Strategy complexity of two-player, zero-sum games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
This dissertation considers two-player, zero-sum games with a focus on how complicated they are to play; a notion I will call strategy complexity. Often, knowing good bounds on the strategy complexity indicates bounds on the run time of various algorithms. In such cases I will also derive bounds...... games and concurrent mean-payoff games, I will use the notion of patience as a measure of how complicated a game is to play. I do so since a “good” strategy in those game classes can take the form of probability distributions over some set of choices. The patience is then 1=p, where p is the smallest...... non-zero probability used in one of the probability distributions. In each case I provide relatively tight bounds on the patience of the “good” strategy that requires the least patience in the worst game of the game class. I will give an improved bound on the patience of concurrent reachability games...
Robust Adaptive Dynamic Programming of Two-Player Zero-Sum Games for Continuous-Time Linear Systems.
Fu, Yue; Fu, Jun; Chai, Tianyou
2015-12-01
In this brief, an online robust adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed for two-player zero-sum games of continuous-time unknown linear systems with matched uncertainties, which are functions of system outputs and states of a completely unknown exosystem. The online algorithm is developed using the policy iteration (PI) scheme with only one iteration loop. A new analytical method is proposed for convergence proof of the PI scheme. The sufficient conditions are given to guarantee globally asymptotic stability and suboptimal property of the closed-loop system. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Fu, Yue; Chai, Tianyou
2016-12-01
Regarding two-player zero-sum games of continuous-time nonlinear systems with completely unknown dynamics, this paper presents an online adaptive algorithm for learning the Nash equilibrium solution, i.e., the optimal policy pair. First, for known systems, the simultaneous policy updating algorithm (SPUA) is reviewed. A new analytical method to prove the convergence is presented. Then, based on the SPUA, without using a priori knowledge of any system dynamics, an online algorithm is proposed to simultaneously learn in real time either the minimal nonnegative solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation or the generalized algebraic Riccati equation for linear systems as a special case, along with the optimal policy pair. The approximate solution to the HJI equation and the admissible policy pair is reexpressed by the approximation theorem. The unknown constants or weights of each are identified simultaneously by resorting to the recursive least square method. The convergence of the online algorithm to the optimal solutions is provided. A practical online algorithm is also developed. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
LP formulation of asymmetric zero-sum stochastic games
Li, Lichun
2014-12-15
This paper provides an efficient linear programming (LP) formulation of asymmetric two player zero-sum stochastic games with finite horizon. In these stochastic games, only one player is informed of the state at each stage, and the transition law is only controlled by the informed player. Compared with the LP formulation of extensive stochastic games whose size grows polynomially with respect to the size of the state and the size of the uninformed player\\'s actions, our proposed LP formulation has its size to be linear with respect to the size of the state and the size of the uninformed player, and hence greatly reduces the computational complexity. A travelling inspector problem is used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed LP formulation.
College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
2012-01-01
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…
Computing Sequential Equilibria for Two-Player Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
2006-01-01
Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies...... a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a two-player zero-sum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial time. In addition, the equilibrium we find is normal-form perfect. Our technique generalizes to general-sum games...
Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Discrete-Time Zero-Sum Games.
Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Lin, Qiao; Song, Ruizhuo
2017-01-27
In this paper, a novel adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm, called "iterative zero-sum ADP algorithm," is developed to solve infinite-horizon discrete-time two-player zero-sum games of nonlinear systems. The present iterative zero-sum ADP algorithm permits arbitrary positive semidefinite functions to initialize the upper and lower iterations. A novel convergence analysis is developed to guarantee the upper and lower iterative value functions to converge to the upper and lower optimums, respectively. When the saddle-point equilibrium exists, it is emphasized that both the upper and lower iterative value functions are proved to converge to the optimal solution of the zero-sum game, where the existence criteria of the saddle-point equilibrium are not required. If the saddle-point equilibrium does not exist, the upper and lower optimal performance index functions are obtained, respectively, where the upper and lower performance index functions are proved to be not equivalent. Finally, simulation results and comparisons are shown to illustrate the performance of the present method.
The turnpike property for dynamic discrete time zero-sum games
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Alexander J. Zaslavski
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a class of dynamic discrete-time two-player zero-sum games. We show that for a generic cost function and each initial state, there exists a pair of overtaking equilibria strategies over an infinite horizon. We also establish that for a generic cost function f, there exists a pair of stationary equilibria strategies (xf,yf such that each pair of “approximate” equilibria strategies spends almost all of its time in a small neighborhood of (xf,yf.
Computing sequential equilibria for two-player games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro
2006-01-01
Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Their algorithm has been used by AI researchers for cons...
Computing sequential equilibria for two-player games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro
2006-01-01
Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Their algorithm has been used by AI researchers for cons...
On Nash Equilibrium Strategy of Two-person Zero-sum Games with Trapezoidal Fuzzy Payoffs
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Bapi Dutta
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate Nash equilibrium strategy of two-person zero-sum games with fuzzy payoffs. Based on fuzzy max order, Maeda and Cunlin constructed several models in symmetric triangular and asymmetric triangular fuzzy environment, respectively. We extended their models in trapezoidal fuzzy environment and proposed the existence of equilibrium strategies for these models. We also established the relation between Pareto Nash equilibrium strategy and parametric bi-matrix game. In addition, numerical examples are presented to find Pareto Nash equilibrium strategy and weak Pareto Nash equilibrium strategy from bi-matrix game.
Efficient computation of discounted asymmetric information zero-sum stochastic games
Li, Lichun
2015-12-15
In asymmetric information zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. Asymmetric information games are particularly relevant for security problems, e.g., where an attacker knows its own skill set or alternatively a system administrator knows the state of its resources. In such settings, the informed player is faced with the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information. This tradeoff is typically addressed through randomization, in an effort to keep the uninformed player informationally off balance. A lingering issue is the explicit computation of such strategies. This paper, building on prior work for repeated games, presents an LP formulation to compute suboptimal strategies for the informed player in discounted asymmetric information stochastic games in which state transitions are not affected by the uninformed player. Furthermore, the paper presents bounds between the security level guaranteed by the sub-optimal strategy and the optimal value. The results are illustrated on a stochastic intrusion detection problem.
Whites See Racism as a Zero-Sum Game That They Are Now Losing.
Norton, Michael I; Sommers, Samuel R
2011-05-01
Although some have heralded recent political and cultural developments as signaling the arrival of a postracial era in America, several legal and social controversies regarding "reverse racism" highlight Whites' increasing concern about anti-White bias. We show that this emerging belief reflects Whites' view of racism as a zero-sum game, such that decreases in perceived bias against Blacks over the past six decades are associated with increases in perceived bias against Whites-a relationship not observed in Blacks' perceptions. Moreover, these changes in Whites' conceptions of racism are extreme enough that Whites have now come to view anti-White bias as a bigger societal problem than anti-Black bias.
Zero-Sum Stochastic Games with Average Payoffs:New Optimality Conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie YANG
2009-01-01
In this paper we study zero-sum stochastic games.The optimality criterion is the long-run expected average criterion,and the payoff function may have neither upper nor lower bounds.We give a new set of conditions for the existence of a value and a pair of optimal stationary strategies.Our conditions are slightly weaker than those in the previous literature,and some new sufficient conditions for the existence of a pair of optimal stationary strategies are imposed on the primitive data of the model.Our results are illustrated with a queueing system,for which our conditions are satisfied but some of the conditions in some previous literatures fail to hold.
