WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-point discrimination test

  1. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  2. Two-point discrimination and kinesthetic sense disorders in productive age individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2016-06-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two-point discrimination (2PD) sense and kinesthetic sense dysfunctions in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients compared with a healthy group. The 2PD sense, muscle force, and kinesthetic differentiation (KD) of strength; the range of motion in radiocarpal articulation; and KD of motion were assessed. The 2PD sense assessment showed significantly higher values in all the examined fingers in the CTS group than in those in the healthy group (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in the percentage value of error in KD of pincer and cylindrical grip (p<0.01) as well as in KD of flexion and extension movement in the radiocarpal articulation (p<0.01) between the studied groups. There are significant differences in the 2PD sense and KD of strength and movement between CTS patients compared with healthy individuals.

  3. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds.

  4. Differences of Cutaneous Two-Point Discrimination Thresholds Among Students in Different Years of a Chiropractic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew B; Teh, Elaine; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E; Ying, Pee Kui

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there were differences in the two-point discrimination (2-PD) of fingers among students at different stages of a chiropractic program. This study measured 2-PD thresholds for the dominant and nondominant index finger and dominant and nondominant forearm in groups of students in a 4-year chiropractic program at the International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Measurements were made using digital calipers mounted on a modified weighing scale. Group comparisons were made among students for each year of the program (years 1, 2, 3, and 4). Analysis of the 2-PD threshold for differences among the year groups was performed with analysis of variance. The mean 2-PD threshold of the index finger was higher in the students who were in the higher year groups. Dominant-hand mean values for year 1 were 2.93 ± 0.04 mm and 1.69 ± 0.02 mm in year 4. There were significant differences at finger sites (P < .05) among all year groups compared with year 1. There were no significant differences measured at the dominant forearm between any year groups (P = .08). The nondominant fingers of the year groups 1, 2, and 4 showed better 2-PD compared with the dominant finger. There was a significant difference (P = .005) between the nondominant (1.93 ± 1.15) and dominant (2.27 ± 1.14) fingers when all groups were combined (n = 104). The results of this study demonstrated that the finger 2-PD of the chiropractic students later in the program was more precise than that of students in the earlier program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Preferred chewing side-dependent two-point discrimination and cortical activation pattern of tactile tongue sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Akiko; Ono, Takashi; Miyamoto, Jun J; Honda, Ei-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Moriyama, Keiji

    2009-10-12

    Although tactile feedback from the tongue should contribute to habitual chewing, it is unclear how the sensation of the tongue and its projection to the central nervous system differ with regard to the preferred chewing side (PCS). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether the sensory threshold of the tongue differed according to the side and (2) whether the pattern of hemispheric cortical activation by tactile tongue stimulation differed, with special attention to the PCS. Twelve healthy adults participated in the study. The PCS was determined with a mandibular kinesiograph. In the behavioral study, the mean thresholds for two-point discrimination (TPD) in the anterior, canine and posterior regions on both sides of the tongue, and those between PCS and non-PCS in each region were statistically compared. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging study, tactile stimulation was delivered to either side of the tongue with acrylic balls via a mandibular splint. The runs were measured with a T2*-weighted gradient echo-type echo planar imaging sequence in a 1.5T scanner. Activated voxel numbers in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were statistically compared. The threshold of TPD increased in the order of the anterior, canine and posterior regions. Moreover, this threshold was significantly smaller on the PCS than on the non-PCS in both the canine and posterior regions. Moreover, the number of activated voxels in S1 contralateral to the PCS was significantly greater than that in S1 contralateral to the non-PCS. The present study shows that the PCS is associated with asymmetric tactile sensation and cortical activation of the tongue. The sensory acuity of the tongue on the PCS may play an important role in functional coupling between the jaw and tongue to maximize the efficiency of chewing.

  6. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Psencik, Ivan; Cerveny, Vlastislav; Iversen, Einar; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S' and R' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  7. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  8. Cosmological model-independent test of ΛCDM with two-point diagnostic by the observational Hubble parameter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shu-Lei; Duan, Xiao-Wei; Meng, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at exploring the nature of dark energy (DE), we use forty-three observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) in the redshift range 0 measurements. The binning methods turn out to be promising and considered to be robust. By applying the two-point diagnostic to the binned data, we find that although the best-fit values of Omh^2 fluctuate as the continuous redshift intervals change, on average, they are continuous with being constant within 1 σ confidence interval. Therefore, we conclude that the ΛCDM model cannot be ruled out.

  9. Field evaluation of two point-of-care tests for syphilis among men who have sex with men, Verona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Antonella; Cordioli, Maddalena; Gios, Lorenzo; Del Bravo, Paola; Toskin, Igor; Peeling, Rosanna W; Blondeel, Karel; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kiarie, James; Ballard, Ronald; Mirandola, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe has recently increased. Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for syphilis can improve access to screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of two syphilis POCTs compared with laboratory tests among MSM. The study was undertaken in Verona, Italy. Asymptomatic MSM, potentially exposed to syphilis, were enrolled prospectively. The POCTs evaluated were SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 and Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm Assay on both serum and fingerprick blood. The results of the POCTs were read by the naked eye by two independent readers and their concordance assessed. A total of 289 MSM were enrolled in the study. Based on laboratory tests, 35 MSM (12.1%) were TPPA-positive alone and 16 (5.5%) were both Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR)-positive. The specificities of both POCTs were above 99% on both serum and fingerstick blood specimens, while sensitivities varied considerably. The sensitivity of the SD Bioline test was lower on fingerprick blood (51.4% and 54.3%, readers 1 and 2, respectively) compared with that on serum (80.0% and 82.9%). In contrast, the Chembio test exhibited similar sensitivity values for serum and fingerprick samples (57.7% and 64.0% on serum vs 65.4% and 69.2% on fingerprick for the treponemal component; 63.6% on both samples by both readers for the non-treponemal component). The positive predictive value ranged between 100% and 93.9% for the treponemal component of both syphilis POCTs, but was lower (76.3%-100%)%) for the non-treponemal component of the Chembio POCT. The negative predictive value surpassed 90% for both tests on both samples. The agreement between readers was very high (>99%). The diagnostic performance of the syphilis POCTs was lower than expected; however, considering the prevalence of syphilis among MSM, POCTs should be recommended to improve syphilis detection among MSM

  10. A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric B Chesnais

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997 with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013 in 5 endemic study sites in Africa.The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia. Data were analyzed with regard to % positivity, % agreement, and heterogeneity. Models evaluated potential effects of age, gender, and blood microfilaria (Mf counts in individuals and effects of endemicity and history of MDA at the village level as potential factors linked to higher sensitivity of the FTS. Lastly, we assessed relationships between CFA scores and Mf in pre- and post-MDA settings.Paired test results were available for 3,682 individuals. Antigenemia rates were 8% and 22% higher by FTS than by ICT in pre-MDA and in post-MDA sites, respectively. FTS/ICT ratios were higher in areas with low infection rates. The probability of having microfilaremia was much higher in persons with CFA scores >1 in untreated areas. However, this was not true in post-MDA settings.This study has provided extensive new information on the performance of the FTS compared to ICT in Africa and it has confirmed the increased sensitivity of FTS reported in prior studies. Variability in FTS/ICT was related in part to endemicity level, history of MDA, and perhaps to the medications used for MDA. These results suggest that FTS should be superior to ICT for mapping, for transmission assessment surveys, and for post-MDA surveillance.

  11. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the right and left index finger (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age and gender did not affect the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination while the limb side (left or right) affected the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination. The index finger is also more sensitive to moving rather static sensations.

  12. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  14. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    . It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does......This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  15. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  16. Testing for statistical discrimination in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; McGuire, Thomas G; Meredith, Lisa S

    2005-02-01

    To examine the extent to which doctors' rational reactions to clinical uncertainty ("statistical discrimination") can explain racial differences in the diagnosis of depression, hypertension, and diabetes. Main data are from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), a 1986 study conducted by RAND Corporation in three U.S. cities. The study compares the processes and outcomes of care for patients in different health care systems. Complementary data from National Health And Examination Survey III (NHANES III) and National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) are also used. Across three systems of care (staff health maintenance organizations, multispecialty groups, and solo practices), the MOS selected 523 health care clinicians. A representative cross-section (21,480) of patients was then chosen from a pool of adults who visited any of these providers during a 9-day period. We analyzed a subsample of the MOS data consisting of patients of white family physicians or internists (11,664 patients). We obtain variables reflecting patients' health conditions and severity, demographics, socioeconomic status, and insurance from the patients' screener interview (administered by MOS staff prior to the patient's encounter with the clinician). We used the reports made by the clinician after the visit to construct indicators of doctors' diagnoses. We obtained prevalence rates from NHANES III and NCS. We find evidence consistent with statistical discrimination for diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes, and depression. In particular, we find that if clinicians act like Bayesians, plausible priors held by the physician about the prevalence of the disease across racial groups could account for racial differences in the diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes. In the case of depression, we find evidence that race affects decisions through differences in communication patterns between doctors and white and minority patients. To contend effectively with inequities in health care, it is necessary to understand

  17. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  18. The KEEP Phone Discrimination Test. Technical Report No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth; And Others

    The urban, ethnically Hawaiian child typically experiences great difficulty in learning to read English. In order to determine whether phonological confusion is a source of dialectical interference, the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Phone Discrimination Test (KPDT) was developed for the one hundred twelve students in the KEEP school…

  19. Validity of the American Sign Language Discrimination Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Joseph H.; Samar, Vincent J.; Hauser, Peter C.; Garrison, Wayne M.; Searls, J. Matt; Sanders, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the most commonly taught languages in North America. Yet, few assessment instruments for ASL proficiency have been developed, none of which have adequately demonstrated validity. We propose that the American Sign Language Discrimination Test (ASL-DT), a recently developed measure of learners' ability to…

  20. Two-point model for divertor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1984-04-01

    Plasma transport along divertor field lines was investigated using a two-point model. This treatment requires considerably less effort to find solutions to the transport equations than previously used one-dimensional (1-D) models and is useful for studying general trends. It also can be a valuable tool for benchmarking more sophisticated models. The model was used to investigate the possibility of operating in the so-called high density, low temperature regime

  1. Discriminating tests of information and topological indices. Animals and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Elena V; Vidyuk, Maxim V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider 13 information and topological indices based on the distance in a molecular graph with respect to their discrimination power. The numerical results of discriminating tests on 3490528 trees up to 21 vertices are given. The indices of the highest sensitivity are listed on the set of 1528775 alkane trees. The discrimination powers of indices are also examined on the classes of 849285 hexagonal, 298382 square, and 295365 triangular simply connected animals. The first class of animals corresponds to the structural formulas of planar benzenoid hydrocarbons. The values of all indices were calculated for all classes of animals as well as for the united set of 1443032 animals. The inspection of the data indicates the great sensitivity of four information indices and one topological index.

  2. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  3. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2010-01-01

    as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard......Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...

  4. A Test of the Discrimination Account in Equivalence Class Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; McHugh, Louise A.; Whelan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An equivalence class is typically established when a subject is taught a set of interrelated conditional discriminations with physically unrelated stimuli and additional, untaught, conditional discriminations are then demonstrated. Interestingly, and perhaps counter-intuitively, the relations among the stimuli within such a class are not…

  5. Strategies to Test for Private Student Loan Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about private student loan discrimination, in contrast to the relatively developed research on discrimination in other credit markets such as mortgages and credit cards. The private student lending market can play a key role in responding to changes in the policy or economic environment, and many students and their families turn to…

  6. Discrimination of tenants with a visual impairment on the housing market: Empirical evidence from correspondence tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Van der Bracht, Koen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2016-04-01

    According to the social model of disability, physical 'impairments' become disabilities through exclusion in social relations. An obvious form of social exclusion might be discrimination, for instance on the rental housing market. Although discrimination has detrimental health effects, very few studies have examined discrimination of people with a visual impairment. We aim to study (1) the extent of discrimination of individuals with a visual impairment on the rental housing market and (2) differences in rates of discrimination between landowners and real estate agents. We conducted correspondence tests among 268 properties on the Belgian rental housing market. Using matched tests, we compared reactions by realtors and landowners to tenants with and tenants without a visual impairment. The results show that individuals with a visual impairment are substantially discriminated against in the rental housing market: at least one in three lessors discriminate against individuals with a visual impairment. We further discern differences in the propensity toward discrimination according to the type of lessor. Private landlords are at least twice as likely to discriminate against tenants with a visual impairment than real estate agents. At the same time, realtors still discriminate against one in five tenants with a visual impairment. This study shows the substantial discrimination against visually people with an impairment. Given the important consequences discrimination might have for physical and mental health, further research into this topic is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani

    2007-07-01

    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  8. Testing for time-based correlates of perceived gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory; Dobria, Lidia; McCoy, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Using a sample of 201 medical technologists (MTs) over a five-year period, this study extends initial findings on perceived gender discrimination (PGD) by Blau and Tatum (2000) by applying organizational justice variables and internal-external locus of control as hypothesized correlates of PGD. Three types of organizational justice were measured: distributive, procedural, and interactional. General relationships found include locus of control being related to PGD such that internals perceived lower PGD. Also, distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were negatively related to PGD. However, increasing the time interval between these correlates weakened their relationships. The relationship of interactional justice to PGD remained the most "resistant" to attenuation over time.

  9. Discriminative deep inelastic tests of strong interaction field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Reya, E.

    1979-02-01

    It is demonstrated that recent measurements of F 2 (x,Q 2 ) dx eliminate already all strong interaction field theories which do not include colored quarks as well as colored vector gluons. Detailed studies of scaling violations in F 2 (x,Q 2 ) cannot discriminate between a local gauge invariant theory (QCD) and one which has no local color gauge invariance, i.e. no triple-gluon coupling. This implies that all calculations on scaling violations done so far are insensitive to the gluon self-coupling, the latter might perhaps be delineated with future ep colliding beam facilities. (orig.) [de

  10. Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Hole, Arne Risa; Santos, Rita

    2011-07-01

    In 2008 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 89%, of those of male GPs. We estimate Oaxaca decompositions using OLS models of wages and 2SLS models of income and propose a set of new direct tests for within workplace gender discrimination. The direct tests are based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices with varying proportions of female GPs and with female or male senior partners. These tests provide only weak evidence for discrimination. We also propose a set of indirect tests for discrimination, including a comparison of a GP's actual income with the income they report as an acceptable reward for their job. The indirect tests provide no evidence for gender discrimination within practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two point function for a simple general relativistic quantum model

    OpenAIRE

    Colosi, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum theory of a simple general relativistic quantum model of two coupled harmonic oscillators and compute the two-point function following a proposal first introduced in the context of loop quantum gravity.

  12. Two-point entanglement near a quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Han-Dong

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we study the two-point entanglement S(i, j), which measures the entanglement between two separated degrees of freedom (ij) and the rest of system, near a quantum phase transition. Away from the critical point, S(i, j) saturates with a characteristic length scale ξ E , as the distance |i - j| increases. The entanglement length ξ E agrees with the correlation length. The universality and finite size scaling of entanglement are demonstrated in a class of exactly solvable one-dimensional spin model. By connecting the two-point entanglement to correlation functions in the long range limit, we argue that the prediction power of a two-point entanglement is universal as long as the two involved points are separated far enough

  13. Two-Point Codes for the Generalised GK curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barelli, Élise; Beelen, Peter; Datta, Mrinmoy

    2017-01-01

    completely cover and in many cases improve on their results, using different techniques, while also supporting any GGK curve. Our method builds on the order bound for AG codes: to enable this, we study certain Weierstrass semigroups. This allows an efficient algorithm for computing our improved bounds. We......We improve previously known lower bounds for the minimum distance of certain two-point AG codes constructed using a Generalized Giulietti–Korchmaros curve (GGK). Castellanos and Tizziotti recently described such bounds for two-point codes coming from the Giulietti–Korchmaros curve (GK). Our results...

  14. Discriminating chaotic and stochastic dynamics through the permutation spectrum test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, C. W., E-mail: Kulp@lycoming.edu [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Lycoming College, Williamsport, Pennsylvania 17701 (United States); Zunino, L., E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata—CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new heuristic symbolic tool for unveiling chaotic and stochastic dynamics: the permutation spectrum test. Several numerical examples allow us to confirm the usefulness of the introduced methodology. Indeed, we show that it is robust in situations in which other techniques fail (intermittent chaos, hyperchaotic dynamics, stochastic linear and nonlinear correlated dynamics, and deterministic non-chaotic noise-driven dynamics). We illustrate the applicability and reliability of this pragmatic method by examining real complex time series from diverse scientific fields. Taking into account that the proposed test has the advantages of being conceptually simple and computationally fast, we think that it can be of practical utility as an alternative test for determinism.

  15. Fitness testing as a discriminative tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, V A; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Ruiz, J R; Aranda, P; Tercedor, P; Delgado-Fernández, M; Ortega, F B

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to determine the ability of a set of physical fitness tests to discriminate between presence/absence of fibromyalgia (FM) and moderate/severe FM. The sample comprised 94 female FM patients (52 ± 8 years) and 66 healthy women (54 ± 6 years). We assessed physical fitness by means of the 30-s chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8-feet up and go, and 6-min walking tests. Patients were classified as having moderate FM if the score in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was FIQ was ≥70. FM patients and patients with severe FM performed worse in most of the fitness tests studied (P < 0.001). Except the back scratch test, all the tests were able to discriminate between presence and absence of FM [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.66 to 0.92; P ≤ 0.001], and four tests also discriminated FM severity (AUC = 0.62 to 0.66; P ≤ 0.05). The 30-s chair stand test showed the highest ability to discriminate FM presence and severity (AUC = 0.92, P < 0.001; and AUC = 0.66, P = 0.008, respectively), being the corresponding discriminating cutoffs 9 and 6 repetitions, respectively. Physical fitness in general, and particularly the 30-s chair stand test, is able to discriminate between women with FM from those without FM, as well as between those with moderate FM from their peers with severe FM. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Coping with perceived weight discrimination: testing a theoretical model for examining the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahlholz, J; Pabst, A; Riedel-Heller, S G; Luck-Sikorski, C

    2016-12-01

    The association between obesity and perceived weight discrimination has been investigated in several studies. Although there is evidence that perceived weight discrimination is associated with negative outcomes on psychological well-being, there is a lack of research examining possible buffering effects of coping strategies in dealing with experiences of weight discrimination. The present study aims to fill that gap. We examined the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and depressive symptoms and tested whether problem-solving strategies and/or avoidant coping strategies mediated this effect. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed representative cross-sectional data of n=484 German-speaking individuals with obesity (BMI⩾30 kg m -2 ), aged 18 years and older. Results revealed a direct effect of perceived weight discrimination on depressive symptoms. Further, the data supported a mediational linkage for avoidant coping strategies, not for problem-solving strategies. Higher scores of perceived weight discrimination experiences were associated with both coping strategies, but only avoidant coping strategies were positively linked to more symptoms of depression. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with increased depressive symptoms both directly and indirectly through situational coping strategies. Avoidant coping has the potential to exacerbate depressive symptoms, whereas problem-solving strategies were ineffective in dealing with experiences of weight discrimination. We emphasize the importance of coping strategies in dealing with experiences of weight discrimination and the need to distinguish between using a strategy and benefiting from it without detriment.

  17. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2017-01-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N -point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  18. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S., E-mail: otonhm@hotmail.com, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina PR (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N -point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  19. Quantum electrodynamics and light rays. [Two-point correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1978-11-01

    Light is a quantum electrodynamic entity and hence bundles of rays must be describable in this framework. The duality in the description of elementary optical phenomena is demonstrated in terms of two-point correlation functions and in terms of collections of light rays. The generalizations necessary to deal with two-slit interference and diffraction by a rectangular slit are worked out and the usefulness of the notion of rays of darkness illustrated. 10 references.

  20. Geometric convergence of some two-point Pade approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, G.

    1983-01-01

    The geometric convergences of some two-point Pade approximations are investigated on the real positive axis and on certain infinite sets of the complex plane. Some theorems concerning the geometric convergence of Pade approximations are proved, and bounds on geometric convergence rates are given. The results may be interesting considering the applications both in numerical computations and in approximation theory. As a specific case, the numerical calculations connected with the plasma dispersion function may be performed. (D.Gy.)

  1. Testing advances in molecular discrimination among Chinook salmon life histories: evidence from a blind test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, David P; Meusnier, Isabelle; Greig, Carolyn A; Rashbrook, Vanessa K; Ardren, William R; Smith, Christian T; Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Van Sickle, John; O'Malley, Kathleen G

    2014-06-01

    The application of DNA-based markers toward the task of discriminating among alternate salmon runs has evolved in accordance with ongoing genomic developments and increasingly has enabled resolution of which genetic markers associate with important life-history differences. Accurate and efficient identification of the most likely origin for salmon encountered during ocean fisheries, or at salvage from fresh water diversion and monitoring facilities, has far-reaching consequences for improving measures for management, restoration and conservation. Near-real-time provision of high-resolution identity information enables prompt response to changes in encounter rates. We thus continue to develop new tools to provide the greatest statistical power for run identification. As a proof of concept for genetic identification improvements, we conducted simulation and blind tests for 623 known-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to compare and contrast the accuracy of different population sampling baselines and microsatellite loci panels. This test included 35 microsatellite loci (1266 alleles), some known to be associated with specific coding regions of functional significance, such as the circadian rhythm cryptochrome genes, and others not known to be associated with any functional importance. The identification of fall run with unprecedented accuracy was demonstrated. Overall, the top performing panel and baseline (HMSC21) were predicted to have a success rate of 98%, but the blind-test success rate was 84%. Findings for bias or non-bias are discussed to target primary areas for further research and resolution. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Preliminary test of cigarette nicotine discrimination threshold in non-dependent versus dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Kunkle, Nicole; Karelitz, Joshua L; Perkins, K A; Kunkle, N; Karelitz, J L

    2017-06-01

    Despite its potential for understanding tobacco dependence, behavioral discrimination of nicotine via smoking has not been formally examined as a function of nicotine dependence level. Spectrum research cigarettes were used to compare non-dependent with dependent smokers on the lowest content of nicotine they could discriminate (i.e., "threshold"). Dependent (n=21; 16M, 5F) or non-dependent (n=7; 4M, 3F) smokers were tested on ability to discriminate between cigarettes with nicotine contents of 17, 11, 5, 2, and 1mg/g, one per session, from an "ultra-low" cigarette with 0.4mg/g (all had 9-10mg "tar"). All abstained from smoking overnight prior to sessions, and number of sessions was determined by the lowest nicotine content they could reliably discriminate from the ultra-low on >80% of trials (i.e., ≥5 of 6). Subjective perceptions and cigarette choice behavior were also assessed and related to discrimination behavior. Discrimination thresholds (and most perceptions) did not differ between dependent and non-dependent smokers, with median thresholds of 11mg/g for both subgroups. Yet, "liking" and puff choice for threshold cigarettes were greater in dependent but not non-dependent smokers, while cigarettes with nicotine contents below threshold did not support "liking" or choice in both groups. In sum, this preliminary study suggests threshold for discriminating nicotine via smoking may not vary by dependence level, and further study is needed to confirm that cigarettes unable to be discriminated are also not reinforcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tests of Racial Discrimination in a Simple Financial Market: Managers in Major League Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Paul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests for racial discrimination against minority managers in Major League Baseball using financial-market imbalances as it relates to the wagering marketplace for the sport. Using detailed betting data on the percentage bet on the favorite from Sports Insights, we test for prejudice against minority mangers using an ordinary least squares multiple regression model. The results reveal that bettors have a clear preference for the favored team as the percentage bet on the favorite increases with the odds on the favorite. In addition, they prefer road favorites by an even greater margin. In terms of minority managers, there is no evidence of discrimination against minorities. In fact, bettors prefer to wager on minority managers by a statistically significant margin when they are favorites. This finding suggests that either the participants in this financial marketplace are not prejudiced against minority managers or the financial incentives inherent in the market drive out discrimination against the minority managers.

  4. A two-point kinetic model for the PROTEUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van.

    1995-03-01

    A two-point reactor kinetic model for the PROTEUS-reactor is developed and the results are described in terms of frequency dependent reactivity transfer functions for the core and the reflector. It is shown that at higher frequencies space-dependent effects occur which imply failure of the one-point kinetic model. In the modulus of the transfer functions these effects become apparent above a radian frequency of about 100 s -1 , whereas for the phase behaviour the deviation from a point model already starts at a radian frequency of 10 s -1 . (orig.)

  5. Second feature of the matter two-point function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansella, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    We point out the existence of a second feature in the matter two-point function, besides the acoustic peak, due to the baryon-baryon correlation in the early Universe and positioned at twice the distance of the peak. We discuss how the existence of this feature is implied by the well-known heuristic argument that explains the baryon bump in the correlation function. A standard χ2 analysis to estimate the detection significance of the second feature is mimicked. We conclude that, for realistic values of the baryon density, a SKA-like galaxy survey will not be able to detect this feature with standard correlation function analysis.

  6. Two-point density correlations of quasicondensates in free expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, S.; Bücker, R.; Betz, T.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the two-point density correlation function of freely expanding quasicondensates in the weakly interacting quasi-one-dimensional (1D) regime. While initially suppressed in the trap, density fluctuations emerge gradually during expansion as a result of initial phase fluctuations present...... in the trapped quasicondensate. Asymptotically, they are governed by the thermal coherence length of the system. Our measurements take place in an intermediate regime where density correlations are related to near-field diffraction effects and anomalous correlations play an important role. Comparison...

  7. The massless two-loop two-point function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Weinzierl, S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the massless two-loop two-point function with arbitrary powers of the propagators and derive a representation from which we can obtain the Laurent expansion to any desired order in the dimensional regularization parameter ε. As a side product, we show that in the Laurent expansion of the two-loop integral only rational numbers and multiple zeta values occur. Our method of calculation obtains the two-loop integral as a convolution product of two primitive one-loop integrals. We comment on the generalization of this product structure to higher loop integrals. (orig.)

  8. Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Zitek, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT, but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. Methods: This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Results: Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5] and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5] for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2] and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]. The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5] and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]. Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV, which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the

  9. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  10. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmich, Okka; Bradley, David; Whelan, Robert; Mulrooney, Nicola; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Siobhan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects 50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige's syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1/61 (2%) control subjects, 27/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20/36; 56%), offspring (11/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  11. Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in professions: the case of English family doctors

    OpenAIRE

    H Gravelle; A Risa Hole

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 91%, of those of male GPs. We compare estimates of gender discrimination from Oaxaca decompositions using models of wages (income/hours), OLS and 2SLS models of income, and propensity score matching. We propose a new direct test for within workplace gender discrimination based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices in which all GPs are of the same gender with the differen...

  12. Interaction between two point-like charges in nonlinear electrostatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breev, A.I. [Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    We consider two point-like charges in electrostatic interaction within the framework of a nonlinear model, associated with QED, that provides finiteness of their field energy. We find the common field of the two charges in a dipole-like approximation, where the separation between them R is much smaller than the observation distance r: with the linear accuracy with respect to the ratio R/r, and in the opposite approximation, where R >> r, up to the term quadratic in the ratio r/R. The consideration proposes the law a + bR{sup 1/3} for the energy, when the charges are close to one another, R → 0. This leads to the singularity of the force between them to be R{sup -2/3}, which is weaker than the Coulomb law, R{sup -2}. (orig.)

  13. Interaction between two point-like charges in nonlinear electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breev, A. I.; Shabad, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    We consider two point-like charges in electrostatic interaction within the framework of a nonlinear model, associated with QED, that provides finiteness of their field energy. We find the common field of the two charges in a dipole-like approximation, where the separation between them R is much smaller than the observation distance r : with the linear accuracy with respect to the ratio R / r, and in the opposite approximation, where R≫ r, up to the term quadratic in the ratio r / R. The consideration proposes the law a+b R^{1/3} for the energy, when the charges are close to one another, R→ 0. This leads to the singularity of the force between them to be R^{-2/3}, which is weaker than the Coulomb law, R^{-2}.

  14. Fast and accurate computation of projected two-point functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    We present the two-point function from the fast and accurate spherical Bessel transformation (2-FAST) algorithm1Our code is available at https://github.com/hsgg/twoFAST. for a fast and accurate computation of integrals involving one or two spherical Bessel functions. These types of integrals occur when projecting the galaxy power spectrum P (k ) onto the configuration space, ξℓν(r ), or spherical harmonic space, Cℓ(χ ,χ'). First, we employ the FFTLog transformation of the power spectrum to divide the calculation into P (k )-dependent coefficients and P (k )-independent integrations of basis functions multiplied by spherical Bessel functions. We find analytical expressions for the latter integrals in terms of special functions, for which recursion provides a fast and accurate evaluation. The algorithm, therefore, circumvents direct integration of highly oscillating spherical Bessel functions.

  15. Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Gielen, Steffen [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    We discuss the path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.

  16. Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele, E-mail: calcagni@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: gielen@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: doriti@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2011-06-21

    The path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions is discussed, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology. Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.

  17. Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions is discussed, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology. Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.

  18. Two-point model for electron transport in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.; Guest, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport in EBT is simulated by a two-point model corresponding to the central plasma and the edge. The central plasma is assumed to obey neoclassical collisionless transport. The edge plasma is assumed turbulent and modeled by Bohm diffusion. The steady-state temperatures and densities in both regions are obtained as functions of neutral influx and microwave power. It is found that as the neutral influx decreases and power increases, the edge density decreases while the core density increases. We conclude that if ring instability is responsible for the T-M mode transition, and if stability is correlated with cold electron density at the edge, it will depend sensitively on ambient gas pressure and microwave power

  19. Two-point correlation function for Dirichlet L-functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolny, E.; Keating, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    The two-point correlation function for the zeros of Dirichlet L-functions at a height E on the critical line is calculated heuristically using a generalization of the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture for pairs of primes in arithmetic progression. The result matches the conjectured random-matrix form in the limit as E → ∞ and, importantly, includes finite-E corrections. These finite-E corrections differ from those in the case of the Riemann zeta-function, obtained in Bogomolny and Keating (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 1472), by certain finite products of primes which divide the modulus of the primitive character used to construct the L-function in question.

