one single point. We deduce a concise formula for the resistance between any two nodes on the globe using a method of direct summation pioneered by one of us [Z.-Z. Tan, L. Zhou, and J. H. Yang, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 195202 (2013)]. This method is contrasted with the Laplacian matrix approach formulated also by one of us [F. Y. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37, 6653 (2004)], which is difficult to apply to the geometry of a globe. Our analysis gives the result in the form of a single summation.

  12. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations with angular two-point correlation function

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaniz, Jailson S; Bernui, Armando; Carvalho, Joel C; Benetti, Micol

    2016-01-01

    The Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) imprinted a characteristic correlation length in the large-scale structure of the universe that can be used as a standard ruler for mapping out the cosmic expansion history. Here, we discuss the application of the angular two-point correlation function, $w(\\theta)$, to a sample of luminous red galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and derive two new measurements of the BAO angular scale at $z = 0.235$ and $z = 0.365$. Since noise and systematics may hinder the identification of the BAO signature in the $w - \\theta$ plane, we also introduce a potential new method to localize the acoustic bump in a model-independent way. We use these new measurements along with previous data to constrain cosmological parameters of dark energy models and to derive a new estimate of the acoustic scale $r_s$.

  13. Two-point L1 shortest path queries in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Z. Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Let $P$ be a set of $h$ pairwise-disjoint polygonal obstacles with a total of $n$ vertices in the plane. We consider the problem of building a data structure that can quickly compute an $L_1$ shortest obstacle-avoiding path between any two  query points $s$ and $t$. Previously, a data structure of size $O(n^2\\log n$ was constructed in $O(n^2\\log^2 n$ time that answers each two-point query in $O(\\log^2 n+k$ time, i.e., the shortest path length is reported in $O(\\log^2 n$ time and an actual path is reported in additional $O(k$ time, where $k$ is the number of edges of the output path. In this paper, we build a new data structure of size $O(n+h^2 \\log h 4^{\\sqrt{\\log h}}$ in $O(n+h^2 \\log^{2}h 4^{\\sqrt{\\log h}}$ time that answers each query in $O(\\log n+k$ time. (In contrast, for the Euclidean version of this two-point query problem, the best known algorithm uses $O(n^{11}$ space to achieve an $O(\\log n+k$ query time. Further, we extend our techniques to the weighted rectilinear version in which the ``obstacles" of $P$ are rectilinear regions with ``weights" and allow $L_1$ paths to travel through them with weighted costs. Previously, a data structure of size $O(n^2\\log^2 n$ was built in $O(n^2\\log^2 n$ time that answers each query in $O(\\log^2 n+k$ time. Our new algorithm answers each query in $O(\\log n+k$ time with a data structure of size $O(n^2 \\log n 4^{\\sqrt{\\log n}}$ that is built in $O(n^2 \\log^2 n 4^{\\sqrt{\\log n}}$ time.

  14. FET frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, F. D.

    1982-03-01

    The FET Frequency Discriminator is an experimental microwave frequency discriminator developed for use in a specialized set-on VCO frequency memory system. Additional development and evaluation work has been done during this program to more fully determine the applicability of the FET frequency discriminator as a low-cost, expendable receiver front-end for both surveillance and ECM systems. Various methods for adjusting the frequency-to-voltage characteristic of the discriminator as well as the effects of detector characteristics and ambient temperature changes were evaluated. A number of discriminators for use in the 7- to 11-GHz and the 11to 18-GHz bands were fabricated and tested. Interim breadboard and final packaged models were either delivered or installed in developmental frequency systems. The major limitations and deficiencies of the FET frequency discriminator that were reviewed during the program include the effects of temperature, input power level variations, nonlinearity, and component repeatability. Additional effort will be required to advance the developmental status of the FET frequency discriminator to the level necessary for inclusion in low-cost receiver systems, but the basic simplicity of the approach continues to show much promise.

  15. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Kannengiesser, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Zhong, X. [Siemens Healthcare, MR R and D Collaborations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reiter, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR R and D Collaborations, Graz (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  16. Covariant and infrared-free graviton two-point function in de Sitter spacetime II

    CERN Document Server

    Pejhan, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The solution to the linearized Einstein equation in de Sitter (dS) spacetime and the corresponding two-point function are explicitly written down in a gauge with two parameters `$a$' and `$b$'. The quantization procedure, independent of the choice of the coordinate system, is based on a rigorous group theoretical approach. Our result takes the form of a universal spin-two (transverse-traceless) sector and a gauge-dependent spin-zero (pure-trace) sector. Scalar equations are derived for the structure functions of each part. We show that the spin-two sector can be written as the resulting action of a second-order differential operator (the spin-two projector) on a massless minimally coupled scalar field (the spin-two structure function). The operator plays the role of a symmetric rank-$2$ polarization tensor and has a spacetime dependence. The calculated spin-two projector grows logarithmically with distance and also no dS-invariant solution for either structure functions exist. We show that the logarithmically...

  17. Possible Complications of Ureteroscopy in Modern Endourological Era: Two-Point or “Scabbard” Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Gaizauskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indication has led ureteroscopy to be a worldwide technique, with the expected appearance of multiple types of complications. Severe complications are possible including ureteral perforation or avulsion. Ureteral avulsion has been described as an upper urinary tract injury related to the action of blunt trauma, especially from traffic accidents, being the mechanism of injury, the result of an acute deceleration/acceleration movement. With the advent of endourology, that term is also applied to the extensive degloving injury resulting from a mechanism of stretching of the ureter that eventually breaks at the most weakened site, or ureteral avulsion is referred to as a discontinuation of the full thickness of the ureter. The paper presents a case report and literature review of the two-point or “scabbard” avulsion. The loss of long segment of the upper ureter, when end-to-end anastomosis is not technically feasible, presents a challenge to the urological surgeon. In the era of small calibre ureteroscopes these complications, due to growing incidence of renal stones will become more and more actual. Our message to other urologists is to know such a complication, to know the ways of treatment, and to analyse ureteroscopic signs, when to stop or pay attention.

  18. The Two-Point Correlation Function of Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the spacial distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using a sample of 373 objects. We subdivide the GRB data into two redshift intervals over the redshift range $0two-point correlation function (2PCF), $\\xi(r)$ of the GRBs. In determining the separation distance of the GRB pairs, we consider two representative cosmological models: a cold dark matter universe plus a cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, with $(\\Omega_{{\\rm m}}, \\Omega_{{\\rm \\Lambda}})=(0.28,0.72)$ and an Einstein-de Sitter (EdS) universe, with $(\\Omega_{{\\rm m}}, \\Omega_{{\\rm \\Lambda}})=(1,0)$. We find a $z$-decreasing correlation of the GRB distribution, which is in agreement with the predictions of the current structure formation theory. We fit a power-law model $\\xi(r)=(r/r_0)^{-\\gamma}$ to the measured $\\xi(r)$ and obtain an amplitude and slope of $r_0= 1235.2 \\pm 342.6~h^{-1}$ Mpc and $\\gamma = 0.80\\pm 0.19 $ ($1\\sigma$ confidence level) over the scales $r=200$ to $10^4~h^{-1}$ Mpc. Our ...

  19. The real space clustering of galaxies in SDSS DR7: I. Two point correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Youcai; Mo, H J; Bosch, Frank C van den; Li, Shijie; Liu, Chengze; Lu, Yi; Tweed, Dylan; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Using a method to correct redshift space distortion (RSD) for individual galaxies, we present the measurements of real space two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). Galaxy groups selected from the SDSS are used as proxies of dark matter halos to correct the virial motions of galaxies in dark matter halos, and to reconstruct the large-scale velocity field. We use an ensemble of mock catalogs to demonstrate the reliability of our method. Over the range $0.2 < r < 20 h^{-1}{\\rm {Mpc}}$, the 2PCF measured directly in reconstructed real space is better than the measurement error due to cosmic variance, if the reconstruction uses the correct cosmology. Applying the method to the SDSS DR7, we construct a real space version of the main galaxy catalog, which contains 396,068 galaxies in the North Galactic Cap with redshifts in the range $0.01 \\leq z \\leq 0.12$. The Sloan Great Wall, the largest known structure in the nearby Universe, is not...

  20. Assessing Performance of Multipurpose Reservoir System Using Two-Point Linear Hedging Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasireka, K.; Neelakantan, T. R.

    2017-07-01

    Reservoir operation is the one of the important filed of water resource management. Innovative techniques in water resource management are focussed at optimizing the available water and in decreasing the environmental impact of water utilization on the natural environment. In the operation of multi reservoir system, efficient regulation of the release to satisfy the demand for various purpose like domestic, irrigation and hydropower can lead to increase the benefit from the reservoir as well as significantly reduces the damage due to floods. Hedging rule is one of the emerging techniques in reservoir operation, which reduce the severity of drought by accepting number of smaller shortages. The key objective of this paper is to maximize the minimum power production and improve the reliability of water supply for municipal and irrigation purpose by using hedging rule. In this paper, Type II two-point linear hedging rule is attempted to improve the operation of Bargi reservoir in the Narmada basin in India. The results obtained from simulation of hedging rule is compared with results from Standard Operating Policy, the result shows that the application of hedging rule significantly improved the reliability of water supply and reliability of irrigation release and firm power production.

  1. Analysis of errors in the measurement of energy dissipation with two-point LDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducci, A.; Yianneskis, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King' s College London, Experimental and Computational Laboratory for the Analysis of Turbulence (ECLAT), London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify and quantify, with a rigorous analytical approach, all possible sources of error involved in the estimation of the fluctuating velocity gradients ({partial_derivative}u{sub i}/{partial_derivative}x{sub j}){sup 2} when a two-point laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique is employed. Measurements were carried out in a grid-generated turbulence flow where the local dissipation rate can be calculated from the decay of kinetic energy. An assessment of the cumulative error determined through the analysis has been made by comparing the values of the spatial gradients directly measured with the gradient estimated from the decay of kinetic energy. The main sources of error were found to be related to the length of the two control volumes and to the fitting range, as well as the function used to interpolate the correlation coefficient when the Taylor length scale (or({partial_derivative}u{sub i}/{partial_derivative}x{sub j}){sup 2}) are estimated. (orig.)

  2. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  3. Can uncertain landscape evolution models discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changing future climate? A millennial-scale test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, A. J. A. M.; Baartman, J. E. M.; Schoorl, J. M.

    2009-10-01

    In the light of increasing societal interest in the effects of climate change, geomorphologists face the task of discriminating between natural landscape changes and landscape changes that result from human-induced climate change. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) are available for this purpose, but their application for prediction of future landscapes is problematic. Calibration of LEMs on a sufficiently long palaeo-record of landscape change solves some of these problems, but large uncertainties in input (e.g. climate) records and process descriptions remain. Using one of the few existing ka-scale LEM studies as starting point, this paper explores how uncertainty in the LEM LAPSUS (LandscApe ProcesS modelling at mUlti dimensions and scaleS, [Schoorl, J.M., Veldkamp, A. and Bouma, J., 2002. Modeling water and soil redistribution in a dynamic landscape context. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66(5): 1610-1619]) affects its ability to discriminate future one-thousand year landscape change under stable climate from that under human-induced changed climate. Okhombe Valley in South Africa is used as a case study area. LEM uncertainty is characterized by different levels of parameter uncertainty. Results indicate that even under high levels of parameter uncertainty, LEM LAPSUS discriminates between responses to stable and changed climates for some zones in the landscape. Although confidence in model predictions remains limited, some explorative and relative conclusions about the effects of changed climate on future landscape evolution of Okhombe Valley are drawn. Finally, some possibilities and limitations of future studies on landscape evolution under changing climate are discussed.

  4. Discrimination between patients with melancholic depression and healthy controls: comparison between 24-h cortisol profiles, the DST and the Dex/CRH test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, Georgios; Krumm, Bertram; Gilles, Maria; Schweiger, Ulrich; Heuser, Isabella; Richter, Inga; Deuschle, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Diurnal (24-h) cortisol profiles were compared to DST and Dex/CRH test outcomes with regard to their discriminative power in depressive disorder. With regard to several statistical measures (effect sizes, area under the curve) we found 24-h cortisol profiles to better discriminate between healthy controls and inpatients with the melancholic subtype of depression compared to the DST and Dex/CRH test. In search of a shortened time interval we found the 2-h time window 1000-1200 h of the cortisol profile to be the one with the highest sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (87.9%). The specificity of the DST was 93.3% and somewhat higher than that of the cortisol profiles and the Dex/CRH test (87.9% and 78.8.%, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the DST was very low (30.8%), in fact similar to that of the Dex/CRH test (30.8%), but much lower than that of the 1000-1200 h interval (83.3%). The assessment of cortisol in plasma is an easy to perform, cost-saving method for the evaluation of the HPA system activity, which may have a series of clinical and scientific implications for the depressive disorder.

  5. Characterization of mantle convection experiments using two-point correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puster, Peter; Jordan, Thomas H.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1995-04-01

    Snapshots of the temperature T(r, phi, t), horizontal flow velocity u(r, phi, t), and radial flow velocity w(r, phi, t) obtained from numerical convection experiments of time-dependent flows in annular cylindrical geometry are taken to be samples of stationary, rotationally invariant random fields. For such a field f(r, phi, t), the spatio-temporal two-point correlation function, C(sub ff)(r, r-prime, delta, t(sub *)), is constructed by averaging over rotational transformations of this ensemble. To assess the structural differences among mantle convection experiments we construct three spartial subfunctions of C(sub ff)(r, r-prime, delta, t(sub *)): the rms variation, sigma(sub f)(r), the radial correlation function, R(sub f)(r, r-prime), and the angular correlation function, A(sub f)(r, delta). R(sub f)(r, r-prime) and A(sub f)(r, r-prime) are symmetric about the loci r = r-prime and delta = 0, respectively, where they achieve their maximum value of unity. The falloff of R(sub f) and A(sub f) away from their symmetry can be quantified by a correlation length rho(sub f)(r) and a correlation angle alpha(sub f)(r), which we define to be the half widths of the central peaks at the correlation level 0.75. The behavior of rho(sub f) is a diagnostic of radial structure, while alpha(sub f) measures average plume width. We have used two-point correlation functions of the temperature field (T-diagnostics) and flow velocity fields (V-diagnostics) to quantify some important aspects of mantle convection experiments. We explore the dependence of different correlation diagnostics on Rayleigh number, internal heating rate, and depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity. For isoviscous flows in an annulus, we show how radial averages of sigma(sub T), rho(sub T), and alpha(sub T) scale with Rayleigh number for various internal heating rates. A break in the power-law relationship at the transition from steady to time-dependent regimes is evident for rho(sub T) and alpha(sub T) but

  6. Quarter-sweep Gauss-Seidel method with quadratic spline scheme applied to fourth order two-point boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fauzi, Norizyan Izzati; Sulaiman, Jumat

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of Quarter-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (QSGS) iterative method using quadratic spline scheme for solving fourth order two-point linear boundary value problems. In the line to derive approximation equations, firstly the fourth order problems need to be reduced onto a system of second-order two-point boundary value problems. Then two linear systems have been constructed via discretization process by using the corresponding quarter-sweep quadratic spline approximation equations. The generated linear systems have been solved using the proposed QSGS iterative method to show the superiority over Full-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (FSGS) and Half-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (HSGS) methods. Computational results are provided to illustrate that the effectiveness of the proposed QSGS method is more superior in terms of computational time and number of iterations as compared to other tested methods.

  7. Psychophysical Evaluation of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency: Discrimination between Protans and Deutans Using Mollon-Reffin's Ellipses and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Côrtes, Maria Izabel Tentes; Bonci, Daniela Maria de Oliveira; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM 100) test and Mollon-Reffin (MR) test to evaluate the colour vision of 93 subjects, 30.4 ± 9.7 years old, who had red-green congenital colour vision deficiencies. All subjects lived in Belém (State of Pará, Brazil) and were selected by the State of Pará Traffic Department. Selection criteria comprised the absence of visual dysfunctions other than Daltonism and no history of systemic diseases that could impair the visual system performance. Results from colour vision deficient were compared with those from 127 normal trichromats, 29.3 ± 10.3 years old. For the MR test, measurements were taken around five points of the CIE 1976 colour space, along 20 directions irradiating from each point, in order to determine with high-resolution the corresponding colour discrimination ellipses (MacAdam ellipses). Three parameters were used to compare results obtained from different subjects: diameter of circle with same ellipse area, ratio between ellipse's long and short axes, and ellipse long axis angle. For the FM 100 test, the parameters were: logarithm of the total number of mistakes and positions of mistakes in the FM diagram. Data were also simultaneously analysed in two or three dimensions as well as by using multidimensional cluster analysis. For the MR test, Mollon-Reffin Ellipse #3 (u' = 0.225, v' = 0.415) discriminated more efficiently than the other four ellipses between protans and deutans once it provided larger angular difference in the colour space between protan and deutan confusion lines. The MR test was more sensitive than the FM 100 test. It separated individuals by dysfunctional groups with greater precision, provided a more sophisticated quantitative analysis, and its use is appropriate for a more refined evaluation of different phenotypes of red-green colour vision deficiencies.

  8. Psychophysical Evaluation of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency: Discrimination between Protans and Deutans Using Mollon-Reffin’s Ellipses and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Côrtes, Maria Izabel Tentes; Bonci, Daniela Maria de Oliveira; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM 100) test and Mollon-Reffin (MR) test to evaluate the colour vision of 93 subjects, 30.4 ± 9.7 years old, who had red-green congenital colour vision deficiencies. All subjects lived in Belém (State of Pará, Brazil) and were selected by the State of Pará Traffic Department. Selection criteria comprised the absence of visual dysfunctions other than Daltonism and no history of systemic diseases that could impair the visual system performance. Results from colour vision deficient were compared with those from 127 normal trichromats, 29.3 ± 10.3 years old. For the MR test, measurements were taken around five points of the CIE 1976 colour space, along 20 directions irradiating from each point, in order to determine with high-resolution the corresponding colour discrimination ellipses (MacAdam ellipses). Three parameters were used to compare results obtained from different subjects: diameter of circle with same ellipse area, ratio between ellipse’s long and short axes, and ellipse long axis angle. For the FM 100 test, the parameters were: logarithm of the total number of mistakes and positions of mistakes in the FM diagram. Data were also simultaneously analysed in two or three dimensions as well as by using multidimensional cluster analysis. For the MR test, Mollon-Reffin Ellipse #3 (u’ = 0.225, v’ = 0.415) discriminated more efficiently than the other four ellipses between protans and deutans once it provided larger angular difference in the colour space between protan and deutan confusion lines. The MR test was more sensitive than the FM 100 test. It separated individuals by dysfunctional groups with greater precision, provided a more sophisticated quantitative analysis, and its use is appropriate for a more refined evaluation of different phenotypes of red-green colour vision deficiencies. PMID:27101124

  9. Attitude reconstruction of ROSETTA's Lander PHILAE using two-point magnetic field observations by ROMAP and RPC-MAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, Philip; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Richter, Ingo; Hercik, David; Jurado, Eric; Garmier, Romain; Güttler, Carsten; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    As part of the European Space Agency's ROSETTA Mission the Lander PHILAE touched down on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. The magnetic field has been measured onboard the orbiter and the lander. The orbiter's tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer RPC-MAG is one of five sensors of the ROSETTA Plasma Consortium. The lander is also equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer as part of the ROSETTA Lander Magnetometer and Plasma-Monitor package (ROMAP). This unique setup makes a two point measurement between the two spacecrafts in a relatively small distance of less than 50 km possible. Both magnetometers were switched on during the entire descent, the initial touchdown, the bouncing between the touchdowns and after the final touchdown. We describe a method for attitude determination by correlating magnetic low-frequency waves, which was tested under different conditions and finally used to reconstruct PHILAE's attitude during descent and after landing. In these cases the attitude could be determined with an accuracy of better than ± 5 °. These results were essential not only for PHILAE operations planning but also for the analysis of the obtained scientific data, because nominal sources for this information, like solar panel currents and camera pictures could not provide sufficient information due to the unexpected landing position.

  10. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  11. Genetic determinism and discrimination: a call to re-orient prevailing human rights discourse to better comport with the public implications of individual genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltis, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Genetic testing can not only provide information about diseases but also their prevalence in ethnic, gender, or other vulnerable populations. While offering the promise of significant therapeutic benefits and serving to highlight our commonality, genetic information also raises a number of sensitive human rights issues touching on identity and the perception thereof, as well as the possibility of discrimination and social stigma. It stands to reason that the results of individual screenings could haplessly be used to make general assumptions about entire ethnic or gender groups. In this manner, genetic information can directly influence identity by impacting and perhaps even reframing conceptions of group rights and dimensions of self-identification, thus importing constitutional scrutiny on questions of dignity and discrimination in particular. Is there a risk of collective stigmatization deriving from discrete testing of self-identified individuals? Would such stigmatization impinge on individual dignity by the exogenous imposition of ethnic or gender/sexual identity? If so, what norms can most adequately respond if and when individual and group interests diverge? These questions are examined from a comparative perspective.