Zhu, Yuanheng; Zhao, Dongbin; Li, Xiangjun
2017-03-01
H∞ control is a powerful method to solve the disturbance attenuation problems that occur in some control systems. The design of such controllers relies on solving the zero-sum game (ZSG). But in practical applications, the exact dynamics is mostly unknown. Identification of dynamics also produces errors that are detrimental to the control performance. To overcome this problem, an iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the continuous-time, unknown nonlinear ZSG with only online data. A model-free approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation is developed based on the policy iteration method. Control and disturbance policies and value are approximated by neural networks (NNs) under the critic-actor-disturber structure. The NN weights are solved by the least-squares method. According to the theoretical analysis, our algorithm is equivalent to a Gauss-Newton method solving an optimization problem, and it converges uniformly to the optimal solution. The online data can also be used repeatedly, which is highly efficient. Simulation results demonstrate its feasibility to solve the unknown nonlinear ZSG. When compared with other algorithms, it saves a significant amount of online measurement time.
The expected-outcome model of two-player games
Abramson, Bruce
1990-01-01
The Expected-Outcome Model of Two-Player Games deals with the expected-outcome model of two-player games, in which the relative merit of game-tree nodes, rather than board positions, is considered. The ambiguity of static evaluation and the problems it generates in the search system are examined and the development of a domain-independent static evaluator is described. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale for the mathematical study of games, followed by a discussion on some previous artificial intelligence (AI) research efforts on game-trees. The nex
The zero-sum game of pathway optimization: emerging paradigms for tuning gene expression.
Solomon, Kevin V; Prather, Kristala L J
2011-09-01
With increasing price volatility and growing awareness of the lack of sustainability of traditional chemical synthesis, microbial chemical production has been tapped as a promising renewable alternative for the generation of diverse, stereospecific compounds. Nonetheless, many attempts to generate them are not yet economically viable. Due to the zero-sum nature of microbial resources, traditional strategies of pathway optimization are attaining minimal returns. This result is in part a consequence of the gross changes in host physiology resulting from such efforts and underscores the need for more precise and subtle forms of gene modulation. In this review, we describe alternative strategies and emerging paradigms to address this problem and highlight potential solutions from the emerging field of synthetic biology.
Computing Equilibria of Two Player Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
with computing equilibria of game theoretic models where only two agents are involved. The work described ranges from the theoretical development of algorithms for computing refined equilibria, which satisfy additional constraints beyond being an equilibrium, to the practical solving of real life games. Part I...... Theory. The application areas of Game Theory fathoms most academic disciplines, all the way from Political Science and Economics through Biology to Computer Science. It also has played an important role in areas Philosophy and Ethics. It has even been used to politically justify military conflicts...... to the prediction. Predicting behavior of rational agents has many application areas. The phrasing of the last paragraph was vague for sole purpose of not implying any restriction on what agents are and in what context they act. The whole area of reasoning about rational interaction of agents is known as Game...
Zero-sum versus nonzero-sum differential game approach to missile guidance
Trottemant, E.J.; Vermeulen, A.; Weiss, M.
2007-01-01
New developments and improvements on evasive missiles have led to a situation in which the current missile guidance laws have difficulties to intercept maneuvering targets. The nature of the interception problem with 2 non-cooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Recent studies
Computing Equilibria of Two Player Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
to the prediction. Predicting behavior of rational agents has many application areas. The phrasing of the last paragraph was vague for sole purpose of not implying any restriction on what agents are and in what context they act. The whole area of reasoning about rational interaction of agents is known as Game......Predicting the future is a useful skill to have. It may not be impressive to predict that a stone will fall if we drop it, or that a tree will tumble if we chop it, as these systems follow predetermined behavior. It becomes harder to predict when free will enters the picture. If a single rational...... individual goals. Actions of one agent influences the situations and outcomes of other agents. The situation is not any easier if we are one of the agents in the system, trying to choose what action to take. We still want to predict what the others might do, so we can plan our best response with respect...
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Manoj Srinivasan
Full Text Available Jumping on trampolines is a popular backyard recreation. In some trampoline games (e.g., "seat drop war", when two people land on the trampoline with only a small time-lag, one person bounces much higher than the other, as if energy has been transferred from one to the other. First, we illustrate this energy-transfer in a table-top demonstration, consisting of two balls dropped onto a mini-trampoline, landing almost simultaneously, sometimes resulting in one ball bouncing much higher than the other. Next, using a simple mathematical model of two masses bouncing passively on a massless trampoline with no dissipation, we show that with specific landing conditions, it is possible to transfer all the kinetic energy of one mass to the other through the trampoline - in a single bounce. For human-like parameters, starting with equal energy, the energy transfer is maximal when one person lands approximately when the other is at the bottom of her bounce. The energy transfer persists even for very stiff surfaces. The energy-conservative mathematical model exhibits complex non-periodic long-term motions. To complement this passive bouncing model, we also performed a game-theoretic analysis, appropriate when both players are acting strategically to steal the other player's energy. We consider a zero-sum game in which each player's goal is to gain the other player's kinetic energy during a single bounce, by extending her leg during flight. For high initial energy and a symmetric situation, the best strategy for both subjects (minimax strategy and Nash equilibrium is to use the shortest available leg length and not extend their legs. On the other hand, an asymmetry in initial heights allows the player with more energy to gain even more energy in the next bounce. Thus synchronous bouncing unstable is unstable both for passive bouncing and when leg lengths are controlled as in game-theoretic equilibria.
What a smile means: contextual beliefs and facial emotion expressions in a nonverbal zero-sum game
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Fábio Pimenta De Pádua Júnior
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Research into the authenticity of facial emotion expressions often focuses on the physical properties of the face while paying little attention to the role of beliefs in emotion perception. Further, the literature most often investigates how people express a pre-determined emotion rather than what facial emotion expressions people strategically choose to express. To fill these gaps, this paper proposes a nonverbal zero-sum game – the Face X Game – to assess the role of contextual beliefs and strategic displays of facial emotion expression in interpersonal interactions. This new research paradigm was used in a series of three studies, where two participants are asked to play the role of the sender (individual expressing emotional information on his/her face or the observer (individual interpreting the meaning of that expression. Study 1 examines the outcome of the game with reference to the sex of the pair, where senders won more frequently when the pair was comprised of at least one female. Study 2 examines the strategic display of facial emotion expressions. The outcome of the game was again contingent upon the sex of the pair. Among female pairs, senders won the game more frequently, replicating the pattern of results from study 1. We also demonstrate that senders who strategically express an emotion incongruent with the valence of the event (e.g., smile after seeing a negative event are able to mislead observers, who tend to hold a congruent belief about the meaning of the emotion expression. If sending an incongruent signal helps to explain why female senders win more frequently, it logically follows that female observers were more prone to hold a congruent, and therefore inaccurate, belief. This prospect implies that while female senders are willing and/or capable of displaying fake smiles, paired-female observers are not taking this into account. Study 3 investigates the role of contextual factors by manipulating female observers
Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels;
2012-01-01
Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games.......Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....
Two-Player and Two-Strategy Symmetric Evolutionary Game with Fluctuations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Wei-Bing; WANG Xian-Jia
2007-01-01
Research on evolutionary games in a noisy environment is still a non-solved problem. By using Markov process, we build a dynamic model for two-player and two-strategy symmetric game in noisy environment. Some illustrative examples are presented and the results are determined by simulation experiments.
How Two Players Negotiate Rhythm in a Shared Rhythm Game
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
2012-01-01
In a design and working prototype of a shared music interface eleven teams of two people were to collaborate about filling in holes with tones and beats in an evolving ground rhythm. The hypothesis was that users would tune into each other and have sections of characteristic rhythmical relationsh......In a design and working prototype of a shared music interface eleven teams of two people were to collaborate about filling in holes with tones and beats in an evolving ground rhythm. The hypothesis was that users would tune into each other and have sections of characteristic rhythmical...... from each other. Video analysis of user interaction shines light upon how users engaged in a rhythmical relationship, and interviews give information about the user experience in terms of the game play and user collaboration. Based on the findings in this paper we propose design guidelines...... for collaborative rhythmical game play....