  20. Two-point correlation function for Dirichlet L-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E; Keating, J P

    2013-01-01

    The two-point correlation function for the zeros of Dirichlet L-functions at a height E on the critical line is calculated heuristically using a generalization of the Hardy–Littlewood conjecture for pairs of primes in arithmetic progression. The result matches the conjectured random-matrix form in the limit as E → ∞ and, importantly, includes finite-E corrections. These finite-E corrections differ from those in the case of the Riemann zeta-function, obtained in Bogomolny and Keating (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 1472), by certain finite products of primes which divide the modulus of the primitive character used to construct the L-function in question. (paper)

  1. Perceived Discrimination and Reported Delay of Pharmacy Prescriptions and Medical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Voils, Corrine I; Oddone, Eugene Z; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Friedman, Joëlle Y; Schulman, Kevin A; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Access to health care varies according to a person's race and ethnicity. Delaying treatment is one measure of access with important health consequences. OBJECTIVE Determine whether perceptions of unfair treatment because of race or ethnicity are associated with reported treatment delays, controlling for economic constraints, self-reported health, depression, and demographics. DESIGN Cross-sectional, observational study. PARTICIPANTS A randomly selected community sample of 181 blacks, 148 Latinos, and 193 whites in Durham County, NC. MEASUREMENTS A phone survey conducted in 2002 to assess discrimination, trust in medical care, quality of care, and access to care. Treatment delays were measured by whether or not a person reported delaying or forgoing filling a prescription and delaying or forgoing having a medical test/treatment in the past 12 months. Perceived discrimination was measured as unfair treatment in health care and as racism in local health care institutions. RESULTS The odds of delaying filling prescriptions were significantly higher (odds ratio (OR)=2.02) for persons who perceived unfair treatment, whereas the odds of delaying tests or treatments were significantly higher (OR=2.42) for persons who thought racism was a problem in health care locally. People with self-reported depression and people who reported not working had greater odds of delaying both types of care. CONCLUSIONS A prospective cohort study with both personal and macro measures of discrimination, as well as more refined measures of treatment delays, would help us better understand the relationship between perceived discrimination and treatment delays. PMID:16050850

  2. Reliability, construct and discriminative validity of clinical testing in subjects with and without chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, René; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    -retest reliability in people with and without chronic neck pain. Moreover, construct and between-group discriminative validity of the tests were examined. METHODS: Twenty-one participants with chronic neck pain and 21 asymptomatic participants were included. Intra- and inter-reliability were evaluated for the Cranio-Cervical...... Flexion Test (CCFT), Range of Movement (ROM), Joint Position Error (JPE), Gaze Stability (GS), Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test (SPNTT), and neuromuscular control of the Deep Cervical Extensors (DCE). Test-retest reliability was assessed for Postural Control (SWAY) and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) over......BACKGROUND: The reliability of clinical tests for the cervical spine has not been adequately evaluated. Six cervical clinical tests, which are low cost and easy to perform in clinical settings, were tested for intra- and inter-examiner reliability, and two performance tests were assessed for test...

  3. Two-point boundary correlation functions of dense loop models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexi Morin-Duchesne, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate six types of two-point boundary correlation functions in the dense loop model. These are defined as ratios $Z/Z^0$ of partition functions on the $m\\times n$ square lattice, with the boundary condition for $Z$ depending on two points $x$ and $y$. We consider: the insertion of an isolated defect (a and a pair of defects (b in a Dirichlet boundary condition, the transition (c between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, and the connectivity of clusters (d, loops (e and boundary segments (f in a Neumann boundary condition. For the model of critical dense polymers, corresponding to a vanishing loop weight ($\\beta = 0$, we find determinant and pfaffian expressions for these correlators. We extract the conformal weights of the underlying conformal fields and find $\\Delta = -\\frac18$, $0$, $-\\frac3{32}$, $\\frac38$, $1$, $\\tfrac \\theta \\pi (1+\\tfrac{2\\theta}\\pi$, where $\\theta$ encodes the weight of one class of loops for the correlator of type f. These results are obtained by analysing the asymptotics of the exact expressions, and by using the Cardy-Peschel formula in the case where $x$ and $y$ are set to the corners. For type b, we find a $\\log|x-y|$ dependence from the asymptotics, and a $\\ln (\\ln n$ term in the corner free energy. This is consistent with the interpretation of the boundary condition of type b as the insertion of a logarithmic field belonging to a rank two Jordan cell. For the other values of $\\beta = 2 \\cos \\lambda$, we use the hypothesis of conformal invariance to predict the conformal weights and find $\\Delta = \\Delta_{1,2}$, $\\Delta_{1,3}$, $\\Delta_{0,\\frac12}$, $\\Delta_{1,0}$, $\\Delta_{1,-1}$ and $\\Delta_{\\frac{2\\theta}\\lambda+1,\\frac{2\\theta}\\lambda+1}$, extending the results of critical dense polymers. With the results for type f, we reproduce a Coulomb gas prediction for the valence bond entanglement entropy of Jacobsen and Saleur.

  4. Development and Validation of Discriminating and Biorelevant Dissolution Test for Lornoxicam Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumolu, P D; Sunitha, G; Bindu, S Hima; Satheshbabu, P R; Subrahmanyam, C V S

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of biorelevant and discriminating dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility is a useful technique for qualitative forecasting of the in vivo behavior of formulations. It also characterizes the drug product performance in pharmaceutical development. Lornoxicam, a BCS class-II drug is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug of the oxicam class, has no official dissolution media available in the literature. The objective of present work was to develop and validate a discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablet dosage forms. To quantify the lornoxicam in dissolution samples, UV spectrophotometric method was developed using 0.01M sodium hydroxide solution as solvent at λma×376 nm. After evaluation of saturation solubility, dissolution, sink conditions and stability of lornoxicam bulk drug in different pH solutions and biorelevant media, the dissolution method was optimized using USP paddle type apparatus at 50 rpm rotation speed and 500 ml simulated intestinal fluid as discriminating and biorelevant dissolution medium. The similarity factor (f2) were investigated for formulations with changes in composition and manufacturing variations, values revealed that dissolution method having discriminating power and method was validated as per standard guidelines. The proposed dissolution method can be effectively applied for routine quality control in vitro dissolution studies of lornoxicam in tablets and helpful to pharmacopoeias.

  5. Tests on a digital neutron-gamma pulse shape discriminator with NE213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1981-01-01

    A technique using charge sensitive analog-to-digital converters to do neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination is reported. The converters are gated by short (135 ns) pulses so as to reduce pile-up and the timing is such that the slow and total light output from the scintillator are measured. Preliminary tests indicate that the system performs reasonably well but poorer than some reported analog systems employing gated integrators or cross-over techniques. (orig.)

  6. Hiring Discrimination on the Algerian Labour Market: an Assessment with Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Benhabib, Lamia; Adair, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present the results of a correspondence testing, designed to measure the effect of gender on the probability of obtaining a job interview in the region of Oran (Algeria). The experimental protocol consists in responding to job offers in the accounting profession with 300 fictitious applications from identical profiles of distinct gender. Against conventional wisdom, the analysis of gross and conditional discrimination reveals a marked favouritism towards female cand...

  7. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeier, N.P.

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au)

  8. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, N.P

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au) 1 tab., 51 ills., 29 refs.

  9. Two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Hoyos, Carlos; O'Bannon, Andy; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Probst, Jonas; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2017-03-01

    We develop the formalism of holographic renormalization to compute two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model. The model describes a (0 + 1)-dimensional impurity spin of a gauged SU( N ) interacting with a (1 + 1)-dimensional, large- N , strongly-coupled Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We describe the impurity using Abrikosov pseudo-fermions, and define an SU( N )-invariant scalar operator O built from a pseudo-fermion and a CFT fermion. At large N the Kondo interaction is of the form O^{\\dagger}O, which is marginally relevant, and generates a Renormalization Group (RG) flow at the impurity. A second-order mean-field phase transition occurs in which O condenses below a critical temperature, leading to the Kondo effect, including screening of the impurity. Via holography, the phase transition is dual to holographic superconductivity in (1 + 1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. At all temperatures, spectral functions of O exhibit a Fano resonance, characteristic of a continuum of states interacting with an isolated resonance. In contrast to Fano resonances observed for example in quantum dots, our continuum and resonance arise from a (0 + 1)-dimensional UV fixed point and RG flow, respectively. In the low-temperature phase, the resonance comes from a pole in the Green's function of the form - i2, which is characteristic of a Kondo resonance.

  10. Two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Hoyos, Carlos [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain); O’Bannon, Andy [STAG Research Centre, Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I 34136 Trieste (Italy); Probst, Jonas [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Wu, Jackson M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    We develop the formalism of holographic renormalization to compute two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model. The model describes a (0+1)-dimensional impurity spin of a gauged SU(N) interacting with a (1+1)-dimensional, large-N, strongly-coupled Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We describe the impurity using Abrikosov pseudo-fermions, and define an SU(N)-invariant scalar operator O built from a pseudo-fermion and a CFT fermion. At large N the Kondo interaction is of the form O{sup †}O, which is marginally relevant, and generates a Renormalization Group (RG) flow at the impurity. A second-order mean-field phase transition occurs in which O condenses below a critical temperature, leading to the Kondo effect, including screening of the impurity. Via holography, the phase transition is dual to holographic superconductivity in (1+1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. At all temperatures, spectral functions of O exhibit a Fano resonance, characteristic of a continuum of states interacting with an isolated resonance. In contrast to Fano resonances observed for example in quantum dots, our continuum and resonance arise from a (0+1)-dimensional UV fixed point and RG flow, respectively. In the low-temperature phase, the resonance comes from a pole in the Green’s function of the form −i〈O〉{sup 2}, which is characteristic of a Kondo resonance.

  11. Social Media Monitoring of Discrimination and HIV Testing in Brazil, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, René Clausen; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mello, Maeve B; Paz, Josi; Pantin, Colin; Erkkola, Taavi

    2017-07-01

    Big data can be used to assess perceptions about public health issues. This study assessed social media data from Twitter to inform communication campaigns to promote HIV testing and reduce discrimination related to HIV/AIDS or towards key populations to the HIV epidemic, and its potential utility to evaluate such campaigns through HIV testing uptake. Tweets from Brazil were collected from January 2014 to March 2015 and filtered by four categories of keywords including discrimination, HIV prevention, HIV testing, and HIV campaigns. In total over 100,000 geo-located tweets were extracted and analyzed. A dynamic online dashboard updated daily allowed mapping trends, anomalies and influencers, and enabled its use for feedback to campaigns, including correcting misconceptions. These results encourage the use of social networking data for improved messaging in campaigns. Clinical HIV test data was collected monthly from the city of Curitiba and compared to the number of tweets mapped to the city showing a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.39). Results are limited due to the availability of the HIV testing data. The potential of social media as a proxy for HIV testing uptake needs further validation, which can only be done with higher frequency and higher spatial granularity of service delivery data, enabling comparisons with the social media data. Such timely information could empower early response immediate media messaging to support programmatic efforts, such as HIV prevention, testing, and treatment scale up.

  12. An integral constraint for the evolution of the galaxy two-point correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, P.J.E.; Groth, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Under some conditions an integral over the galaxy two-point correlation function, xi(x,t), evolves with the expansion of the universe in a simple manner easily computed from linear perturbation theory.This provides a useful constraint on the possible evolution of xi(x,t) itself. We test the integral constraint with both an analytic model and numerical N-body simulations for the evolution of irregularities in an expanding universe. Some applications are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. General discrimination technique to determine between earthquake and nuclear test with seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashillah Baharuddin; Alawiah Musa; Roslan Mohd Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was developed to ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion moreover will restrict the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. The Treaty provides for a comprehensive global verification regime, which includes an International Monitoring System (IMS). The IMS comprises a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories that monitor the Earth for evidence of nuclear explosions, which cover underground, underwater and atmosphere environments. Presently, Malaysia receives seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide data from the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBT. In order to maximise the use of the data for the purposes of the CTBT, the Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing capability to analyse the data in order to detect nuclear weapon test, with an initial focus on the seismic data. Through the CTBT IMS, seismic data is constantly being obtained to monitor and detect nuclear explosions. However, in the process, other natural and man-made activities that generate seismic waves, especially earthquakes and large man-made explosions, are also detectable through the IMS, and need to be differentiated and discriminated before any nuclear explosions can be identified. The detection capability by using seismological methods was proven through simulated explosion tests at selected nuclear weapon test sites. This is supported by data previously collected from a total of 2089 nuclear weapon tests that have been carried out globally, out of which 1567 were underground, 514 in the atmosphere, including outer space, and 8 underwater. The discrimination of seismic data to detect nuclear explosions from natural earthquake and explosions can be undertaken through the identification of the epicentre location, hypocentre depth, magnitude and short-period discrimination of the seismic events. (Author)

  14. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  15. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist

  16. Objective Tests and Their Discriminating Power in Business Courses: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornachione Jr.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating students’ learning experiences outcomes cannot be considered a simple task. This paper aims at investigating students’ overall performance and the discriminating power of particular tests’ items in the context of business courses. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with this issue while analyzing it, with scientific approach, from an accounting information systems standpoint: two experiments based on a database management system (DBMS undergraduate course, involving 66 and 62 students (experiments E1 and E2, respectively. The discriminant analysis generated discriminant functions with high canonical correlations (E1=0.898 and E2= 0.789. As a result, high percentages of original grouped cases were correctly classified (E1=98.5% and E2= 95.2% based on a relatively small number of items: 7 out of 22 items from E1 (multiple-choice, and 3 out of 6 from E2 (short-answer. So, with only a few items from the analyzed instruments it is possible todiscriminate “good” or “bad” academic performance, and this is a measure of quality of the observed testing instruments. According to these findings, especially in business area, instructors and institutions, together, are able to analyze and act towards improving their assessment methods, to be of minimum influence whileevaluating students’ performance.

  17. Testing Event Discrimination over Broad Regions using the Historical Borovoye Observatory Explosion Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Ford, Sean R.; Walter, William R.

    2014-03-01

    We test the performance of high-frequency regional P/S discriminants to differentiate between earthquakes and explosions at test sites and over broad regions using a historical dataset of explosions recorded at the Borovoye Observatory in Kazakhstan. We compare these explosions to modern recordings of earthquakes at the same location. We then evaluate the separation of the two types of events using the raw measurements and those where the amplitudes are corrected for 1-D and 2-D attenuation structure. We find that high-frequency P/S amplitudes can reliably identify earthquakes and explosions, and that the discriminant is applicable over broad regions as long as propagation effects are properly accounted for. Lateral attenuation corrections provide the largest improvement in the 2-4 Hz band, the use of which may successfully enable the identification of smaller, distant events that have lower signal-to-noise at higher frequencies. We also find variations in P/S ratios among the three main nuclear testing locations within the Semipalatinsk Test Site which, due to their nearly identical paths to BRVK, must be a function of differing geology and emplacement conditions.

  18. Orthopaedic nurses' knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Jennifer; Raley Noble, Deana; Kim, Son Chae

    2013-01-01

    : This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of education on knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination (2-PD) test among pediatric orthopaedic nurses. : A pre- and posttest study was done among 60 nurses attending 2-hour educational sessions. Neurovascular assessments with 2-PD test were performed on 64 casted pediatric patients by the nurses and 5 nurse experts before and after the educational sessions. : The mean neurovascular assessment knowledge score was improved at posteducation compared with the preeducation (p < .001). The 2-PD test interrater reliability also improved from Cohen's kappa value of 0.24-0.48 at posteducation. : The 2-hour educational session may be effective in improving nurses' knowledge and the interrater reliability of neurovascular assessment with 2-PD test.

  19. A discrimination-association model for decomposing component processes of the implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Luca; Robusto, Egidio; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale

    2013-06-01

    A formal model is proposed that decomposes the implicit association test (IAT) effect into three process components: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. Both response accuracy and reaction time are considered. Four independent and parallel Poisson processes, one for each of the four label categories of the IAT, are assumed. The model parameters are the rate at which information accrues on the counter of each process and the amount of information that is needed before a response is given. The aim of this study is to present the model and an illustrative application in which the process components of a Coca-Pepsi IAT are decomposed.

  20. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  1. Non-destructive Testing of Wood Defects Based on Discriminant Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshu LIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The defects of wood samples were tested by the technique of stress wave and ultrasonic technology, and the testing results were comparatively analyzed by using the Fisher discriminant analysis in the statistic software of SPSS. The differences of defect detection sensitivity and accuracy for stress wave and ultrasonic under different wood properties and defects were concluded. Therefore, in practical applications, according to different situations the corresponding wood non- destructive testing method should be used, or the two detection methods are applied at the same time in order to compensate for its shortcomings with each other to improve the ability to distinguish the timber defects. The results can provide a reference for further improvement of the reliability of timber defects detection.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Quantitative Sensory Testing to Discriminate Inflammatory Toothache and Intraoral Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    A differential diagnosis between inflammatory toothache (IT) and intraoral neuropathic pain is challenging. The aim of this diagnostic study was to quantify somatosensory function of subjects with IT (acute pulpitis) and atypical odontalgia (AO, intraoral neuropathic pain) and healthy volunteers and to quantify how accurately quantitative sensory testing (QST) discriminates an IT or AO diagnosis. The sample consisted of 60 subjects equally divided (n = 20) into 3 groups: (1) IT, (2) AO, and (3) control. A sequence of 4 QST methods was performed over the dentoalveolar mucosa in the apical maxillar or mandibular area: mechanical detection threshold, pain detection threshold (PDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal summation. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc analyses, and z score transformation were applied to the data. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio of the QST methods were calculated (α = 5%). Somatosensory abnormalities were found for the AO group, which is consistent with a low detection threshold to touch and pain and the presence of mechanical allodynia. For the IT group, no somatosensory abnormality was observed when compared with the control group. The most accurate QST to discriminate the diagnostic differences between IT and healthy individuals is the PDT. The diagnostic differences between AO and healthy individuals and between IT and AO are best discriminated with the mechanical detection threshold, PDT, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. The proposed QST methods may aid in the differential diagnosis between IT and AO with strong accuracy and may be used as complementary diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  4. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination

  5. A quantitative method for determining spatial discriminative capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Robert G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional two-point discrimination (TPD test, a widely used tactile spatial acuity measure, has been criticized as being imprecise because it is based on subjective criteria and involves a number of non-spatial cues. The results of a recent study showed that as two stimuli were delivered simultaneously, vibrotactile amplitude discrimination became worse when the two stimuli were positioned relatively close together and was significantly degraded when the probes were within a subject's two-point limen. The impairment of amplitude discrimination with decreasing inter-probe distance suggested that the metric of amplitude discrimination could possibly provide a means of objective and quantitative measurement of spatial discrimination capacity. Methods A two alternative forced-choice (2AFC tracking procedure was used to assess a subject's ability to discriminate the amplitude difference between two stimuli positioned at near-adjacent skin sites. Two 25 Hz flutter stimuli, identical except for a constant difference in amplitude, were delivered simultaneously to the hand dorsum. The stimuli were initially spaced 30 mm apart, and the inter-stimulus distance was modified on a trial-by-trial basis based on the subject's performance of discriminating the stimulus with higher intensity. The experiment was repeated via sequential, rather than simultaneous, delivery of the same vibrotactile stimuli. Results Results obtained from this study showed that the performance of the amplitude discrimination task was significantly degraded when the stimuli were delivered simultaneously and were near a subject's two-point limen. In contrast, subjects were able to correctly discriminate between the amplitudes of the two stimuli when they were sequentially delivered at all inter-probe distances (including those within the two-point limen, and improved when an adapting stimulus was delivered prior to simultaneously delivered stimuli. Conclusion

  6. Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter M C; Collins, Tom; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-06-15

    Modern psychometric theory provides many useful tools for ability testing, such as item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation. However, these techniques have yet to be integrated into mainstream psychological practice. This is unfortunate, because modern psychometric techniques can bring many benefits, including sophisticated reliability measures, improved construct validity, avoidance of exposure effects, and improved efficiency. In the present research we therefore use these techniques to develop a new test of a well-studied psychological capacity: melodic discrimination, the ability to detect differences between melodies. We calibrate and validate this test in a series of studies. Studies 1 and 2 respectively calibrate and validate an initial test version, while Studies 3 and 4 calibrate and validate an updated test version incorporating additional easy items. The results support the new test's viability, with evidence for strong reliability and construct validity. We discuss how these modern psychometric techniques may also be profitably applied to other areas of music psychology and psychological science in general.

  7. Discrimination and Well-being: Testing the differential source and Organizational Justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.

    2013-01-01

    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on

  8. Two-point concrete resistivity measurements: interfacial phenomena at the electrode–concrete contact zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, W J; Taha, H M; Suryanto, B; Starrs, G

    2015-01-01

    Ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to critically examine the end-to-end (two-point) testing technique employed in evaluating the bulk electrical resistivity of concrete. In particular, this paper focusses on the interfacial contact region between the electrode and specimen and the influence of contacting medium and measurement frequency on the impedance response. Two-point and four-point electrode configurations were compared and modelling of the impedance response was undertaken to identify and quantify the contribution of the electrode–specimen contact region on the measured impedance. Measurements are presented in both Bode and Nyquist formats to aid interpretation. Concretes mixes conforming to BSEN206-1 and BS8500-1 were investigated which included concretes containing the supplementary cementitious materials fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. A measurement protocol is presented for the end-to-end technique in terms of test frequency and electrode–specimen contacting medium in order to minimize electrode–specimen interfacial effect and ensure correct measurement of bulk resistivity. (paper)

  9. Testing of multidimensional tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams on fresh and altered rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Gómez M. Abdelaly

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated 55 multidimensional diagrams proposed during 2004-2013 for the tectonic discrimination of ultrabasic, basic, intermediate, and acid magmas. The Miocene to Recent rock samples for testing the diagrams had not been used for constructing them. Eighteen test studies (2 from ocean island; 2 from ocean island/continental rift; 6 from continental rift; 4 from continental arc; 2 from island arc; 1 from mid-ocean ridge, and 1 from collision of relatively fresh rocks fully confirmed the satisfactory functioning of these diagrams for all tectonic fields for which they were proposed. Eight additional case studies on hydrothermally altered or moderately to highly weathered rocks were also presented to achieve further understanding of the functioning of these diagrams. For these rocks as well, the diagrams indicated the expected tectonic setting. We also show that for testing or using these diagrams the freely-available geochemistry databases should be used with caution but certainly after ascertaining the correct magma types to select the appropriate diagram sets. The results encourage us to recommend these diagrams for deciphering the tectonic setting of older terranes or areas with complex or transitional tectonic settings.

  10. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease: discriminative validity and correlation with semantic memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A; Mortensen, E L; Gade, A; Waldemar, G

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score >22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS-cog memory test was equivalent in very mild AD. This may be because CCR did not tap more semantic processes, which are impaired in the earliest phases of AD, than a test of free recall.

  11. Reliability and fall experience discrimination of Cross Step Moving on Four Spots Test in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Shunsuke; Demura, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    To examine the reliability and fall experience discrimination of the Cross Step Moving on Four Spots Test (CSFT) and the relationship between CSFT and fall-related physical function. The reliability of the CSFT was examined in a test-retest format with the same tester. Fall history, fall risk, fear of falling, activities of daily living (ADL), and various physical parameters were measured for all participants. A community center and university medical school. Elderly community-dwelling subjects (N=533; 62 men, 471 women) aged 65 to 94 years living independently. Not applicable. Time to complete all the CSFT steps required, fall risk score, ADL score, and fall-related physical function (isometric muscle strength: toe grip, plantar flexion, knee extension, hip flexion, hand grip; balance: 1-leg standing time with eyes open, functional reach test using an elastic stick; and gait: 10-m maximal walking speed). The trial-to-trial reliability test indicated good reliability of the CSFT in both sexes (intraclass correlation coefficient =.833 in men, .825 in women). However, trial-to-trial errors increased with an increase in the CSFT values in both sexes. Significant correlations were observed between the CSFT values and scores for most fall-related physical function tests in both sexes. However, the correlation coefficient for all significant correlations was fall experience) revealed that the fall experience is a significant factor affecting CSFT values; values in fallers were significantly lower than those in nonfallers. The odds ratios in logistic regression analysis were significant in both sexes (men, 1.35; women, 1.48). As determined by the Youden index, the optimal cutoff value for identifying fall experience was 7.32 seconds, with an area under the curve of .676. The CSFT can detect fall experience and is useful in the evaluation of different fall-related physical functions including muscle strength, balance, and mobility. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of

  12. Spin-k/2-spin-k/2 SU(2) two-point functions on the torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Ingo; Kucharski, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a class of two-point functions on the torus of primary operators in the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model at integer level k. In particular, we construct an explicit expression for the current blocks of the spin-(k)/(2)-spin-(k)/(2) torus two-point functions for all k. We first examine the factorization limits of the proposed current blocks and test their monodromy properties. We then prove that the current blocks solve the corresponding Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-like differential equations using the method of Mathur, Mukhi and Sen.

  13. Spin-k/2-spin-k/2 SU(2) two-point functions on the torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Kucharski, Piotr [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    2012-11-15

    We discuss a class of two-point functions on the torus of primary operators in the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model at integer level k. In particular, we construct an explicit expression for the current blocks of the spin-(k)/(2)-spin-(k)/(2) torus two-point functions for all k. We first examine the factorization limits of the proposed current blocks and test their monodromy properties. We then prove that the current blocks solve the corresponding Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-like differential equations using the method of Mathur, Mukhi and Sen.

  14. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  15. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G

    2016-10-01

    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Verification of consumers' experiences and perceptions of genetic discrimination and its impact on utilization of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Taylor, Sandra D; Treloar, Susan A; Stranger, Mark; Otlowski, Margaret

    2009-03-01

    To undertake a systematic process of verification of consumer accounts of alleged genetic discrimination. Verification of incidents reported in life insurance and other contexts that met the criteria of genetic discrimination, and the impact of fear of such treatment, was determined, with consent, through interview, document analysis and where appropriate, direct contact with the third party involved. The process comprised obtaining evidence that the alleged incident was accurately reported and determining whether the decision or action seemed to be justifiable and/or ethical. Reported incidents of genetic discrimination were verified in life insurance access, underwriting and coercion (9), applications for worker's compensation (1) and early release from prison (1) and in two cases of fear of discrimination impacting on access to genetic testing. Relevant conditions were inherited cancer susceptibility (8), Huntington disease (3), hereditary hemochromatosis (1), and polycystic kidney disease (1). In two cases, the reversal of an adverse underwriting decision to standard rate after intervention with insurers by genetics health professionals was verified. The mismatch between consumer and third party accounts in three life insurance incidents involved miscommunication or lack of information provision by financial advisers. These first cases of verified genetic discrimination make it essential for policies and guidelines to be developed and implemented to ensure appropriate use of genetic test results in insurance underwriting, to promote education and training in the financial industry, and to provide support for consumers and health professionals undertaking challenges of adverse decisions.

  17. Teste de figuras para discriminação fonêmica: uma proposta Phoneme Discrimination Picture Test: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz dos Santos-Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Propor um teste que avaliasse a discriminação fonêmica por meio de pares mínimos, abrangendo todos os fonemas do Português Brasileiro e utilizando-os em palavras que possam ser facilmente representadas por figuras. Buscou-se que este teste contribua para o diagnóstico de alterações fonoaudiológicas e para a pesquisa científica. Procurou-se fazer um teste que fosse de fácil aplicação, podendo ser utilizado em qualquer local de trabalho dos fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se pares mínimos que opusessem fonemas em relação ao valor binário de cada traço distintivo e às combinações possíveis entre os traços de lugar ([labial], [coronal], [dorsal] bem como pelas oposições de estruturas silábicas. Criou-se figuras que representam as palavras dos pares. RESULTADOS: Elaborou-se o Teste de Figuras para Discriminação Fonêmica, que avalia a habilidade de discriminação fonêmica em crianças de quatro a oito anos. Este teste contém 40 apresentações, das quais 30 são pares mínimos e dez pares de palavras iguais. Nestas 30 apresentações, opôs-se os traços distintivos [+/- soante], [+/- aproximante], [+/- contínuo], [+/- voz], [coronal+/-ant], [labial] x [coronal], [dorsal] x [coronal] e [labial] x [dorsal]. Igualmente foram opostas as seguintes estruturas silábicas: V x CV, CV x CCV, CV x CVC. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os objetivos deste trabalho foram alcançados com êxito, pois o Teste de Figura para Discriminação Fonêmica contempla tudo a que se propôs. Acredita-se que o teste deva ser aplicado em um estudo piloto para averiguar se as palavras e as figuras estão adequadas para a faixa etária. Posteriormente, deve ser aplicado em diversas regiões do país para ser devidamente padronizado.PURPOSE: To propose a test to evaluate phonemic discrimination using minimum pairs, comprising all Brazilian Portuguese phonemes and using them in words which can be easily represented by pictures. The

  18. Testing odorant-receptor interaction theories in humans through discrimination of isotopomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andrione

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Odour reception takes place on the olfactory receptor neuron membrane, where molecular receptors interact with volatile odorant molecules. This interaction is classically thought to rely on chemical and structural features of the odorant, e.g. size, shape, functional groups. However, this model does not allow formulating a correct prediction for the smell of an odorant, suggesting that other molecular properties may play a role in the odour transduction process. An alternative model of olfaction maintains that odorant receptors can probe not only the structural and chemical features, but also the molecular vibration spectrum of the odorants. This constitutes the so-called vibration model of olfaction. According to this model, two isotopomers of the same molecule, i.e. two forms of the same molecule, one unaltered and one in which one or more hydrogen atoms are substituted with deuterium – which are therefore structurally and chemically identical, but with different molecular vibration spectra – would interact differently with an olfactory receptor, producing different olfactory perceptions in the brain. Here, we report on a duo-trio discrimination experiment conducted on human subjects, testing isotopomer pairs that have recently been shown to be differentially encoded in the honeybee brain.

  19. Performance, usability and comparison of two versions of a new macular vision test: the handheld Radial Shape Discrimination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Y. Ku

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Central vision, critical for everyday tasks such as reading and driving, is impacted by age-related changes in the eye and by diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The detection of changes in macular function is therefore important. The Radial Shape Discrimination (RSD test measures the threshold at which distortions in a radial frequency pattern can be detected and there is evidence that it is more sensitive to macular pathology than visual acuity (VA. It also provides a more quantitative measure of macular function than the commonly available Amsler grid. Recently, handheld versions of the test (hRSD in which stimuli are presented on mobile devices (e.g., Apple iPod Touch, iPhone have been developed. We investigated the characteristics of the hRSD test in healthy participants. Methods Data were collected using both three-alternative forced choice (3AFC and 4AFC versions of the hRSD test, presented on an Apple iPod Touch. For the 3AFC version, data from a single test session were available for 186 (72 male; mean ± SD age 42 ± 17y; range 16–90y healthy participants. Test-retest data were available for subgroups of participants (intra-session: N = 74; tests approximately 2 months apart: N = 30; tests 39 months apart: N = 15. The 3AFC and 4AFC versions were directly compared in 106 participants who also completed a usability questionnaire. Distance and near VA and Pelli Robson Contrast Sensitivity (CS data were collected and undilated fundoscopy performed on the majority of participants. Results Mean (±SD 3AFC hRSD threshold was −0.77 ± 0.14 logMAR, and was statistically significantly correlated with age (Pearson r = 0.35; p < 0.001. The linear regression of hRSD threshold on age had a slope of +0.0026 compared to +0.0051 for near VA (which also correlated with age: r = 0.51; p < 0.001. There were no statistically significant differences in hRSD thresholds for any of the test-retest subgroups. We

  20. The Persian version of auditory word discrimination test (P-AWDT) for children: Development, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Nassim; Ghorbani, Ali; Soleymani, Zahra; Kamali, Mohmmad; Ahmadi, Zohreh Ziatabar; Mahmoudian, Saeid

    2018-07-01

    Auditory discrimination of speech sounds is an important perceptual ability and a precursor to the acquisition of language. Auditory information is at least partially necessary for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules. There are few standardized behavioral tests to evaluate phonemic distinctive features in children with or without speech and language disorders. The main objective of the present study was the development, validity, and reliability of the Persian version of auditory word discrimination test (P-AWDT) for 4-8-year-old children. A total of 120 typical children and 40 children with speech sound disorder (SSD) participated in the present study. The test comprised of 160 monosyllabic paired-words distributed in the Forms A-1 and the Form A-2 for the initial consonants (80 words) and the Forms B-1 and the Form B-2 for the final consonants (80 words). Moreover, the discrimination of vowels was randomly included in all forms. Content validity was calculated and 50 children repeated the test twice with two weeks of interval (test-retest reliability). Further analysis was also implemented including validity, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency), age groups, and gender. The content validity index (CVI) and the test-retest reliability of the P-AWDT were achieved 63%-86% and 81%-96%, respectively. Moreover, the total Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency was estimated relatively high (0.93). Comparison of the mean scores of the P-AWDT in the typical children and the children with SSD revealed a significant difference. The results revealed that the group with SSD had greater severity of deficit than the typical group in auditory word discrimination. In addition, the difference between the age groups was statistically significant, especially in 4-4.11-year-old children. The performance of the two gender groups was relatively same. The comparison of the P-AWDT scores between the typical children

  1. Superior performance of constant-saltier-reference DTF and DTFM to same-different tests by consumers for discriminating products varying sodium contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Jin-Young; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2014-01-01

    Reducing sodium content in foods and beverages has become very important, and great efforts are being made to achieve this while maintaining overall taste/acceptance of food. This requires more robust sensory discrimination test methods in terms of operational power because discrimination tests u...