  12. Difficulty and discrimination of academic skill diagnostic test%学习技能诊断测验的难度和区分度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶金花; 程灶火; 刘健

    2008-01-01

    目的 检验新编制的学习技能诊断测验的难度和区分度.方法 用学习技能诊断测验对近1000名小学生进行测查,所得数据使用SPSS11.0进行分析.结果 各分测验难度在0.49~0.78之间(低级版),0.52~0.86之间(高级版);鉴别指数在0.31~0.55之间(低级版),0.21~0.56之间(高级版);各分测验与总分的相关系数在0.36~0.61之间(低级版),0.39~0.60之间(高级版).结论 学习技能诊断测验的条目质量符合心理测量学的标准.%Objective To examine the difficulty and discrimination of academic skill diagnostic test(ASDT).Methods About 1000 primary school students were administered the ASDT,and data were analysed by SPSS11.0 program.Results The difficulty of sub-tests ranged from 0.49~0.78(low edition),0.52~0.86(high edition);while the discrimination of sub-tests ranged from 0.31~0.55(low edition),0.21~0.56(high edition).The coefficients for test-retest and the whole test ranged from 0.36~0.61(low edition),0.39~0.60(high edition).Conclusion ASDT developed in the present study attains acceptable psychometric properties.

  13. Experimental Study of the Convergence of Two-Point Cross-Correlation Toward the Green's Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouedard, P.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Verdel, A.; Campman, X.

    2007-12-01

    It has been shown theoretically by several authors that cross-correlation of the seismic motion recorded at two points could yield the Green's Function (GF) between these points. Convergence of cross-correlations toward the GF depends on sources positions and/or the nature of the wavefield. Direct waves from an even distribution of sources can be used to retrieve the GF. On the other hand, in an inhomogeneous medium, recording the diffuse field (coda) is theoretically sufficient to retrieve the GF whatever the sources distribution is. Since none of these two conditions (even distribution of sources or a perfectly diffuse field) is satisfied in practice, the question of convergence toward the GF has to be investigated with real data. A 3D exploration survey with sources and receivers on a dense grid offers such an opportunity. We used a high- resolution survey recorded by Petroleum Development Oman in North Oman. The data have been obtained in a 1x1~km area covered with 1600 geophones located on a 25x25~m-cell grid. Records are 4-seconds long. A unique feature of this survey is that vibrators (working in the [8-120~Hz] frequency band), were located on a similar grid shifted with respect to the receiver grid by half a cell (12.5~m) in both directions. This allows us to compare estimated GF's with measured direct waves (GF's) between the geophones. The shallow subsurface is highly heterogeneous and records include seismic coda. From this dataset, we selected two receiver locations (Ra and Rb) distant from d=158~m. We used both different sets of source locations and time windows to compute the cross-correlation between these two receivers. Then we compared the derivatives of correlation functions with the actual GF measured in Rb (resp.~Ra) for a source close to Ra (resp.~Rb). By doing so, we show the actual influence of source locations and scattering (governed by the records' selected time window) on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed GF. When using

  14. Feelings as a basis for discrimination : Comparison of a modified authenticity test with the same-different test for slightly different types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frandsen, Lise Wolf; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Nielsen, Jacob H.; Martens, Magni

    2007-01-01

    An analytical sensory test and an authenticity test were used to evaluate subtle flavour differences in milk. Consumers who habitually drink milk were selected for the tests. These consumers, we assume, possess implicitly learned knowledge about the taste of milk. In the authenticity test the consum

  15. Feelings as a basis for discrimination: Comparison of a modified authenticity test with the same-different test for slightly different types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frandsen, L.W.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Brockhoff, P.B.; Nielsen, J.H.; Martens, M.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical sensory test and an authenticity test were used to evaluate subtle flavour differences in milk. Consumers who habitually drink milk were selected for the tests. These consumers, we assume, possess implicitly learned knowledge about the taste of milk. In the authenticity test the consum

  16. Two-point boundary value problems and exact controllability for several kinds of linear and nonlinear wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Dexing [Department of Mathematics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Sun Qingyou, E-mail: qysun@cms.zju.edu.cn [Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-04-01

    All articles must In this paper we introduce some new concepts for second-order hyperbolic equations: two-point boundary value problem, global exact controllability and exact controllability. For several kinds of important linear and nonlinear wave equations arising from physics and geometry, we prove the existence of smooth solutions of the two-point boundary value problems and show the global exact controllability of these wave equations. In particular, we investigate the two-point boundary value problem for one-dimensional wave equation defined on a closed curve and prove the existence of smooth solution which implies the exact controllability of this kind of wave equation. Furthermore, based on this, we study the two-point boundary value problems for the wave equation defined on a strip with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions and show that the equation still possesses the exact controllability in these cases. Finally, as an application, we introduce the hyperbolic curvature flow and obtain a result analogous to the well-known theorem of Gage and Hamilton for the curvature flow of plane curves.

  17. Critical two-point functions and the lace expansion for spread-out high-dimensional percolation and related models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hofstad, R.; Hara, T.; Slade, G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider spread-out models of self-avoiding walk, bond percolation, lattice trees and bond lattice animals on ${\\mathbb{Z}^d}$, having long finite-range connections, above their upper critical dimensions $d=4$ (self-avoiding walk), $d=6$ (percolation) and $d=8$ (trees and animals). The two-point

  18. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTION TO TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A SYSTEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-point boundary value problem for a system of second order ordinary differential equations. Under some conditions, we show the existence of positive solution to the system of second order ordinary differential equa-tions.

  19. HIGH ACCURACY FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同科

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  20. Color measurement and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  1. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  2. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  3. Baryonic effects on weak-lensing two-point statistics and its cosmological implications

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Irshad; Teyssier, Romain; Amara, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension of \\textit{the Halo Model} that describes analytically the corrections to the matter power spectrum due to the physics of baryons. We extend these corrections to the weak-lensing shear angular power spectrum. Within each halo, our baryonic model accounts for: 1) a central galaxy, the major stellar component whose properties are derived from abundance matching techniques; 2) a hot plasma in hydrostatic equilibrium and 3) an adiabatically-contracted dark matter component. This analytic approach allows us to compare our model to the dark-matter-only case. Our basic assumptions are tested against the hydrodynamical simulations of Martizzi et. al. (2014), with which a remarkable agreement is found. Our baryonic model has only one free parameter, $M_{\\rm crit}$, the critical halo mass that marks the transition between feedback-dominated halos, mostly devoid of gas, and gas rich halos, in which AGN feedback effects become weaker. We explore the entire cosmological parameter space, using the a...

  4. Phase-uncertainty quality map for two-point Dixon fat-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Maria A.

    2011-09-01

    This work investigates and compares two different phase-correction algorithms for Dixon fat-water separation and two different quality maps (QM) for region-growing: the original QM, based on phase gradients, and a QM based on phase uncertainty, proposed in this article. A spoiled dual-gradient-echo sequence was employed at 1.5 T to acquire in-phase and out-of-phase images of joints, parotid glands, abdomen and test objects. All 97 datasets were processed eight times each: with two different phase correction algorithms (original and hierarchical phase correction), with two different QM, and with/without removing linear component of the phase drifts associated with dual-echo acquisitions and bipolar readout gradient waveforms. The linear component of the phase drift along the readout direction was found to reach 4.1° pixel-1, depending on the geometric parameters. Pre-processing to remove linear phase shifts has little impact on outcome. The hierarchic phase-correction algorithm outperformed the original phase-correction algorithm in all applications. The proposed phase-uncertainty QM provides a small performance improvement in clinical images, but can be vulnerable to flow-related phase shifts in bright vessels. Overall the most successful phase-correction technique employed phase-uncertainty QMs and hierarchic algorithms, with pre-processing to correct the linear phase drift associated with dual-echo acquisitions and bipolar readout gradient waveform.

  5. Discriminative ability and predictive validity of the timed up and go test in identifying older people who fall: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Daniel; Wu, Sandy M-S; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Menant, Jasmine C; Smith, Stuart T; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the discriminative ability and diagnostic accuracy of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) as a clinical screening instrument for identifying older people at risk of falling. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. People aged 60 and older living independently or in institutional settings. Studies were identified with searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL data bases. Retrospective and prospective cohort studies comparing times to complete any version of the TUG of fallers and non-fallers were included. Fifty-three studies with 12,832 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled mean difference between fallers and non-fallers depended on the functional status of the cohort investigated: 0.63 seconds (95% confidence (CI) = 0.14-1.12 seconds) for high-functioning to 3.59 seconds (95% CI = 2.18-4.99 seconds) for those in institutional settings. The majority of studies did not retain TUG scores in multivariate analysis. Derived cut-points varied greatly between studies, and with the exception of a few small studies, diagnostic accuracy was poor to moderate. The findings suggest that the TUG is not useful for discriminating fallers from non-fallers in healthy, high-functioning older people but is of more value in less-healthy, lower-functioning older people. Overall, the predictive ability and diagnostic accuracy of the TUG are at best moderate. No cut-point can be recommended. Quick, multifactorial fall risk screens should be considered to provide additional information for identifying older people at risk of falls. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Comparison of accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography, progesterone and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins tests for discrimination between single and multiple pregnancy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen, Aly; Amiri, Bouchra El; Beckers, Jean-Francios; Sulon, Jose; Taverne, Marcel A M; Szenci, Ottó

    2006-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and, compare the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonographic (US) and the progesterone (P4-RIA) and ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (ovPAG-RIA) tests for the discrimination between single and multiple pregnancy in sheep. One hundred pregnant AwassixMerino ewes were scanned by transabdominal ultrasonography (3.5 MHz linear-array transducer) at Days 43-56 and 81 of these ewes were scanned at Days 76-87 of gestation. The ewes were scanned in dorsal recumbency at the bare area of the inguinal regions (without pre-scanning shaving of the ventral abdominal wall). After each scan, blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein to estimate the levels of P4 and ovPAG by radioimmunoassay. At lambing, 61 ewes gave birth to single lambs and 39 ewes gave birth to multiples. The sensitivity of the transabdominal US, the P4-RIA and the ovPAG-RIA tests for determining ewes carrying multiples was 54, 64.1 and 64.1% at Days 43-56. At Days 76-87 of gestation these accuracies were 60.0, 66.7 and 76.6% for the US, P4-RIA and PAG-RIA tests, respectively. The specificity of the transabdominal US, the P4-RIA and the ovPAG-RIA tests for determining ewes carrying singles, was 78.6, 60.7 and 62.3% at Days 43-56 and 78.4, 64.7 and 70.6% at Days 76-87 of gestation, respectively. It is concluded that the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonographic (without pre-scanning shaving of the ventral abdominal wall), the P4- and the ovPAG-RIA tests for determination of the fetal numbers in AwassixMerino crossbred ewes is too low to be used in the field.

  7. A grasp-related deficit in tactile discrimination following dorsal column lesion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballermann, M; McKenna, J; Whishaw, I Q

    2001-01-15

    The dorsal columns of the spinal cord are a major source of haptic (sense of active touch) and proprioceptive input to the brainstem and sensory-motor cortex. Following injury in primates, there are impairments in two-point discrimination, direction of movement across the skin, and frequency of vibration, and qualitative control of the digits, but simple spatial discriminations recover. In the rat there are qualitative deficits in paw control in skilled reaching, but no sensory deficits have been reported. Because recent investigations of sensory control suggest that sensory functions may be related to specific actions, the present study investigated whether the dorsal columns contribute to hapsis during food grasping in the rat. Adult female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a single forepaw for a piece of uncooked pasta or for equivalent sized but tactually different nonfood items. One group was given lesions of the dorsal column ipsilateral to their preferred paw, while the second group served as a control. Postlesion, both groups were tested for skilled reaching success and force application as well as adhesive dot removal and forepaw placing. Performance levels on these tests were normal. Nevertheless, the rats with dorsal column lesions were unable to discriminate a food item from a tactually distinctive nonfood item as part of the reaching act, suggesting that the dorsal columns are important for on-line tactile discriminations, or "haptic actions," which contribute to the normal performance of grasping actions.

  8. On a two-point boundary value problem for second-order differential inclusions on Riemannian manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Obukhovskiĭ

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider second-order differential inclusions on a Riemannian manifold with lower semicontinuous right-hand sides. Several existence theorems for solutions of two-point boundary value problem are proved to be interpreted as controllability of special mechanical systems with control on nonlinear configuration spaces. As an application, a statement of controllability under extreme values of controlling force is obtained.

  9. Rigid internal fixation of zygoma fractures: A comparison of two-point and three-point fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar Atul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Displaced fractures of the zygomatic bone can result in significant functional and aesthetic sequelae. Therefore the treatment must achieve adequate and stable reduction at fracture sites so as to restore the complex multidimensional relationship of the zygoma to the surrounding craniofacial skeleton. Many experimental biophysical studies have compared stability of zygoma after one, two and three-point fixation with mini plates. We conducted a prospective clinical study comparing functional and aesthetic results of two-point and three-point fixation with mini plates in patients with fractures of zygoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with isolated zygomatic fractures over a period of one year were randomly assigned into two-point and three-point fixation groups. Results of fixation were analyzed after completion of three months. This included clinical, radiological and photographic evaluation. Results: The three-point fixation group maintained better stability at fracture sites resulting in decreased incidence of dystopia and enophthalmos. This group also had better malar projection and malar height as measured radiologically, when compared with the two-point fixation group. Conclusion: We recommend three-point rigid fixation of fractured zygoma after accurate reduction so as to maintain adequate stabilization against masticatory forces during fracture healing phase.

  10. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients......). The discriminant functions correctly classified 81 and 80% of the women, respectively (NS) and respectively 75% and 64% of the men (NS) in the first and second recorded populations.......Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients...

  11. Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Jamison; Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Enforcement of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve monitoring for radiologic indicators of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). A UNE produces a variety of radioisotopes which then decay through connected radionuclide chains. A particular species of interest is xenon, namely the four isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe, and (135)Xe. Due to their half lives, some of these isotopes can exist in the subsurface for more than 100 days. This convenient timescale, combined with modern detection capabilities, makes the xenon family a desirable candidate for UNE detection. Ratios of these isotopes as a function of time have been studied in the past for distinguishing nuclear explosions from civilian nuclear applications. However, the initial yields from UNEs have been treated as fixed values. In reality, these independent yields are uncertain to a large degree. This study quantifies the uncertainty in xenon ratios as a result of these uncertain initial conditions to better bound the values that xenon ratios can assume. We have successfully used a combination of analytical and sampling based statistical methods to reliably bound xenon isotopic ratios. We have also conducted a sensitivity analysis and found that xenon isotopic ratios are primarily sensitive to only a few of many uncertain initial conditions.

  12. A study of the score test in discrimination poisson and zero-inflated poisson models - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.15071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Siqueira Peres da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many experimental situations the sample may present excess zero observations and generally are used probabilistic models for zero inflated to represent them. However no one knows precisely the amount of zero observations that these models support. Depending on the sample size and null observations number the Poisson model can be used. Based on this question, the objective of this paper is to evaluate the properties of Type I error and power of the score test (proposed by Van Den Broek (1995 to discriminate the Poisson and Zero-inflated Poisson models and ascertain the most appropriate model to represent a sample with excess zeros without compromising the statistical inference. Through Monte Carlo simulation we concluded that when considering a sample of size at least n = 40 with 30% of the null observations, the score test had a high discriminatory power between the ZIP and Poisson model indicating that in fact is relevant  the use of the ZIP model.  

  13. Design of two-channel phase discriminator applied to quartz crystal test%用于石英晶体测试的双通道鉴相系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓彦; 李东; 王艳林

    2015-01-01

    为提高石英晶体的测试效率,搭建了双独立通道的鉴相系统。该系统采用同一DDS信号源同时激励两个π网络电路,设计了两个独立的鉴相电路,可实现两个通道同时鉴相。该系统采用差频鉴相的方法,使用AD8302作为鉴相器件,在提高鉴相的效率的同时确保了π网络零相位法的检测精度。为验证其可行性,将该系统应用到石英晶体电参数测量系统中。该双独立通道鉴相系统的频率测试范围为1~200 MHz,实验结果表明,鉴相精度达到±1°,满足石英晶体的测试需要。%In order to improve the measuring efficiency of quartz crystal,a two⁃channel phase discriminator system applied to quartz crystal test is designed. One DDS signal generator are used in the system to inspire two π⁃network circuits. The two in⁃dependent phase discriminator circuits are designed to discriminate the phase of two channels simultaneously. The difference fre⁃quency phase discriminating method is adopted in the system. The AD8302 is taken as a phase discriminator,which can im⁃prove the testing efficiency and ensure the testing precision simultaneously. In order to verify the viability of two⁃channel phase discriminator,it was used in a electrical parameter measuring system for quartz crystal test. The testing range of the two⁃channel phase discriminator system is 1~200 MHz. The experiment result shows that its phase discrimination accuracy is ±1°,which can meet the testing needs of quartz crystal.

  14. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  15. The Best Model of the Swiss Banknote Data -Validation by the 95% CI of coefficients and t-test of discriminant scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The discriminant analysis is not the inferential statistics since there are no equations for standard error (SE of error rate and discriminant coefficient based on the normal distribution. In this paper, we proposed the “k-fold cross validation for small sample” and can obtain the 95% confidence interval (CI of error rates and discriminant coefficients. This method is the computer-intensive approach by statistical and mathematical programming (MP software such as JMP and LINGO. By the proposed approach, we can choose the best model with the minimum mean of error rate in the validation samples (Minimum M2 Standard. In this research, we examine the sixteen linear separable models of Swiss banknote data by eight linear discriminant functions (LDFs. M2 of the best model of Revised IP-OLDF is the smallest value of all models. We find all coefficients of six Revised IP-OLDF among sixteen models rejected by the 95% CI of discriminant coefficients (Discriminant coefficient standard. We compare t-values of the discriminant scores. The t-value of the best model has the maximum values among sixteen models (Maximum t-value Standard. Moreover, we can conclude that all standards support the best model of Revised IP-OLDF.

  16. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  17. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  18. Surgical treatment of zygomatic bone fracture using two points fixation versus three point fixation-a randomised prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Majeed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zygoma plays an important role in the facial contour for both cosmetic and functional reasons; therefore zygomatic bone injuries should be properly diagnosed and adequately treated. Comparison of various surgical approaches and their complications can only be done objectively using outcome measurements which in turn require protocol management and long-term follow up. The preference for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic fractures at three points has continued to grow in response to observations of inadequate results from two point and one point fixation techniques. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of zygomatic bone after treatment with ORIF using 2 point fixation and ORIF using 3 point fixation and compare the outcome of two procedures. Methods 100 patients were randomly divided equally into two groups. In group A, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using two point fixation by miniplates and in group B, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using three point fixation by miniplates. They were evaluated for their complications during and after surgery with their advantages and disadvantages and the difference between the two groups was observed. Results A total of 100 fractures were sustained. We found that postoperative complication like decreased malar height and vertical dystopia was more common in those patients who were treated by two point fixation than those who were treated with three point fixation. Conclusions Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation using three point fixation by miniplates is the best available method for the treatment zygomatic bone fractures.

  19. Explicit Proof of Equivalence of Two-Point Functions in the Two Formalisms of Thermal Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bang-Rong

    2002-01-01

    We give an explicit proof of equivalence of the two-point function to one-loop order in the two formalisms of thermal λ3 theory based on the expressions in the real-time formalism and indicate that the key point of completing the proof is to separate carefully the imaginary part of the zero-temperature loop integralfrom relevant expressions and this fact will certainly be very useful for examination of the equivalent problem of two formalisms of thermal field theory in other theories, including the one of the propagators for scalar bound states in an NJL model.

  20. Two-point estimate method for probabilistic optimal power flow computation including wind farms with correlated parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Cao, Jia; Du, Dajun [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) calculation including wind farms with correlated parameters which contains nodal injections. The two-point estimate method (2PEM) is employed to solve the POPF. Moreover, the correlation samples between nodal injections and line parameters are generated by Cholesky Factorization method. Simulation results show that 2PEM is feasible and effective to solve the POPF including wind farms with correlated parameters, while the 2PEM has higher computation precision and consume less CPU time than Monte Carlo Simulation.