How to play two-players restricted quantum games with 10 cards
Aerts, D; D'Hooghe, B; Posiewnik, A; Pykacz, J; Aerts, Diederik; Amira, Haroun; Hooghe, Bart D'; Posiewnik, Andrzej; Pykacz, Jaroslaw
2005-01-01
We show that it is perfectly possible to play 'restricted' two-players, two-strategies quantum games proposed originally by Marinatto and Weber having as the only equipment a pack of 10 cards. The 'quantum board' of such a model of these quantum games is an extreme simplification of 'macroscopic quantum machines' proposed by one of the authors in numerous papers that allow to simulate by macroscopic means various experiments performed on two entangled quantum objects
Probabilistic one-player Ramsey games via deterministic two-player games
Belfrage, Michael; Spöhel, Reto
2009-01-01
Consider the following probabilistic one-player game: The board is a graph with $n$ vertices, which initially contains no edges. In each step, a new edge is drawn uniformly at random from all non-edges and is presented to the player, henceforth called Painter. Painter must assign one of $r$ available colors to each edge immediately, where $r \\geq 2$ is a fixed integer. The game is over as soon as a monochromatic copy of some fixed graph $F$ has been created, and Painter's goal is to 'survive' for as many steps as possible before this happens. We present a new technique for deriving upper bounds on the threshold of this game, i.e., on the typical number of steps Painter will survive with an optimal strategy. More specifically, we consider a deterministic two-player variant of the game where the edges are not chosen randomly, but by a second player Builder. However, Builder has to adhere to the restriction that, for some real number $d$, the ratio of edges to vertices in all subgraphs of the evolving board neve...
Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra.
Chappell, James M; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
2012-01-01
The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of geometric algebra (GA). The main advantage of this framework is that the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, and hence the quantum game becomes a proper extension of the classical game, avoiding a criticism of other quantum game frameworks. We produce a general solution for two-player games, and as examples, we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt in the EPR setting. The use of GA allows a quantum-mechanical analysis without the use of complex numbers or the Dirac Bra-ket notation, and hence is more accessible to the non-physicist.
Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra.
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James M Chappell
Full Text Available The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of geometric algebra (GA. The main advantage of this framework is that the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, and hence the quantum game becomes a proper extension of the classical game, avoiding a criticism of other quantum game frameworks. We produce a general solution for two-player games, and as examples, we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt in the EPR setting. The use of GA allows a quantum-mechanical analysis without the use of complex numbers or the Dirac Bra-ket notation, and hence is more accessible to the non-physicist.
Spike-based decision learning of Nash equilibria in two-player games.
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Johannes Friedrich
Full Text Available Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic and mixed (stochastic Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games.
Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games
Friedrich, Johannes; Senn, Walter
2012-01-01
Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD)-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games. PMID:23028289
How To Play Two-Player Restricted Quantum Games with 10 Cards
Aerts, Diederik; D'Hooghe, Bart; Posiewnik, Andrzej; Pykacz, Jaroslaw; Dehaene, Jeroen; de Moor, Bart
2008-01-01
We show that it is possible to play ‘restricted’ two-player quantum games proposed originally by Marinatto and Weber (Phys. Lett. A 272:291 303, 2000) by purely macroscopic means, in the simplest case having as the only equipment a pack of 10 cards. Our example shows also that some apparently ‘genuine quantum’ results, even those that emerge as a consequence of dealing with entangled states, can be obtained by suitable application of Kolmogorovian probability calculus and secondary-school mathematics, without application of the ‘Hilbert space machinery’.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永强; 付钰; 吴晓平
2013-01-01
针对现实网络攻防环境中防御措施的滞后性以及攻防对抗过程中双方收益不完全相等的问题,提出一种基于非零和博弈的主动防御策略选取方法.首先依据攻击者与系统的博弈关系,结合网络安全问题实际情况提出网络安全博弈图；其次在此基础上给出一种基于非零和博弈的网络攻防博弈模型,结合主机重要度以及防御措施成功率计算单一安全属性攻防收益值,进而根据攻防意图对整体攻防收益进行量化；最后通过分析纳什均衡得到最优主动防御策略.实例验证了该方法在攻击行为预测和主动防御策略选取方面的有效性和可行性.%In order to deal with the problems that defensive measures are lagging behind the attack and that the payoffs of attacker and defender are unequal, an active strategy selection method based on non-zero-sum game was proposed. Firstly, a network security game graph was presented combined with the actual situation of network security and the relationship between the attacker and the defender. Secondly, a network attack-defense game model was proposed based on non-zero-sum game. The attack-defense cost of single security attribute was calculated combined with the host important degree and success rate of defense measures, and according to attack-defense intention, the total attack-defense cost was quantified. Finally, the best strategy for defender was obtained by analyzing the Nash equilibrium of the game model. A representative example was given to illustrate the efficacy and feasibility of the method on attack prediction and active defense strategy selection.
Quantitative Pedagogy: A Digital Two Player Game to Examine Communicative Competence
Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Carrillo, Facundo; Garbulsky, Gerry; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Sigman, Mariano
2015-01-01
Inner concepts are much richer than the words that describe them. Our general objective is to inquire what are the best procedures to communicate conceptual knowledge. We construct a simplified and controlled setup emulating important variables of pedagogy amenable to quantitative analysis. To this aim, we designed a game inspired in Chinese Whispers, to investigate which attributes of a description affect its capacity to faithfully convey an image. This is a two player game: an emitter and a receiver. The emitter was shown a simple geometric figure and was asked to describe it in words. He was informed that this description would be passed to the receiver who had to replicate the drawing from this description. We capitalized on vast data obtained from an android app to quantify the effect of different aspects of a description on communication precision. We show that descriptions more effectively communicate an image when they are coherent and when they are procedural. Instead, the creativity, the use of metaphors and the use of mathematical concepts do not affect its fidelity. PMID:26554833
Quantitative Pedagogy: A Digital Two Player Game to Examine Communicative Competence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld
Full Text Available Inner concepts are much richer than the words that describe them. Our general objective is to inquire what are the best procedures to communicate conceptual knowledge. We construct a simplified and controlled setup emulating important variables of pedagogy amenable to quantitative analysis. To this aim, we designed a game inspired in Chinese Whispers, to investigate which attributes of a description affect its capacity to faithfully convey an image. This is a two player game: an emitter and a receiver. The emitter was shown a simple geometric figure and was asked to describe it in words. He was informed that this description would be passed to the receiver who had to replicate the drawing from this description. We capitalized on vast data obtained from an android app to quantify the effect of different aspects of a description on communication precision. We show that descriptions more effectively communicate an image when they are coherent and when they are procedural. Instead, the creativity, the use of metaphors and the use of mathematical concepts do not affect its fidelity.
Quantitative Pedagogy: A Digital Two Player Game to Examine Communicative Competence.
Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Carrillo, Facundo; Garbulsky, Gerry; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Sigman, Mariano
2015-01-01
Inner concepts are much richer than the words that describe them. Our general objective is to inquire what are the best procedures to communicate conceptual knowledge. We construct a simplified and controlled setup emulating important variables of pedagogy amenable to quantitative analysis. To this aim, we designed a game inspired in Chinese Whispers, to investigate which attributes of a description affect its capacity to faithfully convey an image. This is a two player game: an emitter and a receiver. The emitter was shown a simple geometric figure and was asked to describe it in words. He was informed that this description would be passed to the receiver who had to replicate the drawing from this description. We capitalized on vast data obtained from an android app to quantify the effect of different aspects of a description on communication precision. We show that descriptions more effectively communicate an image when they are coherent and when they are procedural. Instead, the creativity, the use of metaphors and the use of mathematical concepts do not affect its fidelity.