  2. Experimental tests of the new plastic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capabilities EJ-299-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, D., E-mail: davide.cester@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Stevanato, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pino, F. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-21

    We have studied the prototype of a new plastic scintillator material (EJ-299-33) engineered for gamma-neutron discrimination. Energy and time resolutions as well as pulse shape discrimination capability have been compared with those of standard plastic and liquid scintillators. EJ-299-33 characteristics are somewhat poorer compared to standard scintillators. However, results obtained with the new plastic material suggest its possible use in basic research (time-of-flight measurements) as well as in Homeland Security applications (neutron/gamma monitoring device)

  3. Is it possible to replace stimulus animals by scent-filled cups in the social discrimination test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; van der Horst, Klaske J; Baars, Annemarie M; Spruijt, Berry M

    2002-01-01

    A study in which the rat social discrimination test was refined is described. This test measures social memory by using, in general, juvenile rats as stimulus animals. Rats are offered a first juvenile to investigate (learning trial), and after a specified interval, the rats are offered the same rat and a second juvenile rat to investigate again (retrieval trial). When the rats sniff the second juvenile in the retrieval trial more than the first, social memory for the second juvenile is said to be present. This test is mainly based on scents from the juvenile. Attempts were made to refine the test to reduce the number of animals used, to enhance the scope of the test, and to improve its validity. Firstly, the stimulus animals were replaced by the scent of juveniles, in the form of cups filled with sawdust taken from cages of juvenile rats. Similar results to those in the original test were obtained when using these scents. Furthermore, male and female scents were tested, and showed the same results as for the juvenile scents. Secondly, rats were also given two cups (one scent-filled and one filled with plain sawdust) in the learning trial, to determine which allowed a more-precise delineation of motivational, discriminatory and memory components. Overall, it is possible to replace stimulus animals by scent-filled cups in the social discrimination test, to enhance the scope of the test, and to draw more-valid conclusions with respect to social memory.

  4. Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Deitz, Cori

    2015-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. An increasing number of research studies have investigated the mechanisms through which stigma-related stressors such as perceived discrimination are linked with adverse mental health outcomes for sexual minority populations. The integrative mediation framework proposed by Hatzenbuehler (2009) underscores the importance of identifying mediators in the association between stigma-related stressors and mental health outcomes. This study tested 3 mediators--expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion--in the perceived discrimination-distress link. Moreover, it examined associations among these mediators. A nationwide sample of 265 sexual minorities responded to an online survey. Structural equation modeling results supported the mediator roles of expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion. More specifically, perceived discrimination was associated with expectations of rejection, which, in turn, was associated with increased anger rumination and less self-compassion, resulting in greater psychological distress. The findings suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention with sexual minority individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated ...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation....

  6. Wage Growth and Job Mobility in the Early Career : Testing a Statistical Discrimination Model of the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Belley , Philippe; Havet , Nathalie; Lacroix , Guy

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the early career patterns of young male and female workers. It investigates potential dynamic links between statistical discrimination, mobility, tenure and wage profiles. The model assumes that it is more costly for an employer to assess female workers' productivity and that the noise/signal ratio tapers off more rapidly for male workers. These two assumptions yield numerous theoretical predictions pertaining to gender wage gaps. These predictions are tested using data f...

  7. Genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene and the need for protection from discrimination: an evolving legislative and social issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, L

    1998-04-01

    Genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene is available commercially and clinically. The information gained from this test impacts not only on the individual tested, but on family members as well. The test can offer an individual and their family the opportunity to gain valuable information about their risks of developing certain forms of inherited breast cancer and other inherited cancers. In addition to its emotional and psychological impact, this information is associated with significant social and economic issues. This includes the potential for denial, loss, or increased rates for health insurance as well as denial and loss of employment based on genetic test information. The risk for such discrimination can lead to fear of seeking testing and can discourage participation in and potential benefit from prevention, screening, and treatment programs. Therefore, misuse of this information carries significant risk for the individual being tested and for their family members. It is imperative that the potential benefits of genetic testing and genetic information be afforded to all without this risk and fear. In addition to protecting all individuals from genetic discrimination, there is a need to protect the confidentiality of genetic information and an individual's right to privacy. This article discusses protection currently available through legislation at the federal and state level, focusing on the experience in North Carolina in developing and passing a genetic antidiscrimination bill. Although progress has been made, troublesome issues still remain.

  8. Three- and two-point one-loop integrals in heavy particle effective theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzas, A.O.

    2000-01-01

    We give a complete analytical computation of three- and two-point loop integrals occurring in heavy particle theories, involving a velocity change, for arbitrary real values of the external masses and residual momenta. (orig.)

  9. Some exact results for the two-point function of an integrable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creamer, D.B.; Thacker, H.B.; Wilkinson, D.

    1981-02-01

    The two point correlation function for the quantum nonlinear Schroedinger (delta-function gas) model is studied. An infinite series representation for this function is derived using the quantum inverse scattering formalism. For the case of zero temperature, the infinite coupling (c → infinity) result of Jimbo, Miwa, Mori and Sato is extended to give an exact expression for the order 1/c correction to the two point function in terms of a Painleve transcendent of the fifth kind

  10. Solving fuzzy two-point boundary value problem using fuzzy Laplace transform

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Latif; Farooq, Muhammad; Ullah, Saif; Abdullah, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    A natural way to model dynamic systems under uncertainty is to use fuzzy boundary value problems (FBVPs) and related uncertain systems. In this paper we use fuzzy Laplace transform to find the solution of two-point boundary value under generalized Hukuhara differentiability. We illustrate the method for the solution of the well known two-point boundary value problem Schrodinger equation, and homogeneous boundary value problem. Consequently, we investigate the solutions of FBVPs under as a ne...

  11. Two-Point Incremental Forming with Partial Die: Theory and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. B.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a new level of understanding of two-point incremental forming (TPIF) with partial die by means of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation. The theoretical developments include an innovative extension of the analytical model for rotational symmetric single point incremental forming (SPIF), originally developed by the authors, to address the influence of the major operating parameters of TPIF and to successfully explain the differences in formability between SPIF and TPIF. The experimental work comprised the mechanical characterization of the material and the determination of its formability limits at necking and fracture by means of circle grid analysis and benchmark incremental sheet forming tests. Results show the adequacy of the proposed analytical model to handle the deformation mechanics of SPIF and TPIF with partial die and demonstrate that neck formation is suppressed in TPIF, so that traditional forming limit curves are inapplicable to describe failure and must be replaced by fracture forming limits derived from ductile damage mechanics. The overall geometric accuracy of sheet metal parts produced by TPIF with partial die is found to be better than that of parts fabricated by SPIF due to smaller elastic recovery upon unloading.

  12. Assessing The Representative And Discriminative Ability Of Test Environments For Rice Breeding In Malaysia Using GGE Biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of outstanding rice genotype for target environments is complicated by genotype environment interactions. Using genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction GGE Biplot software fifteen rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations representing the major rice producing areas in peninsula Malaysia in two cropping seasons to i identify ideal test environment for selecting superior rice genotype and ii identify discriminative and representative ability of test locations. Genotypes locations years and genotypes by environment interaction effect revealed high significant difference P 0.01 for number of tillers per hill grains per panicle grain weight per hill and yield per hectare. Grain yield per hectare had a non-repeatable crossover pattern that formed a complex and single mega-environment. Based on the crossover pattern a set of cultivars were selected for the whole region on the merit of mean performance and their stability analysis. The tested environments were divided into two mega-environments. An ideal test environment that measures the discriminative and representative ability of test location reveal that environment Sekinchan SC is the best environment while Kedah KD and Penang PN can also be considered as favorable environment whereas Serdang SS and Tanjung Karang TK were the poorest locations for selecting genotypes adapted to the whole region. This study serves a reference for genotypes evaluation as well as identification of test locations for rice breeding in Malaysia.

  13. Public perceptions of self-harm: a test of an attribution model of public discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Emma; Townsend, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study applied Corrigan, Markowitz, Watson, Rowan, and Kubiak’s (2003) attribution model of public discrimination toward individuals with mental ill-health to explore public perceptions of self-harm—an underresearched topic, given the size and scale of the problem of self-harm.Participants (community-based adult sample, N=355, aged 18–67 years) were presented with 1 of 10, first-person, vignettes describing an episode of adolescent self-harm and comple...

  14. Two-point functions and logarithmic boundary operators in boundary logarithmic conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Yukitaka

    2004-01-01

    Amongst conformal field theories, there exist logarithmic conformal field theories such as c p,1 models. We have investigated c p,q models with a boundary in search of logarithmic theories and have found logarithmic solutions of two-point functions in the context of the Coulomb gas picture. We have also found the relations between coefficients in the two-point functions and correlation functions of logarithmic boundary operators, and have confirmed the solutions in [hep-th/0003184]. Other two-point functions and boundary operators have also been studied in the free boson construction of boundary CFT with SU(2) k symmetry in regard to logarithmic theories. This paper is based on a part of D. Phil. Thesis [hep-th/0312160]. (author)

  15. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  16. A discrimination task used as a novel method of testing decision-making behavior following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kris M; Vonder Haar, Cole; Hutsell, Blake A; Hoane, Michael R

    2012-10-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a multitude of deficits following injury. Some of the most pervasive in humans are the changes that affect frontally-mediated cognitive functioning, such as decision making. The assessment of decision-making behavior in rodents has been extensively tested in the field of the experimental analysis of behavior. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window following TBI, time-intensive operant paradigms are rarely incorporated into the battery of tests traditionally used, the majority of which assess motor and sensory functioning. The cognitive measures that are used are frequently limited to memory and do not account for changes in decision-making behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a simplified discrimination task that can assess deficits in decision-making behavior in rodents. For the task, rats were required to dig in cocoa-scented sand (versus unscented sand) for a reinforcer. Rats were given 12 sessions per day until a criterion level of 80% accuracy for 3 days straight was reached. Once the criterion was achieved, cortical contusion injuries were induced (frontal, parietal, or sham). Following a recovery period, the rats were re-tested on cocoa versus unscented sand. Upon reaching criterion, a reversal discrimination was evaluated in which the reinforcer was placed in unscented sand. Finally, a novel scent discrimination (basil versus coffee with basil reinforced), and a reversal (coffee) were evaluated. The results indicated that the Dig task is a simple experimental preparation that can be used to assess deficits in decision-making behavior following TBI.

  17. Some exact results for the two-point function of an integrable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creamer, D.B.; Thacker, H.B.; Wilkinson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The two-point correlation function for the quantum nonlinear Schroedinger (one-dimensional delta-function gas) model is studied. An infinite-series representation for this function is derived using the quantum inverse-scattering formalism. For the case of zero temperature, the infinite-coupling (c→infinity) result of Jimbo, Miwa, Mori, and Sato is extended to give an exact expression for the order-1/c correction to the two-point function in terms of a Painleve transcendent of the fifth kind

  18. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  19. Infinite-component conformal fields. Spectral representation of the two-point function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.; Tcholakov, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infinite-component conformal fields (with respect to the stability subgroup) are considered. The spectral representation of the conformally invariant two-point function is obtained. This function is nonvanishing as/lso for one ''fundamental'' and one infinite-component field

  20. Conservation laws for a system of two point masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibaut; Deruelle, Nathalie

    1981-01-01

    We study the symmetries of the generalized lagrangian of two point masses, in the post-post newtonian approximation of General Relativity. We deduce, via Noether's theorem, conservation laws for energy, linear and angular momentum, as well as a generalisation of the center-of-mass theorem [fr

  1. The finite temperature density matrix and two-point correlations in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhmann, Frank; Hasenclever, Nils P.; Seel, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    We derive finite temperature versions of integral formulae for the two-point correlation functions in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain. The derivation is based on the summation of density matrix elements characterizing a finite chain segment of length m. On this occasion we also supply a proof of the basic integral formula for the density matrix presented in an earlier publication.

  2. A New Numerical Algorithm for Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lihua; Wu, Boying; Zhang, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    We present a new numerical algorithm for two-point boundary value problems. We first present the exact solution in the form of series and then prove that the n-term numerical solution converges uniformly to the exact solution. Furthermore, we establish the numerical stability and error analysis. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Holographic two-point functions for 4d log-gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Niklas; Naseh, Ali; Zojer, Thomas

    We compute holographic one- and two-point functions of critical higher-curvature gravity in four dimensions. The two most important operators are the stress tensor and its logarithmic partner, sourced by ordinary massless and by logarithmic non-normalisable gravitons, respectively. In addition, the

  4. Generation of arbitrary two-point correlated directed networks with given modularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jie; Xiao Gaoxi; Wong, Limsoon; Fu Xiuju; Ma, Stefan; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce measures of correlation in directed networks and develop an efficient algorithm for generating directed networks with arbitrary two-point correlation. Furthermore, a method is proposed for adjusting community structure in directed networks without changing the correlation. Effectiveness of both methods is verified by numerical results.

  5. Maternal experiences with everyday discrimination and infant birth weight: a test of mediators and moderators among young, urban women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-02-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight persist within the USA. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between maternal everyday discrimination and infant birth weight among young, urban women of color as well as mediators (depressive symptoms, pregnancy distress, and pregnancy symptoms) and moderators (age, race/ethnicity, and attributions of discrimination) of this association. A total of 420 women participated (14-21 years old; 62 % Latina, 38 % Black), completing measures of everyday discrimination and moderators during their second trimester of pregnancy and mediators during their third trimester. Birth weight was primarily recorded from medical record review. Path analysis demonstrated that everyday discrimination was associated with lower birth weight. Depressive symptoms mediated this relationship, and no tested factors moderated this relationship. Given the association between birth weight and health across the lifespan, it is critical to reduce discrimination directed at young, urban women of color so that all children can begin life with greater promise for health.

  6. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent and discriminant validity of the Star Excursion Balance Test for military personnel with lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Maude; Moffet, Hélène; Bouyer, Laurent; Perron, Marc; Hébert, Luc J; Leblond, Jean

    2014-02-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) has frequently been used to measure motor control and residual functional deficits at different stages of recovery from lateral ankle sprain (LAS) in various populations. However, the validity of the measure used to characterize performance--the maximal reach distance (MRD) measured by visual estimation--is still unknown. To evaluate the concurrent validity of the MRD in the SEBT estimated visually vs the MRD measured with a 3D motion-capture system and evaluate and compare the discriminant validity of 2 MRD-normalization methods (by height or by lower-limb length) in participants with or without LAS (n = 10 per group). There is a high concurrent validity and a good degree of accuracy between the visual estimation measurement and the MRD gold-standard measurement for both groups and under all conditions. The Cohen d ratios between groups and MANOVA products were higher when computed from MRD data normalized by height. The results support the concurrent validity of visual estimation of the MRD and the use of the SEBT to evaluate motor control. Moreover, normalization of MRD data by height appears to increase the discriminant validity of this test.

  8. Effects of Test Level Discrimination and Difficulty on Answer-Copying Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Onder; Yormaz, Seha

    2018-01-01

    In this study Type I Error and the power rates of omega (?) and GBT (generalized binomial test) indices were investigated for several nominal alpha levels and for 40 and 80-item test lengths with 10,000-examinee sample size under several test level restrictions. As a result, Type I error rates of both indices were found to be below the acceptable…

  9. Performance test of passive radon–thoron discriminative detectors on environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how humidity, wind and ambient aerosols in air influence the detection responses of passive detectors. Two types of alpha track detectors based on a passive radon ( 222 Rn)–thoron ( 220 Rn) discriminative measurement technique were used: the Raduet and Radopot detectors that were developed and calibrated by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The initial experiment showed that the infiltration rate of 220 Rn onto sponges with a high air exchange rate for the Raduet detectors was one third lower than that onto filters for the Radopot detectors. Little distinct dependence on humidity was observed for the 222 Rn detection responses of both detectors. For 220 Rn, the detection responses of both detectors for the high air exchange rate seemed to decrease slightly at high humidity conditions. The 220 Rn detection responses of the Radopot detectors had little influence from wind speed. The 220 Rn detection responses of the Raduet detectors for the high air exchange rate seemed to decrease at low wind speeds. Furthermore, there was little difference between the detection responses in the presence and absence of ambient aerosol particles because the ambient aerosols were filtered out during their passive diffusion through the sponges and filters for the Raduet and Radopot detectors, respectively.

  10. Discrimination and well-being in organizations : Testing the differential power and organizational justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.

    2013-01-01

    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on

  11. Holographic two-point functions for Janus interfaces in the D1/D5 CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodaroli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Estes, John [Department of Physics, Long Island University,1 University Plaza, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Korovin, Yegor [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    This paper investigates scalar perturbations in the top-down supersymmetric Janus solutions dual to conformal interfaces in the D1/D5 CFT, finding analytic closed-form solutions. We obtain an explicit representation of the bulk-to-bulk propagator and extract the two-point correlation function of the dual operator with itself, whose form is not fixed by symmetry alone. We give an expression involving the sum of conformal blocks associated with the bulk-defect operator product expansion and briefly discuss finite-temperature extensions. To our knowledge, this is the first computation of a two-point function which is not completely determined by symmetry for a fully-backreacted, top-down holographic defect.

  12. Duality of two-point functions for confined non-relativistic quark-antiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbane, P.M.; Gasiorowicz, S.G.; Kaus, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analog to the scattering matrix describes the spectrum and high-energy behavior of confined systems. We show that for non-relativistic systems this S-matrix is identical to a two-point function which transparently describes the bound states for all angular momenta. Confined systems can thus be described in a dual fashion. This result makes it possible to study the modification of linear trajectories (originating in a long-range confining potential) due to short range forces which are unknown except for the way in which they modify the asymptotic behavior of the two point function. A type of effective range expansion is one way to calculate the energy shifts. 9 refs

  13. Mean density and two-point correlation function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lapparent, V.; Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of large-scale inhomogeneities on the determination of the mean number density and the two-point spatial correlation function were investigated for two complete slices of the extension of the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) redshift survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986). It was found that the mean galaxy number density for the two strips is uncertain by 25 percent, more so than previously estimated. The large uncertainty in the mean density introduces substantial uncertainty in the determination of the two-point correlation function, particularly at large scale; thus, for the 12-deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, the amplitude of the correlation function at intermediate scales is uncertain by a factor of 2. The large uncertainties in the correlation functions might reflect the lack of a fair sample. 45 references

  14. Existence and uniqueness for a two-point interface boundary value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhim Aitbayev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We obtain sufficient conditions, easily verifiable, for the existence and uniqueness of piecewise smooth solutions of a linear two-point boundary-value problem with general interface conditions. The coefficients of the differential equation may have jump discontinuities at the interface point. As an example, the conditions obtained are applied to a problem with typical interface such as perfect contact, non-perfect contact, and flux jump conditions.

  15. Two-point method uncertainty during control and measurement of cylindrical element diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Shalay, V. V.; Radev, H.

    2018-04-01

    The topic of the article is devoted to the urgent problem of the reliability of technical products geometric specifications measurements. The purpose of the article is to improve the quality of parts linear sizes control by the two-point measurement method. The article task is to investigate methodical extended uncertainties in measuring cylindrical element linear sizes. The investigation method is a geometric modeling of the element surfaces shape and location deviations in a rectangular coordinate system. The studies were carried out for elements of various service use, taking into account their informativeness, corresponding to the kinematic pairs classes in theoretical mechanics and the number of constrained degrees of freedom in the datum element function. Cylindrical elements with informativity of 4, 2, 1 and θ (zero) were investigated. The uncertainties estimation of in two-point measurements was made by comparing the results of of linear dimensions measurements with the functional diameters maximum and minimum of the element material. Methodical uncertainty is formed when cylindrical elements with maximum informativeness have shape deviations of the cut and the curvature types. Methodical uncertainty is formed by measuring the element average size for all types of shape deviations. The two-point measurement method cannot take into account the location deviations of a dimensional element, so its use for elements with informativeness less than the maximum creates unacceptable methodical uncertainties in measurements of the maximum, minimum and medium linear dimensions. Similar methodical uncertainties also exist in the arbitration control of the linear dimensions of the cylindrical elements by limiting two-point gauges.

  16. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077.xml

  17. A model for the two-point velocity correlation function in turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, A.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical expression is presented to approximate the equal-time, two-point, double-velocity correlation function in turbulent channel flow. To assess the accuracy of the model, we perform the spectral decomposition of the integral operator having the model correlation function as its kernel. Comparisons of the empirical eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with those constructed from direct numerical simulations data show good agreement. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077. xml

  19. Comparison of Optimization and Two-point Methods in Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Huang, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) is one of the soil hydraulic properties in which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Since, its measurement is unavoidable in study of environmental sciences i.e. investigation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and solute transport, in this study the attempt is to predict soil water retention curve from two measured points. By using Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method (two-point method) and an optimization method developed in this study on the basis of two points of SWRC, parameters of Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990) model (fractal dimension and air entry value) were estimated and then water content at different matric potentials were estimated and compared with their measured values (n=180). For each method, we used both 3 and 1500 kPa (case 1) and 33 and 1500 kPa (case 2) as two points of SWRC. The calculated RMSE values showed that in the Creswell and Paydar (1996) method, there exists no significant difference between case 1 and case 2. However, the calculated RMSE value in case 2 (2.35) was slightly less than case 1 (2.37). The results also showed that the developed optimization method in this study had significantly less RMSE values for cases 1 (1.63) and 2 (1.33) rather than Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method.

  20. Gauge-fixing parameter dependence of two-point gauge-variant correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, C.

    1996-01-01

    The gauge-fixing parameter ξ dependence of two-point gauge-variant correlation functions is studied for QED and QCD. We show that, in three Euclidean dimensions, or for four-dimensional thermal gauge theories, the usual procedure of getting a general covariant gauge-fixing term by averaging over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions leads to a nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence in gauge-variant two-point correlation functions (e.g., fermion propagators). This nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence modifies the large-distance behavior of the two-point correlation functions by introducing additional exponentially decaying factors. These factors are the origin of the gauge dependence encountered in some perturbative evaluations of the damping rates and the static chromoelectric screening length in a general covariant gauge. To avoid this modification of the long-distance behavior introduced by performing the average over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions, one can either choose a vanishing gauge-fixing parameter or apply an unphysical infrared cutoff. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari

    2011-01-01

    Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...

  2. Selecting participants when testing new drugs: the implications of age and gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Pamela R

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are rigorously tested for safety and efficacy prior to being licensed for use. During this testing process the archetypal research subject is a young male; women and older people are less frequently invited to participate. This is especially true at the early stages, but can also occur in the later phases of drug testing. This paper considers the reasons for the relative under-representation of these groups, and the legal implications of failing to include as research subjects the very types of people who will ultimately consume these drugs.

  3. A comparison of discriminant logistic regression and Item Response Theory Likelihood-Ratio Tests for Differential Item Functioning (IRTLRDIF) in polytomous short tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, María D; López-Martínez, María D; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Short scales are typically used in the social, behavioural and health sciences. This is relevant since test length can influence whether items showing DIF are correctly flagged. This paper compares the relative effectiveness of discriminant logistic regression (DLR) and IRTLRDIF for detecting DIF in polytomous short tests. A simulation study was designed. Test length, sample size, DIF amount and item response categories number were manipulated. Type I error and power were evaluated. IRTLRDIF and DLR yielded Type I error rates close to nominal level in no-DIF conditions. Under DIF conditions, Type I error rates were affected by test length DIF amount, degree of test contamination, sample size and number of item response categories. DLR showed a higher Type I error rate than did IRTLRDIF. Power rates were affected by DIF amount and sample size, but not by test length. DLR achieved higher power rates than did IRTLRDIF in very short tests, although the high Type I error rate involved means that this result cannot be taken into account. Test length had an important impact on the Type I error rate. IRTLRDIF and DLR showed a low power rate in short tests and with small sample sizes.

  4. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin......Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...

  5. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  6. Testing the discrimination and detection limits of WorldView-2 imagery on a challenging invasive plant target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. P.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Pracilio, G.; Brown, C.; Corner, R.; van Klinken, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    Invasive plants pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function globally, leading to costly monitoring and management effort. While remote sensing promises cost-effective, robust and repeatable monitoring tools to support intervention, it has been largely restricted to airborne platforms that have higher spatial and spectral resolutions, but which lack the coverage and versatility of satellite-based platforms. This study tests the ability of the WorldView-2 (WV2) eight-band satellite sensor for detecting the invasive shrub mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the north-west Pilbara region of Australia. Detectability was challenged by the target taxa being largely defoliated by a leaf-tying biological control agent (Gelechiidae: Evippe sp. #1) and the presence of other shrubs and trees. Variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores identified bands offering greatest capacity for discrimination were those covering the near-infrared, red, and red-edge wavelengths. Wavelengths between 400 nm and 630 nm (coastal blue, blue, green, yellow) were not useful for species level discrimination in this case. Classification accuracy was tested on three band sets (simulated standard multispectral, all bands, and bands with VIP scores ≥1). Overall accuracies were comparable amongst all band-sets (Kappa = 0.71-0.77). However, mesquite omission rates were unacceptably high (21.3%) when using all eight bands relative to the simulated standard multispectral band-set (9.5%) and the band-set informed by VIP scores (11.9%). An incremental cover evaluation on the latter identified most omissions to be for objects high mapping accuracy of objects >16 m2 allows application for mapping mesquite shrubs and coalesced stands, the former not previously possible, even with 3 m resolution hyperspectral imagery. WV2 imagery offers excellent portability potential for detecting other species where spectral/spatial resolution or coverage has been an impediment. New generation satellite

  7. Redundancy, Discrimination and Corruption in the Multibillion-Dollar Business of College Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Monica Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities require standardized entrance exams when making admissions decisions. Scores on these exams help determine if, when and where students will be allowed to pursue higher education. These scores are also used to determine eligibility for merit based financial aid. This testing persists even though half of the…

  8. Investigating discrimination model of the signals obtained by eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wache, G.; Rivenez, J.

    1986-01-01

    A software using an eddy current system controlled by a desk computer has been developed in order to separate a characteristic physical value among several parts. The numerical process involved uses multiparameter measurements done previously on significant parts belonging to the same class. The analysis presented deals with hardness testing of steel bolts in relation with heat-treatment, but other applications dealing with either micro structure check or defect investigation, could be done in the future by using a similar method

  9. A similarity hypothesis for the two-point correlation tensor in a temporally evolving plane wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D. W.; George, W. K.; Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis demonstrated that the governing equations for the two-point velocity correlation tensor in the temporally evolving wake admit similarity solutions, which include the similarity solutions for the single-point moment as a special case. The resulting equations for the similarity solutions include two constants, beta and Re(sub sigma), that are ratios of three characteristic time scales of processes in the flow: a viscous time scale, a time scale characteristic of the spread rate of the flow, and a characteristic time scale of the mean strain rate. The values of these ratios depend on the initial conditions of the flow and are most likely measures of the coherent structures in the initial conditions. The occurrences of these constants in the governing equations for the similarity solutions indicates that these solutions, in general, will only be the same for two flows if these two constants are equal (and hence the coherent structures in the flows are related). The comparisons between the predictions of the similarity hypothesis and the data presented here and elsewhere indicate that the similarity solutions for the two-point correlation tensors provide a good approximation of the measures of those motions that are not significantly affected by the boundary conditions caused by the finite extent of real flows. Thus, the two-point similarity hypothesis provides a useful tool for both numerical and physical experimentalist that can be used to examine how the finite extent of real flows affect the evolution of the different scales of motion in the flow.

  10. A priori bounds for solutions of two-point boundary value problems using differential inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidossich, G.

    1979-01-01

    Two point boundary value problems for systems of differential equations are studied with a new approach based on differential inequalities of first order. This leads to the following results: (i) one-sided conditions are enough, in the sense that the inner product is substituted to the norm; (ii) the upper bound exists for practically any kind of equations and boundary value problem if the interval is sufficiently small since it depends on the Peano existence theorem; (iii) the bound seems convenient when the equation has some singularity in t as well as when sigular problems are considered. (author)

  11. Use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of two-point boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, L. J.; Perlin, I. E.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of the two-point boundary value problem. The first part deals with the role of the Green's function in solving both linear and nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions and systems of such equations. The second part describes procedures for numerical construction of Green's functions and considers briefly the conditions for their existence. Finally, there is a description of some numerical experiments using nonlinear problems for which the known existence, uniqueness or convergence theorems do not apply. Examples here include some problems in finding rendezvous orbits of the restricted three body system.

  12. On application of the S-matrix two-point function to nuclear data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical model calculation using S-matrix two-point function (STF) was tried. The results were compared with those calculated with the Hauser-Feshbach formula (HF) with and without resonance level-width fluctuation corrections (WFC). The STF gave almost the same cross sections as calculated using Moldauer's degrees of freedom for the χ 2 -distributions (MCD). The effect of the WFC to the final states in continuum was also studied using the HF with WFC of the MCD and of Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD). The HF with the MCD is recommended for practical calculation of the cross sections. (orig.)

  13. Futures market efficiency diagnostics via temporal two-point correlations. Russian market case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytin, Mikhail; Kazantsev, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-point correlation technique, we study emergence of market efficiency in the emergent Russian futures market by focusing on lagged correlations. The correlation strength of leader-follower effects in the lagged inter-market correlations on the hourly time frame is seen to be significant initially (2009-2011) but gradually goes down, as the erstwhile leader instruments -- crude oil, the USD/RUB exchange rate, and the Russian stock market index -- seem to lose the leader status. An i...

  14. Two-point boundary value and Cauchy formulations in an axisymmetrical MHD equilibrium problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasiu, C.V.; Subbotin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present two equilibrium solvers for axisymmetrical toroidal configurations, both based on the expansion in poloidal angle method. The first one has been conceived as a two-point boundary value solver in a system of coordinates with straight field lines, while the second one uses a well-conditioned Cauchy formulation of the problem in a general curvilinear coordinate system. In order to check the capability of our moment methods to describe equilibrium accurately, a comparison of the moment solutions with analytical solutions obtained for a Solov'ev equilibrium has been performed. (author)

  15. Danish validation of sniffin' sticks olfactory test for threshold, discrimination, and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ovesen, Therese; Fernandes, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    to investigate external validity of international normative values to separate hyposmia from normosmia. METHODS: The study included 388 participants. The first step was a questionnaire study in which 238 adults rated their familiarity with 125 odor descriptors. In the second step, we evaluated the original...... in improvement of familiarity and rate of I, making the test valid for use in Denmark. Furthermore, the study found a large variation in T and D scores between different countries, which should be considered when using these scores to separate hyposmia and anosmia from normosmia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b...