  1. Doppler term in the galaxy two-point correlation function: wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Jeong, Donghui; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    We study the parity-odd part (that we shall call Doppler term) of the linear galaxy two-point correlation function that arises from wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects. As it is important at low redshift and at large angular separations, the Doppler term is usually neglected in the current generation of galaxy surveys. For future wide-angle galaxy surveys such as Euclid, SPHEREx and SKA, however, we show that the Doppler term must be included. The effect of t...

  2. On the solution of two-point linear differential eigenvalue problems. [numerical technique with application to Orr-Sommerfeld equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antar, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique is presented for locating the eigenvalues of two point linear differential eigenvalue problems. The technique is designed to search for complex eigenvalues belonging to complex operators. With this method, any domain of the complex eigenvalue plane could be scanned and the eigenvalues within it, if any, located. For an application of the method, the eigenvalues of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation of the plane Poiseuille flow are determined within a specified portion of the c-plane. The eigenvalues for alpha = 1 and R = 10,000 are tabulated and compared for accuracy with existing solutions.

  3. ON THE EXISTENCE OF SOLUTION OF A NONLINEAR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM ARISING FROM A LIQUID METAL FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xiaoliang; Ying Weiting

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of solution of a nonlinear two-point boundary value problem with a positive parameter Q arising in the study of surfacetension-induced flows of a liquid metal or semiconductor. By applying the Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we prove that the problem admits a solution for 0 ≤ Q ≤ 14.306.It improves the result of 0 ≤ Q < 1 in [2] and 0 ≤ Q ≤ 13.213 in [3].

  4. New algorithms for solving third- and fifth-order two point boundary value problems based on nonsymmetric generalized Jacobi Petrov-Galerkin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doha, E H; Abd-Elhameed, W M; Youssri, Y H

    2015-09-01

    Two families of certain nonsymmetric generalized Jacobi polynomials with negative integer indexes are employed for solving third- and fifth-order two point boundary value problems governed by homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions using a dual Petrov-Galerkin method. The idea behind our method is to use trial functions satisfying the underlying boundary conditions of the differential equations and the test functions satisfying the dual boundary conditions. The resulting linear systems from the application of our method are specially structured and they can be efficiently inverted. The use of generalized Jacobi polynomials simplify the theoretical and numerical analysis of the method and also leads to accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The presented numerical results indicate that the proposed numerical algorithms are reliable and very efficient.

  5. Exact two-point resistance, and the simple random walk on the complete graph minus N edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chair, Noureddine, E-mail: n.chair@ju.edu.jo

    2012-12-15

    An analytical approach is developed to obtain the exact expressions for the two-point resistance and the total effective resistance of the complete graph minus N edges of the opposite vertices. These expressions are written in terms of certain numbers that we introduce, which we call the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers; these numbers are the natural generalizations of the bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. The correspondence between random walks and the resistor networks is then used to obtain the exact expressions for the first passage and mean first passage times on this graph. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain exact formulas for the two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain also the total effective resistance of this graph. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modified Schwatt's formula on trigonometrical power sum to suit our computations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduced the generalized bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers: the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first passage and mean first passage times of the random walks have exact expressions.

  6. The covariant and infrared-free graviton two-point function in de Sitter space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pejhan, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the two-point function of linearized gravitons on de Sitter (dS) space is presented. Technically, respecting the dS ambient space notation, the field equation is given by the coordinate-independent Casimir operators of the de Sitter group. Analogous to the quantization of the electromagnetic field in Minkowski space, the field equation admits gauge solutions. The notation allows to exhibit the formalism of Gupta-Bleuler triplets for the present field in exactly the same manner as it occurs for the electromagnetic field. In this regard, centering on the traceless part, the field solution is written as a product of a generalized polarization tensor and a minimally coupled massless scalar field. Then, admitting a de Sitter-invariant vacuum through the so-called "Krein Space Quantization", the de Sitter fully covariant two-point function is calculated. This function is interestingly free of pathological large distance behavior (infrared divergence). Moreover, the pure-trace part (conformal sector) ...

  7. Optimal Constraints on Local Primordial Non-Gaussianity from the Two-Point Statistics of Large-Scale Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaus, Nico; Desjacques, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    One of the main signatures of primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type is a scale-dependent correction to the bias of large-scale structure tracers such as galaxies or clusters, whose amplitude depends on the bias of the tracers itself. The dominant source of noise in the power spectrum of the tracers is caused by sampling variance on large scales (where the non-Gaussian signal is strongest) and shot noise arising from their discrete nature. Recent work has argued that one can avoid sampling variance by comparing multiple tracers of different bias, and suppress shot noise by optimally weighting halos of different mass. Here we combine these ideas and investigate how well the signatures of non-Gaussian fluctuations in the primordial potential can be extracted from the two-point correlations of halos and dark matter. On the basis of large $N$-body simulations with local non-Gaussian initial conditions and their halo catalogs we perform a Fisher matrix analysis of the two-point statistics. Compared to the st...

  8. Gauge-invariant two-point correlator of energy density in deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    The thesis is considering aspects of SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in its deconfining high-temperature phase. We calculate the two-point correlation function of the energy density of the photon in a thermalized gas, at first in the conventional U(1) gauge theory, followed by a calculation, where the photon is identified with the massless gauge mode in deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. Apart from the fact, that this calculation is interesting from a technical point of view, we can consider several aspects of phenomenological relevance. Since we interpret the two-point correlator of energy density as a measure for the energy transfer, and thus for the electromagnetic interaction of microscopic objects, such as atoms immersed into a photon gas, we are able to give an explanation for the unexpected stability of cold, innergalactic clouds consisting of atomic hydrogen. Subsequently, we evaluate the spatial string tension in deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, which can be regarded as measure ...

  9. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  10. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  11. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  12. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation: analysis of two-point statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxies with the large-scale density field is an important astrophysical contaminant in upcoming weak lensing surveys whilst offering insights into galaxy formation and evolution. We present detailed measurements of the galaxy intrinsic alignments and associated ellipticity-direction (ED) and projected shape ($w_{g+}$) correlation functions for galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamic MassiveBlack-II (MB-II) simulation. We carefully assess the effects on galaxy shapes, misalignments and two-point statistics of iterative weighted (by mass, luminosity, and color) definitions of the (reduced and unreduced) inertia tensor. We find that iterative procedures must be adopted for a reliable measurement of reduced tensor but that luminosity versus mass weighting has only negligible effects. Blue galaxies exhibit stronger misalignments and suppressed $w_{g+}$ amplitude. Both ED and $w_{g+}$ correlations increase in amplitude with subhalo mass (in the range of $10^{10} - 6.0\\times 10^{14}h^{...

  13. Transforming activity of the c-Ha-ras oncogene having two point mutations in codons 12 and 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, T; Prassolov, V S; Fushimi, M; Nishimura, S

    1985-09-01

    A recombinant plasmid carrying the human c-Ha-ras gene with two point mutations in codons 12 and 61 was constructed and its transforming activity on mouse NIH 3T3 cells was compared with those of genes with a single mutation in either codon 12 or 61. Quantitative analyses revealed that the gene with two mutations had essentially the same transforming activity as the genes with single mutations. These results indicate that a single mutation of the c-Ha-ras gene in either codon 12 or 61 is sufficient to activate the gene and that neither of the two mutation sites involved in activation of the gene needs to be intact for transforming activity.

  14. Comparison of Methods to Assess the Discriminating Ability of Testing Locations in Crop Cultivar Regional Trials%作物品种区域试验试点区辨力评价方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永建; 魏冰; 胡尔良; 黄玉碧

    2012-01-01

    试点区辨力是作物品种区域试验试点选择的重要依据,可以用不同的方法进行评价.本研究分别对西南玉米区域试验2003和2004两年的产量数据进行联合方差分析,然后用变异系数(CV)、遗传变异系数(GCV)、环境区分指数(DI)、B型生态价(WE)、回归系数(RC)、基于AM MI分析结果的试点互作主成分点到原点的距离(DA)、AMMI稳定性值(ASV)和基于GGE双标图分析的试点到原点的距离(DG)对西南玉米区域试验试点的区辨力进行评价,进而用秩次相关分析和主成分分析揭示试点区辨力评价方法间的内在关系.结果表明,两年试验品种间、试点间均存在极显著差异,且品种和试点间互作也极显著;8个统计数也许可以用来度量试点的区辨力,但是不同统计数对同一年度内试点的区辨力评价结果不完全一致;统计数CV、GCV、WE、DA和DG间都存在极显著的秩次相关,但是统计数DG也许更有利于评价试点的区辨力.%The discriminating ability of testing locations is an important issue for the selection of testing locations in crop cultivar regional trials.Several procedures are available to assess the discriminating ability of testing locations,each of them allowing for different interpretations.The objectives of the present study were to assess the discriminating ability of testing locations in National Maize Cultivar Regional Trials in Southwestern China using the eight statistics including coefficient of variability (CV),coefficient of genetic variability (GCV),discriminating index (DI),type-B ecovalence (WE),regression coefficient (RC),distance (DA) of interaction principal component point of a location with the origin in space and stability value (ASV) based on the results of AMMI analysis,and distance (DG) between a location marker and the biplot origin based on the results of GGE biplot analysis,and to investigate their interrelationships.Two yield datasets were obtained

  15. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  16. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  17. L'influenza dell'attenzione, della memoria e della discriminazione fonetica nell'apprendimento della seconda lingua nella scuola elementare: Risultati di alcuni test (Influence of Attention, Memory, and Phonetic Discrimination in Second Language Learning in Elementary School: Results of Several Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna-Preti, Paola; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Using a new method, 48 children in an elementary school in Rome, Italy, were taught a foreign language (26 English, 22 German) and tested after three years. The authors attempt to explain the variation in test results in terms of the students' attention, memory, and phonetic discrimination. (CFM)

  18. Sex and Race Determination of Crania by Calipers and Computer: A Test of the Giles and Elliot Discriminant Functions in 52 Forensic Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    the discriminant functions is racial admixture. The influx of White and Negro genes has been strong in recent generations of American Indians...identification of the victim--a chronic schizophrenic who had escaped from a state mental hospital in California about a decade before the discovery

  19. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  20. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  1. Existence of solutions of nonlinear two-point boundary value problems for 4nth-order nonlinear differential equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永馨

    2002-01-01

    Studies the existence of solutions of nonlinear two point boundary value problems for nonlinear 4n-th-order differential equation y(4n)= f( t,y,y' ,y",… ,y(4n-1) ) (a) with the boundary conditions g2i(y(2i) (a) ,y(2i+1) (a)) = 0,h2i(y(2i) (c) ,y(2i+1) (c)) = 0, (I= 0,1,…,2n - 1 ) (b) where the functions f, gi and hi are continuous with certain monotone properties. For the boundary value problems of nonlinear nth order differential equation y(n) = f(t,y,y',y",… ,y(n-1)) many results have been given at the present time. But the existence of solutions of boundary value problem (a), (b) studied in this paper has not been covered by the above researches. Moreover, the corollary of the important theorem in this paper, I.e. Existence of solutions of the boundary value problem. Y(4n) = f(t,y,y',y",… ,y(4n-1) ) a2iy(2i) (at) + a2i+1y(2i+1) (a) = b2i ,c2iy(2O ( c ) + c2i+1y(2i+1) ( c ) = d2i, ( I = 0,1 ,…2n - 1) has not been dealt with in previous works.

  2. The redshift-space two-point correlation functions of galaxies and groups in the Nearby Optical Galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Girardi, M; Mezzetti, M; Marinoni, C; Giuricin, Giuliano; Samurovic, Srdjan; Girardi, Marisa; Mezzetti, Marino; Marinoni, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We use the two-point correlation function in redshift space, $\\xi(s)$, to study the clustering of the galaxies and groups of the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, which is a nearly all-sky, complete, magnitude-limited sample of $\\sim$7000 bright and nearby optical galaxies. The correlation function of galaxies is well described by a power law, $\\xi(s)=(s/s_0)^{-\\gamma}$, with slope $\\gamma\\sim1.5$ and $s_0\\sim6.4 h^{-1}$Mpc (on scales $2.7 - 12 h^{-1}$Mpc), in agreement with previous results of several redshift surveys of optical galaxies. We confirm the existence of morphological segregation between early- and late-type galaxies and, in particular, we find a gradual decreasing of the strength of clustering from the S0 galaxies to the late-type spirals, on intermediate scales. Furthermore, luminous galaxies turn out to be more clustered than dim galaxies. The luminosity segregation, which is significant for both early- and late-type objects, starts to become appreciable only for galaxies brighter than $M_B\\...

  3. Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.

  4. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  5. The Solution of Two-Point Boundary Value Problem of a Class of Duffing-Type Systems with Non-C1 Perturbation Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhengxian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a two-point boundary value problem of a class of Duffing-type systems with non-C1 perturbation term. Several existence and uniqueness theorems were presented.

  6. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  7. 关于经典测量理论和项目反应理论中难度和区分度的探讨%The Discussion on Difficulty and Discrimination in Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳宾; 马洪超

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty and discrimination are the important concepts in psychometrics and testing. There are different characteristics in CTT and IRT. This paper explores the meaning of difficulty and discrimination under the framework of two theories. The true meaning of difficulty and discrimination in crI~ can be well understood basing on the parameters' concept in IRT. In fact, the Function can be founded between difficulty in IRT and CTY.%难度和区分度是心理测量或测验中的重要概念,它们在CTT和IRT框架中分别具有不同的特征。本研究在两种理论框架下,探讨难度和区分度的意义,指出基于IRT模型中的参数概念,可以更好地解释CTT中的难度和区分度的意义,两种理论中的难度值具有内在的函数关系。

  8. Discriminating between transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, John E

    2006-06-01

    The dichotomous classification of pleural fluid as a transudate or an exudate simplifies diagnostic efforts in determining the cause of pleural effusions. Multiple pleural fluid tests are available to discriminate between these two classes of effusions. Tests commonly used in clinical practice depend on the detection in pleural fluid of large-molecular-weight chemicals that enter the pleural space to greater degrees in conditions associated with exudative compared with transudative effusions. Considerable misclassifications can occur with all available testing strategies, so clinicians benefit from adopting a nondichotomous, bayesian approach for interpreting test results.

  9. Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2008-10-01

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.

  10. Cultural Factors Contributing to the Perceived Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Romero and Roberts’ model (1998) and Phinney’s causal model (1997) were used as frameworks to test the relationship between ethnic identity, in-group attitudes, out-group attitudes, and the perception of discrimination. Among Asian American, Korean American, and Korean students. These models tested direct effects of ethic identity on perceived discrimination and indirect effects mediated by in-group attitudes and out-group attitudes. School-based surveys in California and Korea...

  11. Common Control by Compound Samples in Conditional Discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Alonso-Alvarez, Benigno

    2008-01-01

    We tested whether teaching control by single stimulus samples in conditional discriminations would result in common control of two-stimuli compound samples, and vice versa. In Experiment 1, 5 participants were first taught four single-sample conditional discriminations. The first conditional discrimination was as follows: given sample stimulus P1,…

  12. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using diffusion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, N.; Bregman, Y.; Lindenbaum, O.; Ben-Horin, Y.; Averbuch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination between earthquakes and explosions is an essential component of nuclear test monitoring and it is also important for maintaining the quality of earthquake catalogues. Currently used discrimination methods provide a partial solution to the problem. In this work, we apply advanced machine learning methods and in particular diffusion maps for modelling and discriminating between seismic signals. Diffusion maps enable us to construct a geometric representation that capture the intrinsic structure of the seismograms. The diffusion maps are applied after a pre-processing step, in which seismograms are converted to normalized sonograms. The constructed low-dimensional model is used for automatic earthquake-explosion discrimination of data that are collected in single seismic stations. We demonstrate our approach on a data set comprising seismic events from the Dead Sea area. The diffusion-based algorithm provides correct discrimination rate that is higher than 90 per cent.

  13. A comparison between a refined two-point model for the limited tokamak SOL and self-consistent plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.; Loizu, J.

    2017-04-01

    A refined two-point model is derived from the drift-reduced Braginskii equations for the limited tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) by balancing the parallel and perpendicular transport of plasma and heat and taking into account the plasma–neutral interaction. The model estimates the electron temperature drop along a field line, from a region far from the limiter to the limiter plates. Self-consistent first-principles turbulence simulations of the SOL plasma including its interaction with neutral atoms are performed with the GBS code and compared to the refined two-point model. The refined two-point model is shown to be in very good agreement with the turbulence simulation results.

  14. Test-retest reliability and discriminant validity for the Brazilian version of “The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index” and “Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale” instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ancona, Carlos Arturo Levi; Junqueira, Roberto Gomes; Carlos da Silva, Daniel; Oliveira, Henrique Ceretta; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose is to evaluate the psychometric properties of reliability and discriminant validity of the Brazilian Portuguese versions of two instruments used in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC): “The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index” (The O’Leary-Sant), and “Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale”. Methods Three groups of patients were examined: a study group (subjects with IC), control group 1 (individuals with at least one IC symptom), and control group 2 (subjects without IC symptoms). Test-retest stability was evaluated at intervals of 3 to 7 days in the study group. Discriminant validity was examined in all three groups. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) [95% confidence interval (CI)] results were 0.56 (range, 0.21-0.78) for The O’Leary-Sant Symptom Index, 0.48 (range, 0.10-0.73) for The O’Leary-Sant Problem Index, and 0.49 (range, 0.12-0.74) for the PUF. To analyze discriminant validity between groups, we used Fisher’s exact test and odd ratio (OR) to identify differences. We obtained a P value<0.0001, which indicated that the null hypothesis was rejected; in other words, there was evidence that at least two different groups were compared to the proportion of patients with IC. Conclusions The analyzed instruments did not reach appropriate values for reliability. Future studies are needed to analyze the psychometric measures of these instruments on a larger sample of patients with IC. PMID:26813711

  15. Superior performance of constant-saltier-reference DTF and DTFM to same-different tests by consumers for discriminating products varying sodium contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Jin-Young; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2014-01-01

    using food/beverages with high sodium contents might be more prone to adaptation and memory bias which might reduce the operational power of the test methods. The operational test power of six versions of the duo-trio test method (two different versions of replicated tests under three reference modes...

  16. Attributions to Discrimination and Self-Esteem: The Role of Group Identification and Appraisals

    OpenAIRE

    Eccleston, Collette P.; Major, Brenda N.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that appraisals of discrimination (i.e. its perceived severity, global aspects, stability, and uncontrollability) mediate the relationship between attributions to discrimination and personal self-esteem. It also tested three models of how ethnic group identification is related to discrimination attributions, discrimination appraisals, and personal self-esteem. In ...

  17. Comparing two methods of univariate discriminant analysis for sex discrimination in an Iberian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arenas, Juan Manuel; Esquivel, José Antonio

    2013-05-10

    This study assesses the performance of two analytical approaches to sex discrimination based on single linear variables: discriminant analysis and the Lubischew's test. Ninety individuals from an archaeological population (La Torrecilla-Arenas del Rey, Granada, southern Spain) and 17 craniometrical variables were included in the analyses. Most craniometrical variables were higher for men. The bizygomatic breadth enabled the highest level of discrimination: 87.5% and 88.5%, using discriminant analysis and Lubischew's test, respectively. Bizygomatic breadth proved highly dimorphic in comparison to other populations reported in the literature. Lubischew's test raised the discrimination percentage in specific craniometrical variables, while others showed a superior performance by means of the discriminant analysis. The inconsistent results across statistical methods resulted from the specific formulation of each procedure. Discriminant analysis accounts both for within-group and between-group variance, while Lubischew's test emphasizes between-group variation only. Therefore, both techniques are recommended, as they provide different means of achieving optimal discrimination percentages.

  18. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  19. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Falcón, Luis M; Lincoln, Alisa K; Price, Lori Lyn

    2010-09-01

    Racism and discrimination can have significant implications for health, through complex biopsychosocial interactions. Latino groups, and particularly Puerto Ricans, are an understudied population in the United States in terms of the prevalence of discrimination and its relevance to health. Participants in our study were 45- to 75-year-old (N = 1122) Puerto Ricans. The measures were perceived discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D), perceived stress (PSS), self-rated health, medical conditions, blood pressure, smoking and drinking behaviours, demographics. Our findings show that 36.9 per cent of participants had at some time experienced discrimination, with men, those with more years of education, currently employed and with higher incomes being more likely to report it. Experiences of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. When controlling for covariates, perceived discrimination was predictive of the number of medical conditions, of ever having smoked and having been a drinker, and having higher values of diastolic pressure. Depressive symptoms are a mediator of the effect of perceived discrimination on medical conditions, confirmed by the Sobel test: z = 3.57, p discrimination is associated with a greater number of medical diagnoses.

  20. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  1. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  2. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  3. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...