Stochastic mean payoff games: smoothed analysis and approximation schemes
Boros, Endre; Elbassioni, Khaled; Fouz, Mahmoud; Gurvich, Vladimir; Makino, Kazuhisa; Manthey, Bodo; Aceto, L.; Henzinger, M.; Sgall, J.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider two-player zero-sum stochastic mean payoff games with perfect information modeled by a digraph with black, white, and random vertices. These BWR-games games are polynomially equivalent with the classical Gillette games, which include many well-known subclasses, such as cyc
Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?
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Ana-Maria Ghimiş
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.
Dehwah, Ahmad H.
2014-04-01
This poster is aimed at solving the problem of maximizing the energy margin of a solar-powered sensor network at a fixed time horizon, to maximize the network performance during an event to monitor. Using a game theoretic approach, the optimal routing maximizing the energy margin of the network at a given time under solar power forcing can be computed in a decentralized way and solved exactly through dynamic programming with a low overall complexity. We also show that this decentralized algorithm is simple enough to be implemented on practical sensor nodes. Such an algorithm would be very useful whenever the energy margin of a solar-powered sensor network has to be maximized at a specific time. © 2014 IEEE.
BCI Could Make Old Two-Player Games Even More Fun: A Proof of Concept with “Connect Four”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmanuel Maby
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present a brain-computer interface (BCI version of the famous “Connect Four”. Target selection is based on brain event-related responses measured with nine EEG sensors. Two players compete against each other using their brain activity only. Importantly, we turned the general difficulty of producing a reliable BCI command into an advantage, by extending the game play and rules, in a way that adds fun to the game and might well prove to trigger up motivation in future studies. The principle of this new BCI is directly inspired from our own implementation of the classical P300 Speller (Maby et al. 2010, Perrin et al. 2011. We here establish a proof of principle that the same electrophysiological markers can be used to design an efficient two-player game. Experimental evaluation on two competing healthy subjects yielded an average accuracy of 82%, which is in line with our previous results on many participants and demonstrates that the BCI “Connect Four” can effectively be controlled. Interestingly, the duration of the game is not significantly affected by the usual slowness of BCI commands. This suggests that this kind of BCI games could be of interest to healthy players as well as to disabled people who cannot play with classical games.
Speed Versus Accuracy: A Zero Sum Game
2009-05-11
Zimbardo , (Oxford University Press, New York, 2007), 87. Gerwehr and Hubbard stated terrorism could be seen as a form of social influence, employing...G. Zimbardo , “The Strategy of Terrorism and Psychology of Maas-Mediated Fear,” Psychology of Terrorism, ed. Bruce Bongar, Lisa M. Brown, Larry E...Beutler, James N. Breckenridge, Philip G. Zimbardo , (Oxford University Press, New York, 2007), 122. They stated this supports the asymmetrical principle
Solving Simple Stochastic Games with Few Random Vertices
Gimbert, H.; Horn, F.
2009-01-01
Simple stochastic games are two-player zero-sum stochastic games with turn-based moves, perfect information, and reachability winning conditions. We present two new algorithms computing the values of simple stochastic games. Both of them rely on the existence of optimal permutation strategies, a cla
Zero-Sum Problems with Subgroup Weights
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S D Adhikari; A A Ambily; B Sury
2010-06-01
In this note, we generalize some theorems on zero-sums with weights from [1], [4] and [5] in two directions. In particular, we consider $\\mathbb{Z}^d_p$ for a general and subgroups of $Z^∗_p$ as weights.
A quantum-like view to a generalized two players game
Bagarello, Fabio
2015-01-01
This paper consider the possibility of using some quantum tools in decision making strategies. In particular, we consider here a dynamical open quantum system helping two players, $\\G_1$ and $\\G_2$, to take their decisions in a specific context. We see that, within our approach, the final choices of the players do not depend in general on their initial {\\em mental states}, but they are driven essentially by the environment which interacts with them. The model proposed here also considers interactions of different nature between the two players, and it is simple enough to allow for an analytical solution of the equations of motion.
Quantum-Like Model for Decision Making Process in Two Players Game. A Non-Kolmogorovian Model
Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori; Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-01
In experiments of games, players frequently make choices which are regarded as irrational in game theory. In papers of Khrennikov (Information Dynamics in Cognitive, Psychological and Anomalous Phenomena. Fundamental Theories of Physics, Kluwer Academic, Norwell, 2004; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 155:4-17, 2005; Biosystems 84:225-241, 2006; Found. Phys. 35(10):1655-1693, 2005; in QP-PQ Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis, vol. XXIV, pp. 105-117, 2009), it was pointed out that statistics collected in such the experiments have "quantum-like" properties, which can not be explained in classical probability theory. In this paper, we design a simple quantum-like model describing a decision-making process in a two-players game and try to explain a mechanism of the irrational behavior of players. Finally we discuss a mathematical frame of non-Kolmogorovian system in terms of liftings (Accardi and Ohya, in Appl. Math. Optim. 39:33-59, 1999).
Gao's Conjecture on Zero-Sum Sequences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Sury; R Thangadurai
2002-08-01
In this paper, we shall address three closely-related conjectures due to van Emde Boas, W D Gao and Kemnitz on zero-sum problems on $\\mathbf{Z}_p \\oplus \\mathbf{Z}_p$. We prove a number of results including a proof of the conjecture of Gao for the prime = 7 (Theorem 3.1). The conjecture of Kemnitz is also proved (Propositions 4.6, 4.9, 4.10) for many classes of sequences.
Monomial strategies for concurrent reachability games and other stochastic games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2013-01-01
We consider two-player zero-sum finite (but infinite-horizon) stochastic games with limiting average payoffs. We define a family of stationary strategies for Player I parameterized by ε > 0 to be monomial, if for each state k and each action j of Player I in state k except possibly one action, we...
Generation of Strategies for Environmental Deception in Two-Player Normal-Form Games
2015-06-18
strategy and the mark plays the equilibrium of the deceptive game. As described earlier, the games are structured so that the maxi - mum value in the...on the maxi - mum change to g as shown in Equation 31. ∙ ′ + ( + ) ∙ (1 − ′) < ∙ ′ + ∙ (1 − ′) ∙ ′ + + − ( + ...highlight their relative strengths and weaknesses , but combinations of multiple types are possible if cost is available. The effectiveness of each
Two-Player 2 × 2 Quantum Game in Spin System
Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen
2017-02-01
In this work, we study the payoffs of quantum Samaritan's dilemma played with the thermal entangled state of XXZ spin model in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. We discuss the effect of anisotropy parameter, strength of DM interaction and temperature on quantum Samaritan's dilemma. It is shown that although increasing DM interaction and anisotropy parameter generate entanglement, players payoffs are not simply decided by entanglement and depend on other game components such as strategy and payoff measurement. In general, Entanglement and Alice's payoff evolve to a relatively stable value with anisotropy parameter, and develop to a fixed value with DM interaction strength, while Bob's payoff changes in the reverse direction. It is noted that the augment of Alice's payoff compensates for the loss of Bob's payoff. For different strategies, payoffs have different changes with temperature. Our results and discussions can be analogously generalized to other 2 × 2 quantum static games in various spin models.
Solving Simple Stochastic Games with Few Random Vertices
Gimbert, Hugo; Horn, Florian
2007-01-01
Simple stochastic games are two-player zero-sum stochastic games with turn-based moves, perfect information, and reachability winning conditions. We present two new algorithms computing the values of simple stochastic games. Both of them rely on the existence of optimal permutation strategies, a class of positional strategies derived from permutations of the random vertices. The "permutation-enumeration" algorithm performs an exhaustive search among these strategies, while the "permutation-im...