  16. Assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores in the linear factor-analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere J. Ferrando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propuestas rigurosas y basadas en un modelo psicométrico para estudiar el impreciso concepto de "capacidad discriminativa" son escasas y generalmente limitadas a los modelos no-lineales para items binarios. En este artículo se propone un marco general para evaluar la capacidad discriminativa de las puntuaciones en ítems y tests que son calibrados mediante el modelo de un factor común. La propuesta se organiza en torno a tres criterios: (a tipo de puntuación, (b rango de discriminación y (c aspecto específico que se evalúa. Dentro del marco propuesto: (a se discuten las relaciones entre 16 medidas, de las cuales 6 parecen ser nuevas, y (b se estudian las relaciones entre ellas. La utilidad de la propuesta en las aplicaciones psicométricas que usan el modelo factorial se ilustra mediante un ejemplo empírico.

  17. Intrinsic strength of sodium borosilicate glass fibers by using a two-point bending technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikubo, Y; Yoshida, S; Sugawara, T; Matsuoka, J

    2011-01-01

    Flaws existing on glass surface can be divided into two types, extrinsic and intrinsic. Although the extrinsic flaws are generated during processing and using, the intrinsic flaws are regarded as structural defects which result from thermal fluctuation. It is known that the extrinsic flaws determine glass strength, but effects of the intrinsic flaws on the glass strength are still unclear. Since it is considered that the averaged bond-strength and the intrinsic flaw would affect the intrinsic strength, the intrinsic strength of glass surely depends on the glass composition. In this study, the intrinsic failure strain of the glass fibers with the compositions of 20Na 2 O-40xB 2 O 3 -(80-40x)SiO 2 (mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) were measured by using a two-point bending technique. The failure strength was estimated from the failure strain and Young's modulus of glass. It is elucidated that two-point bending strength of glass fiber decreases with increasing B 2 O 3 content in glass. The effects of the glass composition on the intrinsic strength are discussed in terms of elastic and inelastic deformation behaviors prior to fracture.

  18. Non-equilibrium scalar two point functions in AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keränen, Ville; Kleinert, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we discuss different versions of the AdS/CFT dictionary out of equilibrium. We show that the Skenderis-van Rees prescription and the “extrapolate” dictionary are equivalent at the level of “in-in” two point functions of free scalar fields in arbitrary asymptotically AdS spacetimes. In the second part of the paper, we calculate two point correlation functions in dynamical spacetimes using the “extrapolate” dictionary. These calculations are performed for conformally coupled scalar fields in examples of spacetimes undergoing gravitational collapse, the AdS 2 -Vaidya spacetime and the AdS 3 -Vaidya spacetime, which allow us to address the problem of thermalization following a quench in the boundary field theory. The computation of the correlators is formulated as an initial value problem in the bulk spacetime. Finally, we compare our results for AdS 3 -Vaidya to results in the previous literature obtained using the geodesic approximation and we find qualitative agreement.

  19. Non-equilibrium scalar two point functions in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keränen, Ville [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Kleinert, Philipp [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford OX1 4JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-22

    In the first part of the paper, we discuss different versions of the AdS/CFT dictionary out of equilibrium. We show that the Skenderis-van Rees prescription and the “extrapolate” dictionary are equivalent at the level of “in-in” two point functions of free scalar fields in arbitrary asymptotically AdS spacetimes. In the second part of the paper, we calculate two point correlation functions in dynamical spacetimes using the “extrapolate” dictionary. These calculations are performed for conformally coupled scalar fields in examples of spacetimes undergoing gravitational collapse, the AdS{sub 2}-Vaidya spacetime and the AdS{sub 3}-Vaidya spacetime, which allow us to address the problem of thermalization following a quench in the boundary field theory. The computation of the correlators is formulated as an initial value problem in the bulk spacetime. Finally, we compare our results for AdS{sub 3}-Vaidya to results in the previous literature obtained using the geodesic approximation and we find qualitative agreement.

  20. A two-point diagnostic for the H II galaxy Hubble diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    A previous analysis of starburst-dominated H II galaxies and H II regions has demonstrated a statistically significant preference for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with zero active mass, known as the Rh = ct universe, over Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) and its related dark-matter parametrizations. In this paper, we employ a two-point diagnostic with these data to present a complementary statistical comparison of Rh = ct with Planck ΛCDM. Our two-point diagnostic compares, in a pairwise fashion, the difference between the distance modulus measured at two redshifts with that predicted by each cosmology. Our results support the conclusion drawn by a previous comparative analysis demonstrating that Rh = ct is statistically preferred over Planck ΛCDM. But we also find that the reported errors in the H II measurements may not be purely Gaussian, perhaps due to a partial contamination by non-Gaussian systematic effects. The use of H II galaxies and H II regions as standard candles may be improved even further with a better handling of the systematics in these sources.

  1. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task" further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-07-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a series of test trials in order to contrast two timing models, Learning-to-Time (LeT) and Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET). The models made substantially different predictions particularly for the test trials in which the sample duration ranged from 1 s to 16 s and the choice keys were Green and Blue, the keys associated with the same 4-s samples: LeT predicted that preference for Green should increase with sample duration, a context effect, but SET predicted that preference for Green should not vary with sample duration. The results were consistent with LeT. The present study adds to the literature the finding that the context effect occurs even when the two basic discriminations are never combined in the same session.

  2. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  3. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R 2 =0.61 (MF

  4. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogo-Moreira H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Cogo-Moreira,1 Carolina Alves Ferreira Carvalho,2 Adriana de Souza Batista Kida,2 Clara Regina Brandão de Avila,2 Giovanni Abrahão Salum,3,5 Tais Silveira Moriyama,1,4 Ary Gadelha,1,5 Luis Augusto Rohde,3,5 Luciana Monteiro de Moura,1 Andrea Parolin Jackowski,1 Jair de Jesus Mari11Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Department of Hearing and Speech Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 5National Institute for Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescent, (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development, BrazilAim: To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE.Sample: A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age, who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA, and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools and Porto Alegre (22 schools that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856, from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44.Methods: Via Item Response Theory (IRT, the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7 were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses and discriminant (major depression diagnoses measures.Results: A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not

  5. Solving inverse two-point boundary value problems using collage coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, H.; Murdock, S.

    2006-08-01

    The method of collage coding, with its roots in fractal imaging, is the central tool in a recently established rigorous framework for solving inverse initial value problems for ordinary differential equations (Kunze and Vrscay 1999 Inverse Problems 15 745-70). We extend these ideas to solve the following inverse problem: given a function u(x) on [A, B] (which may be the interpolation of data points), determine a two-point boundary value problem on [A, B] which admits u(x) as a solution as closely as desired. The solution of such inverse problems may be useful in parameter estimation or determination of potential functional forms of the underlying differential equation. We discuss ways to improve results, including the development of a partitioning scheme. Several examples are considered.

  6. Comments on the comparison of global methods for linear two-point boundary value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boor, C.; Swartz, B.

    1977-01-01

    A more careful count of the operations involved in solving the linear system associated with collocation of a two-point boundary value problem using a rough splines reverses results recently reported by others in this journal. In addition, it is observed that the use of the technique of ''condensation of parameters'' can decrease the computer storage required. Furthermore, the use of a particular highly localized basis can also reduce the setup time when the mesh is irregular. Finally, operation counts are roughly estimated for the solution of certain linear system associated with two competing collocation methods; namely, collocation with smooth splines and collocation of the equivalent first order system with continuous piecewise polynomials

  7. Reconstruction of the 3D representative volume element from the generalized two-point correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staraselski, Y; Brahme, A; Inal, K; Mishra, R K

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first application of three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation microstructure reconstruction implemented for a representative volume element (RVE) to facilitate the microstructure engineering of materials. This has been accomplished by developing a new methodology for reconstructing 3D microstructure using experimental two-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The proposed methodology is based on the analytical representation of the generalized form of the two-point correlation function—the distance-disorientation function (DDF). Microstructure reconstruction is accomplished by extending the simulated annealing techniques to perform three term reconstruction with a minimization of the DDF. The new 3D microstructure reconstruction algorithm is employed to determine the 3D RVE containing all of the relevant microstructure information for accurately computing the mechanical response of solids, especially when local microstructural variations influence the global response of the material as in the case of fracture initiation. (paper)

  8. Asymptotic behaviour of two-point functions in multi-species models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol K. Kozlowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We extract the long-distance asymptotic behaviour of two-point correlation functions in massless quantum integrable models containing multi-species excitations. For such a purpose, we extend to these models the method of a large-distance regime re-summation of the form factor expansion of correlation functions. The key feature of our analysis is a technical hypothesis on the large-volume behaviour of the form factors of local operators in such models. We check the validity of this hypothesis on the example of the SU(3-invariant XXX magnet by means of the determinant representations for the form factors of local operators in this model. Our approach confirms the structure of the critical exponents obtained previously for numerous models solvable by the nested Bethe Ansatz.

  9. Implementation of the Two-Point Angular Correlation Function on a High-Performance Reconfigurable Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Kindratenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a parallel implementation of an algorithm for calculating the two-point angular correlation function as applied in the field of computational cosmology. The algorithm has been specifically developed for a reconfigurable computer. Our implementation utilizes a microprocessor and two reconfigurable processors on a dual-MAP SRC-6 system. The two reconfigurable processors are used as two application-specific co-processors. Two independent computational kernels are simultaneously executed on the reconfigurable processors while data pre-fetching from disk and initial data pre-processing are executed on the microprocessor. The overall end-to-end algorithm execution speedup achieved by this implementation is over 90× as compared to a sequential implementation of the algorithm executed on a single 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon microprocessor.

  10. The Nielsen identities for the two-point functions of QED and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, J.C.; Sasketchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK; Lavelle, M.J.; Steele, T.G.; Sasketchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK

    1995-01-01

    We consider the Nielsen identities for the two-point functions of full QCD and QED in the class of Lorentz gauges. For pedagogical reasons the identities are first derived in QED to demonstrate the gauge independence of the photon self-energy, and of the electron mass shell. In QCD we derive the general identity and hence the identities for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators. The explicit contributions to the gluon and ghost identities are calculated to one-loop order, and then we show that the quark identity requires that in on-shell schemes the quark mass renormalisation must be gauge independent. Furthermore, we obtain formal solutions for the gluon self-energy and ghost propagator in terms of the gauge dependence of other, independent Green functions. (orig.)

  11. Logarithmic two-point correlation functions from a z=2 Lifshitz model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingg, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Einstein-Proca action is known to have asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes as classical solutions. For dynamical exponent z=2, two-point correlation functions for fluctuations around such a geometry are derived analytically. It is found that the retarded correlators are stable in the sense that all quasinormal modes are situated in the lower half-plane of complex frequencies. Correlators in the longitudinal channel exhibit features that are reminiscent of a structure usually obtained in field theories that are logarithmic, i.e. contain an indecomposable but non-diagonalizable highest weight representation. This provides further evidence for conjecturing the model at hand as a candidate for a gravity dual of a logarithmic field theory with anisotropic scaling symmetry

  12. Two-point resistance of a resistor network embedded on a globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong; Essam, J W; Wu, F Y

    2014-07-01

    We consider the problem of two-point resistance in an (m-1) × n resistor network embedded on a globe, a geometry topologically equivalent to an m × n cobweb with its boundary collapsed into one single point. We deduce a concise formula for the resistance between any two nodes on the globe using a method of direct summation pioneered by one of us [Z.-Z. Tan, L. Zhou, and J. H. Yang, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 195202 (2013)]. This method is contrasted with the Laplacian matrix approach formulated also by one of us [F. Y. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37, 6653 (2004)], which is difficult to apply to the geometry of a globe. Our analysis gives the result in the form of a single summation.

  13. Solving Singular Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Using Continuous Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abu Arqub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the continuous genetic algorithm is applied for the solution of singular two-point boundary value problems, where smooth solution curves are used throughout the evolution of the algorithm to obtain the required nodal values. The proposed technique might be considered as a variation of the finite difference method in the sense that each of the derivatives is replaced by an appropriate difference quotient approximation. This novel approach possesses main advantages; it can be applied without any limitation on the nature of the problem, the type of singularity, and the number of mesh points. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy, applicability, and generality of the presented technique. The results reveal that the algorithm is very effective, straightforward, and simple.

  14. Analysis on signal properties due to concurrent leaks at two points in water supply pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent leak detection is an essential component of a underground water supply pipeline network such as a smart water grid system. In this network, numerous leak detection sensors are needed to cover all of the pipelines in a specific area installed at specific regular distances. It is also necessary to determine the existence of any leaks and estimate its location within a short time after it occurs. In this study, the leak signal properties and feasibility of leak location detection were investigated when concurrent leaks occurred at two points in a pipeline. The straight distance between the two leak sensors in the 100A sized cast-iron pipeline was 315.6 m, and their signals were measured with one leak and two concurrent leaks. Each leak location was described after analyzing the frequency properties and cross-correlation of the measured signals.

  15. Fast Computation of the Two-Point Correlation Function in the Age of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Andrew; Timlin, John

    2018-01-01

    We present a new code which quickly computes the two-point correlation function for large sets of astronomical data. This code combines the ease of use of Python with the speed of parallel shared libraries written in C. We include the capability to compute the auto- and cross-correlation statistics, and allow the user to calculate the three-dimensional and angular correlation functions. Additionally, the code automatically divides the user-provided sky masks into contiguous subsamples of similar size, using the HEALPix pixelization scheme, for the purpose of resampling. Errors are computed using jackknife and bootstrap resampling in a way that adds negligible extra runtime, even with many subsamples. We demonstrate comparable speed with other clustering codes, and code accuracy compared to known and analytic results.

  16. Analysis on signal properties due to concurrent leaks at two points in water supply pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sup [Dept. of Embedded Systems Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Intelligent leak detection is an essential component of a underground water supply pipeline network such as a smart water grid system. In this network, numerous leak detection sensors are needed to cover all of the pipelines in a specific area installed at specific regular distances. It is also necessary to determine the existence of any leaks and estimate its location within a short time after it occurs. In this study, the leak signal properties and feasibility of leak location detection were investigated when concurrent leaks occurred at two points in a pipeline. The straight distance between the two leak sensors in the 100A sized cast-iron pipeline was 315.6 m, and their signals were measured with one leak and two concurrent leaks. Each leak location was described after analyzing the frequency properties and cross-correlation of the measured signals.

  17. Mutual information as a two-point correlation function in stochastic lattice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Ulrich; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2013-01-01

    In statistical physics entropy is usually introduced as a global quantity which expresses the amount of information that would be needed to specify the microscopic configuration of a system. However, for lattice models with infinitely many possible configurations per lattice site it is also meaningful to introduce entropy as a local observable that describes the information content of a single lattice site. Likewise, the mutual information between two sites can be interpreted as a two-point correlation function which quantifies how much information a lattice site has about the state of another one and vice versa. Studying a particular growth model we demonstrate that the mutual information exhibits scaling properties that are consistent with the established phenomenological scaling picture. (paper)

  18. Applying inversion to construct planar, rational spirals that satisfy two-point G(2) Hermite data

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnosenko, A

    2010-01-01

    A method of two-point G(2) Hermite interpolation with spirals is proposed. To construct a sought for curve, the inversion is applied to an arc of some other spiral. To illustrate the method, inversions of parabola are considered in detail. The resulting curve is 4th degree rational. The method allows the matching of a wide range of boundary conditions, including those which require an inflection. Although not all G(2) Hermite data can be matched with a spiral generated from a parabolic arc, introducing one intermediate G(2) data solves the problem. Expanding the method by involving other spirals arcs is also discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility of the Two-Point Method for Determining the One-Repetition Maximum in the Bench Press Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Haff, Guy Gregory; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Rojas, Francisco Javier; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-09-05

    This study compared the concurrent validity and reliability of previously proposed generalized group equations for estimating the bench press (BP) one-repetition maximum (1RM) with the individualized load-velocity relationship modelled with a two-point method. Thirty men (BP 1RM relative to body mass: 1.08 0.18 kg·kg -1 ) performed two incremental loading tests in the concentric-only BP exercise and another two in the eccentric-concentric BP exercise to assess their actual 1RM and load-velocity relationships. A high velocity (≈ 1 m·s -1 ) and a low velocity (≈ 0.5 m·s -1 ) was selected from their load-velocity relationships to estimate the 1RM from generalized group equations and through an individual linear model obtained from the two velocities. The directly measured 1RM was highly correlated with all predicted 1RMs (r range: 0.847-0.977). The generalized group equations systematically underestimated the actual 1RM when predicted from the concentric-only BP (P <0.001; effect size [ES] range: 0.15-0.94), but overestimated it when predicted from the eccentric-concentric BP (P <0.001; ES range: 0.36-0.98). Conversely, a low systematic bias (range: -2.3-0.5 kg) and random errors (range: 3.0-3.8 kg), no heteroscedasticity of errors (r 2 range: 0.053-0.082), and trivial ES (range: -0.17-0.04) were observed when the prediction was based on the two-point method. Although all examined methods reported the 1RM with high reliability (CV≤5.1%; ICC≥0.89), the direct method was the most reliable (CV<2.0%; ICC≥0.98). The quick, fatigue-free, and practical two-point method was able to predict the BP 1RM with high reliability and practically perfect validity, and therefore we recommend its use over generalized group equations.

  20. Discrimination and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, I.C.M.; Hanssen, M.S.S.; Bak, M.L.F.J.; Bijl, R.V.; Graaf, R. de; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; McKenzie, K.; Os, J. van

    2003-01-01

    Background In the UK and The Netherlands, people with high rates of psychosis are chronically exposed to discrimination. Aims To test whether perceived discrimination is associated longitudinally with onset of psychosis. Method A 3-year prospective study of cohorts with no history of psychosis and

  1. Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based nois in LC-MS data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Van Kampen, A.A.; Reijmers, T.H.; Govorukhina, N.I; van der Zee, A.G.; Billingham, I.J; Bischoff, Rainer; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based noise in LC-MS data sets.Nyangoma SO, van Kampen AA, Reijmers TH, Govorukhina NI, van der Zee AG, Billingham LJ, Bischoff R, Jansen RC. University of Birmingham.

  2. Differential discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanov, V.I.; Mazurov, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    A principal flowsheet of a differential discriminator intended for operation in a spectrometric circuit with statistical time distribution of pulses is described. The differential discriminator includes four integrated discriminators and a channel of piled-up signal rejection. The presence of the rejection channel enables the discriminator to operate effectively at loads of 14x10 3 pulse/s. The temperature instability of the discrimination thresholds equals 250 μV/ 0 C. The discrimination level changes within 0.1-5 V, the level shift constitutes 0.5% for the filling ratio of 1:10. The rejection coefficient is not less than 90%. Alpha spectrum of the 228 Th source is presented to evaluate the discriminator operation with the rejector. The rejector provides 50 ns time resolution

  3. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Mohaidat, Qassem I.

    2009-01-01

    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  4. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  5. Dynamics of Two Point Vortices in an External Compressible Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchanin, Evgeny V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is concerned with a system of equations that describes the motion of two point vortices in a flow possessing constant uniform vorticity and perturbed by an acoustic wave. The system is shown to have both regular and chaotic regimes of motion. In addition, simple and chaotic attractors are found in the system. Attention is given to bifurcations of fixed points of a Poincaré map which lead to the appearance of these regimes. It is shown that, in the case where the total vortex strength changes, the "reversible pitch-fork" bifurcation is a typical scenario of emergence of asymptotically stable fixed and periodic points. As a result of this bifurcation, a saddle point, a stable and an unstable point of the same period emerge from an elliptic point of some period. By constructing and analyzing charts of dynamical regimes and bifurcation diagrams we show that a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations is a typical scenario of transition to chaos in the system under consideration.

  6. An analytical approximation scheme to two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, Bruno; Forgacs, Peter; Giacomini, Hector

    2007-01-01

    A new (algebraic) approximation scheme to find global solutions of two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is presented. The method is applicable for both linear and nonlinear (coupled) ODEs whose solutions are analytic near one of the boundary points. It is based on replacing the original ODEs by a sequence of auxiliary first-order polynomial ODEs with constant coefficients. The coefficients in the auxiliary ODEs are uniquely determined from the local behaviour of the solution in the neighbourhood of one of the boundary points. The problem of obtaining the parameters of the global (connecting) solutions, analytic at one of the boundary points, reduces to find the appropriate zeros of algebraic equations. The power of the method is illustrated by computing the approximate values of the 'connecting parameters' for a number of nonlinear ODEs arising in various problems in field theory. We treat in particular the static and rotationally symmetric global vortex, the skyrmion, the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex, as well as the 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole. The total energy of the skyrmion and of the monopole is also computed by the new method. We also consider some ODEs coming from the exact renormalization group. The ground-state energy level of the anharmonic oscillator is also computed for arbitrary coupling strengths with good precision. (fast track communication)

  7. Assessing Performance of Multipurpose Reservoir System Using Two-Point Linear Hedging Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasireka, K.; Neelakantan, T. R.

    2017-07-01

    Reservoir operation is the one of the important filed of water resource management. Innovative techniques in water resource management are focussed at optimizing the available water and in decreasing the environmental impact of water utilization on the natural environment. In the operation of multi reservoir system, efficient regulation of the release to satisfy the demand for various purpose like domestic, irrigation and hydropower can lead to increase the benefit from the reservoir as well as significantly reduces the damage due to floods. Hedging rule is one of the emerging techniques in reservoir operation, which reduce the severity of drought by accepting number of smaller shortages. The key objective of this paper is to maximize the minimum power production and improve the reliability of water supply for municipal and irrigation purpose by using hedging rule. In this paper, Type II two-point linear hedging rule is attempted to improve the operation of Bargi reservoir in the Narmada basin in India. The results obtained from simulation of hedging rule is compared with results from Standard Operating Policy, the result shows that the application of hedging rule significantly improved the reliability of water supply and reliability of irrigation release and firm power production.

  8. The association between gas and galaxies - II. The two-point correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilman, R. J.; Morris, S. L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Davé, R.; Shone, A. M.

    2007-02-01

    We measure the two-point correlation function, ξAG, between galaxies and quasar absorption-line systems at z 1017cm-2. For CIV absorbers, the peak strength of ξAG is roughly comparable to that of HI absorbers with NHI > 1016.5cm-2, consistent with the finding that the CIV absorbers are associated with strong HI absorbers. We do not reproduce the differences reported by Chen et al. between 1D ξAG measurements using galaxy subsamples of different spectral types. However, the full impact on the measurements of systematic differences in our samples is hard to quantify. We compare the observations with smoothed particle hydrodynamical (SPH) simulations and discover that in the observations ξAG is more concentrated to the smallest separations than in the simulations. The latter also display a `finger of god' elongation of ξAG along the LOS in redshift space, which is absent from our data, but similar to that found by Ryan-Weber for the cross-correlation of quasar absorbers and HI-emission-selected galaxies. The physical origin of these `fingers of god' is unclear, and we thus highlight several possible areas for further investigation.

  9. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  10. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Kannengiesser, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Zhong, X. [Siemens Healthcare, MR R and D Collaborations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reiter, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR R and D Collaborations, Graz (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  11. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C.; Zoller, H.; Kannengiesser, S.; Zhong, X.; Reiter, G.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  12. The Arabic Version of The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: Cumulative scaling and discriminant-validation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amira Mohammed; Ahmed, Anwar; Sharaf, Amira; Kawakami, Norito; Abdeldayem, Samia M; Green, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the validity of the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in 149 illicit drug users. We calculated α coefficient, inter-item and item-total correlations, coefficients of reproducibility and scalability (CR and CS), item difficulty and discrimination indices. The DASS-21 had an acceptable reliability; but values of the CR and the CS were less than acceptable. Items varied in difficulty and discrimination; some items are candidates for elimination. The DASS-21 is a probabilistic and not a deterministic measure of distress; it has problematic items and needs further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrimination and delusional ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Hanssen, M; Bak, M; Bijl, R V; de Graaf, R; Vollebergh, W; McKenzie, K; van Os, J

    2003-01-01

    In the UK and The Netherlands, people with high rates of psychosis are chronically exposed to discrimination. To test whether perceived discrimination is associated longitudinally with onset of psychosis. A 3-year prospective study of cohorts with no history of psychosis and differential rates of reported discrimination on the basis of age, gender, disability, appearance, skin colour or ethnicity and sexual orientation was conducted in the Dutch general population (n=4076). The main outcome was onset of psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). The rate of delusional ideation was 0.5% (n=19) in those who did not report discrimination, 0.9% (n=4) in those who reported discrimination in one domain, and 2.7% (n=3) in those who reported discrimination in more than one domain (exact P=0.027). This association remained after adjustment for possible confounders. No association was found between baseline discrimination and onset of hallucinatory experiences. Perceived discrimination may induce delusional ideation and thus contribute to the high observed rates of psychotic disorder in exposed minority populations.

  14. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana M Armenta

    Full Text Available Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age, we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.

  15. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiong Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer (CFO gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between 2009 and 2012 indicate that (1 female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms; (2 female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and (3 banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  16. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xixiong; Xu; Yaoqin; Li; Mengmeng; Chang

    2016-01-01

    Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer(CFO) gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between2009 and 2012 indicate that(1) female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms;(2) female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and(3) banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  17. Workplace Support, Discrimination, and Person-Organization Fit: Tests of the Theory of Work Adjustment with LGB Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the links of 2 workplace contextual variables--perceptions of workplace heterosexist discrimination and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)-supportive climates--with job satisfaction and turnover intentions in a sample of LGB employees. An extension of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) was used as the conceptual framework…

  18. Does perceived race affect discrimination and recognition of ambiguous-race faces? A test of the sociocognitive hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Lie, Hanne C; Ewing, Louise; Evangelista, Emma; Tanaka, James W

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination and recognition are often poorer for other-race than own-race faces. These other-race effects (OREs) have traditionally been attributed to reduced perceptual expertise, resulting from more limited experience, with other-race faces. However, recent findings suggest that sociocognitive factors, such as reduced motivation to individuate other-race faces, may also contribute. If the sociocognitive hypothesis is correct, then it should be possible to alter discrimination and memory performance for identical faces by altering their perceived race. We made identical ambiguous-race morphed faces look either Asian or Caucasian by presenting them in Caucasian or Asian face contexts, respectively. However, this perceived-race manipulation had no effect on either discrimination (Experiment 1) or memory (Experiment 2) for the ambiguous-race faces, despite the presence of the usual OREs in discrimination and recognition of unambiguous Asian and Caucasian faces in our participant population. These results provide no support for the sociocognitive hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Can uncertain landscape evolution models discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changing future climate? A millennial-scale test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the light of increasing societal interest in the effects of climate change, geomorphologists face the task of discriminating between natural landscape changes and landscape changes that result from human-induced climate change. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) are available for this purpose, but

  20. Diagnostic Test Accuracy of a 2-Transcript Host RNA Signature for Discriminating Bacterial vs Viral Infection in Febrile Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberg, Jethro A; Kaforou, Myrsini; Wright, Victoria J; Shailes, Hannah; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Cebey-López, Miriam; Carter, Michael J; Janes, Victoria A; Gormley, Stuart; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Barendregt, Anouk M; Salas, Antonio; Kanegaye, John; Pollard, Andrew J; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay; Kuijpers, Taco; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Burns, Jane C; Coin, Lachlan J M; Levin, Michael

    signature was implemented as a disease risk score in the validation group (130 children, with 23 definite bacterial, 28 definite viral, and 79 indeterminate infections; median age, 17 months; 57% male), all 23 patients with microbiologically confirmed definite bacterial infection were classified as bacterial (sensitivity, 100% [95% CI, 100%-100%]) and 27 of 28 patients with definite viral infection were classified as viral (specificity, 96.4% [95% CI, 89.3%-100%]). When applied to additional validation datasets from patients with meningococcal and inflammatory diseases, bacterial infection was identified with a sensitivity of 91.7% (95% CI, 79.2%-100%) and 90.0% (95% CI, 70.0%-100%), respectively, and with specificity of 96.0% (95% CI, 88.0%-100%) and 95.8% (95% CI, 89.6%-100%). Of the children in the indeterminate groups, 46.3% (63/136) were classified as having bacterial infection, although 94.9% (129/136) received antibiotic treatment. This study provides preliminary data regarding test accuracy of a 2-transcript host RNA signature discriminating bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. Further studies are needed in diverse groups of patients to assess accuracy and clinical utility of this test in different clinical settings.

  1. Infant speech-sound discrimination testing: effects of stimulus intensity and procedural model on measures of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozza, R J

    1987-06-01

    Performance of infants in a speech-sound discrimination task (/ba/ vs /da/) was measured at three stimulus intensity levels (50, 60, and 70 dB SPL) using the operant head-turn procedure. The procedure was modified so that data could be treated as though from a single-interval (yes-no) procedure, as is commonly done, as well as if from a sustained attention (vigilance) task. Discrimination performance changed significantly with increase in intensity, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results from infant discrimination studies in which only single stimulus intensity levels within this range are used. The assumptions made about the underlying methodological model did not change the performance-intensity relationships. However, infants demonstrated response decrement, typical of vigilance tasks, which supports the notion that the head-turn procedure is represented best by the vigilance model. Analysis then was done according to a method designed for tasks with undefined observation intervals [C. S. Watson and T. L. Nichols, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 655-668 (1976)]. Results reveal that, while group data are reasonably well represented across levels of difficulty by the fixed-interval model, there is a variation in performance as a function of time following trial onset that could lead to underestimation of performance in some cases.

  2. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  3. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-05-27

    The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness), but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta) is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  4. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL. The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness, but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  5. Performance of four different rat strains in the autoshaping, two-object discrimination, and swim maze tests of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J S; Jansen, J H; Linders, S; Princen, A; Broekkamp, C L

    1995-04-01

    The performance of four strains of rats commonly used in behavioural research was assessed in three different tests of learning and memory. The four strains included three outbred lines (Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar) and one inbred strain (S3). Learning and memory were tested using three different paradigms: autoshaping of a lever press, a two-object discrimination test, and performance in a two-island swim maze task. The pigmented strains showed better performance in the autoshaping procedure: the majority of the Long-Evans and the S3 rats acquired the response, and the majority of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley failed to acquire the response in the set time. The albino strains were slightly better in the swim maze than the pigmented strains. There appeared to be a speed/accuracy trade-off in the strategy used to solve the task. This was also evident following treatment with the cholinergic-depleting agent hemicholinium-3. The performance of the Long-Evans rats was most affected by the treatment in terms of accuracy and the Wistar and Sprague-Dawleys in terms of speed. In the two-object discrimination test only the Long-Evans showed satisfactory performance and were able to discriminate a novel from a known object a short interval after initial exposure. These results show large task- and strain-dependent differences in performance in tests of learning and memory. Some of the performance variation may be due to emotional differences between the strains and may be alleviated by extra training. However, the response to pharmacological manipulation may require more careful evaluation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test is superior to the Wechsler Memory Scale in discriminating mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Raquel; Cunha, Catarina; Marôco, João; Afonso, Ana; Simões, Mário R; Santana, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    The Logical Memory (LM) and the Verbal Paired Associative Learning (VPAL) are subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale commonly used to characterize the memory deficit of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) was suggested to assess the memory impairment of AD spectrum patients by the International Working Group on AD. In the present study, we compared the properties of the tests and their accuracy in classifying aMCI and AD. A group of aMCI patients (n = 85) and AD patients (n = 43) were included. The reliability and the validity of the three tests were analyzed. AD patients showed a significant pattern of worse impairment on all tests than aMCI. The FCSRT was able to classify more patients as having memory impairment in the aMCI group rather than the WMS subtests. The FCSRT proved to be good in discriminating the two groups in both lower and higher educational levels, whereas the LM was more useful in higher educated patients. Although the instruments had good results, the FCSRT was more accurate in discriminating MCI from AD, and less influenced by the educational level. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Zoller, H; Rauch, S; Schocke, M; Kannengiesser, S; Zhong, X; Reiter, G; Jaschke, W; Kremser, C

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm ("screening" sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. • MRI plays a major role in the clarification of diffuse liver disease. • The screening sequence was introduced for the assessment of diffuse liver disease. • It is a fast and automated algorithm for the evaluation of hepatic iron and fat. • It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron.