  4. Discriminating topology in galaxy distributions using network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungryong; Coutinho, Bruno C.; Dey, Arjun; Barabási, Albert-L.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; Gebhardt, Karl

    2016-07-01

    The large-scale distribution of galaxies is generally analysed using the two-point correlation function. However, this statistic does not capture the topology of the distribution, and it is necessary to resort to higher order correlations to break degeneracies. We demonstrate that an alternate approach using network analysis can discriminate between topologically different distributions that have similar two-point correlations. We investigate two galaxy point distributions, one produced by a cosmological simulation and the other by a Lévy walk. For the cosmological simulation, we adopt the redshift z = 0.58 slice from Illustris and select galaxies with stellar masses greater than 108 M⊙. The two-point correlation function of these simulated galaxies follows a single power law, ξ(r) ˜ r-1.5. Then, we generate Lévy walks matching the correlation function and abundance with the simulated galaxies. We find that, while the two simulated galaxy point distributions have the same abundance and two-point correlation function, their spatial distributions are very different; most prominently, filamentary structures, absent in Lévy fractals. To quantify these missing topologies, we adopt network analysis tools and measure diameter, giant component, and transitivity from networks built by a conventional friends-of-friends recipe with various linking lengths. Unlike the abundance and two-point correlation function, these network quantities reveal a clear separation between the two simulated distributions; therefore, the galaxy distribution simulated by Illustris is not a Lévy fractal quantitatively. We find that the described network quantities offer an efficient tool for discriminating topologies and for comparing observed and theoretical distributions.

  5. Discrete Mixed Petrov-Galerkin Finite Element Method for a Fourth-Order Two-Point Boundary Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jones Tarcius Doss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrature-based mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is applied to a fourth-order linear ordinary differential equation. After employing a splitting technique, a cubic spline trial space and a piecewise linear test space are considered in the method. The integrals are then replaced by the Gauss quadrature rule in the formulation itself. Optimal order a priori error estimates are obtained without any restriction on the mesh.

  6. Discrimination of consonance and dissonance in Java sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Uozumi, M; Tanaka, N

    2005-09-30

    Six adult Java sparrows were trained to discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds consisting of three tones. In the consonance group, the perching response was reinforced when consonance was presented, but not when dissonance was presented. Both groups were given an inversion test, in which the first inversion of the chord was used as a stimulus. Four of six birds learned the discrimination and were given two tests. In the first test, novel consonances and novel dissonances were presented. All birds maintained the discrimination. When inverted consonances and dissonances were presented in the second test, the discriminative behavior was not well demonstrated. When novel dissonances consisting of tones with different intervals were presented in the third test, birds trained to perch for dissonance performed well, whereas those trained to perch for consonance did not. In summary, Java sparrows were able to discriminate between consonances and dissonances and demonstrated generalization to new combinations, they do not discriminate the same consonances and dissonances.

  7. The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI): a test of the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of FFNI scores in clinical and community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Wilson, Lauren; Gentile, Brittany; Widiger, Thomas A; Mackillop, James; Keith Campbell, W

    2013-09-01

    The five-factor narcissism inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as well as grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In the current study, the FFNI was examined in relation to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) NPD, DSM-5 (http://www.dsm5.org) NPD traits, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism in both community (N = 287) and clinical samples (N = 98). Across the samples, the FFNI scales manifested good convergent and discriminant validity such that FFNI scales derived from FFM neuroticism were primarily related to vulnerable narcissism scores, scales derived from FFM extraversion were primarily related to grandiose scores, and FFNI scales derived from FFM agreeableness were related to both narcissism dimensions, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 NPD scores. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable narcissism composites also demonstrated incremental validity in the statistical prediction of these scores, above and beyond existing measures of DSM NPD, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism, respectively. The FFNI is a promising measure that provides a comprehensive assessment of narcissistic pathology while maintaining ties to the significant general personality literature on the FFM.

  8. Testing virtual reality-based cue-exposure software: Which cue-elicited responses best discriminate between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-García, Marta; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Dakanalis, Antonios; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sanchez-Diaz, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virgínia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-07-27

    Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been proposed as a new tool able to improve on in vivo exposure in patients with eating disorders. This study assessed the validity of a VR-based software for cue exposure therapy (CET) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Fifty eight outpatients (33 BN and 25 BED) and 135 healthy participants were exposed to 10 craved virtual foods and a neutral cue in four experimental virtual environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom, and cafeteria). After exposure to each VR scenario, food craving and anxiety were assessed. The frequency/severity of episodes of uncontrollable overeating was also assessed and body mass index was measured prior to the exposure. In both groups, craving and anxiety responses when exposed to the food-related virtual environments were significantly higher than in the neutral-cue virtual environment. However, craving and anxiety levels were higher in the clinical group. Furthermore, cue-elicited anxiety was better at discriminating between clinical and healthy groups than cue-elicited craving. This study provides evidence of the ability of food-related VR environments to provoke food craving and anxiety responses in BN and BED patients and highlights the need to consider both responses during treatment. The results support the use of VR-CET in the treatment of eating disorder patients characterized by binge-eating and people with high bulimic symptoms.

  9. On the problem of mass dependence of the two-point function of the real scalar free massive field on the light cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Peter [Institut fuer Informatik, TU Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Ernst [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2006-05-19

    We investigate the generally assumed inconsistency in light cone quantum field theory that the restriction of a massive, real scalar free field to the nullplane {sigma} = {l_brace}x{sup 0} + x{sup 3} = 0{r_brace} is independent of mass (Leutwyler, Klauder and Streit 1970 Nuovo Cimento A 66 536), but the restriction of the two-point function is mass dependent (see, e.g., Nakanishi and Yamawaki 1977 Nucl. Phys. B 122 15; Yamawaki K 1997 Proc. Int. Workshop New Nonperturbative Methods and Quantization on the Light Cone (Les Houches, France) Preprint hep-th/9707141). We resolve this inconsistency by showing that the two-point function has no canonical restriction to {sigma} in the sense of distribution theory. Only the so-called tame restriction of the two-point function, which we have introduced in (Ullrich P 2004 Uniqueness in the characteristic Cauchy problem of the Klein-Gordon equation and tame restrictions of generalized functions Preprint math-ph/0408022 (submitted)) exists. Furthermore, we show that this tame restriction is indeed independent of the mass. Hence the inconsistency is induced by the erroneous assumption that the two-point function has a (canonical) restriction to {sigma}.

  10. The Application of Two-Point Touch Cane Technique to Theories of Motor Control and Learning Implications for Orientation and Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Ronald V.; Jacobson, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Basic behavioral processes involved in motor control based on theories of motor control and learning are outlined using the teaching of two-point touch cane technique as an application of the theories. The authors assert the importance of repetition, practice, and sufficient learning time. (Author/CL)

  11. Mode-sum construction of the covariant graviton two-point function in the Poincaré patch of de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröb, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi; Lima, William C. C.

    2016-06-01

    We construct the graviton two-point function for a two-parameter family of linear covariant gauges in n -dimensional de Sitter space. The construction is performed via the mode-sum method in the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the Poincaré patch, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term is introduced to regularize the infrared (IR) divergences. The resulting two-point function is de Sitter invariant and free of IR divergences in the massless limit (for a certain range of parameters), although analytic continuation with respect to the mass for the pure-gauge sector of the two-point function is necessary for this result. This general result agrees with the propagator obtained by analytic continuation from the sphere [Phys. Rev. D 34, 3670 (1986); Classical Quantum Gravity 18, 4317 (2001)]. However, if one starts with strictly zero mass theory, the IR divergences are absent only for a specific value of one of the two parameters, with the other parameter left generic. These findings agree with recent calculations in the Landau (exact) gauge [J. Math. Phys. 53, 122502 (2012)], where IR divergences do appear in the spin-two (tensor) part of the two-point function. However, we find the strength (including the sign) of the IR divergence to be different from the one found in this reference.

  12. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  13. Characterizing the relative role of low-frequency and turbulent processes in the nocturnal boundary layer through the analysis of two-point correlations of the wind components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichrieb, Claudio A.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Degrazia, Gervásio A.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.; Roberti, Débora R.; Zimermann, Hans R.; Santos, Daniel M.; Alves, Rita C. M.

    2013-03-01

    The study presents an analysis of two-point correlations between time series of nocturnal atmospheric wind, obtained from two micrometeorological towers, 45 m horizontally apart, each equipped with two sonic anemometers, 2.5 m vertically apart. It focuses on the scale dependence of the two-point correlations obtained from sensors vertically and horizontally separated. In particular, the role of low-frequency non-turbulent processes in the correlations is assessed, and compared to that of the turbulent scales of motion. The vertical correlations of the streamwise and vertical wind components show little dependence on the turbulence intensity, but those of the spanwise component decrease appreciably as it gets more turbulent. Multiresolution decomposition shows that the two-point correlations become increasingly dominated by low-frequency scales as it gets less turbulent, and that such large-scale processes are largely reduced in fully turbulent conditions. It is also shown that the vertical correlations of the spanwise wind component is negative for very small time scales. Horizontal two-point correlations obtained at the 45 m separation distance between the towers are almost entirely dominated by low-frequency motions, regardless of the turbulence intensity, but the magnitude of such correlations decreases with increasing turbulence intensity for any wind components. A comparison between the horizontal two-point correlations and autocorrelations taken with a time lag given by the ratio of the horizontal separation to the mean wind component in the direction that connects the two towers leads to the conclusion that the statistical properties of turbulence are often preserved over the horizontal distance, despite the lack of turbulence correlations for that separation.

  14. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  15. Perceived Empathy of Service Providers Mediates the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Behavioral Intention to Take Up HIV Antibody Testing Again among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues an...

  16. Evaluation of a real-time PCR test for the detection and discrimination of theileria species in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Janssens, Michiel E; Vermeiren, Lieve; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Collins, Nicola E; Geysen, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay based on the cox III gene was evaluated for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of Theileria species in buffalo and cattle blood samples from South Africa and Mozambique using melting curve analysis. The results obtained were compared to those of the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theileria spp. in mixed infections, and to the 18S rRNA qPCR assay results for the specific detection of Theileria parva. Theileria parva, Theileria sp. (buffalo), Theileria taurotragi, Theileria buffeli and Theileria mutans were detected by the cox III assay. Theileria velifera was not detected from any of the samples analysed. Seventeen percent of the samples had non-species specific melting peaks and 4.5% of the samples were negative or below the detection limit of the assay. The cox III assay identified more T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples than the RLB assay, and also detected more T. parva infections than the 18S assay. However, only a small number of samples were positive for the benign Theileria spp. To our knowledge T. taurotragi has never been identified from the African buffalo, its identification in some samples by the qPCR assay was unexpected. Because of these discrepancies in the results, cox III qPCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated extensive inter- and intra-species variations in the probe target regions of the cox III gene sequences of the benign Theileria spp. and therefore explains their low detection. The cox III assay is specific for the detection of T. parva infections in cattle and buffalo. Sequence data generated from this study can be used for the development of a more inclusive assay for detection and differentiation of all variants of the mildly pathogenic and benign Theileria spp. of buffalo and cattle.

  17. Prospective comparison of liver stiffness measurements between two point wave elastography methods: Virtual ouch quantification and elastography point quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  18. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika M J; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe; Skytte, Christina; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2013-06-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.

  19. Stueckelberg massive electromagnetism in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Two-point functions and renormalized stress-energy tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Belokogne, Andrei; Queva, Julien

    2016-01-01

    By considering Hadamard vacuum states, we first construct the two-point functions associated with Stueckelberg massive electromagnetism in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Then, from the general formalism developed in [A. Belokogne and A. Folacci, Phys. Rev. D \\textbf{93}, 044063 (2016)], we obtain an exact analytical expression for the vacuum expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of the massive vector field propagating in these maximally symmetric spacetimes.

  20. Identifying nonlinear wave interactions in plasmas using two-point measurements a case study of Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Dudok de Wit, T; Dunlop, M; Luehr, H

    1999-01-01

    A framework is described for estimating Linear growth rates and spectral energy transfers in turbulent wave-fields using two-point measurements. This approach, which is based on Volterra series, is applied to dual satellite data gathered in the vicinity of the Earth's bow shock, where Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) supposedly play a leading role. The analysis attests the dynamic evolution of the SLAMS and reveals an energy cascade toward high-frequency waves.

  1. Existence of Positive Solutions for Two-Point Boundary Value Problems of Nonlinear Finite Discrete Fractional Differential Equations and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Caixia Guo; Jianmin Guo; Ying Gao; Shugui Kang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the two-point boundary value problems of nonlinear finite discrete fractional differential equations. On one hand, we discuss some new properties of the Green function. On the other hand, by using the main properties of Green function and the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem on cones, some sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one or two positive solutions for the boundary value problem are established.

  2. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...... the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived...

  3. Musical pitch discrimination by cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Yuan, Meng; Feng, Haihong

    2012-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of acoustic characteristics, including timbre and fundamental frequency (F0), on the musical pitch discrimination of cochlear implant users. Eight postlingually deafened cochlear implant users were recruited, along with 8 control subjects with normal hearing. Pitch discrimination tests were carried out using test stimuli from 4 musical instruments plus synthetic complex stimuli. Three reference tones with different F0s were used. The mean difference limens were 1.8 to 10.7 semitones in the just-noticeable difference task and 2.1 to 13.6 semitones in the pitch-direction discrimination task for different timbre and F0 combinations. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the acoustic characteristics of the musical stimuli, such as timbre and F0, significantly influenced pitch discrimination performance. Acoustic characteristics determine the complexity of the electrical stimulation pattern, which directly affects performance in pitch discrimination. A place pattern with a clear and regular low-order harmonic structure is most important for good pitch discrimination. A clear F0-related temporal pattern is also useful when the F0 is low. Pitch perception performance will worsen when there is interference in the high-frequency channels.

  4. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination. PMID:27647943

  5. Mode-sum construction of the covariant graviton two-point function in the Poincar\\'e patch of de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Fröb, Markus B; Lima, William C C

    2016-01-01

    We construct the graviton two-point function for a two-parameter family of linear covariant gauges in n-dimensional de Sitter space. The construction is performed via the mode-sum method in the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the Poincar\\'e patch, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term is introduced to regularize the infrared (IR) divergences. The resulting two-point function is de Sitter-invariant, and free of IR divergences in the massless limit (for a certain range of parameters) though analytic continuation with respect to the mass for the pure-gauge sector of the two-point function is necessary for this result. This general result agrees with the propagator obtained by analytic continuation from the sphere [Phys. Rev. D 34, 3670 (1986); Class. Quant. Grav. 18, 4317 (2001)]. However, if one starts with strictly zero mass theory, the IR divergences are absent only for a specific value of one of the two parameters, with the other parameter left generic. These findings agree with recent calculations in the Landau (exact) gauge ...

  6. Effects of Ag nanomaterials (NM300K) and Ag salt (AgNO3) can be discriminated in a full life cycle long term test with Enchytraeus crypticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicho, Rita C; Ribeiro, Tânia; Rodrigues, Natália P;

    2016-01-01

    . Results showed that effects were higher compared to the standard reproduction test, which is shorter and does not cover the FLC. Both Ag forms caused a reduction on hatching success, juvenile and adult survival and reproduction with similar ECx. Differences between AgNO3 and Ag NM300K could...

  7. Options in Education, Transcript for November 10, 1975: College Enrollment, Standardized Testing, Hyperactive School Children, Sex Discrimination in Education, Telephone Installation, and Adult Functional Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript of the show contains discussions of college enrollment; standardized testing; hyperactivity in school children, the drugs given to these children, and the biochemical effects of artificial flavors and colors on…

  8. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  9. Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altonji, Joseph G.; Pierret, Charles R.

    The relationship between employer learning and statistical discrimination was explored through a statistical analysis that included a test for statistical discrimination or "rational" stereotyping in environments where agents learn over time. The test is used to study the working hypothesis that, because firms have only limited information about…

  10. The planar two point algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Booij; Z. Zivkovic

    2009-01-01

    Vision-based localization, mapping and navigation is often performed by searching for corresponding image points and estimating the epipolar geometry. It is known that the possible relative poses of a camera mounted on a mobile robot that moves over a planar ground floor, has two degrees of freedom.

  11. First tests of the applicability of $\\gamma$-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Magán, D L Pérez; Domingo-Pardo, C; Agramunt-Ros, J; Albiol, F; Casanovas, A; González, A; Guerrero, C; Lerendegui-Marco, J; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using $\\gamma$-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr$_3$ scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a $^{197}$Au sample have been carried out at n\\_TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of 2 in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  12. First tests of the applicability of γ-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Magán, D.L.; Caballero, L. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C., E-mail: domingo@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Agramunt-Ros, J.; Albiol, F. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Casanovas, A. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); González, A. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging, I3M-CSIC 46022 Valencia (Spain); Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J. [Dto. de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using γ-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr{sub 3} scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a {sup 197}Au sample have been carried out at n-TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of two in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  13. A Lesson in Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiner, Barbara; Hameroff-Cohen, Wendy

    1994-01-01

    Public high school students with deafness vividly learned about the realities of discrimination when they were informed of "new rules for deaf students," which required that they wear "deaf badges" in school, follow a strict dress code, and so on. After the "new rules" hoax was revealed, students' feelings and reactions to the situation were…

  14. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  15. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  16. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  17. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  18. Immunological self, nonself discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet, J G; Lai, M Z; Briner, T J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of immunodominant peptides derived from several antigen systems to compete with each other for T cell activation was studied. Only peptides restricted by a given transplantation antigen are mutually competitive. There is a correlation between haplotype restriction, ability to bind to ...... that provides a basis for explaining self, nonself discrimination as well as alloreactivity....

  19. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D{sub 2}, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  20. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  1. Discrimination and its Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  2. Two-point spin-1/2-spin-1/2 sl(2,bfC) conformal Kac-Moody blocks on the torus and their monodromies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyrnakis, J.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    1995-10-02

    Two issues of the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model are examined here, namely the computation of the untwisted conformal Kac-Moody blocks on the torus and their monodromy representations. Using the free field representation developed by Bernard and Felder, an integral representation of the twisted two point spin-1/2-spin-1/2 conformal Kac-Moody blocks on the torus is computed. From this, an integral representation of the untwisted blocks is computed after careful removal of infinities. Finally, the untwisted blocks are used to get a representation of the Braid Group on the torus on two strings, in terms of quantum group q-numbers. (orig.).

  3. How drugs get into cells: tested and testable predictions to help discriminate between transporter-mediated uptake and lipoidal bilayer diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Bruce Kell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One approach to experimental science involves creating hypotheses, then testing them by varying one or more independent variables and assessing the effects of this variation on the processes of interest. We use this strategy to compare the intellectual status and available evidence for two models or views of mechanisms of transmembrane drug transport into intact biological cells. One (BDII asserts that lipoidal phospholipid Bilayer Diffusion Is Important, while a second (PBIN proposes that in normal intact cells Phospholipid Bilayer diffusion Is Negligible (i.e. may be neglected quantitatively, because evolution selected against it, and with transmembrane drug transport being effected by genetically encoded proteinaceous carriers or pores, whose ‘natural’ biological roles and substrates are based in intermediary metabolism. Despite a recent review elsewhere, we can find no evidence able to support BDII as we can find no experiments in intact cells in which phospholipid bilayer diffusion was either varied independently or measured directly (although there are many papers where it was inferred by seeing a covariation of other dependent variables. By contrast, we find an abundance of evidence showing cases in which changes in the activities of named and genetically identified transporters led to measurable changes in the rate or extent of drug uptake. PBIN also has considerable predictive power, and accounts readily for the large differences in drug uptake between tissues, cells and species, in accounting for the metabolite-likeness of marketed drugs, in pharmacogenomics, and in providing a straightforward explanation for the late-stage appearance of toxicity and of lack of efficacy during drug discovery programmes despite macroscopically adequate pharmacokinetics. Consequently, the view that Phospholipid Bilayer diffusion Is Negligible (PBIN provides a starting hypothesis for assessing cellular drug uptake that is much better supported by the

  4. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  5. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.

  6. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.;

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority of ca...