A zero-sum monetary system, interest rates, and implications
Hanley, Brian P
2015-01-01
To the knowledge of the author, this is the first time it has been shown that interest rates that are extremely high by modern standards are necessary within a zero-sum monetary system. Extreme interest rates persisted for long periods of time in many places. Prior to the invention of banking, most money was hard-money in the form of some type of coin. Here a model is presented that examines the interest rate required to succeed as an investor in a zero-sum hard-money system. Even when the pl...
Fast algorithms for finding proper strategies in game trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
2008-01-01
We show how to find a normal form proper equilibrium in behavior strategies of a given two-player zero-sum extensive form game with imperfect information but perfect recall. Our algorithm solves a finite sequence of linear programs and runs in polynomial time. For the case of a perfect informatio...... game, we show how to find a normal form proper equilibrium in linear time by a simple backwards induction procedure....
Relaxing the zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory.
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S
2008-05-21
The zero-sum assumption is one of the ingredients of the standard neutral model of biodiversity by Hubbell. It states that the community is saturated all the time, which in this model means that the total number of individuals in the community is constant over time, and therefore introduces a coupling between species abundances. It was shown recently that a neutral model with independent species, and thus without any coupling between species abundances, has the same sampling formula (given a fixed number of individuals in the sample) as the standard model [Etienne, R.S., Alonso, D., McKane, A.J., 2007. The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory. J. Theor. Biol. 248, 522-536]. The equilibria of both models are therefore equivalent from a practical point of view. Here we show that this equivalence can be extended to a class of neutral models with density-dependence on the community-level. This result can be interpreted as robustness of the model, i.e. insensitivity of the model to the precise interaction of the species in a neutral community. It can also be interpreted as a lack of resolution, as different mechanisms of interactions between neutral species cannot be distinguished using only a single snapshot of species abundance data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林胜斌; 黄开枝; 王文; 李明亮
2015-01-01
In a four-node network in the presence of a malicious jammer,the correlated jamming from the malicious jammer disrupted the legitimate communication.To cope with this security problem,this paper proposed a secure transmission method of transmitting the source signals and the structural noise synchronously.The structural noise is a kind of structural word known to the legitimate node,thus only jamming the non-cooperative nodes and enhancing the security.The detail steps are the following.First,the transmitter and the malicious jammer were modeled as a continuous zero-sum game with the utility function of secrecy rate.Then,their strategies were determined according to the channel state,and the corre-sponding Nash equilibrium was analyzed.Finally,the equilibrium was used to guide the power allocation for source signals and structural noise to enhance the system performance.Numerical simulation results show that the average secrecy rate of the proposed method is higher than the original scheme.%在存在恶意干扰者的四节点网络中，恶意干扰者通过发送相关干扰破坏合法通信。针对该安全问题，本文提出了一种源信号和结构性噪声联合发送的安全传输方法，其中，结构性噪声是指合法通信双方共享的结构性码字，它只干扰非合作节点，从而提高系统安全性能。具体步骤为，首先建立发送方和恶意干扰者之间以安全速率为目标函数的连续零和博弈模型；然后根据信道状态确定各自的策略集，并分析策略集对应的纳什均衡；最后利用均衡解指导发送方合理分配源信号和结构性噪声的功率。数值仿真表明所提方法下的安全速率比原有方案的要高。
Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2012-01-01
Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....
Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2012-01-01
Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....
Discrete-time optimal control and games on large intervals
Zaslavski, Alexander J
2017-01-01
Devoted to the structure of approximate solutions of discrete-time optimal control problems and approximate solutions of dynamic discrete-time two-player zero-sum games, this book presents results on properties of approximate solutions in an interval that is independent lengthwise, for all sufficiently large intervals. Results concerning the so-called turnpike property of optimal control problems and zero-sum games in the regions close to the endpoints of the time intervals are the main focus of this book. The description of the structure of approximate solutions on sufficiently large intervals and its stability will interest graduate students and mathematicians in optimal control and game theory, engineering, and economics. This book begins with a brief overview and moves on to analyze the structure of approximate solutions of autonomous nonconcave discrete-time optimal control Lagrange problems.Next the structures of approximate solutions of autonomous discrete-time optimal control problems that are discret...
Near-Nash equilibrium strategies for LQ differential games with inaccurate state information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available ε -Nash equilibrium or “near equilibrium” for a linear quadratic cost game is considered. Due to inaccurate state information, the standard solution for feedback Nash equilibrium cannot be applied. Instead, an estimation of the players' states is substituted into the optimal control strategies equation obtained for perfect state information. The magnitude of the ε in the ε -Nash equilibrium will depend on the quality of the estimation process. To illustrate this approach, a Luenberger-type observer is used in the numerical example to generate the players' state estimates in a two-player non-zero-sum LQ differential game.
Supermodular games and potential games.
Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.
2003-01-01
Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and two-person Cournot games.
Stochastic Switching Games and Duopolistic Competition in Emissions Markets
Ludkovski, Michael
2010-01-01
We study optimal behavior of energy producers under a CO_2 emission abatement program. We focus on a two-player discrete-time model where each producer is sequentially optimizing her emission and production schedules. The game-theoretic aspect is captured through a reduced-form price-impact model for the CO_2 allowance price. Such duopolistic competition results in a new type of a non-zero-sum stochastic switching game on finite horizon. Existence of game Nash equilibria is established through generalization to randomized switching strategies. No uniqueness is possible and we therefore consider a variety of correlated equilibrium mechanisms. We prove existence of correlated equilibrium points in switching games and give a recursive description of equilibrium game values. A simulation-based algorithm to solve for the game values is constructed and a numerical example is presented.
Wei, Qinglai; Song, Ruizhuo; Yan, Pengfei
2016-02-01
This paper is concerned with a new data-driven zero-sum neuro-optimal control problem for continuous-time unknown nonlinear systems with disturbance. According to the input-output data of the nonlinear system, an effective recurrent neural network is introduced to reconstruct the dynamics of the nonlinear system. Considering the system disturbance as a control input, a two-player zero-sum optimal control problem is established. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is developed to obtain the optimal control under the worst case of the disturbance. Three single-layer neural networks, including one critic and two action networks, are employed to approximate the performance index function, the optimal control law, and the disturbance, respectively, for facilitating the implementation of the ADP method. Convergence properties of the ADP method are developed to show that the system state will converge to a finite neighborhood of the equilibrium. The weight matrices of the critic and the two action networks are also convergent to finite neighborhoods of their optimal ones. Finally, the simulation results will show the effectiveness of the developed data-driven ADP methods.
Supermodular Games and Potential Games
Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.
2001-01-01
Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and
Supermodular Games and Potential Games
Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.
2001-01-01
Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and
Research on zero-sum magnetic field integral technology of optical current sensors
Li, Shen-wang; Yu, Wen-bin; Zhang, Guo-qing; Guo, Zhi-zhong; Shen, Yan
2013-10-01
An architecture based on the Faraday effect to minimize the crosstalk effect in optical current sensors (OCSs) is proposed. It was demonstrated that the magnetic field integral along a discrete loop can meet Ampere's law under certain conditions, and the mathematical model of zero-sum points was given. Based on it, a zero-sum OCS (ZOCS) was proposed, which consists of several OCSs forming a symmetrical discrete loop. Ideally, the currents that flow outside the ZOCS do not contribute to the measurement of the currents inside it. The experimental results showed that the magnetic crosstalk-induced errors of ZOCS were less than 0.2%, and the influence of external current was reduced one order compared with conventional OCSs.