  8. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTION TO TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A SYSTEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-point boundary value problem for a system of second order ordinary differential equations. Under some conditions, we show the existence of positive solution to the system of second order ordinary differential equa-tions.

  9. Unique solvability of some two-point boundary value problems for linear functional differential equations with singularities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, András; Samoilenko, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2007), s. 115-136 ISSN 1512-0015 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : two-point problem * functional differential equation * singular boundary problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Critical two-point functions and the lace expansion for spread-out high-dimensional percolation and related models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider spread-out models of self-avoiding walk, bond percolation, lattice trees and bond lattice animals on ${\\mathbb{Z}^d}$, having long finite-range connections, above their upper critical dimensions $d=4$ (self-avoiding walk), $d=6$ (percolation) and $d=8$ (trees and animals). The two-point

  11. Two-point theory of current-driven ion-cyclotron turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiueh, T.; Diamond, P.H.

    1985-02-01

    An analytical theory of current-driven ion-cyclotron turbulenc which treats incoherent phase space density granulations (clumps) is presented. In contrast to previous investigations, attention is focused on the physically relevant regime of weak collective dissipation, where waves and clumps coexist. The threshold current for nonlinear instability is calculated, and is found to deviate from the linear threshold. A necessary condition for the existence of stationary wave-clump turbulence is derived, and shown to be analogous to the test particle model fluctuation-dissipation theorem result. The structure of three dimensional magnetized clumps is characterized. It is proposed that instability is saturated by collective dissipation due to ion-wave scattering. For this wave-clump turbulence regime, it is found that the fluctuation level (e psi/T/sub e/)/sub rms/ less than or equal to 0.1, and that the modification of anomalous resistivity to levels predicted by conventional nonlinear wave theories is moderate. It is also shown that, in marked contrast to the quasilinear prediction, ion heating significantly exceeds electron heating

  12. Using Balance Tests to Discriminate Between Participants With a Recent Index Lateral Ankle Sprain and Healthy Control Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Hiller, Claire; Raymond, Jacqueline; Black, Deborah; Nightingale, Elizabeth; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    The first step to identifying factors that increase the risk of recurrent ankle sprains is to identify impairments after a first sprain and compare performance with individuals who have never sustained a sprain. Few researchers have restricted recruitment to a homogeneous group of patients with first sprains, thereby introducing the potential for confounding. To identify impairments that differ in participants with a recent index lateral ankle sprain versus participants with no history of ankle sprain. Cross-sectional study. We recruited a sample of convenience from May 2010 to April 2013 that included 70 volunteers (age = 27.4 ± 8.3 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.5 cm, mass = 65.0 ± 12.5 kg) serving as controls and 30 volunteers (age = 31.1 ± 13.3 years, height = 168.3 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 13.7 kg) with index ankle sprains. We collected demographic and physical performance variables, including ankle-joint range of motion, balance (time to balance after perturbation, Star Excursion Balance Test, foot lifts during single-legged stance, demi-pointe balance test), proprioception, motor planning, inversion-eversion peak power, and timed stair tests. Discriminant analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between explanatory variables and sprain status. Sequential discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most relevant variables that explained the greatest variance. The average time since the sprain was 3.5 ± 1.5 months. The model, including all variables, correctly predicted a sprain status of 77% (n = 23) of the sprain group and 80% (n = 56) of the control group and explained 40% of the variance between groups ([Formula: see text] = 42.16, P = .03). Backward stepwise discriminant analysis revealed associations between sprain status and only 2 tests: Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior direction and foot lifts during single-legged stance ([Formula: see text] = 15.2, P = .001). These 2 tests explained 15% of the between-groups variance

  13. Renormalization group summation, spectrality constraints, and coupling constant analyticity for phenomenological applications of two-point correlators in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic structure in the strong coupling constant that emerges for some observables in QCD after duality averaging of renormalization-group-improved amplitudes is discussed, and the validity of the infrared renormalon hypothesis for the determination of this structure is critically reexamined. A consistent description of peculiar features of perturbation theory series related to hypothetical infrared renormalons and corresponding power corrections is considered. It is shown that perturbation theory series for the spectral moments of two-point correlators of hadronic currents in QCD can explicitly be summed in all orders using the definition of the moments that avoids integration through the infrared region in momentum space. Such a definition of the moments relies on the analytic properties of two-point correlators in the momentum variable that allows for shifting the integration contour into the complex plane of the momentum. For definiteness, an explicit case of gluonic current correlators is discussed in detail

  14. Dynamical pairwise entanglement and two-point correlations in the three-ligand spin-star structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedifar, M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the three-ligand spin-star structure through homogeneous Heisenberg interactions (XXX-3LSSS) in the framework of dynamical pairwise entanglement. It is shown that the time evolution of the central qubit ;one-particle; state (COPS) brings about the generation of quantum W states at periodical time instants. On the contrary, W states cannot be generated from the time evolution of a ligand ;one-particle; state (LOPS). We also investigate the dynamical behavior of two-point quantum correlations as well as the expectation values of the different spin-components for each element in the XXX-3LSSS. It is found that when a W state is generated, the same value of the concurrence between any two arbitrary qubits arises from the xx and yy two-point quantum correlations. On the opposite, zz quantum correlation between any two qubits vanishes at these time instants.

  15. On two-point boundary correlations in the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo, F.; Pronko, A. G.

    2005-05-01

    The six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions on an N × N square lattice is considered. The two-point correlation function describing the probability of having two vertices in a given state at opposite (top and bottom) boundaries of the lattice is calculated. It is shown that this two-point boundary correlator is expressible in a very simple way in terms of the one-point boundary correlators of the model on N × N and (N - 1) × (N - 1) lattices. In alternating sign matrix (ASM) language this result implies that the doubly refined x-enumerations of ASMs are just appropriate combinations of the singly refined ones.

  16. Two-point anchoring of a lanthanide-binding peptide to a target protein enhances the paramagnetic anisotropic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saio, Tomohide; Ogura, Kenji; Yokochi, Masashi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide ions fixed in a protein frame induce several paramagnetic effects such as pseudo-contact shifts and residual dipolar couplings. These effects provide long-range distance and angular information for proteins and, therefore, are valuable in protein structural analysis. However, until recently this approach had been restricted to metal-binding proteins, but now it has become applicable to non-metalloproteins through the use of a lanthanide-binding tag. Here we report a lanthanide-binding peptide tag anchored via two points to the target proteins. Compared to conventional single-point attached tags, the two-point linked tag provides two to threefold stronger anisotropic effects. Though there is slight residual mobility of the lanthanide-binding tag, the present tag provides a higher anisotropic paramagnetic effect

  17. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer's Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and logistic regression analyses have been conducted for statistical analysis. Using dCDT, time-in-air was significantly increased in eDAT (70965.8 ms) compared to aMCI (54073.7 ms; p = 0.027) and HC (32315.6 ms; p < 0.001). In addition, time-in-air was significantly longer in patients with aMCI compared to HC ( p = 0.003), even in the aMCI group with normal cCDT score (54141.8 ms; p < 0.001). Time-in-air using dCDT allowed discrimination of patients with aMCI from HCs with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 72.2% while cCDT scoring revealed a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 83.3%. Most interestingly, time-in-air allowed even discrimination of aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores (80% from all aMCI patients) from HCs with a clinically relevant sensitivity of 80.8% and a specificity of 77.8%. A combination of dCDT variables and cCDT scores did not improve the discrimination of patients with aMCI from HC. In conclusion, assessment of time-in-air using dCDT yielded a higher diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of aMCI patients from HCs than the use of cCDT even in those aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity

  18. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and logistic regression analyses have been conducted for statistical analysis. Using dCDT, time-in-air was significantly increased in eDAT (70965.8 ms) compared to aMCI (54073.7 ms; p = 0.027) and HC (32315.6 ms; p < 0.001). In addition, time-in-air was significantly longer in patients with aMCI compared to HC (p = 0.003), even in the aMCI group with normal cCDT score (54141.8 ms; p < 0.001). Time-in-air using dCDT allowed discrimination of patients with aMCI from HCs with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 72.2% while cCDT scoring revealed a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 83.3%. Most interestingly, time-in-air allowed even discrimination of aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores (80% from all aMCI patients) from HCs with a clinically relevant sensitivity of 80.8% and a specificity of 77.8%. A combination of dCDT variables and cCDT scores did not improve the discrimination of patients with aMCI from HC. In conclusion, assessment of time-in-air using dCDT yielded a higher diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of aMCI patients from HCs than the use of cCDT even in those aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity

  19. Feelings as a basis for discrimination : Comparison of a modified authenticity test with the same-different test for slightly different types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frandsen, Lise Wolf; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Nielsen, Jacob H.; Martens, Magni

    An analytical sensory test and an authenticity test were used to evaluate subtle flavour differences in milk. Consumers who habitually drink milk were selected for the tests. These consumers, we assume, possess implicitly learned knowledge about the taste of milk. In the authenticity test the

  20. Feelings as a basis for discrimination: Comparison of a modified authenticity test with the same-different test for slightly different types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frandsen, L.W.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Brockhoff, P.B.; Nielsen, J.H.; Martens, M.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical sensory test and an authenticity test were used to evaluate subtle flavour differences in milk. Consumers who habitually drink milk were selected for the tests. These consumers, we assume, possess implicitly learned knowledge about the taste of milk. In the authenticity test the

  1. Expanded uncertainty associated with determination of isotope enrichment factors: Comparison of two point calculation and Rayleigh-plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Robins, Richard J; Höhener, Patrick; Yoshida, Naohiro; Remaud, Gérald S

    2018-01-01

    The enrichment factor (ε) is a common way to express Isotope Effects (IEs) associated with a phenomenon. Many studies determine ε using a Rayleigh-plot, which needs multiple data points. More recent articles describe an alternative method using the Rayleigh equation that allows the determination of ε using only one experimental point, but this method is often subject to controversy. However, a calculation method using two points (one experimental point and one at t 0 ) should lead to the same results because the calculation is derived from the Rayleigh equation. But, it is frequently asked "what is the valid domain of use of this two point calculation?" The primary aim of the present work is a systematic comparison of results obtained with these two methodologies and the determination of the conditions required for the valid calculation of ε. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the two approaches, the expanded uncertainty (U) associated with determining ε has been calculated using experimental data from three published articles. The second objective of the present work is to describe how to determine the expanded uncertainty (U) associated with determining ε. Comparative methodologies using both Rayleigh-plot and two point calculation are detailed and it is clearly demonstrated that calculation of ε using a single data point can give the same result as a Rayleigh-plot provided one strict condition is respected: that the experimental value is measured at a small fraction of unreacted substrate (f < 30%). This study will help stable isotope users to present their results in a more rigorous expression: ε ± U and therefore to define better the significance of an experimental results prior interpretation. Capsule: Enrichment factor can be determined through two different methods and the calculation of associated expanded uncertainty allows checking its significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On the solution of two-point linear differential eigenvalue problems. [numerical technique with application to Orr-Sommerfeld equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antar, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique is presented for locating the eigenvalues of two point linear differential eigenvalue problems. The technique is designed to search for complex eigenvalues belonging to complex operators. With this method, any domain of the complex eigenvalue plane could be scanned and the eigenvalues within it, if any, located. For an application of the method, the eigenvalues of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation of the plane Poiseuille flow are determined within a specified portion of the c-plane. The eigenvalues for alpha = 1 and R = 10,000 are tabulated and compared for accuracy with existing solutions.

  3. Scaling behaviour of the correlation length for the two-point correlation function in the random field Ising chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Adrian; Stinchcombe, Robin [Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-07

    We study the general behaviour of the correlation length {zeta}(kT:h) for two-point correlation function of the local fields in an Ising chain with binary distributed fields. At zero field it is shown that {zeta} is the same as the zero-field correlation length for the spin-spin correlation function. For the field-dominated behaviour of {zeta} we find an exponent for the power-law divergence which is smaller than the exponent for the spin-spin correlation length. The entire behaviour of the correlation length can be described by a single crossover scaling function involving the new critical exponent. (author)

  4. The Effects of Different Training Structures in the Establishment of Conditional Discriminations and Subsequent Performance on Tests for Stimulus Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Erik; Grondahl, Terje; Eilifsen, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies comparing groups of subjects have indicated differential probabilities of stimulus equivalence outcome as a function of training structures. One-to-Many (OTM) and Many-to-One (MTO) training structures seem to produce positive outcomes on tests for stimulus equivalence more often than a Linear Series (LS) training structure does.…

  5. Serological tests fail to discriminate dogs with visceral leishmaniasis that transmit Leishmania infantum to the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Ivete Lopes de; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Soares, Maria Regiane Araújo; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2017-01-01

    The control of reservoirs for Leishmania infantum -induced zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis requires the identification of dogs posing a population risk. Here, we assessed the performance of several assays to identify Lutzomyia longipalpis infectious dogs. We evaluated 99 dogs that were positive for visceral leishmaniasis based on parasite identification. Serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence antibody tests in 1:40 and 1:80 dilutions, rapid dual path platform tests, immunochromatographic assay with a recombinant rK39 antigen, fast agglutination screening tests, and direct agglutination tests. We also performed PCR to analyze peripheral blood and xenodiagnosis. Forty-six dogs infected at least one L. longipalpis specimen. Although the serological test sensitivities were above 85% for detecting L. longipalpis infectious dogs, none showed a satisfactory performance, as both specificity (0.06 to 13%) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (45 to 53%) were low. The PCR results were also weak, with a sensitivity of 30%, specificity of 72%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 51%. The infected L. longipalpis proportion was higher among asymptomatic dogs than symptomatic dogs. Among the symptomatic dogs, those with ulceration-free skin diseases were more infectious, with an odds ratio of 9.3 (confidence interval of 1.10 - 428.5). The larger the number of insects fed, the greater the detected infectiousness. Our study supports the imperative to develop novel technologies for identifying the infectious dogs that transmit L. infantum for the benefit of public health.

  6. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  7. Two-point active microrheology in a viscous medium exploiting a motional resonance excited in dual-trap optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shuvojit; Kumar, Randhir; Banerjee, Ayan

    2018-04-01

    Two-point microrheology measurements from widely separated colloidal particles approach the bulk viscosity of the host medium more reliably than corresponding single-point measurements. In addition, active microrheology offers the advantage of enhanced signal to noise over passive techniques. Recently, we reported the observation of a motional resonance induced in a probe particle in dual-trap optical tweezers when the control particle was driven externally [Paul et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 050102(R) (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.050102]. We now demonstrate that the amplitude and phase characteristics of the motional resonance can be used as a sensitive tool for active two-point microrheology to measure the viscosity of a viscous fluid. Thus, we measure the viscosity of viscous liquids from both the amplitude and phase response of the resonance, and demonstrate that the zero crossing of the phase response of the probe particle with respect to the external drive is superior compared to the amplitude response in measuring viscosity at large particle separations. We compare our viscosity measurements with those using a commercial rheometer and obtain an agreement ˜1 % . The method can be extended to viscoelastic material where the frequency dependence of the resonance may provide further accuracy for active microrheological measurements.

  8. Exact two-point resistance, and the simple random walk on the complete graph minus N edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    An analytical approach is developed to obtain the exact expressions for the two-point resistance and the total effective resistance of the complete graph minus N edges of the opposite vertices. These expressions are written in terms of certain numbers that we introduce, which we call the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers; these numbers are the natural generalizations of the bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. The correspondence between random walks and the resistor networks is then used to obtain the exact expressions for the first passage and mean first passage times on this graph. - Highlights: ► We obtain exact formulas for the two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. ► We obtain also the total effective resistance of this graph. ► We modified Schwatt’s formula on trigonometrical power sum to suit our computations. ► We introduced the generalized bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers: the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers. ► The first passage and mean first passage times of the random walks have exact expressions.

  9. Exact two-point resistance, and the simple random walk on the complete graph minus N edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chair, Noureddine, E-mail: n.chair@ju.edu.jo

    2012-12-15

    An analytical approach is developed to obtain the exact expressions for the two-point resistance and the total effective resistance of the complete graph minus N edges of the opposite vertices. These expressions are written in terms of certain numbers that we introduce, which we call the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers; these numbers are the natural generalizations of the bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. The correspondence between random walks and the resistor networks is then used to obtain the exact expressions for the first passage and mean first passage times on this graph. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain exact formulas for the two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain also the total effective resistance of this graph. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modified Schwatt's formula on trigonometrical power sum to suit our computations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduced the generalized bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers: the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first passage and mean first passage times of the random walks have exact expressions.

  10. Diversity, discrimination, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Jonathan S.; Levine, David I.

    2003-01-01

    Employee diversity may affect business performance both as a result of customer discrimination and as a result of how members of a group work with each other in teams. We test for both channels with data from more than 800 retail stores employing over 70,000 individuals matched to Census data on the demographics of the community. We find little payoff to matching employee demographics to those of potential customers except when the customers do not speak English. Although age diversity doe...

  11. Alien calculus and a Schwinger-Dyson equation: two-point function with a nonperturbative mass scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.; Clavier, Pierre J.

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the renormalization group equation for the massless Wess-Zumino model, we compute the dominant nonperturbative contributions to the anomalous dimension of the theory, which are related by alien calculus to singularities of the Borel transform on integer points. The sum of these dominant contributions has an analytic expression. When applied to the two-point function, this analysis gives a tame evolution in the deep euclidean domain at this approximation level, making doubtful the arguments on the triviality of the quantum field theory with positive β -function. On the other side, we have a singularity of the propagator for timelike momenta of the order of the renormalization group invariant scale of the theory, which has a nonperturbative relationship with the renormalization point of the theory. All these results do not seem to have an interpretation in terms of semiclassical analysis of a Feynman path integral.

  12. Test beam demonstration of silicon microstrip modules with transverse momentum discrimination for the future CMS tracking detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; König, A.; Steininger, H.; Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Postiau, N.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Wang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; De Visscher, S.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Cabrera Jamoulle, J.; De Favereau De Jeneret, J.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Michotte, D.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Szilasi, N.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Baulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Dupasquier, T.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E.; Chanon, N.; Charles, L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Jansova, M.; Tromson, D.; Autermann, C.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Kiesel, K. M.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Schwering, G.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Bertsche, D.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Hansen, K.; Haranko, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Keaveney, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Pitzl, D.; Reichelt, O.; Savitskyi, M.; Schuetze, P.; Walsh, R.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Klanner, R.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Steinbrück, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Abbas, M.; Amstutz, C.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Kudella, S.; Muller, Th.; Printz, M.; Simonis, H. J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Anagnostou, G.; Asenov, P.; Assiouras, P.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Paspalaki, L.; Siklér, F.; Veszprémi, V.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Jain, G.; Ranjan, K.; Dutta, S.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M. A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Latino, G.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Scarlini, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Riceputi, E.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Checcucci, B.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Gentsos, C.; Ionica, M.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Marconi, S.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Modak, A.; Morozzi, A.; Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Postolache, V.; Rossi, A.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Storchi, L.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ciampa, A.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Magazzu, G.; Martini, L.; Mazzoni, E.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Bellan, R.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Solano, A.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Moya, D.; Gonzalez Sanchez, F. J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Bonnaud, J.; Caratelli, A.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; Deyrail, D.; Dondelewski, O.; Faccio, F.; Frank, N.; Gadek, T.; Gill, K.; Honma, A.; Hugo, G.; Jara Casas, L. M.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Krammer, M.; Lenoir, P.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Mersi, S.; Martina, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.-F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Berger, P.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M.; Perozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D.; Amsler, C.; Bösiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.-H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Moya, M.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Cole, J.; Hoad, C.; Hobson, P.; Morton, A.; Reid, I. D.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Magnan, A.-M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Uchida, K.; Braga, D.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Jones, L.; Ilic, J.; Murray, P.; Prydderch, M.; Tomalin, I. R.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Olmedo, M.; Si, W.; Yates, B. R.; Gerosa, R.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; Mullin, S.; Qu, H.; White, D.; Dominguez, A.; Bartek, R.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Apresyan, A.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W. E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Grünendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C. M.; Lipton, R.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Schneider, B.; Sellberg, G.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Berry, D. R.; Chen, X.; Ennesser, L.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Makauda, S.; Mills, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L. J.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C. S.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D. H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Wilson, G.; Ivanov, A.; Mendis, R.; Mitchell, T.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; McDermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Zientek, M.; Akgün, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Covarelli, R.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Delannoy, A. G.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.

    2018-03-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2026 onwards. It includes an outer tracker based on dedicated modules that will reconstruct short track segments, called stubs, using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced silicon sensor layers. These modules allow the rejection of low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before transmission to the first level trigger. The inclusion of tracking information in the trigger decision is essential to limit the first level trigger accept rate. A customized front-end readout chip, the CMS Binary Chip (CBC), containing stub finding logic has been designed for this purpose. A prototype module, equipped with the CBC chip, has been constructed and operated for the first time in a 4 GeemVem/emc positron beam at DESY. The behaviour of the stub finding was studied for different angles of beam incidence on a module, which allows an estimate of the sensitivity to transverse momentum within the future CMS detector. A sharp transverse momentum threshold around 2 emVem/emc was demonstrated, which meets the requirement to reject a large fraction of low momentum tracks present in the LHC environment on-detector. This is the first realistic demonstration of a silicon tracking module that is able to select data, based on the particle's transverse momentum, for use in a first level trigger at the LHC . The results from this test are described here.

  13. Seismic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    were presumed nuclear explosions announced by ERDA. Of the last, 11 were at the Semipalatinsk test site , 2 at the Western Kazakh test site , 2 in Novaya...which will fulfill U.S. ob- ligations that may be incurred under a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. This report includes 9 contributions...which could assume U.S. seismic-data-management responsibilities in the event that international agreement is reached on a Comprehensive Test Ban

  14. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients......). The discriminant functions correctly classified 81 and 80% of the women, respectively (NS) and respectively 75% and 64% of the men (NS) in the first and second recorded populations.......Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients...

  15. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Phoneme Identification Test for Assessment of Spectral and Temporal Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Previous research suggests that a proportion of children experiencing reading and listening difficulties may have an underlying primary deficit in the way that the central auditory nervous system analyses the perceptually important, rapidly varying, formant frequency components of speech. The Phoneme Identification Test (PIT) was developed to investigate the ability of children to use spectro-temporal cues to perceptually categorize speech sounds based on their rapidly changing formant frequencies. The PIT uses an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice procedure whereby the participant identifies a synthesized consonant-vowel (CV) (/ba/ or /da/) syllable. CV syllables differed only in the second formant (F2) frequency along an 11-step continuum (between 0% and 100%-representing an ideal /ba/ and /da/, respectively). The CV syllables were presented in either quiet (PIT Q) or noise at a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (PIT N). Development of the PIT stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Twelve adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 5 mo) and 137 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 76 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions were automatically fit to individual data by the PIT software. Performance was determined by the width of the continuum for which responses were neither clearly /ba/ nor /da/ (referred to as the uncertainty region [UR]). A shallower psychometric function slope reflected greater uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. Z scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the median value of the F2 range

  17. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes Test for Assessment of Amplitude Modulation Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm. The envelope of a 750-msec steady-state /a/ vowel is modulated into two or three pseudo-syllables using notches with modulation depths varying between 0% and 100% along an 11-step continuum. In an adaptive three-alternative forced-choice procedure, the participant identified whether one, two, or three pseudo-syllables were heard. Development of the ParSE stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Eleven adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 10 mo) and 134 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 72 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions (PFs) were automatically fit to individual data by the ParSE software. Performance was related to the modulation depth at which syllables can be detected with 88% accuracy (referred to as the upper boundary of the uncertainty region [UBUR]). A shallower PF slope reflected a greater level of uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. z Scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UBUR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the performance criterion (UBUR) was met with a median modulation depth of 42%. The effect of age on the UBUR was

  18. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  19. The Best Model of the Swiss Banknote Data -Validation by the 95% CI of coefficients and t-test of discriminant scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The discriminant analysis is not the inferential statistics since there are no equations for standard error (SE of error rate and discriminant coefficient based on the normal distribution. In this paper, we proposed the “k-fold cross validation for small sample” and can obtain the 95% confidence interval (CI of error rates and discriminant coefficients. This method is the computer-intensive approach by statistical and mathematical programming (MP software such as JMP and LINGO. By the proposed approach, we can choose the best model with the minimum mean of error rate in the validation samples (Minimum M2 Standard. In this research, we examine the sixteen linear separable models of Swiss banknote data by eight linear discriminant functions (LDFs. M2 of the best model of Revised IP-OLDF is the smallest value of all models. We find all coefficients of six Revised IP-OLDF among sixteen models rejected by the 95% CI of discriminant coefficients (Discriminant coefficient standard. We compare t-values of the discriminant scores. The t-value of the best model has the maximum values among sixteen models (Maximum t-value Standard. Moreover, we can conclude that all standards support the best model of Revised IP-OLDF.

  20. Abilities of Oropharyngeal pH Tests and Salivary Pepsin Analysis to Discriminate Between Asymptomatic Volunteers and Subjects With Symptoms of Laryngeal Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Adkins, Christopher; Jaiyeola, Diana-Marie; Lidder, Alcina K; Gawron, Andrew J; Tan, Bruce K; Shabeeb, Nadine; Price, Caroline P E; Agrawal, Neelima; Ellenbogen, Michael; Smith, Stephanie S; Bove, Michiel; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-04-01

    It has been a challenge to confirm the association between laryngeal symptoms and physiological reflux disease. We examined the ability of oropharyngeal pH tests (with the Restech Dx-pH system) and salivary pepsin tests (with Peptest) to discriminate between asymptomatic volunteers (controls) and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms (laryngeal ± reflux). We performed a physician-blinded prospective cohort study of 59 subjects at a single academic institution. Adult volunteers were recruited and separated into 3 groups on the basis of GerdQ and Reflux Symptom Index scores: controls (n = 20), laryngeal symptoms (n = 20), or laryngeal + reflux symptoms (n = 19). Subjects underwent laryngoscopy and oropharyngeal pH tests and submitted saliva samples for analysis of pepsin concentration. Primary outcomes included abnormal acid exposure and composite (RYAN) score for oropharyngeal pH tests and abnormal mean salivary pepsin concentration that was based on normative data. Complete oropharyngeal pH data were available from 53 subjects and complete salivary pepsin data from 35 subjects. We did not observe any significant differences between groups in percent of time spent below pH 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, or RYAN scores or percent of subjects with positive results from tests for salivary pepsin (53% vs 40% vs 75%; P = .50, respectively). The laryngeal + reflux group had a significantly higher estimated mean concentration of salivary pepsin (117.9 ± 147.4 ng/mL) than the control group (32.4 ± 41.9 ng/mL) or laryngeal symptom group (7.5 ± 11.2 ng/mL) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). By using current normative thresholds, oropharyngeal pH testing and salivary pepsin analysis are not able to distinguish between healthy volunteers and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical assessment of the disparity in the electrostatic forces between two point charges and two conductive spheres of equal radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolikov, Kiril

    2016-11-01

    The Coulomb's formula for the force FC of electrostatic interaction between two point charges is well known. In reality, however, interactions occur not between point charges, but between charged bodies of certain geometric form, size and physical structure. This leads to deviation of the estimated force FC from the real force F of electrostatic interaction, thus imposing the task to evaluate the disparity. In the present paper the problem is being solved theoretically for two charged conductive spheres of equal radii and arbitrary electric charges. Assessment of the deviation is given as a function of the ratio of the distance R between the spheres centers to the sum of their radii. For the purpose, relations between FC and F derived in a preceding work of ours, are employed to generalize the Coulomb's interactions. At relatively short distances between the spheres, the Coulomb force FC, as estimated to be induced by charges situated at the centers of the spheres, differ significantly from the real force F of interaction between the spheres. In the case of zero and non-zero charge we prove that with increasing the distance between the two spheres, the force F decrease rapidly, virtually to zero values, i.e. it appears to be short-acting force.

  2. A modified two-point titration method for the determination of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhe-Xuan; He, Chuan-Shu; Jiang, Jian-Kai; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Hou-Yun; Mu, Yang

    2018-04-10

    The volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration plays important roles in the rapid start-up and stable operation of anaerobic reactors. It's essential to develop a simple and accurate method to monitor the VFA concentration in the anaerobic systems. In present work, a modified two-point titration method was developed to determine the VFA concentration. The results show that VFA concentration in standard solutions estimated by the titration method coincided well with that measured by gas chromatograph, where all relative errors were lower than 5.5%. Compared with the phosphate, ammonium and sulfide subsystems, the effect of bicarbonate on the accuracy of the developed method was relatively significant. When the bicarbonate concentration varied from 0 to 8 mmol/L, the relative errors increased from 1.2% to 30% for VFA concentration at 1 mmol/L, but were within 2.0% for that at 5 mmol/L. In addition, the VFA composition affected the accuracy of the titration method to some extent. This developed titration method was further proved to be effective with practical effluents from a lab-scale anaerobic reactor under organic shock loadings and an unstable full-scale anaerobic reactor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE ANISOTROPIC TWO-POINT CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF THE NONLINEAR TRACELESS TIDAL FIELD IN THE PRINCIPAL-AXIS FRAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Hahn, Oliver; Porciani, Cristiano

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies on the largest scales of the universe are observed to be embedded in the filamentary cosmic web, which is shaped by the nonlinear tidal field. As an efficient tool to quantitatively describe the statistics of this cosmic web, we present the anisotropic two-point correlation functions of the nonlinear traceless tidal field in the principal-axis frame, which are measured using numerical data from an N-body simulation. We show that both the nonlinear density and traceless tidal fields are more strongly correlated along the directions perpendicular to the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of the local tidal field. The correlation length scale of the traceless tidal field is found to be ∼20 h -1 Mpc, which is much larger than that of the density field ∼5 h -1 Mpc. We also provide analytic fitting formulae for the anisotropic correlation functions of the traceless tidal field, which turn out to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. We expect that our numerical results and analytical formula are useful to disentangle cosmological information from the filamentary network of the large-scale structures.

  4. Derivation of Pal-Bell equations for two-point reactors, and its application to correlation measurements at KUCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Naoyuki; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Nishina, Kojiro; Shiroya, Seiji; Kanda, Keiji.