  7. Operant conditioning and discrimination of alpha: some methodological limitations inherent in response-discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cott, A; Pavloski, R P; Black, A H

    1981-09-01

    Studies on the operant conditioning of central nervous system activity have produced results interpreted as demonstrating that responses, certain properties of responses, or response-produced stimuli can function as discriminative stimuli. It is assumed that the feedback stimulus in biofeedback makes the subject aware of the internal response and that by becoming aware of the response, the subject can acquire voluntary control over it. In this context, awareness is operationally defined as the ability to use the response as a discriminative stimulus. Since direct evidence for the assumed relationship between control and discrimination is lacking, an attempt was made to test the hypothesis that discrimination of a response automatically leads to control over that response. The discriminative stimuli were the presence and absence of occipital alpha electroencephalograph (EEG) activity. Data from two experiments are reported. The first study, employing naive subjects, was designed to answer the following questions: (a) Since pilot data indicated that subjects seemed to match their responses to the more probable type of trial, would increases in the probability of a correct response result when the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha trials were held near .50? (b) If correct responding does increase, would performance of these subjects in an alpha feedback task be enhanced relative to that of subjects not previously given discrimination training? and (c) If subjects could not learn the discrimination task, would feedback training enhance their performance in a subsequent discrimination task? Results from this study indicate that holding the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha discrimination trials near .50 results in an absence of learning curves, but leaves open the possibility that sophisticated subjects are capable of discriminating alpha and nonalpha activity. The second study deals with two questions: (a) Can sophisticated subjects learn to discriminate occipital

  8. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  9. Perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezsar, Cynthia M; McGrath, Jennifer J; Herzig, Alyssa J M; Miller, Sydney B

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. Extant literature suggests a possible association between racial discrimination and blood pressure, although inconsistent findings have been reported. The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the association between perceived racial discrimination with hypertensive status and systolic, diastolic, and ambulatory blood pressure. Electronic database search of PubMed and PsycINFO (keywords: blood pressure/hypertension/diastolic/systolic, racism/discrimination/prejudice/unfair treatment) was combined with descendancy and ascendancy approaches. Forty-four articles (N = 32,651) met inclusion criteria. Articles were coded for demographics, hypertensive diagnosis, blood pressure measurement, discrimination measure and constructs, study quality, and effect sizes. Random effects meta-analytic models were tested based on Fisher's Z, the derived common effect size metric. Overall, perceived racial discrimination was associated with hypertensive status, Zhypertension = 0.048, 95% CI [.013, .087], but not with resting blood pressure, Zsystolic = 0.011, 95% CI [-.006, .031], Zdiastolic = .016, 95% CI [-.006, .034]. Moderators that strengthened the relation included sex (male), race (Black), age (older), education (lower), and hypertensive status. Perceived discrimination was most strongly associated with nighttime ambulatory blood pressure, especially among Blacks. Despite methodological limitations in the existing literature, there was a small, significant association between perceived discrimination and hypertension. Future studies should consider ambulatory nighttime blood pressure, which may more accurately capture daily variation attributable to experienced racial discrimination. Perceived discrimination may partly explain racial health disparities. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Motion coherence and direction discrimination in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Karin S; Miller, Louisa; Agnew, Hannah C

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual functions change with age, particularly motion perception. With regard to healthy aging, previous studies mostly measured motion coherence thresholds for coarse motion direction discrimination along cardinal axes of motion. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the ability to discriminate between small angular differences in motion directions, which allows for a more specific assessment of age-related decline and its underlying mechanisms. We first assessed older (>60 years) and younger (discriminate coarse horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) motion at 100% coherence and a stimulus duration of 400 ms. In a second step, we determined participants' motion coherence thresholds for vertical and horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination. In a third step, we used the individually determined motion coherence thresholds and tested fine motion direction discrimination for motion clockwise away from horizontal and vertical motion. Older adults performed as well as younger adults for discriminating motion away from vertical. Surprisingly, performance for discriminating motion away from horizontal was strongly decreased. Further analyses, however, showed a relationship between motion coherence thresholds for horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination and fine motion direction discrimination performance in older adults. In a control experiment, using motion coherence above threshold for all conditions, the difference in performance for horizontal and vertical fine motion direction discrimination for older adults disappeared. These results clearly contradict the notion of an overall age-related decline in motion perception, and, most importantly, highlight the importance of taking into account individual differences when assessing age-related changes in perceptual functions.

  11. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  12. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  13. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  14. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  15. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  16. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  17. Gender Discrimination in Workforce and its Impact on the Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Ali Channar (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper explores the issue of gender discrimination in workforce and its impact on the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and stress level of employees. Close ended questionnaire was administered from 526 males and females oflower, middle and higher category employees of public and private health and education departments of Hyderabad and Jamshoro districts. Gender discrimination in workforce was measured through independent samples-t test. The analysis shows that females were discriminated more than males in private organizations. Thus the findings show that females are discriminated more than males in private sector than in public sector. The impact of gender discrimination on satisfaction &motivation, commitment & enthusiasm and stress level was assessed through Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient. The results show that gender discrimination decreases satisfaction & motivation and commitment & enthusiasm level of employees, and increases the stress level in the employees.

  18. Racial Discrimination and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine; Alexey Levkov; Yona Rubinstein

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of competition on racial discrimination. The dismantling of inter- and intrastate bank restrictions by U.S. states from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s reduced financial market imperfections, lowered entry barriers facing nonfinancial firms, and boosted the rate of new firm formation. We use bank deregulation to identify an exogenous intensification of competition in the nonfinancial sector, and evaluate its impact on the racial wage gap, which is that component ...

  19. Optimal time discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Filiz; Sayalı, Zeynep Ceyda; Gürbüz, Emine; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Time Discrimination Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Manuscript ID: QJE-STD 14-039.R1 Manuscript Type: Standard Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete List of Authors: Çoskun, Filiz; Koç University, Psychology Sayalı Ungerer, Zeynep; Koç University, Psychology Gürbüz, Emine; Koç University, Psychology Balcı, Fuat; Koç University, Psychology Keywords: Decision making, Interval Timing, Optimality, Response Times, Temporal ...

  20. Inclusion of Relevance Information in the Term Discrimination Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biru, Tesfaye; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the effect of including relevance data on the calculation of term discrimination values in bibliographic databases. Algorithms that calculate the ability of index terms to discriminate between relevant and non-relevant documents are described and tested. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between term frequency and…

  1. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  2. 从德沃金的“嫉妒原则”论成教生就业歧视%On Employment Discrimination of Adult Education Students from The Perspective of Dworkin's Envy Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆正言; 吴子亮

    2016-01-01

    学历歧视近年来引起了许多学术方面的批评,人们认为过高的学历要求因为缺乏必要性,剥夺了低学历人群平等竞争的机会。这一点是有道理的,不过在本文看来,仅仅是提供平等竞争的机会还不够,以拒绝成教生问题为例,我们还应该采取优惠措施,对他们进行适当的倾斜保护。本文所依据的理论基础是德沃金的嫉妒标准,以及社会融入和多样性原则。%Educational background discrimination has caused some criticism of academic opinion in recent years, who holds that too high educational background requirement in the recruitment process adult education students of the opportunity of equal competition, because of lack of necessity. These opinions are reasonable, but the article holds that it is not enough to provide opportunity of equal competition. Taking rejecting adult education students as an example,we should also adopt preferential measures and grant special protection. The grounds for that includes envy test, social inclusion and diversity.

  3. Discrimination in lexical decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  4. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  5. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  6. Discriminating Topology in Galaxy Distributions using Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungryong; Dey, Arjun; Barabási, Albert -L; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; Gebhardt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) The large-scale distribution of galaxies is generally analyzed using the two-point correlation function. However, this statistic does not capture the topology of the distribution, and it is necessary to resort to higher order correlations to break degeneracies. We demonstrate that an alternate approach using network analysis can discriminate between topologically different distributions that have similar two-point correlations. We investigate two galaxy point distributions, one produced by a cosmological simulation and the other by a L\\'evy walk. For the cosmological simulation, we adopt the redshift $z = 0.58$ slice from Illustris (Vogelsberger et al. 2014A) and select galaxies with stellar masses greater than $10^8$$M_\\odot$. The two point correlation function of these simulated galaxies follows a single power-law, $\\xi(r) \\sim r^{-1.5}$. Then, we generate L\\'evy walks matching the correlation function and abundance with the simulated galaxies. We find that, while the two simulated galaxy point d...

  7. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  8. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwen; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlogl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. PMID:27653770

  9. A procedure for tuning automatic controllers with determining a second-order plant model with time delay from two points of a complex frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Petrov, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of obtaining the mathematical model of a plant in the course of adaptively tuning the operating automatic closed-loop control systems is considered. A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of a model with four free coefficients represented by two inertial sections with a time delay. The model parameters are calculated from the data of experiments on determining two points of a plant's complex frequency response. The results from checking the performance of the method in combination with obtaining information on the plant dynamics by applying the Fourier transform to the impulse transient response of the system are presented. The PID controller is tuned using a parameter scanning algorithm with directly checking the amplitude-frequency response of the closed-loop system, using which the stability margin can be calculated and different quality criteria can be applied.

  10. Reliability of the two-point measurement of the spatial correlation length from Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals in fusion-grade plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaewook; Lampert, M; Ghim, Y -c

    2016-01-01

    A statistical method for the estimation of spatial correlation lengths of Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals with two measurement points is examined to quantitatively evaluate its reliability (variance) and accuracy (bias error). The standard deviation of the correlation value is analytically derived for randomly distributed Gaussian shaped fluctuations satisfying stationarity and homogeneity, allowing us to evaluate, as a function of fluctuation-to-noise ratios, sizes of averaging time windows and ratios of the distance between the two measurement points to the true correlation length, the goodness of the two-point measurement for estimating the spatial correlation length. Analytic results are confirmed with numerically generated synthetic data and real experimental data obtained with the KSTAR beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Our results can be applied to Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals where a correlation length must be measured with only two measurement points.

  11. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwen

    2016-09-22

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Reliability of the two-point measurement of the spatial correlation length from Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals in fusion-grade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook; Nam, Y. U.; Lampert, M.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2016-10-01

    A statistical method for the estimation of the spatial correlation lengths of Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals with two measurement points is examined to quantitatively evaluate its reliability (variance) and accuracy (bias error). The standard deviation of the correlation value is analytically derived for randomly distributed Gaussian shaped fluctuations satisfying stationarity and homogeneity, allowing us to evaluate, as a function of fluctuation-to-noise ratios, the sizes of averaging time windows and the ratios of the distance between the two measurement points to the true correlation length, and the goodness of the two-point measurement for estimating the spatial correlation length. Analytic results are confirmed with numerically generated synthetic data and real experimental data obtained with the KSTAR beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Our results can be applied to Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals where a correlation length must be measured with only two measurement points.

  13. Study on auto discrimination technology of AutoCAD three-dimensional graphics based on unit test mode%单元测试模式的AutoCAD三维图形自动判别技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金鑫; 杨松林; 张钢

    2011-01-01

    Through studying the automatic discrimination technology of AutoCAD three-dimensionalgraphics based on the unit test mode,the problems of automatic batch opening of the DWG graphics aresolvedAnd automatic conversion of data format from DWG to SAT is achieved by utilizing traversal search-ing the SAT files ^extracting the data information of the three -dimensional solid and storing it in thedatabase with the programming language VisualBbasic and Visuallisp language as well as graphic formatconversion technology and the traversal search method with graphic data information.Tnus the automatic e-valuation,re suit display and data output on three-dimensional CAD graphics is realized combining with the comparison method of the feature data, which lay an important foundation for the three-dimensional CAD test to achieve networked,automation and paperless.%通过对单元测试模式的AutoCAD三维图形自动判别技术研究,利用Visual Basic、Visuallisp编程语言以及图形格式转换、图形数据信息遍历搜索方法,解决了三维DWG图形批量自动打开并完成DWG至SAT数据文件格式的自动转换,并对SAT数据文件进行遍历搜索提取三维实体图形数据信息自动存储到Access数据库中,结合特征数据比对法实现CAD三维图形的自动评判、结果显示、数据输出等功能,为三维CAD测试实现网络化、自动化、无纸化奠定重要的基础.

  14. Predicting Retear after Repair of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear: Two-Point Dixon MR Imaging Quantification of Fatty Muscle Degeneration-Initial Experience with 1-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Tasaki, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Saya; Ochi, Junko; Starkey, Jay; Hara, Takeshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the degree of preoperative fatty degeneration within muscles, postoperative longitudinal changes in fatty degeneration, and differences in fatty degeneration between patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears who do and those who do not experience a retear after surgery. Materials and Methods This prospective study had institutional review board approval and was conducted in accordance with the Committee for Human Research. Informed consent was obtained. Fifty patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears (18 men, 32 women; mean age, 67.0 years ± 8.0; age range, 41-91 years) were recruited. The degrees of preoperative and postoperative fatty degeneration were quantified by using a two-point Dixon magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence; two radiologists measured the mean signal intensity on in-phase [S(In)] and fat [S(Fat)] images. Estimates of fatty degeneration were calculated with "fat fraction" values by using the formula S(Fat)/S(In) within the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles at baseline preoperative and at postoperative 1-year follow-up MR imaging. Preoperative fat fractions in the failed-repair group and the intact-repair group were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The preoperative fat fractions in the supraspinatus muscle were significantly higher in the failed-repair group than in the intact-repair group (37.0% vs 19.5%, P muscle tended to progress at 1 year postoperatively in only the failed-repair group. Conclusion MR imaging quantification of preoperative fat fractions by using a two-point Dixon sequence within the rotator cuff muscles may be a viable method for predicting postoperative retear. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  15. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Tramadol in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Angela N.; Bigelow, George E.; Lanier, Ryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Tramadol is an unscheduled atypical analgesic that acts as an agonist at μ-opioid receptors and inhibits monoamine reuptake. Tramadol can suppress opioid withdrawal, and chronic administration can produce opioid physical dependence; however, diversion and abuse of tramadol is low. The present study further characterized tramadol in a three-choice discrimination procedure. Nondependent volunteers with active stimulant and opioid use (n = 8) participated in this residential laboratory study. Subjects were trained to discriminate between placebo, hydromorphone (8 mg), and methylphenidate (60 mg), and tests of acquisition confirmed that all volunteers could discriminate between the training drugs. The following drug conditions were then tested during discrimination test sessions: placebo, hydromorphone (4 and 8 mg), methylphenidate (30 and 60 mg), and tramadol (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg). In addition to discrimination measures, which included discrete choice, point distribution, and operant responding, subjective and physiological effects were measured for each test condition. Both doses of hydromorphone and methylphenidate were identified as hydromorphone- and methylphenidate-like, respectively. Lower doses of tramadol were generally identified as placebo, with higher doses (200 and 400 mg) identified as hydromorphone, or opioid-like. The highest dose of tramadol increased ratings on the stimulant scale, but was not significantly identified as methylphenidate-like. Tramadol did not significantly increase subjective ratings associated with reinforcement. Taken together, these results extend previous work with tramadol as a potential medication for the treatment of opioid dependence and withdrawal, showing acute doses of tramadol exhibit a profile of effects similar to opioid agonists and may have abuse liability in certain populations. PMID:21467190

  16. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two......-dimensional shapes from a two-class recognition problem....

  17. Discrimination and psychological distress: does Whiteness matter for Arab Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; James, Sherman A; Yamout, Rouham; Baker, Wayne

    2012-12-01

    The white racial category in the U.S. encompasses persons who have Arab ancestry. Arab Americans, however, have always occupied a precarious position in relationship to Whiteness. This study examined differences in reporting racial/ethnic discrimination among Arab Americans. It also investigated whether and how the association between discrimination and psychological distress varies by characteristics that capture an Arab American's proximity to/distance from Whiteness. We used data from the Detroit Arab American Study (2003; n = 1016), which includes measures of discrimination and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress. A series of logistic regression models were specified to test the discrimination-psychological distress association, stratified by five measures that capture Whiteness--subjective racial identification, religion, skin color, ethnic centrality, and residence in the ethnic enclave. Discrimination was more frequently reported by Muslim Arab Americans, those who racially identify as non-white, and who live in the ethnic enclave. Conversely, the association between discrimination and psychological distress was stronger for Christian Arab Americans, those who racially identify as white, who have dark skin color, and who live outside the ethnic enclave. Even though Arab Americans who occupy an identity location close to Whiteness are less subjected to discrimination, they are more negatively affected by it. The findings illuminate the complex pathways through which discrimination associates with psychological distress among 'white' immigrants. Further research on discrimination and health among Arab Americans can help unpack the white racial category and deconstruct Whiteness.

  18. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  19. Discriminative sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  20. Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Nicholas D; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; George, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R(2) = 0.21 and adjusted R(2) = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Social context matters: Ethnicity, discrimination and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, David; Yim, Ilona S; Campos, Belinda

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to chronic discrimination is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The study of biobehavioral pathways linking discrimination with health outcomes has mostly focused on the cardiovascular system, with fewer studies addressing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study we tested associations between Latino ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, and cortisol responses to an acute laboratory stressor. One hundred fifty eight individuals (92 female, 66 male) between the ages of 18 and 29 years participated in the study. Salivary cortisol was measured once before and eight times after administration of a laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Past experiences of discrimination were measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Findings from conditional process modeling suggest that Latino ethnicity predicted a) heightened cortisol reactivity and b) more pronounced cortisol recovery through discrimination experiences (mediator), and that this effect was further moderated by sex with a significant indirect effect only among males. The direct path from Latino ethnicity to cortisol reactivity or cortisol recovery was, however, not significant. In sum, findings suggest that Latino ethnicity and discrimination interact to predict cortisol dysregulation, which implies that an appropriate model for understanding minority health discrepancies must incorporate interactive processes and cannot simply rely on the effects of ethnicity or discrimination alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discriminant Analysis on Land Grading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaolin; HOU Yajuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the discriminant analysis on land grading after analyzing the common methods and discussing the Fisher's discriminant in detail. Actually this method deduces the dimension from multi to single, thus it makes the feature vectors in n-dimension change to a scalar, and use this scalar to classify samples. This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the residential land grading by the discriminant analysis.

  3. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  4. Non-perturbative aspects of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in linear covariant gauges: Nielsen identities and a BRST invariant two-point correlation function

    CERN Document Server

    Capri, M A L; Pereira, A D; Fiorentini, D; Guimaraes, M S; Mintz, B W; Palhares, L F; Sorella, S P

    2016-01-01

    In order to construct a gauge invariant two-point function in a Yang-Mills theory, we propose the use of the all-order gauge invariant transverse configurations A^h. Such configurations can be obtained through the minimization of the functional A^2_{min} along the gauge orbit within the BRST invariant formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework recently put forward in [1,2] for the class of the linear covariant gauges. This correlator turns out to provide a characterization of non-perturbative aspects of the theory in a BRST invariant and gauge parameter independent way. In particular, it turns out that the poles of are the same as those of the transverse part of the gluon propagator, which are also formally shown to be independent of the gauge parameter entering the gauge condition through the Nielsen identities. The latter follow from the new exact BRST invariant formulation introduced before. Moreover, the correlator enables us to attach a BRST invariant meaning to the possible positivity violation of ...

  5. A Parameter-Uniform Finite Difference Method for a Coupled System of Convection-Diffusion Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugene O'Riordan; Jeanne Stynes; Martin Stynes

    2008-01-01

    A system of m (≥ 2) linear convection-diffusion two-point boundary value problems is examined, where the diffusion term in each equation is multiplied by a small parameter e and the equations are coupled through their convective and reactive terms via matrices B and A respectively. This system is in general singularly perturbed. Unlike the case of a single equation, it does not satisfy a conventional maximum princi-ple. Certain hypotheses are placed on the coupling matrices B and A that ensure exis-tence and uniqueness of a solution to the system and also permit boundary layers in the components of this solution at only one endpoint of the domain; these hypotheses can be regarded as a strong form of diagonal dominance of B. This solution is decomposed into a sum of regular and layer components. Bounds are established on these compo-nents and their derivatives to show explicitly their dependence on the small parameterε. Finally, numerical methods consisting of upwinding on piecewise-uniform Shishkin meshes are proved to yield numerical solutions that are essentially first-order conver-gent, uniformly in ε, to the true solution in the discrete maximum norm. Numerical results on Shishkin meshes are presented to support these theoretical bounds.

  6. Investigation of a 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement: application to CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Matthews, Q [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Hilts, M [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria BC V8R 6V5 (Canada); Schulze, G [Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Blades, M W [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Turner, R F B [Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2006-05-21

    This study presents a new method of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement by utilizing a newly developed 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method (TPMEM). When utilized as an image filter, it is shown that 2D TPMEM offers unsurpassed flexibility in its ability to balance the complementary requirements of image smoothness and fidelity. The technique is evaluated for use in the enhancement of x-ray computed tomography (CT) images of irradiated polymer gels used in radiation dosimetry. We utilize a range of statistical parameters (e.g. root-mean square error, correlation coefficient, error histograms, Fourier data) to characterize the performance of TPMEM applied to a series of synthetic images of varying initial SNR. These images are designed to mimic a range of dose intensity patterns that would occur in x-ray CT polymer gel radiation dosimetry. Analysis is extended to a CT image of a polymer gel dosimeter irradiated with a stereotactic radiation therapy dose distribution. Results indicate that TPMEM performs strikingly well on radiation dosimetry data, significantly enhancing the SNR of noise-corrupted images (SNR enhancement factors >15 are possible) while minimally distorting the original image detail (as shown by the error histograms and Fourier data). It is also noted that application of this new TPMEM filter is not restricted exclusively to x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry image data but can in future be extended to a wide range of radiation dosimetry data.