On the Davenport constant and on the structure of extremal zero-sum free sequences
Geroldinger, Alfred; Philipp, Andreas
2010-01-01
Let $G = C_{n_1} \\oplus ... \\oplus C_{n_r}$ with $1 < n_1 \\t ... \\t n_r$ be a finite abelian group, $\\mathsf d^* (G) = n_1 + ... + n_r - r$, and let $\\mathsf d (G)$ denote the maximal length of a zero-sum free sequence over $G$. Then $\\mathsf d (G) \\ge \\mathsf d^* (G)$, and the standing conjecture is that equality holds for $G = C_n^r$. We show that equality does not hold for $C_2 \\oplus C_{2n}^r$, where $n \\ge 3$ is odd and $r \\ge 4$. This gives new information on the structure of extremal zero-sum free sequences over $C_{2n}^r$.
A Faster Algorithm for Solving One-Clock Priced Timed Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2013-01-01
previously known time bound for solving one-clock priced timed games was 2O(n2+m) , due to Rutkowski. For our improvement, we introduce and study a new algorithm for solving one-clock priced timed games, based on the sweep-line technique from computational geometry and the strategy iteration paradigm from......One-clock priced timed games is a class of two-player, zero-sum, continuous-time games that was defined and thoroughly studied in previous works. We show that one-clock priced timed games can be solved in time m 12 n n O(1), where n is the number of states and m is the number of actions. The best...
The Stock Market as a Game: An Agent Based Approach to Trading in Stocks
Engle, Eric
2008-01-01
Just as war is sometimes fallaciously represented as a zero sum game -- when in fact war is a negative sum game - stock market trading, a positive sum game over time, is often erroneously represented as a zero sum game. This is called the "zero sum fallacy" -- the erroneous belief that one trader in a stock market exchange can only improve their position provided some other trader's position deteriorates. However, a positive sum game in absolute terms can be recast as a zero sum game in relative terms. Similarly it appears that negative sum games in absolute terms have been recast as zero sum games in relative terms: otherwise, why would zero sum games be used to represent situations of war? Such recasting may have heuristic or pedagogic interest but recasting must be clearly explicited or risks generating confusion. Keywords: Game theory, stock trading and agent based AI.
An addition theorem and maximal zero-sum free sets in Z/pZ
Eric, Balandraud
2009-01-01
Using the polynomial method in additive number theory, this article establishes a new addition theorem for the set of subsums of a set satisfying $A\\cap(-A)=\\emptyset$ in $\\mathbb{Z}/p\\mathbb{Z}$: \\[|\\Sigma(A)|\\geqslant\\min{p,1+\\frac{|A|(|A|+1)}{2}}.\\] The proof is similar in nature to Alon, Nathanson and Ruzsa's proof of the Erd\\"os-Heilbronn conjecture (proved initially by Dias da Silva and Hamidoune \\cite{DH}). A key point in the proof of this theorem is the evaluation of some binomial determinants that have been studied in the work of Gessel and Viennot. A generalization to the set of subsums of a sequence is derived, leading to a structural result on zero-sum free sequences. As another application, it is established that for any prime number $p$, a maximal zero-sum free set in $\\mathbb{Z}/p\\mathbb{Z}$ has cardinality the greatest integer $k$ such that \\[\\frac{k(k+1)}{2}
A Zero-Sum Electromagnetic Evader-Interrogator Differential Game with Uncertainty
2011-02-21
x, z) = z + v0(x). (2.4) A discussion of the relationship between this state and the semigroup generated by L can be found in [15]. Since g = ṽ + z...analytic semigroup S(t) on H, V and V∗. Note that V is compactly embedded in H. Hence, S(t) on H is compact (see [14, page 394]). In addition, by Theorem 2.1
Judicial Trust as a Zero-Sum Game in Turbulent Times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mayoral, Juan A.
2017-01-01
The current European Rule of Law crisis has resulted in a situation of distrust between national and European institutions, which has led to the necessity to reflect about the relevance of trust and its implications for the creation and sustainability of a European legal area. In this regard, Pro...... of trust among judges in the European legal system based on recent empirical findings....
The Study of Foreign Languages Should Not Be a Zero-Sum Game
Brockmann, Stephen
2009-01-01
The move of the University of Southern California to eliminate its German department in order to shift resources to Asian languages has sparked a debate about the relative importance of learning European languages. College administrators seem to assume that global shifts in economic power call for changes in the distribution of their budget for…
Beyond Zero-Sum Games: Multiculturalism as Enriched Law Training for All Students.
Dominguez, David
1994-01-01
This article proposes that cultural diversity in legal education should help all students to reexamine their limited perceptions of justice. "Negotiable learning" (multicultural negotiation between groups of students) teaches students how to work through forms of bigotry. The approach is applied to teaching of criminal law, labor law, and public…
Work and Life: The End of the Zero-Sum Game.
Friedman, Stewart D.; Christensen, Perry; DeGroot, Jessica
1998-01-01
In an approach to balancing work and personal life that benefits organizations and individual employees, managers are guided by three principles: (1) clarify what is important; (2) support employees as whole people; and (3) experiment with how work is done to enhance the organization's performance while creating time and energy for employees'…
Work and Life: The End of the Zero-Sum Game.
Friedman, Stewart D.; Christensen, Perry; DeGroot, Jessica
1998-01-01
In an approach to balancing work and personal life that benefits organizations and individual employees, managers are guided by three principles: (1) clarify what is important; (2) support employees as whole people; and (3) experiment with how work is done to enhance the organization's performance while creating time and energy for employees'…
Prudente, Matthew James
Given a graph G with pebbles on the vertices, we define a pebbling move as removing two pebbles from a vertex u, placing one pebble on a neighbor v, and discarding the other pebble, like a toll. The pebbling number pi( G) is the least number of pebbles needed so that every arrangement of pi(G) pebbles can place a pebble on any vertex through a sequence of pebbling moves. We introduce a new variation on graph pebbling called two-player pebbling. In this, players called the mover and the defender alternate moves, with the stipulation that the defender cannot reverse the previous move. The mover wins only if they can place a pebble on a specified vertex and the defender wins if the mover cannot. We define η(G), analogously, as the minimum number of pebbles such that given every configuration of the η( G) pebbles and every specified vertex r, the mover has a winning strategy. First, we will investigate upper bounds for η( G) on various classes of graphs and find a certain structure for which the defender has a winning strategy, no matter how many pebbles are in a configuration. Then, we characterize winning configurations for both players on a special class of diameter 2 graphs. Finally, we show winning configurations for the mover on paths using a recursive argument.
Games, theory and applications
Thomas, L C
2011-01-01
Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition
Game theory a nontechnical introduction
Davis, Morton D
1997-01-01
""A lucid and penetrating development of game theory that will appeal to the intuition . . . a most valuable contribution."" - Douglas R. Hofstadter Fascinating, accessible introduction to enormously important intellectual system with numerous applications to social, economic, political problems. Newly revised edition offers overview of game theory, then lucid coverage of the two-person zero-sum game with equilibrium points; the general, two-person zero-sum game; utility theory; other topics. Problems at start of each chapter.
Twist neutrality, a zero sum rule for oriented closed space curves with applications to circular DNA
Bohr, Jakob
2013-01-01
The interplay between global constraints and local material properties of chain molecules is a subject of emerging interest. Molecules that are intrinsically chiral, such as double-stranded DNA, is one example. They exhibit a non-vanishing strain-twist coupling, which depends on the local geometry, i.e. on curvature and torsion, yet the paths of closed loops are restricted by White's theorem. We suggest that the reciprocation of these principles leads to a twist neutrality condition. I.e. to a zero sum rule for the incremental change in the rate of winding along the curve. This has direct implications for plasmids. For small circular microDNAs it follows that there must exist a minimum length for these to be double-stranded. A first estimate of this minimum length is 120 base pairs. This is not far from the 80 base pairs which is about the smallest length observed in experimental studies. Slightly longer microDNAs are better described as an ellipse and a relationship between length and eccentricity for these ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Smithson
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi. Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China. Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.