    1980-01-01

    A probability is defined for an event in which m neutrons exist at time t sub(f) in core I of a coupled-core system, originating from a neutron injected into the core I at an earlier time t; we call it P sub(I,I,m)(t sub(f)/t). Similarly, P sub(I,II,m)(t sub(f)/t) is defined as the probability for m neutrons to exist in core II of the system at time t sub(f), originating from a neutron injected into the core I at time t. Then a system of coupled equations are derived for the generating functions G sub(Ij)(z, t sub(f)/t) = μP sub(Ijm)(t sub(f)/t).z sup(m), where j = I, II. By similar procedures equations are derived for the generating functions associated with joint probability of the following events: a given combination of numbers of neutrons are detected during given series of detection time intervals by a detector inserted in one of the cores. The above two kinds of systems of equations can be regarded as a two-point version of Pal-Bell's equations. As the application of these formulations, analyzing formula for correlation measurements, namely (1) Feynman-alpha experiment and (2) Rossi-alpha experiment of Orndoff-type, are derived, and their feasibility is verified by experiments carried out at KUCA. (author)

  5. Use of digital image analysis to estimate fluid permeability of porous materials: Application of two-point correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Blair, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope images of cross sections of several porous specimens have been digitized and analyzed using image processing techniques. The porosity and specific surface area may be estimated directly from measured two-point spatial correlation functions. The measured values of porosity and image specific surface were combined with known values of electrical formation factors to estimate fluid permeability using one version of the Kozeny-Carman empirical relation. For glass bead samples with measured permeability values in the range of a few darcies, our estimates agree well ( +- 10--20%) with the measurements. For samples of Ironton-Galesville sandstone with a permeability in the range of hundreds of millidarcies, our best results agree with the laboratory measurements again within about 20%. For Berea sandstone with still lower permeability (tens of millidarcies), our predictions from the images agree within 10--30%. Best results for the sandstones were obtained by using the porosities obtained at magnifications of about 100 x (since less resolution and better statistics are required) and the image specific surface obtained at magnifications of about 500 x (since greater resolution is required)

  6. Timbre discrimination in musical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, J M

    1978-08-01

    Most research on timbre perception has studied isolated tones. This study compares timbre discrimination of isolated tones with discrimination in various musical contexts, both single-voiced and multivoiced. Twelve different contexts were used (four isolated tonal comparisons, four single-voice musical patterns, and four multivoice patterns). Listerners judged whether the timbre remained the same or changed during the trial. Two possible versions of any instrumental timbre differed in the physical information used in their synthesis. Three instrumental timbres were tested in all contexts: clarinet, trumpet, and bassoon. The effects of context upon discrimination varied across instruments. The clarinet and trumpet versions were best discriminated in isolated contexts, with discrimination progressively worse in single-voice and multivoice patterns. The bassoon versions were best discriminated in the single-voice patterns, with equal discrimination in the isolated and multivoice cases. It is suggested that these results were due to pronounced physical differences observed between the spectra of the two versions of the bassoon that were not apparent between the versions of the clarinet or trumpet.

  7. Comparison of clinical outcomes of multi-point umbrella suturing and single purse suturing with two-point traction after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyong; Hao, Xiuyan; Xin, Ying; Pan, Youzhen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of multipoint umbrella suture and single-purse suture with two-point traction after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids surgery (PPH) for the treatment of mixed hemorrhoids. Ninety patients were randomly divided into a PPH plus single-purse suture group (Group A) and a PPH plus multipoint umbrella suture (Group B). All operations were performed by an experienced surgeon. Operation time, width of the specimen, hemorrhoids retraction extent, postoperative pain, postoperative bleeding, and length of hospitalization were recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was conducted by t-test and χ2 test. There were no significant differences in sex, age, course of disease, and degree of prolapse of hemorrhoids between the two groups. The operative time in Group A was significantly shorter than that in Group B (P hemorrhoid core retraction were significantly lower in Group B (P  0.05 for all comparisons) was observed. The multipoint umbrella suture showed better clinical outcomes because of its targeted suture according to the extent of hemorrhoid prolapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  9. Hierarchical random additive process and logarithmic scaling of generalized high order, two-point correlations in turbulent boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. I. A.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.

    2016-06-01

    Townsend [Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976)] hypothesized that the logarithmic region in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows consists of space-filling, self-similar attached eddies. Invoking this hypothesis, we express streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial layer in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows as a hierarchical random additive process (HRAP): uz+=∑i=1Nzai . Here u is the streamwise velocity fluctuation, + indicates normalization in wall units, z is the wall normal distance, and ai's are independently, identically distributed random additives, each of which is associated with an attached eddy in the wall-attached hierarchy. The number of random additives is Nz˜ln(δ /z ) where δ is the boundary layer thickness and ln is natural log. Due to its simplified structure, such a process leads to predictions of the scaling behaviors for various turbulence statistics in the logarithmic layer. Besides reproducing known logarithmic scaling of moments, structure functions, and correlation function [" close="]3/2 uz(x ) uz(x +r ) >, new logarithmic laws in two-point statistics such as uz4(x ) > 1 /2, 1/3, etc. can be derived using the HRAP formalism. Supporting empirical evidence for the logarithmic scaling in such statistics is found from the Melbourne High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel measurements. We also show that, at high Reynolds numbers, the above mentioned new logarithmic laws can be derived by assuming the arrival of an attached eddy at a generic point in the flow field to be a Poisson process [Woodcock and Marusic, Phys. Fluids 27, 015104 (2015), 10.1063/1.4905301]. Taken together, the results provide new evidence supporting the essential ingredients of the attached eddy hypothesis to describe streamwise velocity fluctuations of large, momentum transporting eddies in wall-bounded turbulence, while observed deviations suggest the need for further extensions of the

  10. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  11. Poder discriminativo do teste de combinação de probabilidades na análise de grupo de experimentos Discriminative power of the combining probabilities test in analysis series of experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Conagin

    1993-01-01

    the discriminative power of the tests used; when the groups were formed by experiments from three different levels of precision and yield, using at least eight replications and considering the highest value of the contrast between means, the use of the test of combining probabilities showed that the discriminative power of the Student "t" test was greater than 90% and that of Bonferroni's was greater than 80%; when it was combined four or five experiments including more than one experiment of median precision the discriminative power of the "t" test was greater than 80% when the number of replication used was eight, but it was needed twelve replications for Bonferroni's test.

  12. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  13. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators

  14. Fat suppression strategies in MR imaging of breast cancer at 3.0 T. Comparison of the two-point dixon technique and the frequency selective inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko Mikami, Wakako; Kazama, Toshiki; Sato, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two fat suppression methods in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of breast cancer at 3.0 T: the two-point Dixon method and the frequency selective inversion method. Forty female patients with breast cancer underwent contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T. Both the two-point Dixon method and the frequency selective inversion method were applied. Quantitative analyses of the residual fat signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) of lesion-to-breast parenchyma, lesion-to-fat, and parenchyma-to-fat were performed. Qualitative analyses of the uniformity of fat suppression, image contrast, and the visibility of breast lesions and axillary metastatic adenopathy were performed. The signal-to-noise ratio was significantly lower in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001). All CNR values were significantly higher in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). According to qualitative analysis, both the uniformity of fat suppression and image contrast with the two-point Dixon method were significantly higher (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Visibility of breast lesions and metastatic adenopathy was significantly better in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively). The two-point Dixon method suppressed the fat signal more potently and improved contrast and visibility of the breast lesions and axillary adenopathy. (author)

  15. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  16. Discriminant Analysis of Essay, Mathematics/Science Type of Essay, College Scholastic Ability Test, and Grade Point Average as Predictors of Acceptance to a Pre-med Course at a Korean Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Geum-Hee Jeong

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of ea...

  17. L'influenza dell'attenzione, della memoria e della discriminazione fonetica nell'apprendimento della seconda lingua nella scuola elementare: Risultati di alcuni test (Influence of Attention, Memory, and Phonetic Discrimination in Second Language Learning in Elementary School: Results of Several Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna-Preti, Paola; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Using a new method, 48 children in an elementary school in Rome, Italy, were taught a foreign language (26 English, 22 German) and tested after three years. The authors attempt to explain the variation in test results in terms of the students' attention, memory, and phonetic discrimination. (CFM)

  18. Handling conditional discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination. We study how to train classifiers on such data, so that they are discrimination free with respect to a given sensitive attribute, e.g., gender. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination

  19. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    . In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  20. Numerical experiment on different validation cases of water coolant flow in supercritical pressure test sections assisted by discriminated dimensional analysis part I: the dimensional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.; Aszodi, A.

    2011-01-01

    As recent studies prove in contrast to 'classical' dimensional analysis, whose application is widely described in heat transfer textbooks despite its poor results, the less well known and used discriminated dimensional analysis approach can provide a deeper insight into the physical problems involved and much better results in all cases where it is applied. As a first step of this ongoing research discriminated dimensional analysis has been performed on supercritical pressure water pipe flow heated through the pipe solid wall to identify the independent dimensionless groups (which play an independent role in the above mentioned thermal hydraulic phenomena) in order to serve a theoretical base to comparison between well known supercritical pressure water pipe heat transfer experiments and results of their validated CFD simulations. (author)

  1. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  2. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  3. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  4. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  5. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Methodology and Projections for Joint Analysis of Galaxy Clustering, Galaxy Lensing, and CMB Lensing Two-point Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannantonio, T.; et al.

    2018-02-14

    Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.

  6. The Gaussian cell two-point 'energy-like' equation : application to large-scale galaxy redshift and peculiar motion surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Branchini, E

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a simple linear equation relating the line-of-sight peculiar-velocity and density contrast correlation functions. The relation, which we call the Gaussian cell two-point 'energy-like' equation, is valid at the distant-observer limit and requires Gaussian smoothed fields. In the variance

  7. Prospective comparison of liver stiffness measurements between two point wave elastography methods: Virtual ouch quantification and elastography point quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  8. Quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions

  9. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  11. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegl, B.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  12. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the two-point correlation functions for the Uq[SU(2)]invariant spin one-half Heisenberg chain at roots of unity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichsen, H.; Scheunert, M.

    1993-10-01

    Using U q [SU(2)] tensor calculus we compute the two-point scalar operators (TPSO), their averages on the ground-state give the two-point correlation functions. The TPSOs are identified as elements of the Temperley-Lieb algebra and a recurrence relation is given for them. We have not tempted to derive the analytic expressions for the correlation functions in the general case but got some partial results. For q=e iπ/3 , all correlation functions are (trivially) zero, for q=e iπ/4 , they are related in the continuum to the correlation functions of left-handed and right-handed Majorana fields in the half plane coupled by the boundary condition. In the case q=e iπ/6 , one gets the correlation functions of Mittag's and Stephen's parafermions for the three-state Potts model. A diagrammatic approach to compute correlation functions is also presented. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between two-point and multi-point analyses using high-B-value diffusion MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hitoshi; Maeda, Masayuki; Araki, Akinobu

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of calculating apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) using high-B-value diffusion images. Echo planar diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained at 1.5 tesla in five standard locations in six subjects using gradient strengths corresponding to B values from 0 to 3000 s/mm 2 . Estimation of ADCs was made using two methods: a nonlinear regression model using measurements from a full set of B values (multi-point method) and linear estimation using B values of 0 and max only (two-point method). A high correlation between the two methods was noted (r=0.99), and the mean percentage differences were -0.53% and 0.53% in phantom and human brain, respectively. These results suggest there is little error in estimating ADCs calculated by the two-point technique using high-B-value diffusion MR images. (author)

  15. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  16. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  17. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  18. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  19. Introduction to integral discriminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Shakirov, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    The simplest partition function, associated with homogeneous symmetric forms S of degree r in n variables, is integral discriminant J n|r (S) = ∫e -S(x 1 ,...,x n ) dx 1 ...dx n . Actually, S-dependence remains the same if e -S in the integrand is substituted by arbitrary function f(S), i.e. integral discriminant is a characteristic of the form S itself, and not of the averaging procedure. The aim of the present paper is to calculate J n|r in a number of non-Gaussian cases. Using Ward identities - linear differential equations, satisfied by integral discriminants - we calculate J 2|3 ,J 2|4 ,J 2|5 and J 3|3 . In all these examples, integral discriminant appears to be a generalized hypergeometric function. It depends on several SL(n) invariants of S, with essential singularities controlled by the ordinary algebraic discriminant of S.

  20. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  1. Attributions to Discrimination and Self-Esteem: The Role of Group Identification and Appraisals

    OpenAIRE

    Eccleston , Collette P.; Major , Brenda N.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that appraisals of discrimination (i.e. its perceived severity, global aspects, stability, and uncontrollability) mediate the relationship between attributions to discrimination and personal self-esteem. It also tested three models of how ethnic group identification is related to discrimination attributions, discrimination appraisals, and personal self-esteem. In ...

  2. The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI): a test of the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of FFNI scores in clinical and community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Wilson, Lauren; Gentile, Brittany; Widiger, Thomas A; Mackillop, James; Keith Campbell, W

    2013-09-01

    The five-factor narcissism inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as well as grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In the current study, the FFNI was examined in relation to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) NPD, DSM-5 (http://www.dsm5.org) NPD traits, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism in both community (N = 287) and clinical samples (N = 98). Across the samples, the FFNI scales manifested good convergent and discriminant validity such that FFNI scales derived from FFM neuroticism were primarily related to vulnerable narcissism scores, scales derived from FFM extraversion were primarily related to grandiose scores, and FFNI scales derived from FFM agreeableness were related to both narcissism dimensions, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 NPD scores. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable narcissism composites also demonstrated incremental validity in the statistical prediction of these scores, above and beyond existing measures of DSM NPD, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism, respectively. The FFNI is a promising measure that provides a comprehensive assessment of narcissistic pathology while maintaining ties to the significant general personality literature on the FFM.

  3. Testing virtual reality-based cue-exposure software: Which cue-elicited responses best discriminate between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-García, Marta; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Dakanalis, Antonios; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sanchez-Diaz, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virgínia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-07-27

    Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been proposed as a new tool able to improve on in vivo exposure in patients with eating disorders. This study assessed the validity of a VR-based software for cue exposure therapy (CET) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Fifty eight outpatients (33 BN and 25 BED) and 135 healthy participants were exposed to 10 craved virtual foods and a neutral cue in four experimental virtual environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom, and cafeteria). After exposure to each VR scenario, food craving and anxiety were assessed. The frequency/severity of episodes of uncontrollable overeating was also assessed and body mass index was measured prior to the exposure. In both groups, craving and anxiety responses when exposed to the food-related virtual environments were significantly higher than in the neutral-cue virtual environment. However, craving and anxiety levels were higher in the clinical group. Furthermore, cue-elicited anxiety was better at discriminating between clinical and healthy groups than cue-elicited craving. This study provides evidence of the ability of food-related VR environments to provoke food craving and anxiety responses in BN and BED patients and highlights the need to consider both responses during treatment. The results support the use of VR-CET in the treatment of eating disorder patients characterized by binge-eating and people with high bulimic symptoms.

  4. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  5. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  6. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  7. Hepatic fat quantification using the two-point Dixon method and fat color maps based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Takahashi, Junji; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kawamura, Yusuke; Fujii, Takeshi; Inoue, Masafumi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-04-01

    The two-point Dixon method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to non-invasively measure fat deposition in the liver. The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of MRI-fat fraction (MRI-FF) using the two-point Dixon method based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. This retrospective study included 106 patients who underwent liver MRI and MR spectroscopy, and 201 patients who underwent liver MRI and histological assessment. The relationship between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction was used to estimate the corrected MRI-FF for hepatic multi-peaks of fat. Then, a color FF map was generated with the corrected MRI-FF based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. We defined FF variability as the standard deviation of FF in regions of interest. Uniformity of hepatic fat was visually graded on a three-point scale using both gray-scale and color FF maps. Confounding effects of histology (iron, inflammation and fibrosis) on corrected MRI-FF were assessed by multiple linear regression. The linear correlations between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction, and between corrected MRI-FF and histological steatosis were strong (R 2  = 0.90 and R 2  = 0.88, respectively). Liver fat variability significantly increased with visual fat uniformity grade using both of the maps (ρ = 0.67-0.69, both P Hepatic iron, inflammation and fibrosis had no significant confounding effects on the corrected MRI-FF (all P > 0.05). The two-point Dixon method and the gray-scale or color FF maps based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score were useful for fat quantification in the liver of patients without severe iron deposition. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  8. Hard and soft age discrimination: the dual nature of workplace discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypinska, Justyna; Turek, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    The paper concentrates on the problem of age discrimination in the labour market and the way it can be conceptualised and measured in a multi-disciplinary way. The approach proposed here combines two understandings of age discrimination-a sociological and legal one, what allows for a fuller and expanded understanding of ageism in the workplace. At the heart of the study is a survey carried out in Poland with a sample of 1000 men and women aged 45-65 years. The study takes a deeper and innovative look into the issue of age discrimination in employment. Confirmatory factor analysis with WLSMV estimation and logistic regressions were used to test the hypotheses. The study shows that age discrimination in labour market can take on different forms: hard and soft, where the hard type of age discrimination mirrors the legally prohibited types of behaviours and those which relate to the actual decisions of employers which can impact on the employee's career development. The soft discrimination corresponds with those occurrences, which are not inscribed in the legal system per se, are occurring predominantly in the interpersonal sphere, but can nevertheless have negative consequences. Soft discrimination was experienced more often (28.6% of respondents) than hard discrimination (15.7%) with higher occurrences among women, persons in precarious job situation or residents of urban areas. The role of education was not confirmed to influence the levels of perceived age discrimination.

  9. Differential equations for correlators on the torus: Two-point correlation function of isospin-1 primary fields in the k=3 SU(2) WZW theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durganandini, P.

    1990-01-01

    We systematize the procedure developed by Mathur, Mukhi and Sen to derive differential equations for correlators in rational conformal field theories on the torus in those cases when it is necessary to study not only leading-order behaviour but also the nonleading behaviour of the solutions in the asymptotic limit Imτ→∞, Imz→∞. As an illustration, we derive the differential equation for the two-point correlator of the isospin-1 primary fields in the k=3 SU(2) WZW model on the torus. (orig.)

  10. Set discrimination of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied

  11. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  12. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  13. Discrimination in Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    大津, 尚志

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I deal with the issues which concern discriminations in textbooks.In America, they have paid special attentions to these problems since 1960's. They made guidelines for textbooks to check various kinds of discriminative descriptions and tried to make textbooks to meet these standards. In this respects I would examine the present states about textbooks in America and would compare them to the Japanese ones. That would be useful, I believe, when we consider these issues in Japan.

  14. An Estimation of the Likelihood of Significant Eruptions During 2000-2009 Using Poisson Statistics on Two-Point Moving Averages of the Volcanic Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1750, the number of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (volcanic explosivity index (VEI)>=4) per decade spans 2-11, with 96 percent located in the tropics and extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere. A two-point moving average of the volcanic time series has higher values since the 1860's than before, being 8.00 in the 1910's (the highest value) and 6.50 in the 1980's, the highest since the 1910's peak. Because of the usual behavior of the first difference of the two-point moving averages, one infers that its value for the 1990's will measure approximately 6.50 +/- 1, implying that approximately 7 +/- 4 cataclysmic volcanic eruptions should be expected during the present decade (2000-2009). Because cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (especially those having VEI>=5) nearly always have been associated with short-term episodes of global cooling, the occurrence of even one might confuse our ability to assess the effects of global warming. Poisson probability distributions reveal that the probability of one or more events with a VEI>=4 within the next ten years is >99 percent. It is approximately 49 percent for an event with a VEI>=5, and 18 percent for an event with a VEI>=6. Hence, the likelihood that a climatically significant volcanic eruption will occur within the next ten years appears reasonably high.

  15. SEE locomotor behavior test discriminates C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse inbred strains across laboratories and protocol conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Lipkind, Dina; Benjamini, Yoav; Mayo, Cheryl L; Elmer, Gregory I; Golani, Ilan

    2003-06-01

    Conventional tests of behavioral phenotyping frequently have difficulties differentiating certain genotypes and replicating these differences across laboratories and protocol conditions. This study explores the hypothesis that automated tests can be designed to quantify ethologically relevant behavior patterns that more readily characterize heritable and replicable phenotypes. It used SEE (Strategy for the Exploration of Exploration) to phenotype the locomotor behavior of the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse inbred strains across 3 laboratories. The 2 genotypes differed in 15 different measures of behavior, none of which had a significant genotype-laboratory interaction. Within the same laboratory, most of these differences were replicated in additional experiments despite the test photoperiod phase being changed and saline being injected. Results suggest that well-designed tests may considerably enhance replicability across laboratories.

  16. The intramuscular glucagon stimulation test does not provide good discrimination between normal and inadequate ACTH reserve when used in the investigation of short healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Ariel; Phillip, Moshe; de Vries, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the role of the glucagon stimulation test (GST) in evaluating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. We investigated the diagnostic value of the GST in evaluating the adrenocortical response in short healthy children. The GST was performed in 190 children investigated for short stature. A peak cortisol >500 nmol/l was considered a normal response. In the 45 (23.7%) with subnormal response, a 250-μg ACTH test was done. The rate of subnormal adrenal response to GST was higher among boys (33.9 vs. 8.9%, p 500 nmol/l in all the patients undergoing an ACTH stimulation test. Since adrenal response to GST is age- and gender-related and the false-positive rate is high, its routine performance in healthy children warrants reconsideration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls...

  18. Discrimination learning with variable stimulus 'salience'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treviño Mario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nature, sensory stimuli are organized in heterogeneous combinations. Salient items from these combinations 'stand-out' from their surroundings and determine what and how we learn. Yet, the relationship between varying stimulus salience and discrimination learning remains unclear. Presentation of the hypothesis A rigorous formulation of the problem of discrimination learning should account for varying salience effects. We hypothesize that structural variations in the environment where the conditioned stimulus (CS is embedded will be a significant determinant of learning rate and retention level. Testing the hypothesis Using numerical simulations, we show how a modified version of the Rescorla-Wagner model, an influential theory of associative learning, predicts relevant interactions between varying salience and discrimination learning. Implications of the hypothesis If supported by empirical data, our model will help to interpret critical experiments addressing the relations between attention, discrimination and learning.

  19. Development of LLNA:DAE: a new local lymph node assay that includes the elicitation phase, discriminates borderline-positive chemicals, and is useful for cross-sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    We developed a new local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes the elicitation phase termed LLNA:DAE for discrimination of borderline-positive chemicals as classified by the LLNA modified by Daicel based on ATP content (LLNA:DA) and for cross-sensitization testing. Although the LLNA:DA method could help identify skin sensitizers, some skin irritants classified as non-sensitizers by the LLNA were classified as borderline positive. In addition, the evaluation for the cross-sensitization potential between chemicals was impossible. In the LLNA:DAE procedure, test group of mice received four applications of chemicals on the dorsum of the right ear for induction and one application on the dorsum of the left ear for elicitation. Control group of mice received one chemical application on the dorsum of the left ear. We evaluated the sensitizing potential by comparing the weights of the lymph nodes from the left ears between the two groups. The results of using the LLNA:DAE method to examine 24 chemicals, which contained borderline-positive chemicals, were consistent with those from the LLNA method, except for nickel chloride (NiCl2). Two chemical pairs, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and hydroquinone (HQ) with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), showed clear cross-sensitization with each other, while another chemical pair, DNFB with hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA) did not. Taken together, our results suggest that the LLNA:DAE method is useful for discriminating borderline-positive chemicals and for determining chemical cross-sensitization.

  20. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination.

  1. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination. PMID:27647943

  2. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  3. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L; Syrstad, Vigdis Elin Giæver; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2016-08-11

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. Newly referred patients (n = 99; aged 18-65 years) requiring diagnostic evaluation of ADHD, mood or anxiety disorders were recruited, and were given a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation including the self-report form of the cyclothymic temperament scale and Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II). In addition to the traditional measures from this test we have extracted raw data and analysed time series using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Fifty patients fulfilled criteria for ADHD, while 49 did not, and were given other psychiatric diagnoses (clinical controls). When compared to the clinical controls the ADHD patients had more omission and commission errors, and higher reaction time variability. Analyses of response times showed higher values for skewness in the ADHD patients, and lower values for sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Among the ADHD patients 59 % fulfilled criteria for a cyclothymic temperament, and this group had higher reaction time variability and lower scores on complexity than the group without this temperament. The CPT-II is a useful instrument in the assessment of ADHD in adult patients. Additional information from this test was obtained by analyzing response times using linear and non-linear methods, and this showed that ADHD patients with a cyclothymic temperament were different from those without this temperament.

  4. Two-point vs multipoint sample collection for the analysis of energy expenditure by use of the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy expenditure over a 2-wk period was determined by the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method in nine adults. When daily samples were analyzed, energy expenditure was 2859 +/- 453 kcal/d (means +/- SD); when only the first and last time points were considered, the mean calculated energy expenditure was not significantly different (2947 +/- 430 kcal/d). An analysis of theoretical cases in which isotope flux is not constant indicates that the multipoint method can cause errors in the calculation of average isotope fluxes, but these are generally small. Simulations of the effect of analytical error indicate that increasing the number of replicates on two points reduces the impact of technical errors more effectively than does performing single analyses on multiple samples. It appears that generally there is no advantage to collecting frequent samples when the 2H2(18)O method is used to estimate energy expenditure in adult humans

  5. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwen

    2016-09-22

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  7. Disturbance by optimal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the disturbance by measurements which unambiguously discriminate between given candidate states. We prove that such an optimal measurement necessarily changes distinguishable states indistinguishable when the inconclusive outcome is obtained. The result was previously shown by Chefles [Phys. Lett. A 239, 339 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9601(98)00064-4] under restrictions on the class of quantum measurements and on the definition of optimality. Our theorems remove these restrictions and are also applicable to infinitely many candidate states. Combining with our previous results, one can obtain concrete mathematical conditions for the resulting states. The method may have a wide variety of applications in contexts other than state discrimination.

  8. Predicting Retear after Repair of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear: Two-Point Dixon MR Imaging Quantification of Fatty Muscle Degeneration-Initial Experience with 1-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Tasaki, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Saya; Ochi, Junko; Starkey, Jay; Hara, Takeshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the degree of preoperative fatty degeneration within muscles, postoperative longitudinal changes in fatty degeneration, and differences in fatty degeneration between patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears who do and those who do not experience a retear after surgery. Materials and Methods This prospective study had institutional review board approval and was conducted in accordance with the Committee for Human Research. Informed consent was obtained. Fifty patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears (18 men, 32 women; mean age, 67.0 years ± 8.0; age range, 41-91 years) were recruited. The degrees of preoperative and postoperative fatty degeneration were quantified by using a two-point Dixon magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence; two radiologists measured the mean signal intensity on in-phase [S(In)] and fat [S(Fat)] images. Estimates of fatty degeneration were calculated with "fat fraction" values by using the formula S(Fat)/S(In) within the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles at baseline preoperative and at postoperative 1-year follow-up MR imaging. Preoperative fat fractions in the failed-repair group and the intact-repair group were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The preoperative fat fractions in the supraspinatus muscle were significantly higher in the failed-repair group than in the intact-repair group (37.0% vs 19.5%, P muscle tended to progress at 1 year postoperatively in only the failed-repair group. Conclusion MR imaging quantification of preoperative fat fractions by using a two-point Dixon sequence within the rotator cuff muscles may be a viable method for predicting postoperative retear. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  9. Use of a forced-choice test of tactile discrimination in the evaluation of functional sensory loss: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Ameduri, Clifford J

    2003-08-01

    The loss of sensation is not an uncommon associated finding after injury to the peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. However, the sensory examination is prone to the influence of nonphysiologic factors, and one cannot use it to determine whether functional sensory loss reflects unconscious or intentional symptom production. This distinction has important implications for differential diagnosis and for decision making in the context of workers' compensation claims and personal injury litigation. We present 3 cases of patients with chronic pain and nondermatomal patterns of loss of fine-touch sensation, whose sensory loss was examined by a sensory forced-choice symptom validity test. Their below-chance scores showed intentionally produced sensory symptoms. The use of this methodology in differential diagnosis is discussed.

  10. First tests of the applicability of γ-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Magán, D.L.; Caballero, L. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C., E-mail: domingo@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Agramunt-Ros, J.; Albiol, F. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Casanovas, A. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); González, A. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging, I3M-CSIC 46022 Valencia (Spain); Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J. [Dto. de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using γ-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr{sub 3} scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a {sup 197}Au sample have been carried out at n-TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of two in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  11. Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  12. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  13. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  14. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  15. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  16. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise [San Diego, CA; Castro, Alonso [Santa Fe, NM; Gray, Perry Clayton [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  17. Hue discrimination in Iberoamerican Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jazmín; Medina, Juana

    2008-04-01

    In this work we analyze the Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Test results, this test offers a simple method for testing color discrimination and was applied to a sample of 129 observers, with natural daylight in the same conditions (the observers were men and women), all of these were participants in colorimetric training courses, and aged 20 to 76, with two to twenty five years experience in the color control manufacturer laboratories (of plastics, rugs, dyes, textiles, and paints). Their job titles included mixers, inspectors, shaders, matchers, passers, and dyers. The test was applied twice and the results here presented are the comparison between both tests, taking into account errors by mistakes incidence in each hue position, as well as the redeeming of each participant in both test. The comparison shows us that most of the mistakes are in the green hue in both tests, but in the second test, approximately 20 percent of the observers reduced those. Also we can to separate persons with normal color vision of those which have zones of color confusion. In this work it is show some ones results of the comparison between men and women.

  18. Somatosensory discrimination deficits following pediatric cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, A T; Spellacy, F J; Dugbartey, M T

    1998-09-01

    Pathologic studies of central nervous system damage in human falciparum malaria indicate primary localization in the cerebral white matter. We report a sensory-perceptual investigation of 20 Ghanaian children with a recent history of cerebral malaria who were age-, gender-, and education-matched with 20 healthy control subjects. Somatosensory examinations failed to show any evidence of hemianesthesia, pseudohemianesthesia, or extinction to double simultaneous tactile stimulation. While unilateral upper limb testing revealed intact unimanual tactile roughness discrimination, bimanual tactile discrimination, however, was significantly impaired in the cerebral malaria group. A strong negative correlation (r = -0.72) between coma duration and the bimanual tactile roughness discrimination test was also found. An inefficiency in the integrity of callosal fibers appear to account for our findings, although alternative subcortical mechanisms known to be involved in information transfer across the cerebral hemispheres may be compromised as well.

  19. Discriminative ability of LDL-cholesterol to identify patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study in 26,406 individuals tested for genetic FH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Roeland; Hutten, Barbara A; Kindt, Iris; Vissers, Maud N; Kastelein, John J P

    2012-06-01

    Screening for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) within affected families is often based on cutoff values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, the diagnostic accuracy of LDL-C levels is influenced by the magnitude of the LDL-C overlap between FH patients and unaffected relatives. The purpose of the current study was to assess to what extent this overlap is influenced by the severity of specific FH mutations. Individuals were eligible if they underwent family screening for FH between 2003 and 2010. The entire cohort was then compared with those who were investigated for the presence of the most severe mutations (class 1). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the sensitivity of the 90th percentile of LDL-C were calculated for both cohorts. We included 26 406 individuals, of whom 9169 (35%) carried an FH-causing mutation. In the entire cohort at baseline, mean LDL-C was 4.63 ± 1.44 mmol/L for FH carriers (n=5372) and 2.96 ± 0.96 mmol/L for unaffected relatives (n=15 148); P<0.001. The corresponding operating characteristics curve (95% CI) was 86.6% (85.9%-87.2%), and the cutoff level of LDL-C above the 90th percentile showed a sensitivity of 68.5%. The operating characteristics curve and sensitivity significantly improved when the 5933 individuals tested for class 1 mutations were assessed separately; 96.2% (95.3%-97.1%) and 91.3%, respectively. In summary, the overlap in terms of LDL-C levels between those with molecularly proven FH and unaffected relatives is to a large extent because of the high prevalence of modestly severe LDL-receptor mutations in the Netherlands.