  7. Investigation of a 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement: application to CT polymer gel dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirasek, A; Matthews, Q; Hilts, M; Schulze, G; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2006-05-21

    This study presents a new method of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement by utilizing a newly developed 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method (TPMEM). When utilized as an image filter, it is shown that 2D TPMEM offers unsurpassed flexibility in its ability to balance the complementary requirements of image smoothness and fidelity. The technique is evaluated for use in the enhancement of x-ray computed tomography (CT) images of irradiated polymer gels used in radiation dosimetry. We utilize a range of statistical parameters (e.g. root-mean square error, correlation coefficient, error histograms, Fourier data) to characterize the performance of TPMEM applied to a series of synthetic images of varying initial SNR. These images are designed to mimic a range of dose intensity patterns that would occur in x-ray CT polymer gel radiation dosimetry. Analysis is extended to a CT image of a polymer gel dosimeter irradiated with a stereotactic radiation therapy dose distribution. Results indicate that TPMEM performs strikingly well on radiation dosimetry data, significantly enhancing the SNR of noise-corrupted images (SNR enhancement factors >15 are possible) while minimally distorting the original image detail (as shown by the error histograms and Fourier data). It is also noted that application of this new TPMEM filter is not restricted exclusively to x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry image data but can in future be extended to a wide range of radiation dosimetry data.

  8. One- and two-point velocity distribution functions and velocity autocorrelation functions for various Reynolds numbers in decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Iwao

    2007-01-01

    A decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence is treated on the combined bases of the Kolmogorov hypothesis and the cross-independence hypothesis (for a closure of the Monin-Lundgren (ML) hierarchy of many-point velocity distributions) in turbulence. Similarity solutions for one- and two-point velocity distributions are obtained in the viscous, inertial and large-scale ranges of separation distance, from which we can give a reasonable picture of longitudinal and transverse velocity autocorrelation functions for any Reynolds number, even though they are distant from exact solutions of the infinite ML hierarchy. Possibility of non-similarity solutions with other reasonable and more realistic features is unveiled within the same theoretical framework. The cross-independence hypothesis is proved to be inconsistent with the Kolmogorov [1941b. Dissipation of energy in locally isotropic turbulence. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 32, 16-18.] theory in the inertial range. This is the main factor by which our special strategy (described in Introduction) is taken for solving this problem.

  9. Van der Waals like behavior and equal area law of two point correlation function of f(R) AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Lin, Ze-Tao; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    To gain holographic insight into critical phenomena of $f(R)$ AdS black holes, we investigate their two point correlation function, which are dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. We solve the equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition numerically and probe both the effect of boundary region size and $f(R)$ gravity. Moreover, we introduce an analogous specific heat related to $\\delta L$. It is shown in the $T-\\delta L$ graph for the case $Q

  10. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  12. Monocular and binocular depth discrimination thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, S B; Siddiqui, A; Ward, A; Noonan, C; Fisher, A C; Green, J R; Brown, M C; Wareing, P A; Watt, P

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of stereoacuity at varying distances, by real or simulated depth stereoacuity tests, is helpful in the evaluation of patients with binocular imbalance or strabismus. Although the cue of binocular disparity underpins stereoacuity tests, there may be variable amounts of other binocular and monocular cues inherent in a stereoacuity test. In such circumstances, a combined monocular and binocular threshold of depth discrimination may be measured--stereoacuity conventionally referring to the situation where binocular disparity giving rise to retinal disparity is the only cue present. A child-friendly variable distance stereoacuity test (VDS) was developed, with a method for determining the binocular depth threshold from the combined monocular and binocular threshold of depth of discrimination (CT). Subjects with normal binocular function, reduced binocular function, and apparently absent binocularity were included. To measure the threshold of depth discrimination, subjects were required by means of a hand control to align two electronically controlled spheres at viewing distances of 1, 3, and 6m. Stereoacuity was also measured using the TNO, Frisby, and Titmus stereoacuity tests. BTs were calculated according to the function BT= arctan (1/tan alphaC - 1/tan alphaM)(-1), where alphaC and alphaM are the angles subtended at the nodal points by objects situated at the monocular threshold (alphaM) and the combined monocular-binocular threshold (alphaC) of discrimination. In subjects with good binocularity, BTs were similar to their combined thresholds, whereas subjects with reduced and apparently absent binocularity had binocular thresholds 4 and 10 times higher than their combined thresholds (CT). The VDS binocular thresholds showed significantly higher correlation and agreement with the TNO test and the binocular thresholds of the Frisby and Titmus tests, than the corresponding combined thresholds (p = 0.0019). The VDS was found to be an easy to use real depth

  13. Geometric magnetic and discriminator sensor for smart pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinicius, C. [Pipeway, Lima (Peru); Silva, J.A.P. [Pipeway, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Von der Weid, J.P. [Pontifica Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, C.H.F.; Camerini, C.S. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A novel sensor head developed for high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) pigs was evaluated. Designed by a Brazilian research team, the geometric magnetic discriminator (GMD) sensor makes high resolution magnetic pipeline readings using 3 different technologies: (1) MFL; (2) geometric readings and (3) a DMC discriminator. The evaluation tests were conducted to verify that the addition of the discriminator was not compromised by the MFL sensors, as well as to determine if the MFL sensors were capable of sizing and discriminating a dent with metal loss. The GMD sensor was tested in a linear test rig at a laboratory. Defects were fabricated on steel plates. Results showed that the MFL sensors showed the same signature both with and without the DMC sensor attachment. However, the DMC sensor signaled external defects when placed inside the MFL module. It observed that the signal originated from the perpendicular components of the field lines. The MFL sensors also emitted signals that were approximately 15 Gauss in amplitude. Flux leakage was observed in dent corners. However, the dent was identified and characterized with the addition of a geometry sensor. For combined dents with external and internal metals, the GMD was capable of characterizing the dent using the geometry sensor, while the metal loss defect was characterized using the MFL sensor. Inside and outside discrimination was characterized by the discriminator. It was concluded that the introduction of a DMC discriminator sensor had little impact on the MFL sensors. 10 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  14. Discrimination of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisman Iosif I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable literature on the source of the thermostability of proteins from thermophilic organisms. Understanding the mechanisms for this thermostability would provide insights into proteins generally and permit the design of synthetic hyperstable biocatalysts. Results We have systematically tested a large number of sequence and structure derived quantities for their ability to discriminate thermostable proteins from their non-thermostable orthologs using sets of mesophile-thermophile ortholog pairs. Most of the quantities tested correspond to properties previously reported to be associated with thermostability. Many of the structure related properties were derived from the Delaunay tessellation of protein structures. Conclusions Carefully selected sequence based indices discriminate better than purely structure based indices. Combined sequence and structure based indices improve performance somewhat further. Based on our analysis, the strongest contributors to thermostability are an increase in ion pairs on the protein surface and a more strongly hydrophobic interior.

  15. Adaptation to direction statistics modulates perceptual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas S C; Prescott, Danielle L

    2012-06-22

    Perception depends on the relative activity of populations of sensory neurons with a range of tunings and response gains. Each neuron's tuning and gain are malleable and can be modified by sustained exposure to an adapting stimulus. Here, we used a combination of human psychophysical testing and models of neuronal population decoding to assess how rapid adaptation to moving stimuli might change neuronal tuning and thereby modulate direction perception. Using a novel motion stimulus in which the direction changed every 10 ms, we demonstrated that 1,500 ms of adaptation to a distribution of directions was capable of modifying human psychophysical direction discrimination performance. Consistent with previous reports, we found perceptual repulsion following adaptation to a single direction. Notably, compared with a uniform adaptation condition in which all motion directions were equiprobable, discrimination was impaired after adaptation to a stimulus comprising only directions ± 30-60° from the discrimination boundary and enhanced after adaptation to the complementary range of directions. Thus, stimulus distributions can be selectively chosen to either impair or improve discrimination performance through adaptation. A neuronal population decoding model incorporating adaptation-induced repulsive shifts in direction tuning curves can account for most aspects of our psychophysical data; however, changes in neuronal gain are sufficient to account for all aspects of our psychophysical data.

  16. A Discriminative Model for Polyphonic Piano Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliner Graham E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a discriminative model for polyphonic piano transcription. Support vector machines trained on spectral features are used to classify frame-level note instances. The classifier outputs are temporally constrained via hidden Markov models, and the proposed system is used to transcribe both synthesized and real piano recordings. A frame-level transcription accuracy of 68% was achieved on a newly generated test set, and direct comparisons to previous approaches are provided.

  17. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  18. Views of discrimination among individuals confronting genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Though the US passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, many questions remain of how individuals confronting genetic disease view and experience possible discrimination. We interviewed, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had, or were at risk for, Huntington's Disease, breast cancer, or Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Discrimination can be implicit, indirect and subtle, rather than explicit, direct and overt; and be hard to prove. Patients may be treated "differently" and unfairly, raising questions of how to define "discrimination", and "appropriate accommodation". Patients were often unclear and wary about legislation. Fears and experiences of discrimination can shape testing, treatment, and disclosure. Discrimination can be subjective, and take various forms. Searches for only objective evidence of it may be inherently difficult. Providers need to be aware of, and prepared to address, subtle and indirect discrimination; ambiguities, confusion and potential limitations concerning current legislation; and needs for education about these laws. Policies are needed to prevent discrimination in life, long-term care, and disability insurance, not covered by GINA.

  19. Olfactory discrimination of structurally similar alcohols by cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M

    2002-11-01

    The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward.

  20. Revisiting van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes via the two point correlation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xiong Mo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes is revisited via two point correlation function, which is dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. The equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition is solved numerically and both the effect of boundary region size and f(R gravity are probed. Moreover, an analogous specific heat related to δL is introduced. It is shown that the T−δL graphs of f(R AdS black holes exhibit reverse van der Waals like behavior just as the T−S graphs do. Free energy analysis is carried out to determine the first order phase transition temperature T⁎ and the unstable branch in T−δL curve is removed by a bar T=T⁎. It is shown that the first order phase transition temperature is the same at least to the order of 10−10 for different choices of the parameter b although the values of free energy vary with b. Our result further supports the former finding that charged f(R AdS black holes behave much like RN-AdS black holes. We also check the analogous equal area law numerically and find that the relative errors for both the cases θ0=0.1 and θ0=0.2 are small enough. The fitting functions between log⁡|T−Tc| and log⁡|δL−δLc| for both cases are also obtained. It is shown that the slope is around 3, implying that the critical exponent is about 2/3. This result is in accordance with those in former literatures of specific heat related to the thermal entropy or entanglement entropy.

  1. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  2. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  3. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  4. MEANING DISCRIMINATION IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IANNUCCI, JAMES E.

    SEMANTIC DISCRIMINATION OF POLYSEMOUS ENTRY WORDS IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PAPER. HANDICAPS OF PRESENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES AND BARRIERS TO THEIR FULL UTILIZATION WERE ENUMERATED. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) A BILINGUAL DICTIONARY SHOULD HAVE A DISCRIMINATION FOR EVERY TRANSLATION OF AN ENTRY WORD WHICH HAS SEVERAL…

  5. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  6. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  7. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  8. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  9. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  10. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  11. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  12. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  13. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers.

  14. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  15. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  16. Simultaneous discrimination of speed is more difficult than simultaneous discrimination of size for both pigeons and people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga F. Lazareva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports suggest that pigeons are highly sensitive to speed of motion (Cook, Beale, Koban, 2011; Herbranson, Fremouw, & Shimp, 2002. In contrast, we found that pigeons required more extensive training to learn speed discrimination than size discrimination (Lazareva, Young, & Wasserman, 2014. However, our results were based on a comparison of two experiments conducted in different laboratories, complicating the interpretation of the data. Here, we trained pigeons to perform size discrimination or speed discrimination in a two-alternative simultaneous discrimination task using a within-subject design. All birds acquired size discrimination much faster than speed discrimination, confirming our prior report. We further explored pigeons’ sensitivity to differences in speed and size by training them to discriminate two end-point stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice task and then presenting a wide range of testing stimuli located between the training end-point stimuli. The results again indicated weaker control by the differences in speed in comparison to size; comparable results were obtained for human participants.

  17. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  18. Impact of perceived racial discrimination on health screening in black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Charles P; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Makambi, Kepher H; Taylor, Teletia R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2010-02-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women's Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a Pap smear in the previous year, 52.7% had a mammogram, and 20.0% had received a colonoscopy. Both everyday and major discrimination were associated with not having received a Pap smear, even after adjusting for other variables. Discrimination was not associated with mammography or colonoscopy utilization. In conclusion, perceived everyday and major discrimination is associated with poorer utilization of Pap smears for cervical cancer screening among Black women.

  19. The zebrafish world of colors and shapes: preference and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jessica; Silveira, Mayara; Chacon, Diana; Luchiari, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Natural environment imposes many challenges to animals, which have to use cognitive abilities to cope with and exploit it to enhance their fitness. Since zebrafish is a well-established model for cognitive studies and high-throughput screening for drugs and diseases that affect cognition, we tested their ability for ambient color preference and 3D objects discrimination to establish a protocol for memory evaluation. For the color preference test, zebrafish were observed in a multiple-chamber tank with different environmental color options. Zebrafish showed preference for blue and green, and avoided yellow and red. For the 3D objects discrimination, zebrafish were allowed to explore two equal objects and then observed in a one-trial test in which a new color, size, or shape of the object was presented. Zebrafish showed discrimination for color, shape, and color+shape combined, but not size. These results imply that zebrafish seem to use some categorical system to discriminate items, and distracters affect their ability for discrimination. The type of variables available (color and shape) may favor zebrafish objects perception and facilitate discrimination processing. We suggest that this easy and simple memory test could serve as a useful screening tool for cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicological studies.

  20. Influence of the pre-ionization background and simulation of the optical emission of a streamer discharge in preheated air at atmospheric pressure between two point electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, A; Bonaventura, Z [Ecole Centrale Paris, EM2C Laboratory, UPR CNRS 288, Grande voie des vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Celestin, S, E-mail: anne.bourdon@em2c.ecp.f [Communications and Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents simulations of positive and negative streamers propagating between two point electrodes in preheated air at atmospheric pressure. As many discharges have occurred before the simulated one, seed charges are taken into account in the interelectrode gap. First, for a pre-ionization background of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}, we have studied the influence of the data set used for transport parameters and reaction rates for air on the simulation results. We have compared results obtained in 1997 using input parameters from Morrow and Lowke and from Kulikovsky. Deviations as large as 20% of streamer characteristics (i.e. electric field in the streamer head and body, streamer velocity, streamer radius, streamer electron density) have been observed for this point-to-point configuration. Second, we have studied the influence of the pulsed voltage frequency on the discharge structure. For the studied discharge regime, a change in the applied voltage frequency corresponds to a change in the pre-ionization background. In this work, we have considered a wide range of pre-ionization values from 10{sup 4} and up to 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}. We have noted that the value of the pre-ionization background has a small influence on the electron density, electric field and location of the negative streamer head. Conversely, it has a significant influence on the positive streamer characteristics. Finally, we have compared instantaneous and time-averaged optical emissions of the three band systems of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}{sup +} (1PN{sub 2}, 2PN{sub 2} and 1NN{sub 2}{sup +}) during the discharge propagation. We have shown that the emission of the 2PN{sub 2} is the strongest of the three bands, in agreement with experimental observations. It is interesting to note that even with a short time averaging of a few nanoseconds, which corresponds to currently used instruments, the structure of the time-averaged emission of the 2PN{sub 2} is different from the instantaneous one and shows

  1. "Two-point" assembling of Zn(II) and Co(II) metalloporphyrins derivatized with a crown ether substituent in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noworyta, Krzysztof; Marczak, Renata; Tylenda, Rafal; Sobczak, Janusz W; Chitta, Raghu; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis

    2007-02-27

    The effect of "two-point" interactions of Zn(II) and Co(II) metalloporphyrins, bearing 15-crown-5 ether peripheral substituents, on their assembling in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films was investigated. That is, simultaneously, the central metal ion of the porphyrin was axially ligated by a nitrogen-containing ligand in the emerged part of the Langmuir film on one hand, and a suitably selected cation pertaining in the subphase solution was supramolecularly complexed by the crown ether moiety in the submerged part of the film on the other. The compression and polarity properties of the Langmuir films of the derivatized free-base 5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(benzo-15-crown-5)porphyrin, H2(TPMCP), and the corresponding cobalt(II) and zinc(II) metalloporphyrins, denoted as Co(TPMCP) and Zn(TPCMP), respectively, as well as inclusion complexes of the metalloporphyrins with selected cations were investigated. For the axial ligation of Zn(II) and Co(II), pyrazine (pyz) and 4,4'-bipyridnine (bpy) aromatic as well as piperazine (ppz) and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) cyclic heteroaliphatic ligands were selected. The films were formed on the water subphase solution in the absence and presence of LiCl, NaCl, or NH4Cl. The Langmuir films were built of monolayer J-type aggregates of tilted porphyrin macrocycles. The porphyrins formed rather labile complexes with the cations in the subphase. Nevertheless, the XPS analysis revealed that these cations were LB transferred together with the porphyrins onto solid substrates. In the Co(TPMCP) Langmuir films formed on the water subphases, Co(II) was complexed by aromatic but not cyclic heteroaliphatic ligands, while, in these films formed on the NaCl subphase solutions, the metalloporphyrin was also complexed by DABCO. In Langmuir films spread on alkaline subphase solutions, both aromatic and heteroaliphatic ligands formed complexes with Co(TPMCP) of different stoichiometries. The X-ray reflectivity and GIXD measurements

  2. Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Mlinšek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research

  3. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  4. Digital Discrimination: The Case of Airbnb.com

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Edelman; Micahel Luca

    2014-01-01

    Online marketplaces often contain information not only about products, but also about the people selling the products. In an effort to facilitate trust, many platforms encourage sellers to provide personal profiles and even to post pictures of themselves. However, these features may also facilitate discrimination based on sellers' race, gender, age, or other aspects of appearance. In this paper, we test for racial discrimination against landlords in the online rental marketplace Airbnb.com. U...

  5. Orientation specificity of learning vernier discriminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, K; Grimsen, C; Herzog, M H; Fahle, M

    2010-02-22

    Orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex typically respond to a range of orientations that covers 20 degrees or more, while in psychophysical experiments, orientation bandwidth is often clearly narrower. Here, we measure the orientation specificity of perceptual learning for vernier discriminations. More than 70 observers, in separate groups, practiced a vernier discrimination task with a constant stimulus orientation. After a 1h session of training, the vernier was rotated by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 45 degrees or 90 degrees. Improvement through training in the first session transferred to the second session (tested on the next day) up to 10 degrees of stimulus rotation. We found no transfer for rotations of 20 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees. Hence, the orientation half-bandwidth of perceptual learning is around 15 degrees, leading to a bandwidth of 30 degrees and corresponding to that of single neurons in early visual cortices, while being narrower than that in higher cortical areas.

  6. Generative Prior Knowledge for Discriminative Classification

    CERN Document Server

    DeJong, G; 10.1613/jair.1934

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel framework for integrating prior knowledge into discriminative classifiers. Our framework allows discriminative classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to utilize prior knowledge specified in the generative setting. The dual objective of fitting the data and respecting prior knowledge is formulated as a bilevel program, which is solved (approximately) via iterative application of second-order cone programming. To test our approach, we consider the problem of using WordNet (a semantic database of English language) to improve low-sample classification accuracy of newsgroup categorization. WordNet is viewed as an approximate, but readily available source of background knowledge, and our framework is capable of utilizing it in a flexible way.

  7. [Phoneme discrimination and dyslexia. Is the correlation gender-specific?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M; Stuhrmann, N

    2013-01-01

    Amongst pediatric phoniatry patients, the number of boys suspected of having dyslexia and/or an auditory processing disorder dominates over the number of girls. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there are different correlation patterns between phoneme discrimination and spelling ability in male and female children. Data from 253 children aged between 7 and 13 were analyzed retrospectively. Phoneme discrimination was assessed via the Heidelberg phoneme discrimination test and compared to the results of spelling and intelligence tests. We found a highly significant correlation between phoneme discrimination and spelling ability within the whole population (girls: r = 0.337; boys: r = 0.437) at an average IQ of 107. Results of the Heidelberg phoneme discrimination test were below the normal average value and showed no difference between the male and female populations. However, the correlation between phoneme discrimination and spelling ability was higher for the boys than for the girls. We conclude that female children are better able to compensate their deficits in speech processing than male children and perhaps employ other strategies for spelling.