Smithson, Michael; Sopeña, Arthur; Platow, Michael J
2015-01-01
This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi). Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China). Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.
Settling the Complexity of Computing Two-Player Nash Equilibria
Chen, Xi; Teng, Shang-Hua
2007-01-01
We settle a long-standing open question in algorithmic game theory. We prove that Bimatrix, the problem of finding a Nash equilibrium in a two-player game, is complete for the complexity class PPAD Polynomial Parity Argument, Directed version) introduced by Papadimitriou in 1991. This is the first of a series of results concerning the complexity of Nash equilibria. In particular, we prove the following theorems: Bimatrix does not have a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme unless every problem in PPAD is solvable in polynomial time. The smoothed complexity of the classic Lemke-Howson algorithm and, in fact, of any algorithm for Bimatrix is not polynomial unless every problem in PPAD is solvable in randomized polynomial time. Our results demonstrate that, even in the simplest form of non-cooperative games, equilibrium computation and approximation are polynomial-time equivalent to fixed point computation. Our results also have two broad complexity implications in mathematical economics and operations res...
Michael Smithson; Arthur Sopeña; Platow, Michael J.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi)...
Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Häfner
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.
Tropical polyhedra are equivalent to mean payoff games
Akian, Marianne; Guterman, Alexander
2009-01-01
We show that several decision problems originating from max-plus or tropical convexity are equivalent to mean payoff (zero-sum, two player) game problems. More precisely, checking whether a tropical polyhedral cone is reduced to the zero vector is equivalent to checking whether a mean payoff game has at least one winning initial state; checking whether an (affine) tropical polyhedron is empty can be transformed in linear time to checking whether a prescribed initial state of a mean payoff game is winning, and vice versa; and checking whether several points belong to a common tropical hyperplane can be transformed in quadratic time to checking whether a mean payoff game has at least one winning initial state. These results imply that the problems mentioned above concerning tropical algebra and convexity belong to $NP\\cap coNP$ and can be solved in pseudo-polynomial time. We also obtain as a corollary a game theoretical proof of the fact that the tropical rank of a matrix, defined as the maximal size of a subma...
Computing security strategies in finite horizon repeated Bayesian games
Lichun Li
2017-07-10
This paper studies security strategies in two-player zero-sum repeated Bayesian games with finite horizon. In such games, each player has a private type which is independently chosen according to a publicly known a priori probability. Players\\' types are fixed all through the game. The game is played for finite stages. At every stage, players simultaneously choose their actions which are observed by the public. The one-stage payoff of player 1 (or penalty to player 2) depends on both players types and actions, and is not directly observed by any player. While player 1 aims to maximize the total payoff over the game, player 2 wants to minimize it. This paper provides each player two ways to compute the security strategy, i.e. the optimal strategy in the worst case. First, a security strategy that directly depends on both players\\' history actions is derived by refining the sequence form. Noticing that history action space grows exponentially with respect to the time horizon, this paper further presents a security strategy that depends on player\\'s fixed sized sufficient statistics. The sufficient statistics is shown to consist of the belief on one\\'s own type, the regret on the other player\\'s type, and the stage, and is independent of the other player\\'s strategy.
Ivanov, I. G.; Netov, N. C.; Bogdanova, B. C.
2015-10-01
This paper addresses the problem of solving a generalized algebraic Riccati equation with an indefinite sign of its quadratic term. We extend the approach introduced by Lanzon, Feng, Anderson and Rotkowitz (2008) for solving similar Riccati equations. We numerically investigate two types of iterative methods for computing the stabilizing solution. The first type of iterative methods constructs two matrix sequences, where the sum of them converges to the stabilizing solution. The second type of methods defines one matrix sequence which converges to the stabilizing solution. Computer realizations of the presented methods are numerically tested and compared on the test of family examples. Based on the experiments some conclusions are derived.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Firstly, we introduce the “Zero Sum Gains” game theory into the SBM (Slacks-based Measure model, and establish the ZSG-SBM model. Then, set up 4 development scenarios for the China’s economic system in “13·5” (The Chinese government formulates a Five-Year Planning for national economic and social development every five years, “13·5” means 2016 to 2020. period through two dimensions as economic growth and energy consumption structure, and make the efficient allocation in provincial level of carbon reduction target by using the above ZSG-SBM model based on the China’s overall carbon reduction constraint (18% which is set in “13·5” planning. Finally, we analyze the provincial development path of low-carbon economy by comparing the economic development status with the allocated result of carbon reduction target. Results show that: After the ZSG-SBM model being applied to the efficiency allocation of carbon emission, the input and output indicators of the 30 provinces realize the effective allocation, and the carbon emission efficiency reaches the efficiency frontier. The equity-oriented administrative allocation scheme of government will bring about efficiency loss in a certain degree, and the efficiency allocation scheme, based on the ZSG-SBM model, fits better with the long-term development requirement of low-carbon economy. On the basis of carbon intensity constraint, the re-constraint of energy intensity will force the provinces to optimize their energy consumption structure, thereby enhancing the overall carbon emission efficiency of China. Sixteen provinces’ allocation results of carbon reduction target are above China’s average (18% in “13·5” period, all the provinces should select appropriate development path of low-carbon economy according to the status of their resource endowment, economic level, industrial structure and energy consumption structure.
Wellman, Joseph D; Liu, Xi; Wilkins, Clara L
2016-09-01
The current research examines how status-legitimizing beliefs (SLBs) influence White people's perceptions of anti-White bias, endorsement of zero-sum beliefs, and support for Affirmative Action. We suggest that SLBs perpetuate inequality by increasing White people's perceptions of zero-sum beliefs and anti-White bias, which in turn lead to decreased support for Affirmative Action. White individuals primed with SLBs perceived greater anti-White bias, endorsed greater zero-sum beliefs, and indicated less support for Affirmative Action than individuals primed with neutral content. Mediation analysis revealed that the SLB prime decreased support for Affirmative Action by increasing perceptions of anti-White bias. This research offers experimental evidence that SLBs contribute to White people's perceptions of anti-White bias and to decreased support for Affirmative Action.
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尤富强; 王福利; 关守平
2008-01-01
The H∞ hybrid estimation problem for linear discrete time-varying systems is investigated in this paper, where estimated signals are linear combination of state and input. Design objective requires the worst-case energy gain from disturbance to estimation error to be less than a prescribed level. Optimal solution of the hybrid estimation problem is the saddle point of a two-player zero sum differential game. On the basis of the differential game approach, necessary and sufficient solvable conditions for the hybrid estimation problem are provided in terms of solutions to a Riccati differential equation. Moreover, one possible estimator is proposed if the solvable conditions are satisfied. The estimator is characterized by a gain matrix and an output mapping matrix, where the latter reflects the internal relations between unknown input and output estimation error. At last, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach.
1968-12-01
n-Person Games, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, June 1953. 5. Gillies, D. B., "Solutions to general non-zero-sum games," Annals of Mathematics Study...Economic Review). 22. Shubik, M., "Edgeworth market games, Annals of Mathematics Study 40 (1959), 267-278. 23. von Neumann, J., and 0. Morgenstern, Theory... of . Mathematics Study 40 (1959), 145-162; also The RAND Corporation, P-1392, June 1958. 16. , Values of Large Games - VII: A General Exchange Economv
A Secure Communication Game with a Relay Helping the Eavesdropper
Yuksel, Melda; Erkip, Elza; 10.1109/TIFS.2011.2125956
2011-01-01
In this work a four terminal complex Gaussian network composed of a source, a destination, an eavesdropper and a jammer relay is studied under two different set of assumptions: (i) The jammer relay does not hear the source transmission, and (ii) The jammer relay is causally given the source message. In both cases the jammer relay assists the eavesdropper and aims to decrease the achievable secrecy rates. The source, on the other hand, aims to increase it. To help the eavesdropper, the jammer relay can use pure relaying and/or send interference. Each of the problems is formulated as a two-player, non-cooperative, zero-sum continuous game. Assuming Gaussian strategies at the source and the jammer relay in the first problem, the Nash equilibrium is found and shown to be achieved with mixed strategies in general. The optimal cumulative distribution functions (cdf) for the source and the jammer relay that achieve the value of the game, which is the Nash equilibrium secrecy rate, are found. For the second problem, ...