  20. Polymorphism of κ-Casein in Italian Goat Breeds: A New ACRS-PCR Designed DNA Test for Discrimination of A and B Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Cubric-Curik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a DNA test for rapid characterisation of goat κ-casein (κ-CN A and B variants and to study this polymorphism in Italian goat breeds. Genetic polymorphism of κ-CN gene was, in addition to isoelectric focusing, analysed according to a new technique designated as amplification created restriction site. Two alleles that differ in one nucleotide mutation (G Ø A in exon 4 were characterised. The 167-bp PCR product surrounding the nucleotide mutation was amplified from genomic DNA and the PCR product was digested with MaeIII. After digestion the A allele gives three fragments of 77, 65 and 25 bp in comparison with the B allele which gives two fragments of 90 and 77 bp. The analysis of allele frequency distribution at κ-CN locus, based on 401 individual samples, revealed significant differences among three goat breeds from the north of Italy (Nera di Verzasca, Frontalasca and Alpine with frequency of κ-CN B allele around 0.3, versus two goat breeds from the south of Italy (Maltese and Sarda with frequency of κ-CN B allele around 0.5. While two goat breeds (Maltese and Nera di Verzasca did not show significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, a highly significant excess of heterozygote genotype (AB was observed in Alpine, Frontalasca and Sarda goats. Here the developed DNA method and observed relatively high frequency of κ-CN B allele give a prerequisite for the assessment of research related to the simultaneous estimation of the effects of composite αs1/κ-CN genotypes on milk production and cheese-making properties.

  1. Enhanced liver fibrosis test using ELISA assay accurately discriminates advanced stage of liver fibrosis as determined by transient elastography fibroscan in treatment naïve chronic HCV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Dalia; Yosry, Ayman; Darweesh, Samar K; Nabeel, Mohammed M; El-Beshlawey, Mohammed; Saif, Sameh; Fared, Azza; Hassany, Mohamed; Zayed, Rania A

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of liver fibrosis stage is crucial in the assessment of chronic HCV patients, regarding decision to start treatment and during follow-up. Our aim was to assess the validity of the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score in discrimination of advanced stage of liver fibrosis in naïve chronic HCV patients. We prospectively evaluated liver fibrosis stage in one hundred eighty-one naïve chronic HCV Egyptian patients by transient elastography (TE)-FibroScan. Patients were categorized into mild to moderate fibrosis (≤F2) group and advanced fibrosis (≥F3) group. The ELF score components, hyaluronic acid (HA), amino-terminal propeptide of type-III-procollagen (PIIINP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase type-1 (TIMP-1), were done using ELISA test. The mean values of ELF and its individual components significantly correlated with the hepatic fibrosis stage as measured by TE-FibroScan (P value 0.001). ELF cutoff value of 9.8 generated a sensitivity of 77.8%, specificity of 67.1%, area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.76 with 95% confidence interval [CI] (0.68-0.83) for detecting advanced fibrosis (F ≥ 3). ELF panel is a good, reliable noninvasive test and showed comparable results to TE-FibroScan in detecting liver fibrosis stage in treatment naïve chronic HCV patients.

  2. The Shame and Guilt Scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent (TOSCA-A): Factor Structure, Concurrent and Discriminant Validity, and Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Ratings of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shaun; Gomez, Rapson; Gullone, Eleonora

    2017-06-01

    This study examined various psychometric properties of the items comprising the shame and guilt scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent. A total of 563 adolescents (321 females and 242 males) completed these scales, and also measures of depression and empathy. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for an oblique two-factor model, with the originally proposed shame and guilt items comprising shame and guilt factors, respectively. Also, shame correlated with depression positively and had no relation with empathy. Guilt correlated with depression negatively and with empathy positively. Thus, there was support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the shame and guilt factors. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis comparing females and males, based on the chi-square difference test, supported full metric invariance, the intercept invariance of 26 of the 30 shame and guilt items, and higher latent mean scores among females for both shame and guilt. Comparisons based on the difference in root mean squared error of approximation values supported full measurement invariance and no gender difference for latent mean scores. The psychometric and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Discriminant analysis of essay, mathematics/science type of essay, college scholastic ability test, and grade point average as predictors of acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Geum-Hee

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of early admission data revealed significant F values for the mathematics/science type of essay (51.64; Pgrade point average (10.66; P=0.0014). The analysis of regular admission data revealed the following F values: 28.81 (Pgrade point average, 27.47 (P<0.0001) for college scholastic ability test, 10.67 (P=0.0012) for the essay, and 216.74 (P<0.0001) for the mathematics/science type of essay. Since the mathematics/science type of essay had a strong effect on acceptance, an emphasis on this requirement and exclusion of other kinds of essays would be effective in subsequent entrance examinations for this premed course.

  4. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  5. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.

  6. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. METHODS: Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. RESULTS: Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time. PMID:29731948

  7. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-04-15

    The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p job demands were found at Time 2. Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  8. Fast timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of pulses with very fast risetimes for timing purposes involves many problems because of the large equivalent bandwidths involved. For pulses with risetimes in the 150 ps range (and full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 400 ps) bandwidths in excess of 1GHz are required. Furthermore, these very narrow pulses with current amplitudes as small as 1 mA carry very small charges ( -12 coulomb), therefore, requiring very sensitive trigger circuits. The difficulty increases when timing characteristics in the picosecond range are sought especially when a wide input signal amplitude range causes a time-walk problem. The fast timing discriminator described has a time-walk of approximately +-75 ps over the input signal range from 80 mV to 3V. A schematic of the discriminator is included, and operation and performance are discussed

  9. Gender wage discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris

    2016-01-01

    There are pronounced and persistent wage differences between men and women in all parts of the world. A significant element of these wage disparities can be attributed to differences in worker and workplace characteristics, which are likely to mirror differences in worker productivity. However, a large part of these differences remains unexplained, and it is common to attribute them to discrimination by the employer that is rooted in prejudice against female workers. Yet recent empirical evid...

  10. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  11. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  12. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  13. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  14. Development of a pulse shape discrimination circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Bangjiao; Fan Wei; Fan Yangmei; Yu Xiaoqi; Mei Wen; Wang Zhongmin; Han Rongdian; Xiao Zhenxi

    1994-01-01

    A pulse shape discrimination circuit was designed and used in an experiment measuring double-differential cross sections of (n, charged particle) reaction; to identify p, α and γ. The performance of the circuit was tested. With this circuit, excellent identification of p, α and γ was obtained. ((orig.))

  15. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  16. Discriminative training of self-structuring hidden control neural models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...... we developed a discriminative training algorithm for SHC models, where each SHC model for a specific speech pattern is trained with utterances of the pattern to be recognized and with other utterances. The discriminative training of SHC neural models has been tested on the TIDIGITS database...

  17. Developing of CIAE2170 pulse shape discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guanren; Wuru Gongsang; Zhou Zuying; Guo Li; Gao Weixiang; Ni Hefeng; Sun Gong

    1995-01-01

    The pulse shape discriminator is very important electronics for reducing γ rays background. The CIAE2170 pulse shape discriminator is developed and is applied to the experiments on neutron and fission physics and measurements of nuclear data for more than 1500 h. It's very stable and reliable, and continually worked for more than 200 h. The main performance is carefully tested and is in the lead in china and arrived at international advanced level. Specially, the temperature stability is less than 0.10 ns/degree C in 5-45 degree C range

  18. Gender Discrimination in Workforce and its Impact on the Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Ali Channar (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper explores the issue of gender discrimination in workforce and its impact on the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and stress level of employees. Close ended questionnaire was administered from 526 males and females oflower, middle and higher category employees of public and private health and education departments of Hyderabad and Jamshoro districts. Gender discrimination in workforce was measured through independent samples-t test. The analysis shows that females were discriminated more than males in private organizations. Thus the findings show that females are discriminated more than males in private sector than in public sector. The impact of gender discrimination on satisfaction &motivation, commitment & enthusiasm and stress level was assessed through Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient. The results show that gender discrimination decreases satisfaction & motivation and commitment & enthusiasm level of employees, and increases the stress level in the employees.

  19. Digital position sensitive discrimination for 2-dimensional scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, R.; Reinartz, R.; Reinhart, P.

    1996-01-01

    The energy sensitivity of a two-dimensional scintillation gamma detector based on position sensitive photomultipliers has been minimized by a digital differential discrimination unit. Since the photomultiplier gain is position-dependent by 50%, a discrimination unit has been developed where digital upper and lower discrimination levels are set due to the position-dependent photomultiplier gain obtained from calibration measurements. Depending on the spatial resolution there can be up to 65.536 position-sensitive discriminator levels defining energy windows. By this method, narrow discriminator windows can be used for reducing the low and high energy quanta without effecting the sensitivity of the detector. The new discrimination method, its performance and test measurements with gamma rays will be described. Furthermore experimental results are presented

  20. Speech Discrimination in Preschool Children: A Comparison of Two Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Susan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Eleven four-year-old children were tested for discrimination of the following word pairs: rope/robe, seat/seed, pick/pig, ice/eyes, and mouse/mouth. All word pairs were found to be discriminable, but performance on seat/seed and mouse/mouth was inferior to that of the other word pairs. (Author)

  1. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  2. Assessment of Irrational Beliefs: The Question of Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Zurawski, Raymond M.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated discriminant validity in frequently used measures of irrational beliefs relative to measures of trait anxiety in college students (N=142). Results showed discriminant validity in the Rational Behavior Inventory but not in the Irrational Beliefs Test and correlated cognitive rather than somatic aspects of trait anxiety with both measures.…

  3. Revisiting van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes via the two point correlation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xiong Mo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes is revisited via two point correlation function, which is dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. The equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition is solved numerically and both the effect of boundary region size and f(R gravity are probed. Moreover, an analogous specific heat related to δL is introduced. It is shown that the T−δL graphs of f(R AdS black holes exhibit reverse van der Waals like behavior just as the T−S graphs do. Free energy analysis is carried out to determine the first order phase transition temperature T⁎ and the unstable branch in T−δL curve is removed by a bar T=T⁎. It is shown that the first order phase transition temperature is the same at least to the order of 10−10 for different choices of the parameter b although the values of free energy vary with b. Our result further supports the former finding that charged f(R AdS black holes behave much like RN-AdS black holes. We also check the analogous equal area law numerically and find that the relative errors for both the cases θ0=0.1 and θ0=0.2 are small enough. The fitting functions between log⁡|T−Tc| and log⁡|δL−δLc| for both cases are also obtained. It is shown that the slope is around 3, implying that the critical exponent is about 2/3. This result is in accordance with those in former literatures of specific heat related to the thermal entropy or entanglement entropy.

  4. Comparative MR study of hepatic fat quantification using single-voxel proton spectroscopy, two-point dixon and three-point IDEAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Taksali, Sara E; Dufour, Sylvie; Befroy, Douglas; Goodman, T Robin; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I; Caprio, Sonia; Constable, R Todd

    2008-03-01

    Hepatic fat fraction (HFF) was measured in 28 lean/obese humans by single-voxel proton spectroscopy (MRS), a two-point Dixon (2PD), and a three-point iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method (3PI). For the lean, obese, and total subject groups, the range of HFF measured by MRS was 0.3-3.5% (1.1 +/- 1.4%), 0.3-41.5% (11.7 +/- 12.1), and 0.3-41.5% (10.1 +/- 11.6%), respectively. For the same groups, the HFF measured by 2PD was -6.3-2.2% (-2.0 +/- 3.7%), -2.4-42.9% (12.9 +/- 13.8%), and -6.3-42.9% (10.5 +/- 13.7%), respectively, and for 3PI they were 7.9-12.8% (10.1 +/- 2.0%), 11.1-49.3% (22.0 +/- 12.2%), and 7.9-49.3% (20.0 +/- 11.8%), respectively. The HFF measured by MRS was highly correlated with those measured by 2PD (r = 0.954, P fatty liver with the MRI methods ranged from 68-93% for 2PD and 64-89% for 3PI. Our study demonstrates that the apparent HFF measured by the MRI methods can significantly vary depending on the choice of water-fat separation methods and sequences. Such variability may limit the clinical application of the MRI methods, particularly when a diagnosis of early fatty liver needs to be performed. Therefore, protocol-specific establishment of cutoffs for liver fat content may be necessary. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A Comparative MR Study of Hepatic Fat Quantification Using Single-voxel Proton Spectroscopy, Two-point Dixon and Three-point IDEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Taksali, Sara E.; Dufour, Sylvie; Befroy, Douglas; Goodman, T. Robin; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.; Caprio, Sonia; Constable, R. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic fat fraction (HFF) was measured in 28 lean/obese humans by single-voxel proton spectroscopy (MRS), a two-point Dixon (2PD) and a three-point iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method (3PI). For the lean, obese and total subject groups, the range of HFF measured by MRS was 0.3–3.5% (1.1±1.4%), 0.3–41.5% (11.7±12.1), and 0.3–41.5% (10.1±11.6%), respectively For the same groups, the HFF measured by 2PD was −6.3–2.2% (−2.0±3.7%), −2.4–42.9% (12.9±13.8%), and −6.3–42.9% (10.5±13.7%), respectively, and for 3PI they were 7.9–12.8% (10.1±2.0%), 11.1–49.3% (22.0±12.2%), and 7.9–49.3% (20.0±11.8%), respectively. The HFF measured by MRS was highly correlated with those measured by 2PD (r=0.954, pfatty liver with the MRI methods ranged 75–93% for 2PI and 79–89% for 3PI. Our study demonstrates that the apparent HFF measured by the MRI methods can significantly vary depending on the choice of water-fat separation methods and sequences. Such variability may limit the clinical application of the MRI methods, particularly when a diagnosis of early fatty liver needs to be performed. Therefore, protocol-specific establishment of cutoffs for liver fat content may be necessary. PMID:18306404

  6. Rebels with a cause : Group identification as a response to perceived discrimination from the mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, NR; Schmitt, MT; Spears, R

    Two studies involving people with body piercings tested the hypothesis that perceived discrimination increases group identification. In Study 1, group identification mediated the positive relationship between perceived discrimination and attempts to differentiate the ingroup from the mainstream. In

  7. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  8. Mind the gap: temporal discrimination and dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, A; Daum, C; Cordivari, C; Bhatia, K P; Rothwell, J C; Manohar, S; Edwards, M J

    2017-06-01

    One of the most widely studied perceptual measures of sensory dysfunction in dystonia is the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) (the shortest interval at which subjects can perceive that there are two stimuli rather than one). However the elevated thresholds described may be due to a number of potential mechanisms as current paradigms test not only temporal discrimination but also extraneous sensory and decision-making parameters. In this study two paradigms designed to better quantify temporal processing are presented and a decision-making model is used to assess the influence of decision strategy. 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 22 age-matched controls completed two tasks (i) temporal resolution (a randomized, automated version of existing TDT paradigms) and (ii) interval discrimination (rating the length of two consecutive intervals). In the temporal resolution task patients had delayed (P = 0.021) and more variable (P = 0.013) response times but equivalent discrimination thresholds. Modelling these effects suggested this was due to an increased perceptual decision boundary in dystonia with patients requiring greater evidence before committing to decisions (P = 0.020). Patient performance on the interval discrimination task was normal. Our work suggests that previously observed abnormalities in TDT may not be due to a selective sensory deficit of temporal processing as decision-making itself is abnormal in cervical dystonia. © 2017 EAN.

  9. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  10. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  11. Colour discrimination of dental professionals and colour deficient laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Celebic, Asja; Powers, John M; Paravina, Rade D

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare results of non-dental (conventional) and dental colour discrimination tests (customized, shade guide test), to evaluate influence of profession, gender and age of colour normal dentists and laboratory technicians on colour discrimination results and to evaluate results of colour deficient laypersons. A total of 36 colour normal dental professionals, all volunteers were divided into two groups consisting of 18 participants each: dentists (DDS) and laboratory technicians (CDT). In addition, a group 15 colour deficient males also volunteered (CDP). Colour discrimination was examined using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and total error scores (TES) were calculated. Participants performed a dentistry related colour discrimination test by matching 26 pairs of shade tabs. Shade guide scores (3DS) were calculated. These tests were performed under the controlled conditions of a viewing booth. Mean values and standard deviations were determined. ANOVA, Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) were used for result analysis. TES and 3DS were correlated for colour normal observers, r = 0.47 (p gender and age were recorded. TES of 159 (83) and 3DS of 6.7 (2.7) were recorded for colour deficient laypersons. Based on TES, 33% of colour deficient laypersons had average discrimination, whilst 67% had low discrimination. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that results of non-dental and dental colour discrimination tests were correlated, and that profession (DDS/CDT), gender and age gender did not influence colour discrimination of colour normal participants. Although colour and appearance of dental restorations are of paramount importance for the aesthetic outcome, colour vision of dental professionals is not routinely tested. This paper validates and recommends the usage of dental shade guides for a simple, affordable and understandable testing of colour vision, either as a sole test or

  12. Novel discrimination parameters for neutron-gamma discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors using wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Singh, S.

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that the discrimination performance of the wavelet transform method strongly depends on definition of discrimination parameters. These parameters are usually obtained from a combination of scaling functions at different scales, which represents the energy density of the wavelet coefficients. In this paper, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at minimum possible values of scale was investigated. Novel pulse shape discrimination parameters have been proposed for neutron and gamma discrimination in a mixed radiation field and tested with modeled pulses. The performance of these parameters was also validated in terms of quality of discrimination using experimental data of mixed events from an AmBe source collected with BC501 liquid scintillation detector. The quality of discrimination was evaluated by calculating a figure of merit (FOM) with all parameters under same experimental and simulation conditions. The FOM obtained with the proposed novel parameters was also compared with the charge comparison method. The proposed parameters exhibit better FOM as compared to the charge comparison method when high levels of noise are present in the data

  13. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  14. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  15. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  16. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  17. Unravelling fears of genetic discrimination: an exploratory study of Dutch HCM families in an era of genetic non-discrimination acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Els; Horstman, Klasien; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1990s, many countries in Europe and the United States have enacted genetic non-discrimination legislation to prevent people from deferring genetic tests for fear that insurers or employers would discriminate against them based on that information. Although evidence for genetic discrimination exists, little is known about the origins and backgrounds of fears of discrimination and how it affects decisions for uptake of genetic testing. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of these fears and its possible impact on the uptake of testing by studying the case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In a qualitative study, we followed six Dutch extended families involved in genetic testing for HCM for three-and-a-half years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 members of these families. Based on the narratives of the families, we suggest that fears of discrimination have to be situated in the broader social and life-course context of family and kin. We describe the processes in which families developed meaningful interpretations of genetic discrimination and how these interpretations affected family members' decisions to undergo genetic testing. Our findings show that fears of genetic discrimination do not so much stem from the opportunity of genetic testing but much more from earlier experiences of discrimination of diseased family members. These results help identify the possible limitations of genetic non-discrimination regulations and provide direction to clinicians supporting their clients as they confront issues of genetic testing and genetic discrimination.

  18. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  19. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  20. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  1. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  2. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses.

  3. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  4. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    While researchers have long held that discrimination cannot endure in an increasingly competitive environment, there has been little work testing this dynamic process. This paper tests the hypothesis (based on Becker 1957) that increased competition resulting from globalization in the 1980s forced employers to reduce costly discrimination against women. The empirical strategy exploits differences in market structure across industries to identify the impact of trade on the gender wage gap: bec...

  6. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  7. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  8. Two-dimensional neutron scintillation detector with optimal gamma discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyo, M.; Reinartz, R.; Schelten, J.; Mueller, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gamma sensitivity of a two-dimensional scintillation neutron detector based on position sensitive photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R2387 PM) has been minimized by a digital differential discrimination unit. Since the photomultiplier gain is position-dependent by ±25% a discrimination unit was developed where digital upper and lower discrimination levels are set due to the position-dependent photomultiplier gain obtained from calibration measurements. By this method narrow discriminator windows can be used to reduce the gamma background drastically without effecting the neutron sensitivity of the detector. The new discrimination method and its performance tested by neutron measurements will be described. Experimental results concerning spatial resolution and γ-sensitivity are presented

  9. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity. (paper)

  10. 300-MHz optical discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1981-07-01

    The prediction of future CO 2 content in the atmosphere is not completely credible because the oceanographers and terrestrial ecologists do not agree on the global CO 2 balance. Very precise measurements of O 2 /N 2 ratio using Raman scattering over a few years' period could provide important information and lead to the explanation of the disparity in the atmospheric CO 2 balance. An optical discriminator-counter has been developed to count closely spaced optical events in the few photon level. Simulated optical events as close as 2.5 ns apart had been positively detected by using selected photomultipliers and optimized discriminators. Testing of the optical discriminator-counter was done by using an electrical pulse pair spaced 3 ns apart and also by a similar optical pulse pair generated by fast light-emitting diode. The photomultiplier is capable of counting an average single photoelectron pulse frequency of 50 MHz and has a sensitive detecting area of 50 mm in diameter. The discriminator performance is discussed

  11. Discrimination of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisman Iosif I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable literature on the source of the thermostability of proteins from thermophilic organisms. Understanding the mechanisms for this thermostability would provide insights into proteins generally and permit the design of synthetic hyperstable biocatalysts. Results We have systematically tested a large number of sequence and structure derived quantities for their ability to discriminate thermostable proteins from their non-thermostable orthologs using sets of mesophile-thermophile ortholog pairs. Most of the quantities tested correspond to properties previously reported to be associated with thermostability. Many of the structure related properties were derived from the Delaunay tessellation of protein structures. Conclusions Carefully selected sequence based indices discriminate better than purely structure based indices. Combined sequence and structure based indices improve performance somewhat further. Based on our analysis, the strongest contributors to thermostability are an increase in ion pairs on the protein surface and a more strongly hydrophobic interior.

  12. Neural correlates supporting sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, Alexandra; Schmalbrock, Petra; Choi, Seongjin; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly half of stroke patients have impaired sensory discrimination, however, the neural structures that support post-stroke sensory function have not been described. Objectives 1) To evaluate the role of the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex in post-stroke sensory discrimination and 2) To determine the relationship between post-stroke sensory discrimination and structural integrity of the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation (sSTR). Methods 10 healthy adults and 10 individuals with left hemisphere stroke participated. Stroke participants completed sensory discrimination testing. An fMRI was conducted during right, impaired hand sensory discrimination. Fractional anisotropy and volume of the sSTR were quantified using diffusion tensor tractography. Results Sensory discrimination was impaired in 60% of participants with left stroke. Peak activation in the left (S1) did not correlate with sensory discrimination ability, rather a more distributed pattern of activation was evident in post-stroke subjects with a positive correlation between peak activation in the parietal cortex and discrimination ability (r=.70, p=.023). The only brain region in which stroke participants had significantly different cortical activation than control participants was the precuneus. Region of interest analysis of the precuneus across stroke participants revealed a positive correlation between peak activation and sensory discrimination ability (r=.77, p=.008). The L/R ratio of sSTR fractional anisotropy also correlated with right hand sensory discrimination (r=.69, p=.027). Conclusions Precuneus cortex, distributed parietal lobe activity, and microstructure of the sSTR support sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke. PMID:22592076

  13. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  14. Discrimination aware decision tree learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the following problem of discrimination aware classification was introduced: given a labeled dataset and an attribute B, find a classifier with high predictive accuracy that at the same time does not discriminate on the basis of the given attribute B. This problem is motivated by the fact

  15. Discrimination aware decision tree learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the following discrimination aware classification problem was introduced: given a labeled dataset and an attribute B, find a classifier with high predictive accuracy that at the same time does not discriminate on the basis of the given attribute B. This problem is motivated by the fact

  16. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  17. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  18. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  19. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Cranwell, M. B.; Alvarez, J.; Franklin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample ...

  20. Perceptions of genetic discrimination among people at risk for Huntington's disease: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Veenstra, Gerry; Friedman, Jan M; Creighton, Susan; Currie, Lauren; Paulsen, Jane S; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2009-06-09

    To assess the nature and prevalence of genetic discrimination experienced by people at risk for Huntington's disease who had undergone genetic testing or remained untested. Cross sectional, self reported survey. Seven genetics and movement disorders clinics servicing rural and urban communities in Canada. 233 genetically tested and untested asymptomatic people at risk for Huntington's disease (response rate 80%): 167 underwent testing (83 had the Huntington's disease mutation, 84 did not) and 66 chose not to be tested. Self reported experiences of genetic discrimination and related psychological distress based on family history or genetic test results. Discrimination was reported by 93 respondents (39.9%). Reported experiences occurred most often in insurance (29.2%), family (15.5%), and social (12.4%) settings. There were few reports of discrimination in employment (6.9%), health care (8.6%), or public sector settings (3.9%). Although respondents who were aware that they carried the Huntington's disease mutation reported the highest levels of discrimination, participation in genetic testing was not associated with increased levels of genetic discrimination. Family history of Huntington's disease, rather than the result of genetic testing, was the main reason given for experiences of genetic discrimination. Psychological distress was associated with genetic discrimination (PGenetic discrimination was commonly reported by people at risk for Huntington's disease and was a source of psychological distress. Family history, and not genetic testing, was the major reason for genetic discrimination.

  1. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  2. Task-irrelevant emotion facilitates face discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzino, Martina; Caudek, Corrado

    2015-03-01

    We understand poorly how the ability to discriminate faces from one another is shaped by visual experience. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether face discrimination learning can be facilitated by facial emotions. To answer this question, we used a task-irrelevant perceptual learning paradigm because it closely mimics the learning processes that, in daily life, occur without a conscious intention to learn and without an attentional focus on specific facial features. We measured face discrimination thresholds before and after training. During the training phase (4 days), participants performed a contrast discrimination task on face images. They were not informed that we introduced (task-irrelevant) subtle variations in the face images from trial to trial. For the Identity group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along a morphing continuum of facial identity. For the Emotion group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along an emotional expression morphing continuum. The Control group did not undergo contrast discrimination learning and only performed the pre-training and post-training tests, with the same temporal gap between them as the other two groups. Results indicate that face discrimination improved, but only for the Emotion group. Participants in the Emotion group, moreover, showed face discrimination improvements also for stimulus variations along the facial identity dimension, even if these (task-irrelevant) stimulus features had not been presented during training. The present results highlight the importance of emotions for face discrimination learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  4. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  5. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  6. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  7. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  8. Speech-discrimination scores modeled as a binomial variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A R; Raffin, M J

    1978-09-01

    Many studies have reported variability data for tests of speech discrimination, and the disparate results of these studies have not been given a simple explanation. Arguments over the relative merits of 25- vs 50-word tests have ignored the basic mathematical properties inherent in the use of percentage scores. The present study models performance on clinical tests of speech discrimination as a binomial variable. A binomial model was developed, and some of its characteristics were tested against data from 4120 scores obtained on the CID Auditory Test W-22. A table for determining significant deviations between scores was generated and compared to observed differences in half-list scores for the W-22 tests. Good agreement was found between predicted and observed values. Implications of the binomial characteristics of speech-discrimination scores are discussed.

  9. The role of perceived discrimination on active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ballesteros, Rocio; Olmos, Ricardo; Santacreu, Marta; Bustillos, Antonio; Molina, Maria Angeles

    2017-07-01

    Among older adults, perceived age discrimination is highly associated with unhealthy outcomes and dissatisfaction. Active aging is a multidimensional concept described by a set of characteristics, particularly health, positive mood and control; most importantly, active aging is currently at the core of public policies. The aim of the present study was to test to what extent perceived discrimination influences active aging. Methods A total of 2005 older adults in three representative samples from regions of Germany, Mexico and Spain participated; they were tested on active aging and perceived discrimination. First, active aging was defined as high reported health, life satisfaction and self-perception of aging. Second, authors introduced the assumption that, in the total sample, structural equation modelling would confirm the hypothesis of a direct negative link between perceived age discrimination and active aging. Finally, multiple group comparison performed through structural equation modelling also provided support for the negative association between perceived discrimination and active aging proposed. In spite of the differences found among the three countries in both active aging variables and age discrimination perception, multiple group comparison indicates that regardless of the culture, perceived discrimination is a negative predictor of active aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The zebrafish world of colors and shapes: preference and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jessica; Silveira, Mayara; Chacon, Diana; Luchiari, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Natural environment imposes many challenges to animals, which have to use cognitive abilities to cope with and exploit it to enhance their fitness. Since zebrafish is a well-established model for cognitive studies and high-throughput screening for drugs and diseases that affect cognition, we tested their ability for ambient color preference and 3D objects discrimination to establish a protocol for memory evaluation. For the color preference test, zebrafish were observed in a multiple-chamber tank with different environmental color options. Zebrafish showed preference for blue and green, and avoided yellow and red. For the 3D objects discrimination, zebrafish were allowed to explore two equal objects and then observed in a one-trial test in which a new color, size, or shape of the object was presented. Zebrafish showed discrimination for color, shape, and color+shape combined, but not size. These results imply that zebrafish seem to use some categorical system to discriminate items, and distracters affect their ability for discrimination. The type of variables available (color and shape) may favor zebrafish objects perception and facilitate discrimination processing. We suggest that this easy and simple memory test could serve as a useful screening tool for cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicological studies.

  11. Gender discrimination of eyes and mouths by individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark S

    2010-04-01

    Evidence remains mixed about whether individuals with autism look less to eyes and whether they look more at mouths. Few studies have examined how spontaneous attention to facial features relates to face processing abilities. This study tested the ability to discriminate gender from facial features, namely eyes and mouths, by comparing accuracy scores of 17 children with autism and 15 adults with autism to 17 typically developing children and 15 typically developing adults. Results indicated that all participants regardless of diagnosis discriminated gender more accurately from eyes than from mouths. However, results indicated that compared to adults without autism, adults with autism were significantly worse at discriminating gender from eyes.

  12. Quantity Discrimination in Trained Lizards (Podarcis sicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in many animal species. Two main methods have been extensively used: spontaneous choice tests and training procedures. A recent study showed that ruin lizards are capable of spontaneously discriminating between the surface area of two food items of different size, but failed when food was presented in sets of discrete items differing in number. In the present study, we used a training procedure to further investigate quantitative abilities in ruin lizards. Subjects were presented with two sets of yellow disks differing either in number (Experiment 1 or in area (Experiment 2 and were trained on different discriminations of increasing difficulty (1 vs. 4, 2 vs. 4, and 2 vs. 3. Results showed that lizards were more accurate in discriminating sets of discrete items differing in number than the area of two individual items, in contrast to what had earlier been observed in spontaneous choice tests. Although we cannot exclude other factors that affected the performance of ruin lizards, the poor accuracy here observed in both experiments might reflect a true limit in lizards’ quantitative abilities.