  8. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  9. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  10. Contrast sensitivity function and image discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, E

    2001-02-01

    A previous study tested the validity of simulations of the appearance of a natural image (from different observation distances) generated by using a visual model and contrast sensitivity functions of the individual observers [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1131 (1996)]. Deleting image spatial-frequency components that should be undetectable made the simulations indistinguishable from the original images at distances larger than the simulated distance. The simulated observation distance accurately predicted the distance at which the simulated image could be discriminated from the original image. Owing to the 1/f characteristic of natural images' spatial spectra, the individual contrast sensitivity functions (CSF's) used in the simulations of the previous study were actually tested only over a narrow range of retinal spatial frequencies. To test the CSF's over a wide range of frequencies, the same simulations and testing procedure were applied to five contrast versions of the images (10-300%). This provides a stronger test of the model, of the simulations, and specifically of the CSF's used. The relevant CSF for a discrimination task was found to be obtained by using 1-octave Gabor stimuli measured in a contrast detection task. The relevant CSF data had to be measured over a range of observation distances, owing to limitations of the displays.

  11. Rapid and widespread de novo evolution of kin discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendueles, Olaya; Zee, Peter C; Dinkelacker, Iris; Amherd, Michaela; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Velicer, Gregory J

    2015-07-21

    Diverse forms of kin discrimination, broadly defined as alteration of social behavior as a function of genetic relatedness among interactants, are common among social organisms from microbes to humans. However, the evolutionary origins and causes of kin-discriminatory behavior remain largely obscure. One form of kin discrimination observed in microbes is the failure of genetically distinct colonies to merge freely upon encounter. Here, we first use natural isolates of the highly social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus to show that colony-merger incompatibilities can be strong barriers to social interaction, particularly by reducing chimerism in multicellular fruiting bodies that develop near colony-territory borders. We then use experimental laboratory populations to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origins of kin discrimination. We show that the generic process of adaptation, irrespective of selective environment, is sufficient to repeatedly generate kin-discriminatory behaviors between evolved populations and their common ancestor. Further, we find that kin discrimination pervasively evolves indirectly between allopatric replicate populations that adapt to the same ecological habitat and that this occurs generically in many distinct habitats. Patterns of interpopulation discrimination imply that kin discrimination phenotypes evolved via many diverse genetic mechanisms and mutation-accumulation patterns support this inference. Strong incompatibility phenotypes emerged abruptly in some populations but strengthened gradually in others. The indirect evolution of kin discrimination in an asexual microbe is analogous to the indirect evolution of reproductive incompatibility in sexual eukaryotes and linguistic incompatibility among human cultures, the commonality being indirect, noncoordinated divergence of complex systems evolving in isolation.

  12. Exploiting Reject Option in Classification for Social Discrimination Control

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2017-09-29

    Social discrimination is said to occur when an unfavorable decision for an individual is influenced by her membership to certain protected groups such as females and minority ethnic groups. Such discriminatory decisions often exist in historical data. Despite recent works in discrimination-aware data mining, there remains the need for robust, yet easily usable, methods for discrimination control. In this paper, we utilize reject option in classification, a general decision theoretic framework for handling instances whose labels are uncertain, for modeling and controlling discriminatory decisions. Specifically, this framework permits a formal treatment of the intuition that instances close to the decision boundary are more likely to be discriminated in a dataset. Based on this framework, we present three different solutions for discrimination-aware classification. The first solution invokes probabilistic rejection in single or multiple probabilistic classifiers while the second solution relies upon ensemble rejection in classifier ensembles. The third solution integrates one of the first two solutions with situation testing which is a procedure commonly used in the court of law. All solutions are easy to use and provide strong justifications for the decisions. We evaluate our solutions extensively on four real-world datasets and compare their performances with previously proposed discrimination-aware classifiers. The results demonstrate the superiority of our solutions in terms of both performance and flexibility of applicability. In particular, our solutions are effective at removing illegal discrimination from the predictions.

  13. Visual discrimination learning with an iPad-equipped apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Kenneth J; Wolf, Joshua E; Ruprecht, Chad M

    2013-02-01

    Visual discrimination tasks are commonly used to assess visual learning and memory in non-human animals. The current experiments explored the suitability of an iPad (Apple, Cupertino, California), as a low-cost alternative touchscreen for visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with patterned black-and-white stimuli in a successive non-match to sample procedure. Rats successfully interacted with the iPad but failed to learn to withhold responding on trials in which the sample matched the comparison. Experiment 2 used the same patterned stimuli, but the procedure was simplified to a successive discrimination procedure and we explored the use of procedures known to facilitate discrimination learning. Rats that received training with differential outcomes and a differential reinforcement of other behavior schedule successfully acquired the task. In Experiment 3, the same rats were tested in a simultaneous discrimination task and we explored the use of a correction and non-correction method during acquisition. Rats that failed to learn the discrimination in the previous experiment, improved while trained with the correction method. These experiments support the use of the iPad in visual discrimination tasks and inform future studies investigating learning and memory within a touchscreen-equipped (iPad or other) apparatus.

  14. Auditory phase and frequency discrimination: a comparison of nine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, C D; Macmillan, N A

    1979-02-01

    Two auditory discrimination tasks were thoroughly investigated: discrimination of frequency differences from a sinusoidal signal of 200 Hz and discrimination of differences in relative phase of mixed sinusoids of 200 Hz and 400 Hz. For each task psychometric functions were constructed for three observers, using nine different psychophysical measurement procedures. These procedures included yes-no, two-interval forced-choice, and various fixed- and variable-standard designs that investigators have used in recent years. The data showed wide ranges of apparent sensitivity. For frequency discrimination, models derived from signal detection theory for each psychophysical procedure seem to account for the performance differences. For phase discrimination the models do not account for the data. We conclude that for some discriminative continua the assumptions of signal detection theory are appropriate, and underlying sensitivity may be derived from raw data by appropriate transformations. For other continua the models of signal detection theory are probably inappropriate; we speculate that phase might be discriminable only on the basis of comparison or change and suggest some tests of our hypothesis.

  15. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  16. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public re...

  18. Schizophrenia in males of cognitive performance: discriminative and diagnostic values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analuiza Camozzato

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discriminative and diagnostic values of neuropsychological tests for identifying schizophrenia patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 36 male schizophrenia outpatients and 72 healthy matched volunteers was carried out. Participants underwent the following neuropsychological tests: Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Verbal Fluency, Stroop test, Mini Mental State Examination, and Spatial Recognition Span. Sensitivity and specificity estimated the diagnostic value of tests with cutoffs obtained using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. The latent class model (diagnosis of schizophrenia was used as gold standard. RESULTS: Although patients presented lower scores in most tests, the highest canonical function for the discriminant analysis was 0.57 (Verbal Fluency M. The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained in the Verbal Fluency M test (75 and 65, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological tests showed moderate diagnostic value for the identification of schizophrenia patients. These findings suggested that the cognitive impairment measured by these tests might not be homogeneous among schizophrenia patients.

  19. Neural correlates of face gender discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.

  20. Discriminative Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal

    2016-12-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to learn discriminative dictionaries for sparse representation of data. The proposed approach infers probability distributions over the atoms of a discriminative dictionary using a finite approximation of Beta Process. It also computes sets of Bernoulli distributions that associate class labels to the learned dictionary atoms. This association signifies the selection probabilities of the dictionary atoms in the expansion of class-specific data. Furthermore, the non-parametric character of the proposed approach allows it to infer the correct size of the dictionary. We exploit the aforementioned Bernoulli distributions in separately learning a linear classifier. The classifier uses the same hierarchical Bayesian model as the dictionary, which we present along the analytical inference solution for Gibbs sampling. For classification, a test instance is first sparsely encoded over the learned dictionary and the codes are fed to the classifier. We performed experiments for face and action recognition; and object and scene-category classification using five public datasets and compared the results with state-of-the-art discriminative sparse representation approaches. Experiments show that the proposed Bayesian approach consistently outperforms the existing approaches.

  1. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and somatosensory temporal discrimination in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Modugno, Nicola; Lena, Francesco; Dispenza, Sabrina; Gandolfi, Barbara; Iezzi, Ennio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Whereas numerous studies document the effects of dopamine medication and deep brain stimulation on motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease, few have investigated deep brain stimulation-induced changes in sensory functions. In this study of 13 patients with Parkinson's disease, we tested the effects of deep brain stimulation on the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold. To investigate whether deep brain stimulation and dopaminergic medication induce similar changes in somatosensory discrimination, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were acquired under four experimental conditions: (i) medication ON/deep brain stimulation on; (ii) medication ON/deep brain stimulation off; (iii) medication OFF/deep brain stimulation on; and (iv) medication OFF/deep brain stimulation off. Patients also underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations during each experimental session. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values obtained in patients were compared with 13 age-matched healthy subjects. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were significantly higher in patients than in healthy subjects. In patients, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were significantly lower when patients were studied in medication ON than in medication OFF conditions. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values differed significantly between deep brain stimulation on and deep brain stimulation off conditions only when the patients were studied in the medication ON condition and were higher in the deep brain stimulation on/medication ON than in the deep brain stimulation off/medication ON condition. Dopamine but not subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation restores the altered somatosensory temporal discrimination in patients with Parkinson's disease. Deep brain stimulation degrades somatosensory temporal discrimination by modifying central somatosensory processing whereas dopamine restores the

  2. Novel, whisker-dependent texture discrimination task for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsia-Pai Patrick; Ioffe, Julie C; Iverson, Michaela M; Boon, Jacqueline M; Dyck, Richard H

    2013-01-15

    Many mammals use their mystacial vibrissae to palpate objects in their environment and encode information such as size, shape and texture. We have developed a novel method to assess the sensitivity with which mice can discriminate textures using their mystacial vibrissae. Our texture discrimination task can be performed within 3 days, requiring approximately 1 h of handling time, per subject, over the entire testing period. No appetitive or aversive training is required. We have demonstrated that this novel texture discrimination task is dependent on intact mystacial vibrissae and can be performed by both young (2-month old) and older (6-month old) C57BL/6 mice. The parameters of the task can be adjusted to assess the sensitivity of mice using a gradient of textures with different roughness. We have developed a novel, efficient method to assess whisker-mediated texture discrimination in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Poverty and health: the mediating role of perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Evans, Gary W; Ong, Anthony D

    2012-07-01

    Social-class discrimination is evident in many societies around the world, but little is known about its impact on the poor or its role as an explanatory variable in the link between socioeconomic status and health. The current study tested the extent to which perceived discrimination explains socioeconomic gradients in physical health. Participants were 252 adolescents (51% male, 49% female; mean age = 17.51 years, SD = 1.03 years) who participated in Wave 3 of an ongoing longitudinal study focusing on the developmental consequences of rural poverty. Physical health was operationalized as allostatic load, a measure of cumulative wear and tear on the body caused by overactivation of physiological systems that respond to stress. Mediation analyses suggested that 13% of the effect of poverty on allostatic load is explained by perceived discrimination. The findings suggest that social-class discrimination is one important mechanism behind the influence of poverty on physical health.

  4. Unsupervised Spike Sorting Based on Discriminative Subspace Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separab...

  5. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  6. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyoung eHan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognitionmodel, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN, whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. The HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a neuralnetwork implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement acombination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectificationis performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linearunits (ReLUs, whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of targetobject classes. This enables a number of functional enhancementsover neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation ofsaliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features,and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence.In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity totarget object classes and invariance. The resulting performance demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN.

  7. Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

  8. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  9. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  10. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  11. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  13. Face Recognition Using Kernel Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Linear Discrimiant Analysis (LDA) has demonstrated their success in face recognition. But LDA is difficult to handle the high nonlinear problems, such as changes of large viewpoint and illumination in face recognition. In order to overcome these problems, we investigate Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) for face recognition. This approach adopts the kernel functions to replace the dot products of nonlinear mapping in the high dimensional feature space, and then the nonlinear problem can be solved in the input space conveniently without explicit mapping. Two face databases are used to test KDA approach. The results show that our approach outperforms the conventional PCA(Eigenface) and LDA(Fisherface) approaches.

  14. Face Context Advantage Explained by Vernier and Separation Discrimination Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face-context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of vernier acuity judgements between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face-context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionaly, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  15. Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

    2012-01-01

    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  16. LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Russell S; DeLucia, Frank C; LaPointe, Aaron; Winkel, Raymond J; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2006-07-01

    The concept of utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology for landmine detection and discrimination has been evaluated using both laboratory LIBS and a prototype man-portable LIBS systems. LIBS spectra were collected for a suite of landmine casings, non-mine plastic materials, and "clutter-type" objects likely to be present in the soil of a conflict area or a former conflict area. Landmine casings examined included a broad selection of anti-personnel and anti-tank mines from different countries of manufacture. Other materials analyzed included rocks and soil, metal objects, cellulose materials, and different types of plastics. Two "blind" laboratory tests were conducted in which 100 broadband LIBS spectra were obtained for a mixed suite of landmine casings and clutter objects and compared with a previously-assembled spectral reference library. Using a linear correlation approach, "mine/no mine" determinations were correctly made for more than 90% of the samples in both tests. A similar test using a prototype man-portable LIBS system yielded an analogous result, validating the concept of using LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination.

  17. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  18. SEEDLING DISCRIMINATION USING SHAPE FEATURES DERIVED FROM A DISTANCE TRANSFORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik

    ). The method have been tested through a discrimination task where two similar plant species were to be divided into their respective classes. Since the LPFS feature set is meant to be used with a classification algorithm, the performance assessment is the classification accuracy of 4 different classifiers (k...... achieved discrimination accuracy with the LPFS feature set was 98.75 % and contained 10 numerical features. The SFS feature set achieved an accuracy of 87.1 % using 22 features. The results show the LPFS feature set can compete with the SFS feature set. Further testing is needed to reveal the true value...

  19. A Petrochemical Approach to Discrimination between Ortho—and Para—metamorphites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永泉

    1992-01-01

    There are a variety of approaches to the restoration of the primary rocks,but various discrimina-tion diagrams or functional formulae have a limit on their application and discrimination accuracy.On the basis of statistical analyses in conjunction with the advantages of various discrimination dia-grams,this paper presents a new functional discriminant:Dy=-2lgA+1gE-0.5lgF-2lgM+3lgC+5.5lgN+1.5lgK-Z.The above discriminant can be rewritten as :Dy=lg EC3N5.5K1.5/A2F0.5M2-Z This discriminant is not applicable to sedimentary rocks,particularly those enriched in Ca, and Mg rich ultrabasic rocks.In this study 1640 typical rock samples and 126 sedimentary (metasedimentary )rock samples and 126 volcanogenic iron ore samples were tested with the above described discriminant .The results obtained are satisfactory with the exception of feldspar sandstone.The discrimination rates for various types of rocks are in the range of 85-95% or more with a total discrimination rate of 91.7%.This paper analyzes the factors leading to wrong discrimination and also points out that coarse detrital rocks,weathered volcanic rocks,volcanic fine detrital rocks of two different material sources and Ca-rich sedimentary rocks are easy to suffer wrong discrimination.

  20. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  1. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.

  2. Discrimination analysis of mass spectrometry proteomics for ovarian cancer detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jun HONG; Xiao-dan WANG; David SHEN; Su ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:A discrimination analysis has been explored for the probabilistic classifica-tion of healthy versus ovarian cancer serum samples using proteomics data from mass spectrometry (MS).Methods:The method employs data normalization,clustering,and a linear discriminant analysis on surface-enhanced laser desorp-tion ionization (SELDI) time-of-flight MS data.The probabilistic classification method computes the optimal linear discriminant using the complex human blood serum SELDI spectra.Cross-validation and training/testing data-split experi-ments are conducted to verify the optimal discriminant and demonstrate the accu-racy and robustness of the method.Results:The cluster discrimination method achieves excellent performance.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive predic-tive values are above 97% on ovarian cancer.The protein fraction peaks,which significantly contribute to the classification,can be available from the analysis process.Conclusion:The discrimination analysis helps the molecular identities of differentially expressed proteins and peptides between the healthy and ovarian patients.

  3. Role of serotonin in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R G; Ho, B T

    1975-01-01

    Rats were trained to discriminate intraperitoneally administered mescaline from saline in a two-lever operant chamber for food reinforcement. Reward was contingent upon responses made greater than 15 sec apart (DRL-15) on the appropriate lever paired with either drug or saline administration. Following the establishment of discriminative response control by mescaline, the animals were tested for stimulus generalization produced by mescaline after: (a) blockade of periphreral and central serotonin (5-HT) receptors with cinanserin, methysergide, or cyproheptadine; (b) blockade of peripheral 5-HT receptors with xylamidine tosylate; and (c) depletion of brain 5-HT with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). The results show that all three central 5-HT antagonists greatly reduced the discriminability of mescaline while the peripheral antagonist, xylamidine tosylate, was without effect. Furthermore, these agents at the doses employed did not effect the discriminability of saline. Depletion of 5-HT with PCPA potentiated the effects of a sub-threshold dose of mescaline and slightly reduced the discriminability of saline. The results indicate that mescaline produces its discriminative stimulus properties by directly stimulating central serotonergic receptors.

  4. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz) and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i) were assessed on the performance on the O'Connor finger dexterity task and (ii) (in) a shape and size discrimination task. There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses). There was a significant reduction (P<0.001) in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness) as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001) was also observed. Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  5. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  6. The Impact of Interpersonal Discrimination and Stress on Health and Performance for Early Career STEM Academicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katharine R; McAbee, Samuel T; Hebl, Michelle R; Rodgers, John R

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination-stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians.

  7. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  9. The effects of visual degradation on face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Daphne L; Loffler, Gunter; Colquhoun, Kirsty; Bruce, Natalie; Dutton, Gordon N; Bach, Michael

    2011-05-01

    People with reduced visual acuity (VA) and/or contrast sensitivity have difficulty recognizing faces and facial expressions. We have quantified these difficulties, using a synthetic face discrimination task employing both normal and artificially degraded vision. VA and contrast thresholds were measured using an optimised staircase procedure [Freiburg acuity Test (FrACT)] in 25 young adults (aged 18-24 years) with corrected visual acuity of 0.0 logMAR or better and with four levels of vision degraded with Bangerter occlusion foils. For face discrimination, male face images were synthesised from 37 cardinal points (position of eyes, width of nose, head shape etc) derived from frontal face photographs and manipulated by altering the points as a fraction of the mean head radius. Face discrimination thresholds (% difference) were measured from a simultaneous four-alternative forced choice of 'odd one out' from three identical faces and one that differed. Psychometric functions were measured for four participants with normal and degraded vision. Subsequently, the difference between faces was fixed at twice the discrimination thresholds and the size of the faces manipulated using the FrACT threshold procedure in 25 participants. Data were converted to equivalent face discrimination distances for realistic face dimensions. With normal vision, face discrimination thresholds ranged from 2.7% to 5.6%; these increased systematically and were more variable with visual degradation. When manipulating face size, face discrimination distance was highly correlated with both acuity and contrast sensitivity (r(2) = 0.77 and 0.80 respectively, p discrimination distance was reduced to 3.9 m (3.7-4.1, ±S.E.M.). Poor face discrimination has a profound impact on real-life social communication. Here we report that artificial visual degradation also adversely impacts a synthetic face recognition task. As a rule of thumb, reduction in VA of 0.3 logMAR (halving the decimal VA) reduces the

  10. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  11. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not dis

  12. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  13. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  14. Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, May Ling; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Amodio, David M

    2013-02-01

    This study tested whether an immigrant mother's perception of ethnic and language-based discrimination affects the health of her child (indexed by the child's frequency of sick visits to the doctor, adjusting for well-visits), as a function of her ethnic-group attachment and length of U.S. residency. A community-based sample of 98 immigrant Dominican and Mexican mothers of normally developing 14-month-old children were interviewed. Mothers reported their perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination, degree of ethnic-group attachment, length of time in the United States, and frequency of their child's doctor visits for both illness and routine (healthy) exams. Among more recent immigrants, greater perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination were associated with more frequent sick-child visits, but only among those reporting low ethnic-group attachment. The associations between both forms of perceived discrimination and sick-child visits were not observed among mothers reporting high ethnic-group attachment. Among more established immigrants, perceived language-based discrimination was associated with more frequent sick-child visits regardless of ethnic-group attachment. These results suggest that a Latina mother's experience with ethnic and language-based discrimination is associated with her child's health, as indicated by doctor visits for illness, but that strong ethnic-group attachment may mitigate this association among recent immigrants.