  13. Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Mlinšek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research

  14. Questionnaire discrimination: (re-introducing coefficient δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure. Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12 from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761. Coefficients for reliability (α and discrimination (δG are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88. However, δG was substantially lower (0.73 for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96, indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is

  15. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  16. Linear discriminant analysis for welding fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Simpson, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new method for real time welding fault detection in industry based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). A set of parameters was calculated from one second blocks of electrical data recorded during welding and based on control data from reference welds under good conditions, as well as faulty welds. Optimised linear combinations of the parameters were determined with LDA and tested with independent data. Short arc welds in overlap joints were studied with various power sources, shielding gases, wire diameters, and process geometries. Out-of-position faults were investigated. Application of LDA fault detection to a broad range of welding procedures was investigated using a similarity measure based on Principal Component Analysis. The measure determines which reference data are most similar to a given industrial procedure and the appropriate LDA weights are then employed. Overall, results show that Linear Discriminant Analysis gives an effective and consistent performance in real-time welding fault detection.

  17. The role of perceived discrimination on active aging.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ballesteros, Rocío; Olmos, Ricardo; Santacreu, Marta; Bustillos, Antonio; Molina Martínez, Mª Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    Among older adults, perceived age discrimination is highly associated with unhealthy outcomes and dissatisfaction. Active aging is a multidimensional concept described by a set of characteristics, particularly health, positive mood and control; most importantly, active aging is currently at the core of public policies. The aim of the present study was to test to what extent perceived discrimination influences active aging. Methods A total of 2,005 older adults in three represen...

  18. Gender Discrimination and the International Division of Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international economic effects of gender discrimination, namely the linkages of gender inequality with comparative advantage (trade) and foreign direct investment flows. It discusses different forms and the extent of gender discrimination across countries and presents the results of empirical tests of those linkages. The results indicate that gender inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in unskilled-labour-intensive goods, that is, c...

  19. Time resolution measurements with an improved discriminator and conical scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGervey, J.D.; Vogel, J.; Sen, P.; Knox, C.

    1977-01-01

    A new constant fraction discriminator with improved stability and walk characteristics is described. The discriminator was used with RCA C31024 photomultiplier tubes to test scintillators of conical and cylindrical shapes. Conical scintillators of 2.54 cm base diameter, 1.0 cm top diameter, and 2.54 cm height gave a fwhm of 155 ps for 60 Co gamma rays; larger conical scintillators gave an improvement of 10-15% in fwhm over cylindrical scintillators of equal volume. (Auth.)

  20. Ethnic and gender discrimination in recruitment: experimental evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Liebkind, Karmela; Larja, Lisa; Brylka, Asteria Anna

    2016-01-01

    We ask (1) how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority) group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2) whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1), 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on ...

  1. Gender Discrimination in Workforce and its Impact on the Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid Ali Channar (Corresponding Author); Zareen Abbassi; Imran Anwar Ujan

    2011-01-01

    This research paper explores the issue of gender discrimination in workforce and its impact on the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and stress level of employees. Close ended questionnaire was administered from 526 males and females oflower, middle and higher category employees of public and private health and education departments of Hyderabad and Jamshoro districts. Gender discrimination in workforce was measured through independent samples-t test. The analysis shows t...

  2. Attention Discrimination: Theory and Field Experiments with Monitoring Information Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Matějka, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We link two important ideas: attention is scarce and lack of information about an individual drives discrimination in selection decisions. Our model of allocation of costly attention implies that applicants from negatively stereotyped groups face "attention discrimination": less attention in highly selective cherry-picking markets, where more attention helps applicants, and more attention in lemon-dropping markets, where it harms them. To test the prediction, we integrate tools to monitor inf...

  3. Digital Discrimination: The Case of Airbnb.com

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Edelman; Micahel Luca

    2014-01-01

    Online marketplaces often contain information not only about products, but also about the people selling the products. In an effort to facilitate trust, many platforms encourage sellers to provide personal profiles and even to post pictures of themselves. However, these features may also facilitate discrimination based on sellers' race, gender, age, or other aspects of appearance. In this paper, we test for racial discrimination against landlords in the online rental marketplace Airbnb.com. U...

  4. MIDAS: Regionally linear multivariate discriminative statistical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Erdem; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Davatzikos, Christos

    2018-07-01

    Statistical parametric maps formed via voxel-wise mass-univariate tests, such as the general linear model, are commonly used to test hypotheses about regionally specific effects in neuroimaging cross-sectional studies where each subject is represented by a single image. Despite being informative, these techniques remain limited as they ignore multivariate relationships in the data. Most importantly, the commonly employed local Gaussian smoothing, which is important for accounting for registration errors and making the data follow Gaussian distributions, is usually chosen in an ad hoc fashion. Thus, it is often suboptimal for the task of detecting group differences and correlations with non-imaging variables. Information mapping techniques, such as searchlight, which use pattern classifiers to exploit multivariate information and obtain more powerful statistical maps, have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, existing methods may lead to important interpretation errors in practice (i.e., misidentifying a cluster as informative, or failing to detect truly informative voxels), while often being computationally expensive. To address these issues, we introduce a novel efficient multivariate statistical framework for cross-sectional studies, termed MIDAS, seeking highly sensitive and specific voxel-wise brain maps, while leveraging the power of regional discriminant analysis. In MIDAS, locally linear discriminative learning is applied to estimate the pattern that best discriminates between two groups, or predicts a variable of interest. This pattern is equivalent to local filtering by an optimal kernel whose coefficients are the weights of the linear discriminant. By composing information from all neighborhoods that contain a given voxel, MIDAS produces a statistic that collectively reflects the contribution of the voxel to the regional classifiers as well as the discriminative power of the classifiers. Critically, MIDAS efficiently assesses the

  5. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Masanori

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography. In this method, the difference in DNA synthetic phase between each chromosome was used as a standard, and the used chromosome was in metaphase, as morphological characteristics were markedly in this phase. Cell cycle and autoradiography with 3 H-thymidine were also examined. In order to discriminate chromosome by autoradiography, it was effective to utilize the labelled pattern in late DNA synthetic phase, where asynchronous replication of chromosome appeared most obviously. DNA synthesis in chromosome was examined in each DNA synthetic phase by culturing the chromosome after the treatment with 3 H-thymidine and altering the time to prepare chromosome specimen. Discrimination of chromosome in plants and animals by autoradiography was also mentioned. It was noticed as a structural and functional discrimination of chromosome to observe amino acid uptake into chromosome protein and to utilize the difference in labelled pattern between the sites of chromosome. (K. Serizawa)

  7. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  8. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  9. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Weichselbaumer

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  10. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  11. Exploiting Reject Option in Classification for Social Discrimination Control

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2017-09-29

    Social discrimination is said to occur when an unfavorable decision for an individual is influenced by her membership to certain protected groups such as females and minority ethnic groups. Such discriminatory decisions often exist in historical data. Despite recent works in discrimination-aware data mining, there remains the need for robust, yet easily usable, methods for discrimination control. In this paper, we utilize reject option in classification, a general decision theoretic framework for handling instances whose labels are uncertain, for modeling and controlling discriminatory decisions. Specifically, this framework permits a formal treatment of the intuition that instances close to the decision boundary are more likely to be discriminated in a dataset. Based on this framework, we present three different solutions for discrimination-aware classification. The first solution invokes probabilistic rejection in single or multiple probabilistic classifiers while the second solution relies upon ensemble rejection in classifier ensembles. The third solution integrates one of the first two solutions with situation testing which is a procedure commonly used in the court of law. All solutions are easy to use and provide strong justifications for the decisions. We evaluate our solutions extensively on four real-world datasets and compare their performances with previously proposed discrimination-aware classifiers. The results demonstrate the superiority of our solutions in terms of both performance and flexibility of applicability. In particular, our solutions are effective at removing illegal discrimination from the predictions.

  12. Auditory phase and frequency discrimination: a comparison of nine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, C D; Macmillan, N A

    1979-02-01

    Two auditory discrimination tasks were thoroughly investigated: discrimination of frequency differences from a sinusoidal signal of 200 Hz and discrimination of differences in relative phase of mixed sinusoids of 200 Hz and 400 Hz. For each task psychometric functions were constructed for three observers, using nine different psychophysical measurement procedures. These procedures included yes-no, two-interval forced-choice, and various fixed- and variable-standard designs that investigators have used in recent years. The data showed wide ranges of apparent sensitivity. For frequency discrimination, models derived from signal detection theory for each psychophysical procedure seem to account for the performance differences. For phase discrimination the models do not account for the data. We conclude that for some discriminative continua the assumptions of signal detection theory are appropriate, and underlying sensitivity may be derived from raw data by appropriate transformations. For other continua the models of signal detection theory are probably inappropriate; we speculate that phase might be discriminable only on the basis of comparison or change and suggest some tests of our hypothesis.

  13. Item validity vs. item discrimination index: a redundancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, R. L.; Irawati, R.; Sujana, A.; Hanifah, N.; Djuanda, D.

    2018-03-01

    In several literatures about evaluation and test analysis, it is common to find that there are calculations of item validity as well as item discrimination index (D) with different formula for each. Meanwhile, other resources said that item discrimination index could be obtained by calculating the correlation between the testee’s score in a particular item and the testee’s score on the overall test, which is actually the same concept as item validity. Some research reports, especially undergraduate theses tend to include both item validity and item discrimination index in the instrument analysis. It seems that these concepts might overlap for both reflect the test quality on measuring the examinees’ ability. In this paper, examples of some results of data processing on item validity and item discrimination index were compared. It would be discussed whether item validity and item discrimination index can be represented by one of them only or it should be better to present both calculations for simple test analysis, especially in undergraduate theses where test analyses were included.

  14. Comparison of T1-weighted 2D TSE, 3D SPGR, and two-point 3D Dixon MRI for automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Faezeh; Machann, Jürgen; Martirosian, Petros; Bamberg, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Yang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare conventional T1-weighted 2D turbo spin echo (TSE), T1-weighted 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), and two-point 3D Dixon-VIBE sequences for automatic segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 3 Tesla by measuring and compensating for errors arising from intensity nonuniformity (INU) and partial volume effects (PVE). The body trunks of 28 volunteers with body mass index values ranging from 18 to 41.2 kg/m 2 (30.02 ± 6.63 kg/m 2 ) were scanned at 3 Tesla using three imaging techniques. Automatic methods were applied to reduce INU and PVE and to segment VAT. The automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from all acquisitions were then statistically and objectively evaluated against the manually segmented (reference) VAT volumes. Comparing the reference volumes with the VAT volumes automatically segmented over the uncorrected images showed that INU led to an average relative volume difference of -59.22 ± 11.59, 2.21 ± 47.04, and -43.05 ± 5.01 % for the TSE, VIBE, and Dixon images, respectively, while PVE led to average differences of -34.85 ± 19.85, -15.13 ± 11.04, and -33.79 ± 20.38 %. After signal correction, differences of -2.72 ± 6.60, 34.02 ± 36.99, and -2.23 ± 7.58 % were obtained between the reference and the automatically segmented volumes. A paired-sample two-tailed t test revealed no significant difference between the reference and automatically segmented VAT volumes of the corrected TSE (p = 0.614) and Dixon (p = 0.969) images, but showed a significant VAT overestimation using the corrected VIBE images. Under similar imaging conditions and spatial resolution, automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from the corrected TSE and Dixon images agreed with each other and with the reference volumes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the signal correction methods and the similar accuracy of TSE and Dixon imaging for automatic volumetry of VAT at 3 Tesla.

  15. Neural correlates of face gender discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.

  16. Discriminative Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal

    2016-12-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to learn discriminative dictionaries for sparse representation of data. The proposed approach infers probability distributions over the atoms of a discriminative dictionary using a finite approximation of Beta Process. It also computes sets of Bernoulli distributions that associate class labels to the learned dictionary atoms. This association signifies the selection probabilities of the dictionary atoms in the expansion of class-specific data. Furthermore, the non-parametric character of the proposed approach allows it to infer the correct size of the dictionary. We exploit the aforementioned Bernoulli distributions in separately learning a linear classifier. The classifier uses the same hierarchical Bayesian model as the dictionary, which we present along the analytical inference solution for Gibbs sampling. For classification, a test instance is first sparsely encoded over the learned dictionary and the codes are fed to the classifier. We performed experiments for face and action recognition; and object and scene-category classification using five public datasets and compared the results with state-of-the-art discriminative sparse representation approaches. Experiments show that the proposed Bayesian approach consistently outperforms the existing approaches.

  17. Abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Tohru; Sugihara, Junko; Wakashima, Mariko; Kamijo, Makiko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined rats' discrimination learning of the numerical ordering positions of objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, five out of seven rats successfully learned to respond to the third of six identical objects in a row and showed reliable transfer of this discrimination to novel stimuli after being trained with three different training stimuli. In Experiment 3, the three rats from Experiment 2 continued to be trained to respond to the third object in an object array, which included an odd object that needed to be excluded when identifying the target third object. All three rats acquired this selective-counting task of specific stimuli, and two rats showed reliable transfer of this selective-counting performance to test sets of novel stimuli. In Experiment 4, the three rats from Experiment 3 quickly learned to respond to the third stimulus in object rows consisting of either six identical or six different objects. These results offer strong evidence for abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

  18. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  19. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyoung eHan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognitionmodel, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN, whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. The HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a neuralnetwork implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement acombination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectificationis performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linearunits (ReLUs, whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of targetobject classes. This enables a number of functional enhancementsover neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation ofsaliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features,and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence.In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity totarget object classes and invariance. The resulting performance demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN.

  20. Unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separability in the learned subspace than in the subspace obtained by principal component analysis or wavelet transform.

  1. Modeling phoneme perception. II: A model of stop consonant discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hessen, A J; Schouten, M E

    1992-10-01

    Combining elements from two existing theories of speech sound discrimination, dual process theory (DPT) and trace context theory (TCT), a new theory, called phoneme perception theory, is proposed, consisting of a long-term phoneme memory, a context-coding memory, and a trace memory, each with its own time constants. This theory is tested by means of stop-consonant discrimination data in which interstimulus interval (ISI; values of 100, 300, and 2000 ms) is an important variable. It is shown that discrimination in which labeling plays an important part (2IFC and AX between category) benefits from increased ISI, whereas discrimination in which only sensory traces are compared (AX within category), decreases with increasing ISI. The theory is also tested on speech discrimination data from the literature in which ISI is a variable [Pisoni, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36, 277-282 (1964); Cowan and Morse, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 500-507 (1986)]. It is concluded that the number of parameters in trace context theory is not sufficient to account for most speech-sound discrimination data and that a few additional assumptions are needed, such as a form of sublabeling, in which subjects encode the quality of a stimulus as a member of a category, and which requires processing time.

  2. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  3. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  4. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  5. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2006-01-01

    The problem of unambiguous discrimination between mixed quantum states is addressed by isolating the part of each mixed state which has no contribution to discrimination and by employing the strategy of set discrimination of pure states. A necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination is presented. An upper bound of the efficiency is also derived

  6. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  7. Orthogonal sparse linear discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Gang; Pu, Jiexin; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Haijun

    2018-03-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a linear feature extraction approach, and it has received much attention. On the basis of LDA, researchers have done a lot of research work on it, and many variant versions of LDA were proposed. However, the inherent problem of LDA cannot be solved very well by the variant methods. The major disadvantages of the classical LDA are as follows. First, it is sensitive to outliers and noises. Second, only the global discriminant structure is preserved, while the local discriminant information is ignored. In this paper, we present a new orthogonal sparse linear discriminant analysis (OSLDA) algorithm. The k nearest neighbour graph is first constructed to preserve the locality discriminant information of sample points. Then, L2,1-norm constraint on the projection matrix is used to act as loss function, which can make the proposed method robust to outliers in data points. Extensive experiments have been performed on several standard public image databases, and the experiment results demonstrate the performance of the proposed OSLDA algorithm.

  8. The Symmetry of Visual Fields in Chromatic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, M. V.; Mollon, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Both classical and recent reports suggest a right-hemisphere superiority for color discrimination. Testing highly-trained normal subjects and taking care to eliminate asymmetries from the testing situation, we found no significant differences between left and right hemifields or between upper and lower hemifields. This was the case for both of the…

  9. Learning for pitch and melody discrimination in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2018-03-23

    Congenital amusia is currently thought to be a life-long neurogenetic disorder in music perception, impervious to training in pitch or melody discrimination. This study provides an explicit test of whether amusic deficits can be reduced with training. Twenty amusics and 20 matched controls participated in four sessions of psychophysical training involving either pure-tone (500 Hz) pitch discrimination or a control task of lateralization (interaural level differences for bandpass white noise). Pure-tone pitch discrimination at low, medium, and high frequencies (500, 2000, and 8000 Hz) was measured before and after training (pretest and posttest) to determine the specificity of learning. Melody discrimination was also assessed before and after training using the full Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, the most widely used standardized test to diagnose amusia. Amusics performed more poorly than controls in pitch but not localization discrimination, but both groups improved with practice on the trained stimuli. Learning was broad, occurring across all three frequencies and melody discrimination for all groups, including those who trained on the non-pitch control task. Following training, 11 of 20 amusics no longer met the global diagnostic criteria for amusia. A separate group of untrained controls (n = 20), who also completed melody discrimination and pretest, improved by an equal amount as trained controls on all measures, suggesting that the bulk of learning for the control group occurred very rapidly from the pretest. Thirty-one trained participants (13 amusics) returned one year later to assess long-term maintenance of pitch and melody discrimination. On average, there was no change in performance between posttest and one-year follow-up, demonstrating that improvements on pitch- and melody-related tasks in amusics and controls can be maintained. The findings indicate that amusia is not always a life-long deficit when using the current standard

  10. Dogs can discriminate human smiling faces from blank expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Murai, Kensuke; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2011-07-01

    Dogs have a unique ability to understand visual cues from humans. We investigated whether dogs can discriminate between human facial expressions. Photographs of human faces were used to test nine pet dogs in two-choice discrimination tasks. The training phases involved each dog learning to discriminate between a set of photographs of their owner's smiling and blank face. Of the nine dogs, five fulfilled these criteria and were selected for test sessions. In the test phase, 10 sets of photographs of the owner's smiling and blank face, which had previously not been seen by the dog, were presented. The dogs selected the owner's smiling face significantly more often than expected by chance. In subsequent tests, 10 sets of smiling and blank face photographs of 20 persons unfamiliar to the dogs were presented (10 males and 10 females). There was no statistical difference between the accuracy in the case of the owners and that in the case of unfamiliar persons with the same gender as the owner. However, the accuracy was significantly lower in the case of unfamiliar persons of the opposite gender to that of the owner, than with the owners themselves. These results suggest that dogs can learn to discriminate human smiling faces from blank faces by looking at photographs. Although it remains unclear whether dogs have human-like systems for visual processing of human facial expressions, the ability to learn to discriminate human facial expressions may have helped dogs adapt to human society.

  11. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  12. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  13. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  14. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  15. Unravelling fears of genetic discrimination: an exploratory study of Dutch HCM families in an era of genetic non-discrimination acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, E.; Horstman, K.; Marcelis, C.L.; Doevendans, P.A.; Van Hoyweghen, I.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, many countries in Europe and the United States have enacted genetic non-discrimination legislation to prevent people from deferring genetic tests for fear that insurers or employers would discriminate against them based on that information. Although evidence for genetic

  16. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical remarks on the statistics of three discriminants in Piety's automated signature analysis of PSD [Power Spectral Density] data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Spiekerman, G.

    1984-01-01

    Piety (1977) proposed an automated signature analysis of power spectral density data. Eight statistical decision discriminants are introduced. For nearly all the discriminants, improved confidence statements can be made. The statistical characteristics of the last three discriminants, which are applications of non-parametric tests, are considered. (author)

  18. Discriminator/time interval meter system evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condreva, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the evaluation of a modular prototype Discriminator/Time Interval Meter data acquisition unit as a useful tool in a digital diagnostics system. The characteristics, operation and calibration of each of the hardware components are discussed in some detail. A discussion of the system calibration, operation, and data ingestion and reduction is also given. System test results to date are given and discussed. Finally, recommendations and conclusions concerning the capabilities of the Discriminator/T.I.M. system based on test and calibration results to date are given

  19. Discriminator/time interval meter system evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condreva, K. J.

    1976-04-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the evaluation of a modular prototype Discriminator/Time Interval Meter data acquisition unit as a useful tool in a digital diagnostics system. The characteristics, operation and calibration of each of the hardware components are discussed in some detail. A discussion of the system calibration, operation, and data ingestion and reduction is also given. System test results to date are given and discussed. Finally, recommendations and conclusions concerning the capabilities of the Discriminator/T.I.M. system based on test and calibration results to date are given.

  20. Dominant color and texture feature extraction for banknote discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yangyu; Li, Ning

    2017-07-01

    Banknote discrimination with image recognition technology is significant in many applications. The traditional methods based on image recognition only recognize the banknote denomination without discriminating the counterfeit banknote. To solve this problem, we propose a systematical banknote discrimination approach with the dominant color and texture features. After capturing the visible and infrared images of the test banknote, we first implement the tilt correction based on the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. Second, we extract the dominant color feature of the visible banknote image to recognize the denomination. Third, we propose an adaptively weighted local binary pattern with "delta" tolerance algorithm to extract the texture features of the infrared banknote image. At last, we discriminate the genuine or counterfeit banknote by comparing the texture features between the test banknote and the benchmark banknote. The proposed approach is tested using 14,000 banknotes of six different denominations from Chinese yuan (CNY). The experimental results show 100% accuracy for denomination recognition and 99.92% accuracy for counterfeit banknote discrimination.

  1. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  2. DISCRIMINATION BY ASSOCIATION IN EUROPEAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuș

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, for the first time in European law, the existence of the concept of discrimination by association. In this article I examine the implications of this case on all conceps of discrimination concepts of discrimination in European law (direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and harassment. I also examine the application of discrimination by association to grounds other than disability.

  3. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  4. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  5. A Talk on Sex Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    The topic of this speech covers the 1972 amendments to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent court cases dealing with sex discrimination. The cases discussed cover maternity leaves for tenured as well as untenured teachers and other public employees. The issues basic to these cases involve mandatory maternity leaves at…

  6. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not

  7. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  8. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  9. Gender discrimination and job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important because it may provide insight into what factors contribute to women’s disadvantaged position at work.

  10. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  11. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Zliobaite, I.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  13. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  14. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An example of multidimensional analysis: Discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.

    1990-01-01

    Among the approaches on the data multi-dimensional analysis, lectures on the discriminant analysis including theoretical and practical aspects are presented. The discrimination problem, the analysis steps and the discrimination categories are stressed. Examples on the descriptive historical analysis, the discrimination for decision making, the demonstration and separation of the top quark are given. In the linear discriminant analysis the following subjects are discussed: Huyghens theorem, projection, discriminant variable, geometrical interpretation, case for g=2, classification method, separation of the top events. Criteria allowing the obtention of relevant results are included [fr

  16. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  17. Enamel surface topography analysis for diet discrimination. A methodology to enhance and select discriminative parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Arthur; Blondel, Cécile; Brunetière, Noël; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Merceron, Gildas

    2018-03-01

    Tooth wear and, more specifically, dental microwear texture is a dietary proxy that has been used for years in vertebrate paleoecology and ecology. DMTA, dental microwear texture analysis, relies on a few parameters related to the surface complexity, anisotropy and heterogeneity of the enamel facets at the micrometric scale. Working with few but physically meaningful parameters helps in comparing published results and in defining levels for classification purposes. Other dental microwear approaches are based on ISO parameters and coupled with statistical tests to find the more relevant ones. The present study roughly utilizes most of the aforementioned parameters in their more or less modified form. But more than parameters, we here propose a new approach: instead of a single parameter characterizing the whole surface, we sample the surface and thus generate 9 derived parameters in order to broaden the parameter set. The identification of the most discriminative parameters is performed with an automated procedure which is an extended and refined version of the workflows encountered in some studies. The procedure in its initial form includes the most common tools, like the ANOVA and the correlation analysis, along with the required mathematical tests. The discrimination results show that a simplified form of the procedure is able to more efficiently identify the desired number of discriminative parameters. Also highlighted are some trends like the relevance of working with both height and spatial parameters, as well as the potential benefits of dimensionless surfaces. On a set of 45 surfaces issued from 45 specimens of three modern ruminants with differences in feeding preferences (grazing, leaf-browsing and fruit-eating), it is clearly shown that the level of wear discrimination is improved with the new methodology compared to the other ones.

  18. Gender discrimination before mandated quotas? Evidence from Norway: 1989 to 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Øystein R.

    2015-01-01

    Is the low percentage of women on boards due to discrimination? Discrimination has a time dimension; it is repeated period after period and is thus highly persistent. This persistence is tested with data from Norway before quota regulations were instituted in 2003. The data consist of an unbalanced panel sample of all non-financial listed companies from 1989 to 2002. Persistence implies a serial correlation close to one. The main finding is low persistence, implying no discrimination in the s...

  19. Ethnic and Gender Discrimination in Recruitment: Experimental Evidence From Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmela Liebkind

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We ask (1 how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2 whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1, 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on the CVs of three bogus applicants from different ethnic groups (Finnish, Austrian and Polish and in a field experiment (Study 2, four test applicants (male and female Finns and Russians with equivalent CVs applied for 1,258 vacant jobs, addressing gender discrimination in relation to occupational gender stereotypes as well as ethnic discrimination. Together these studies cover both skilled (Study 1 and semi-skilled jobs (Study 2 and applicants from ethnic minority groups originating from within as well as outside the EU. Results show that majority group members are more likely to be hired compared to minority members (both Studies and that minority members from a higher status group are more likely to be hired than those from a lower status group (Study 1. Results also show that male applicants from the majority group were discriminated compared to women in occupations characterised as feminine, while Russian men faced recruitment discrimination compared to Russian women independently of the job’s gender stereotype (Study 2. Implications of recruitment discrimination based on ethnicity and gender are discussed.

  20. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan; Frank, Michael C; Wu, Lisa; Wade, Alex R; Boroditsky, Lera

    2007-05-08

    English and Russian color terms divide the color spectrum differently. Unlike English, Russian makes an obligatory distinction between lighter blues ("goluboy") and darker blues ("siniy"). We investigated whether this linguistic difference leads to differences in color discrimination. We tested English and Russian speakers in a speeded color discrimination task using blue stimuli that spanned the siniy/goluboy border. We found that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colors when they fell into different linguistic categories in Russian (one siniy and the other goluboy) than when they were from the same linguistic category (both siniy or both goluboy). Moreover, this category advantage was eliminated by a verbal, but not a spatial, dual task. These effects were stronger for difficult discriminations (i.e., when the colors were perceptually close) than for easy discriminations (i.e., when the colors were further apart). English speakers tested on the identical stimuli did not show a category advantage in any of the conditions. These results demonstrate that (i) categories in language affect performance on simple perceptual color tasks and (ii) the effect of language is online (and can be disrupted by verbal interference).

  1. Chromatic discrimination: differential contributions from two adapting fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether a retinal or cortical mechanism sums contributions from two adapting fields to chromatic discrimination, L/M discrimination was measured with a test annulus surrounded by an inner circular field and an outer rectangular field. A retinal summation mechanism predicted that the discrimination pattern would not change with a change in the fixation location. Therefore, the fixation was set either in the inner or the outer field in two experiments. When one of the adapting fields was “red” and the other was “green,” the adapting field where the observer fixated always had a stronger influence on chromatic discrimination. However, when one adapting field was “white” and the other was red or green, the white field always weighted more heavily than the other adapting field in determining discrimination thresholds, whether the white field or the fixation was in the inner or outer adapting field. These results suggest that a cortical mechanism determines the relative contributions from different adapting fields. PMID:22330364

  2. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  3. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...

  4. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... individual identity, and potentially relative worth, to autonomous vehicles engaging in a crash damage calculus. At the risk of introducing these ideas into the development of autonomous vehicles, this paper hopes to spark a debate to foreclose these eventualities....... that is prescribed by its code. This leads to the potential for individuated outcomes to be networked and thereby multiplied consistently to any number of vehicles implementing such a code. The aggregated effects of such algorithmic policy preferences will thus cumulate in the reallocation of benefits and burdens...

  5. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  6. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  7. Discrimination Against Migrant Workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Badarulzaman, Muhammad Hafiz; Ayub, Zainal A; Yusoff, Zuryati M; Wahab, Harlida A

    2016-01-01

    AbstractMigrant workers are often discriminated against in almost every aspect of life. Discrimination against them is due to irrational dislike of them and also negative perception towards them. It is alleged that migrant workers contribute to the crimes hike in Malaysia. Using doctrinal research methodology, this article discusses direct and perceptive discrimination against them. This article concludes that physical discriminations are mostly happened because ineffective enforcement of the...

  8. Age discrimination: the new Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sprack, John

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the principal changes introduced by the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 as they came into effect in England and Wales. Extracts from the Regulations follow the commentary. Article by John Sprack (Barrister, part-time Chairman of Employment Tribunals and author of Tottel's Guide to the Age Discrimination Regulations 2006) published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by ...

  9. A Trivial Linear Discriminant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the new model selection procedure of the discriminant analysis. Combining re-sampling technique with k-fold cross validation, we develop a k-fold cross validation for small sample method. By this breakthrough, we obtain the mean error rate in the validation samples (M2 and the 95\\% confidence interval (CI of discriminant coefficient. Moreover, we propose the model  selection  procedure  in  which  the model having a minimum M2 was  chosen  to  the  best  model.  We  apply  this  new  method and procedure to the pass/ fail determination of  exam  scores.  In  this  case,  we  fix  the constant =1 for seven linear discriminant  functions  (LDFs  and  several  good  results  were obtained as follows: 1 M2 of Fisher's LDF are over 4.6\\% worse than Revised IP-OLDF. 2 A soft-margin  SVM  for  penalty c=1  (SVM1  is  worse  than  another  mathematical  programming (MP based LDFs and logistic regression . 3 The 95\\% CI of the best discriminant coefficients was obtained. Seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF are almost the same as a trivial LDF for the linear separable model. Furthermore, if we choose the median of the coefficient of seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF,  those are almost the same as the trivial LDF for the linear separable model.

  10. Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Heyman; Helena Svaleryd; Jonas Vlachos

    2013-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  11. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  12. A discrimination problem from seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvers, E.

    1975-12-01

    Seismic discrimination between earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions is studied, utilizing magnitudes of two kinds from several seismic stations. A model is given first, where the mean values of the magnitudes are linear fuctions of a parameter describing event size. It is shown how the model parameters can be estimated after a minor restriction on their space. When the discrimination rule is derived from the model, a few different approaches are considered, and they are shown to coincide. It is found reasonabel to use a discriminant, which is linear in the magnitudes, and explicit formulas are obtained. The power of the method is expressed by a measure of separation between the alternatives, which also shows the importance of the individual magnitudes. Missing data is a frequent problem in practice, and the case is treated where there is a detection threshold for one of the magnitudes. The classicfication probabilities are computed when applying the rule to the available magnitudes, and they depend on the event size. The method is not optimal, and it is shown that it can be improved by using the technique of identification by negative evidence, i.e. by utilizing the threshold as upper bound for a missing magnitude. The model is one of general use, and the results thus have a wider applicability. (author)

  13. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  14. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  15. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or segregation...

  16. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part...

  17. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  18. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  19. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  20. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B shall...

  1. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...

  2. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  3. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination...

  4. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part...

  5. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  6. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because...

  7. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b) Specific...

  8. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  9. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...

  10. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...

  11. 14 CFR 1251.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.103 Section... OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.103 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified... of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  12. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination against...

  13. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect...

  14. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited. (1...

  15. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2) A...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the...

  17. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination...

  18. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. ...

  19. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of race...

  20. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which...