  15. Phonetic discrimination of Persian vowels in children with severe hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ebrahimian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing-impairment leads to problems in language perception which in turn results in difficulties in language production. The present study investigated hearing-impaired children's ability to discriminate Persian vowels. It aimed to describe the extent to which children have difficulty comprehending and discriminating phonetic features of vowels.Methods: To fulfill this aim, a researcher-made test, which was based on the Auditory Perception Test 2001, investigated the phonetic discrimination of vowels in Persian-speaking and hearing-impaired children aged five to eight years. The test has two sections, auditory-visual and just auditory discrimination of vowels, which included five subtests assessing discrimination of front and back vowels. Through this test, the phonetic discrimination ability of 22 hearing-impaired children was evaluated. The gathered data were analyzed using matched t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.Results: The findings showed that there is a significant difference between correct responses to the sections on front and back vowels (p<0.05. The audio-visual test showed that the /â/ vowel is easier to discriminate than other back vowels. Moreover, in the auditory test the /â/ vowel had the highest mean. The audio-visual test showed that the /i/ vowel is easier to discriminate than the other front vowels (/e/ /æ/. However, the discrimination of front vowels in the auditory test was the same.Conclusion: The results revealed that back vowels were more easily discriminated than front vowels by hearing-impaired children.

  16. Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    M Anne George; Cherylynn Bassani; Robert W. Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence of perceived discrimination on the health and behaviour of ethnic minority immigrant children in British Columbia, Canada. Using data from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, we examine perceived discrimination experienced by the parent, family, and cultural group in Canada to test the influence of micro-, meso-, and macrolevels of discrimination on children. Families from 6 ethnic backgrounds participated in the study. Parents’ perceptions of the chil...

  17. Effects of peripheral auditory adaptation on the discrimination of speech sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Francisco

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates perceptual effects of discharge rate adaptation in the auditory-nerve fibers. Discrimination tests showed that brief synthetic stimuli with stationary formants and periodic source were better discriminated when they had an abrupt as opposed to a gradual onset (non-adapted vs adapted condition). This effect was not observed for corresponding stimuli with noise source. Discrimination among synthetic /da/ stimuli (abrupt onsets) was worse than among /ad/ stimuli when the ...

  18. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, S E; Shuker, D M; Pen, I; Duncan, A B; Choudhary, A; Batchelor, C M; West, S A

    2004-01-01

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This prediction arises because in haplodiploids, inbreeding (sib-mating) causes a mother to be relatively more related to her daughters than her sons. Here we formally model this prediction for when multiple females lay eggs in a patch, and test it with the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Our results show that females do not adjust their sex ratio behaviour dependent upon whether they mate with a sibling or nonrelative, in response to either direct genetic or a range of indirect environmental cues. This suggests that females of N. vitripennis cannot discriminate between kin and nonkin. The implications of our results for the understanding of sex ratio and social evolution are discussed.

  19. Neural network for exo-atmospheric target discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Cheryl L.

    1998-09-01

    In response to a threat missile, an interceptor missile with a kinetic warhead (KW) is launched with the intention of intercepting and killing the lethal reentry vehicle (RV) in the exo-atmosphere before it reaches its target. Data from an IR sensor on-board the KW is to be used to discriminate the RV from the other pieces in the field of view. A time-delay neural network (TDNN) is proposed for discrimination. A TDNN was trained using simulated data, and tested using simulated and flight data. The flight data includes IR signatures for RVs, boosters, and thrust termination debris. The TDNN is able to distinguish RVs from other missile parts and debris. This paper describes the performance of a TDNN for discrimination in ballistic missile defense when tested using flight data.

  20. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Discriminating acute from chronic human schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lílian; Van-Lüme, Daniele S M; Souza, Joelma R; Domingues, Ana L C; Favre, Tereza; Abath, Frederico G C; Montenegro, Silvia M L

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG and IgM) responses to different antigen targets (soluble eggs antigen--SEA, soluble worm adult protein--SWAP and keyhole limpet hole--KLH) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with acute and chronic schistosomiasis, as well as patients without schistosomiasis. SEA IgA and KLH IgM presented high discriminatory powers to distinguish acute from chronic schistosomiasis, with calculated areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.88 and 0.82, respectively, obtained from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. On the other hand, these tests, particularly SEA IgA were not useful to distinguish schistosomiasis (including the acute and chronic forms) from individuals without this disease, but infected with other intestinal parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). By contrast, SWAP IgG and SEA IgG were able to discriminate schistosomiasis patients from healthy individuals and patients infected with other parasites (AUCs of 0.96 and 0.85, respectively). Thus, it is possible to use a combination of serological tests, such as SEA IgA and SWAP IgG, to simultaneously establish the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and discriminate the acute from the chronic forms of the disease.

  2. Ethnic and Gender Discrimination in Recruitment: Experimental Evidence From Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmela Liebkind

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We ask (1 how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2 whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1, 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on the CVs of three bogus applicants from different ethnic groups (Finnish, Austrian and Polish and in a field experiment (Study 2, four test applicants (male and female Finns and Russians with equivalent CVs applied for 1,258 vacant jobs, addressing gender discrimination in relation to occupational gender stereotypes as well as ethnic discrimination. Together these studies cover both skilled (Study 1 and semi-skilled jobs (Study 2 and applicants from ethnic minority groups originating from within as well as outside the EU. Results show that majority group members are more likely to be hired compared to minority members (both Studies and that minority members from a higher status group are more likely to be hired than those from a lower status group (Study 1. Results also show that male applicants from the majority group were discriminated compared to women in occupations characterised as feminine, while Russian men faced recruitment discrimination compared to Russian women independently of the job’s gender stereotype (Study 2. Implications of recruitment discrimination based on ethnicity and gender are discussed.

  3. What causes the experience of discrimination in non-regular workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Hoon; Song, Jin-Ho; Koh, Tae Hwan; Paek, Do Myung; Park, Jong-Tae; Chun, HoSun

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination based on type of employment against non-regular workers is still a social issue. However, there are few studies on job factors that affect the discrimination experience in each type of employment or the association between discrimination and health impact indicators. This study examined occupational health characteristics according to discrimination experience and relating factors that affect discrimination experience. This study used the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (2014) provided by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. Among the 50,000 workers, 7731 non-regular wage workers were selected as study population. To examine differences in discrimination experience, we used a t-test on occupational risk factors, occupational stress, occupational characteristics, health impact indicators. To identify the factors that affected discrimination experience, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. The discrimination experience rate was significantly higher in male, aged less than 40 years old, above high school graduate than middle school graduate, higher wage level, shorter employment period and larger company's scale. As factors related to discrimination experience, they experienced discrimination more as occupational stress was higher and when they were temporary or daily workers rather than permanent workers, work patterns were not consistent, and the support of boss was low. It showed that physical, musculoskeletal, and mental occupational risk scores and subjective job instability were higher and work environment satisfaction was lower in discrimination experienced group. The present study showed that the demographic and occupational factors were complexly related to discrimination experience in non-regular workers. The experience of discrimination had increased when occupational stress was higher, they were temporary or daily workers rather than permanent workers, work patterns were not consistent, and their boss

  4. Utility of quantitative sensory testing and screening tools in identifying HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in Western Kenya: pilot testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Cettomai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to identify tools that accurately distinguish individuals with moderate/severe peripheral neuropathy and can be administered by non-physician healthcare workers (HCW in resource-constrained settings. METHODS: We enrolled a convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients from a Kenyan HIV-care clinic. A HCW administered the Neuropathy Severity Score (NSS, Single Question Neuropathy Screen (Single-QNS, Subjective Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Subjective-PNS, and Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Brief-PNS. Monofilament, graduated tuning fork, and two-point discrimination examinations were performed. Tools were validated against a neurologist's clinical assessment of moderate/severe neuropathy. RESULTS: The sample was 57% male, mean age 38.6 years, and mean CD4 count 324 cells/µL. Neurologist's assessment identified 20% (6/30 with moderate/severe neuropathy. Diagnostic utilities for moderate/severe neuropathy were: Single-QNS--83% sensitivity, 71% specificity; Subjective-PNS-total--83% sensitivity, 83% specificity; Subjective-PNS-max and NSS--67% sensitivity, 92% specificity; Brief-PNS--0% sensitivity, 92% specificity; monofilament--100% sensitivity, 88% specificity; graduated tuning fork--83% sensitivity, 88% specificity; two-point discrimination--75% sensitivity, 58% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Pilot testing suggests Single-QNS, Subjective-PNS, and monofilament examination accurately identify HIV-infected patients with moderate/severe neuropathy and may be useful diagnostic tools in resource-constrained settings.

  5. Hazard prediction discriminates between novice and experienced drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Crundall, D

    2016-01-01

    Typical hazard perception tests often confound multiple processes in their responses. The current study tested hazard prediction in isolation to assess whether this component can discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. A variant of the hazard perception test, based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique, found experienced drivers to outperform novices across three experiments suggesting that the act of predicting an imminent hazard is a crucial part of the hazard-...

  6. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  7. Quantitative T1 and proton density mapping with direct calculation of radiofrequency coil transmit and receive profiles from two-point variable flip angle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrexel, Simon; Reitz, Sarah C; Hof, Stephanie; Gracien, René-Maxime; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Zimmermann, Hilga; Droby, Amgad; Klein, Johannes C; Deichmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative T1 mapping of brain tissue is frequently based on the variable flip angle (VFA) method, acquiring spoiled gradient echo (GE) datasets at different excitation angles. However, accurate T1 calculation requires a knowledge of the sensitivity profile B1 of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit coil. For an additional derivation of proton density (PD) maps, the receive coil sensitivity profile (RP) must also be known. Mapping of B1 and RP increases the experiment duration, which may be critical when investigating patients. In this work, a method is presented for the direct calculation of B1 and RP from VFA data. Thus, quantitative maps of T1 , PD, B1 and RP can be obtained from only two spoiled GE datasets. The method is based on: (1) the exploitation of the linear relationship between 1/PD and 1/T1 in brain tissue and (2) the assumption of smoothly varying B1 and RP, so that a large number of data points can be fitted across small volume elements where B1 and RP are approximately constant. The method is tested and optimized on healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stimulus discriminability may bias value-based probabilistic learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, Heleen A.; Collins, Anne G. E.; Frank, Michael J.; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2017-01-01

    Reinforcement learning tasks are often used to assess participants’ tendency to learn more from the positive or more from the negative consequences of one’s action. However, this assessment often requires comparison in learning performance across different task conditions, which may differ in the relative salience or discriminability of the stimuli associated with more and less rewarding outcomes, respectively. To address this issue, in a first set of studies, participants were subjected to two versions of a common probabilistic learning task. The two versions differed with respect to the stimulus (Hiragana) characters associated with reward probability. The assignment of character to reward probability was fixed within version but reversed between versions. We found that performance was highly influenced by task version, which could be explained by the relative perceptual discriminability of characters assigned to high or low reward probabilities, as assessed by a separate discrimination experiment. Participants were more reliable in selecting rewarding characters that were more discriminable, leading to differences in learning curves and their sensitivity to reward probability. This difference in experienced reinforcement history was accompanied by performance biases in a test phase assessing ability to learn from positive vs. negative outcomes. In a subsequent large-scale web-based experiment, this impact of task version on learning and test measures was replicated and extended. Collectively, these findings imply a key role for perceptual factors in guiding reward learning and underscore the need to control stimulus discriminability when making inferences about individual differences in reinforcement learning. PMID:28481915

  9. Stimulus discriminability may bias value-based probabilistic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Iris; Slagter, Heleen A; Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J; Kenemans, J Leon

    2017-01-01

    Reinforcement learning tasks are often used to assess participants' tendency to learn more from the positive or more from the negative consequences of one's action. However, this assessment often requires comparison in learning performance across different task conditions, which may differ in the relative salience or discriminability of the stimuli associated with more and less rewarding outcomes, respectively. To address this issue, in a first set of studies, participants were subjected to two versions of a common probabilistic learning task. The two versions differed with respect to the stimulus (Hiragana) characters associated with reward probability. The assignment of character to reward probability was fixed within version but reversed between versions. We found that performance was highly influenced by task version, which could be explained by the relative perceptual discriminability of characters assigned to high or low reward probabilities, as assessed by a separate discrimination experiment. Participants were more reliable in selecting rewarding characters that were more discriminable, leading to differences in learning curves and their sensitivity to reward probability. This difference in experienced reinforcement history was accompanied by performance biases in a test phase assessing ability to learn from positive vs. negative outcomes. In a subsequent large-scale web-based experiment, this impact of task version on learning and test measures was replicated and extended. Collectively, these findings imply a key role for perceptual factors in guiding reward learning and underscore the need to control stimulus discriminability when making inferences about individual differences in reinforcement learning.

  10. Comparison of T1-weighted 2D TSE, 3D SPGR, and two-point 3D Dixon MRI for automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Faezeh; Machann, Jürgen; Martirosian, Petros; Bamberg, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Yang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare conventional T1-weighted 2D turbo spin echo (TSE), T1-weighted 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), and two-point 3D Dixon-VIBE sequences for automatic segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 3 Tesla by measuring and compensating for errors arising from intensity nonuniformity (INU) and partial volume effects (PVE). The body trunks of 28 volunteers with body mass index values ranging from 18 to 41.2 kg/m(2) (30.02 ± 6.63 kg/m(2)) were scanned at 3 Tesla using three imaging techniques. Automatic methods were applied to reduce INU and PVE and to segment VAT. The automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from all acquisitions were then statistically and objectively evaluated against the manually segmented (reference) VAT volumes. Comparing the reference volumes with the VAT volumes automatically segmented over the uncorrected images showed that INU led to an average relative volume difference of -59.22 ± 11.59, 2.21 ± 47.04, and -43.05 ± 5.01 % for the TSE, VIBE, and Dixon images, respectively, while PVE led to average differences of -34.85 ± 19.85, -15.13 ± 11.04, and -33.79 ± 20.38 %. After signal correction, differences of -2.72 ± 6.60, 34.02 ± 36.99, and -2.23 ± 7.58 % were obtained between the reference and the automatically segmented volumes. A paired-sample two-tailed t test revealed no significant difference between the reference and automatically segmented VAT volumes of the corrected TSE (p = 0.614) and Dixon (p = 0.969) images, but showed a significant VAT overestimation using the corrected VIBE images. Under similar imaging conditions and spatial resolution, automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from the corrected TSE and Dixon images agreed with each other and with the reference volumes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the signal correction methods and the similar accuracy of TSE and Dixon imaging for automatic volumetry of VAT at 3 Tesla.

  11. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.BEATTY; D.W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences.For example,the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey,predators versus non-predators,or mates of varying quality.Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful,we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously.Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception,signal evolution,and discrimination,and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals.While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive,it has not been experimentally tested in this context,and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments,or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies.Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a) the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients,and b) we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology,such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems.Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli - and to learn to distinguish between stimuli - when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously,even if the intervening time interval is short.

  12. 基于有限元方法的管道两点腐蚀研究%Research on Pipeline Two Point Corrosion Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪亮; 邓学敏; 魏宝明; 王立航

    2016-01-01

    通过对在役管道进行检测表明,机械损伤和腐蚀是导致油气管道发生失效的主要原因.腐蚀管道往往存在多处腐蚀缺陷,为了找到缺陷间相互独立的临界距离,针对西气东输二线的输气管道,根据圣维南定理选取了3000 mm长的管段,利用Ansys Workbench15.0软件,对含两点腐蚀缺陷的管段进行有限元分析.在管道运行压力为10 MPa的条件下,通过改变两缺陷的间距以及腐蚀深度,得到管段在不同条件下的等效应力.在同一腐蚀深度下,得到了两点腐蚀缺陷相互独立的临界值,根据失效准则确定了安全的缺陷范围,为判断管道是否处于危险状态提供了依据.%Through the testing showed that pipeline in service, mechanical damage and corrosion is a major cause of lead to oil and gas pipeline failure. Corrosion of pipelines often exist several corrosion defects, in order to find the independent critical distance between de-fects,according to the line two of west-east gas pipeline,according to the saint Venant the-orem to select the section length is 3000 mm, through Ansys Workbench15.0, corrosion defects of two section of the finite element analysis. Under the condition of pipeline opera-tion pressure is 10 MPa, by changing the distance between two defects and corrosion depth, the section under different conditions of equivalent stress. Under the same corrosion depth, got two critical corrosion defects value are independent of each other's, according to the de-fects of failure criteria to determine the safety range,provide the basis for judge whether pipe-line in danger.

  13. Detecting categorical perception in continuous discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, P.; Chládková, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for assessing categorical perception from continuous discrimination data. Until recently, categorical perception of speech has exclusively been measured by discrimination and identification experiments with a small number of repeatedly presented stimuli. Experiments by Rogers and

  14. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  15. Age, class and race discrimination: their interactions and associations with mental health among Brazilian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Luiz Bastos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although research on discrimination and health has progressed significantly, it has tended to focus on racial discrimination and US populations. This study explored different types of discrimination, their interactions and associations with common mental disorders among Brazilian university students, in Rio de Janeiro in 2010. Associations between discrimination and common mental disorders were examined using multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for confounders. Interactions between discrimination and socio-demographics were tested. Discrimination attributed to age, class and skin color/race were the most frequently reported. In a fully adjusted model, discrimination attributed to skin color/race and class were both independently associated with increased odds of common mental disorders. The simultaneous reporting of skin color/race, class and age discrimination was associated with the highest odds ratio. No significant interactions were found. Skin color/race and class discrimination were important, but their simultaneous reporting, in conjunction with age discrimination, were associated with the highest occurrence of common mental disorders.

  16. The Role of Symmetry in Infant Form Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Forty-eight four-month-old infants were tested in a habituation-dishabituation discrimination paradigm using vertically symmetrical, horizontally symmetrical, and asymetrical forms. Results suggest that babies respond to "goodness of organization" rather than to details unique to particular symmetrical patterns. (Author/RH)

  17. The Role of Automatic Obesity Stereotypes in Real Hiring Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerstrom, Jens; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether automatic stereotypes captured by the implicit association test (IAT) can predict real hiring discrimination against the obese. In an unobtrusive field experiment, job applications were sent to a large number of real job vacancies. The applications were matched on credentials but differed with respect to the applicant's…

  18. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  19. Odour identification and discrimination in Dutch adults over 45 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Verbaan, D.; Knol, D.L.; Hilten, van J.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to establish normative values for the two culture dependent components (odour identification and odour discrimination) of the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery in the Dutch population over 45 years of age, and to assess the influence of age and sex on olfactory

  20. Odour identification and discrimination in Dutch adults over 45 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Verbaan, D.; Knol, D.L.; Hilten, van J.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to establish normative values for the two culture dependent components (odour identification and odour discrimination) of the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery in the Dutch population over 45 years of age, and to assess the influence of age and sex on olfactory func

  1. Speech feature discrimination in deaf children following cochlear implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeson, Tonya R.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2002-05-01

    Speech feature discrimination is a fundamental perceptual skill that is often assumed to underlie word recognition and sentence comprehension performance. To investigate the development of speech feature discrimination in deaf children with cochlear implants, we conducted a retrospective analysis of results from the Minimal Pairs Test (Robbins et al., 1988) selected from patients enrolled in a longitudinal study of speech perception and language development. The MP test uses a 2AFC procedure in which children hear a word and select one of two pictures (bat-pat). All 43 children were prelingually deafened, received a cochlear implant before 6 years of age or between ages 6 and 9, and used either oral or total communication. Children were tested once every 6 months to 1 year for 7 years; not all children were tested at each interval. By 2 years postimplant, the majority of these children achieved near-ceiling levels of discrimination performance for vowel height, vowel place, and consonant manner. Most of the children also achieved plateaus but did not reach ceiling performance for consonant place and voicing. The relationship between speech feature discrimination, spoken word recognition, and sentence comprehension will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD Research Grant No. R01DC00064 and NIH/NIDCD Training Grant No. T32DC00012.

  2. Infant Discrimination of a Morphologically Relevant Word-Final Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Amano, Shigeaki; Werker, Janet F.

    2009-01-01

    Six-, 12-, and 18-month-old English-hearing infants were tested on their ability to discriminate nonword forms ending in the final stop consonants /k/ and /t/ from their counterparts with final /s/ added, resulting in final clusters /ks/ and /ts/, in a habituation-dishabituation, looking time paradigm. Infants at all 3 ages demonstrated an ability…

  3. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  4. 18 CFR 1302.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... § 1302.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of... otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance...

  5. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination...

  6. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2) A...

  7. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  8. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination under...

  9. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  10. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...

  11. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...

  12. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  13. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  14. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b) Specific...

  15. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  16. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  17. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  18. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...

  19. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  20. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...