A Game Theoretic Framework for E-Mail Detection and Forgery Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Long Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In email forensic, the email detection and forgery conflict is an interdependent strategy selection process, and there exists complex dynamics between the detector and the forger, who have conflicting objectives and influence each other’s performance and decisions. This paper aims to study their dynamics from the perspective of game theory .We firstly analyze the email basic structure and header information, then discuss the email detection and forgery technologies. In this paper, we propose a Detection-Forgery Game (DFG model and make a classification of players’ strategy with the Operation Complexity (OC. In the DFG model, we regard the interactions between the detector and the forger as a two-player, non-cooperative, non-zero-sum and finite strategic game, and formulate the Nash Equilibrium. The optimal detection and forgery strategies with minimizing cost and maximizing reward will be found by using the model. Finally, we perform empirical experiments to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the model.
Game Theory, People Power and Philippine Politics.
Lee-Chua, Queena N.
2000-01-01
Delineates two illustrative game-theoretic applications to Philippine politics: (1) People Power Revolution in the mid-1980s and (2) conflict over Spratly Islands in the mid-1990s. Uses zero-sum games to model these two events, and elementary matrix theory to determine pure strategies and locate equilibrium points. Includes recommendations for…
Mathematical game theory and applications
Mazalov, Vladimir
2014-01-01
An authoritative and quantitative approach to modern game theory with applications from diverse areas including economics, political science, military science, and finance. Explores areas which are not covered in current game theory texts, including a thorough examination of zero-sum game.Provides introductory material to game theory, including bargaining, parlour games, sport, networking games and dynamic games.Explores Bargaining models, discussing new result such as resource distributions, buyer-seller instructions and reputation in bargaining models.Theoretical results are presented along
A. de Bruin (Arie); W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)
2003-01-01
textabstractThis paper deals with algorithms searching trees generated by two-person, zero-sum games with perfect information. The standard algorithm in this field is alpha-beta. We will discuss this algorithm as well as extensions, like transposition tables, iterative deepening and NegaScout. Speci
A. de Bruin (Arie); W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)
2003-01-01
textabstractThis paper deals with algorithms searching trees generated by two-person, zero-sum games with perfect information. The standard algorithm in this field is alpha-beta. We will discuss this algorithm as well as extensions, like transposition tables, iterative deepening and NegaScout.
Imbert, Cyril
2009-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to approximate several non-local evolution equations by zero-sum repeated games in the spirit of the previous works of Kohn and the second author (2006 and 2009): general fully non-linear parabolic integro-differential equations on the one hand, and the integral curvature flow of an interface (Imbert, 2008) on the other hand. In order to do so, we start by constructing such a game for eikonal equations whose speed has a non-constant sign. This provides a (discrete) deterministic control interpretation of these evolution equations. In all our games, two players choose positions successively, and their final payoff is determined by their positions and additional parameters of choice. Because of the non-locality of the problems approximated, by contrast with local problems, their choices have to "collect" information far from their current position. For integral curvature flows, players choose hypersurfaces in the whole space and positions on these hypersurfaces. For parabolic i...
A mathematical model for a gaming community
Breban, Romulus
2016-01-01
We consider a large community of individuals who mix strongly and meet in pairs to bet on a coin toss. We investigate the asset distribution of the players involved in this zero-sum repeated game. Our main result is that the asset distribution converges to the exponential distribution, irrespective of the size of the bet, as long as players can never go bankrupt. Analytical results suggests that the exponential distribution is a stable fixed point for this zero-sum repreated game. This is confirmed in numerical experiments.
Two-player quantum pseudo-telepathy based on recent all-versus-nothing violations of local realism
Cabello, A
2005-01-01
We introduce two two-player quantum pseudo-telepathy games based on two recently proposed all-versus-nothing (AVN) proofs of Bell's theorem [A. Cabello, quant-ph/0507259 (Phys. Rev. Lett. to be published) and quant-ph/0507260 (Phys. Rev. A to be published)]. These games prove that Broadbent and Methot's claim that these AVN proofs do not rule out local-hidden-variable theories in which it is possible to exchange unlimited information inside the same light-cone (quant-ph/0511047) is incorrect.
Stochastic Differential Games with Reflection and Related Obstacle Problems for Isaacs Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rainer BUCKDAHN; Juan LI
2011-01-01
In this paper we first investigate zero-sum two-player stochastic differential games with reflection,with the help of theory of Reflected Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (RBSDEs).We will establish the dynamic programming principle for the upper and the lower value functions of this kind of stochastic differential games with reflection in a straightforward way.Then the upper and the lower value functions are proved to be the unique viscosity solutions to the associated upper and the lower Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs equations with obstacles,respectively.The method differs significantly from those used for control problems with reflection,with new techniques developed of interest on its own.Further,we also prove a new estimate for RBSDEs being sharper than that in the paper of El Karoui,Kapoudjian,Pardoux,Peng and Quenez (1997),which turns out to be very useful because it allows us to estimate the Lp-distance of the solutions of two different RBSDEs by the p-th power of the distance of the initial values of the driving forward equations.We also show that the unique viscosity solution to the approximating Isaacs equation constructed by the penalization method converges to the viscosity solution of the Isaacs equation with obstacle.
Two-player envy-free multi-cake division
Cloutier, John; Su, Francis Edward
2009-01-01
We introduce a generalized cake-cutting problem in which we seek to divide multiple cakes so that two players may get their most-preferred piece selections: a choice of one piece from each cake, allowing for the possibility of linked preferences over the cakes. For two players, we show that disjoint envy-free piece selections may not exist for two cakes cut into two pieces each, and they may not exist for three cakes cut into three pieces each. However, there do exist such divisions for two cakes cut into three pieces each, and for three cakes cut into four pieces each. The resulting allocations of pieces to players are Pareto-optimal with respect to the division. We use a generalization of Sperner's lemma on the polytope of divisions to locate solutions to our generalized cake-cutting problem.
Multiobjective Interaction Programming Problem with Interaction Constraint for Two Players
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Jiang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper extends an existing cooperative multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players (or two agents. First, we define an s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players and get some properties of it. It is proved that the s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to the multi-objective interaction programming problem can be obtained by solving a corresponding mathematical programming problem. Then, we define another s-optimal joint solution with weight value to multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players and get some of its properties. It is proved that the s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to multi-objective interaction programming problem can be obtained by solving a corresponding mathematical programming problem. Finally, we build a pricing multi-objective interaction programming model for a bi-level supply chain. Numerical results show that the interaction programming pricing model is better than Stackelberg pricing model and the joint pricing model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANGXiao-Jun; WENGZheng-Xin; TIANZuo-Hua; SHISong-Jiao
2005-01-01
The H∞ hybrid estimation problem for linear continuous time-varying systems is investigated in this paper, where estimated signals are linear combination of state and input. Design objective requires the worst-case energy gain from disturbance to estimation error be less than a prescribed level. Optimal solution of the hybrid estimation problem is the saddle point of a two-player zero sum differential game. Based on the differential game approach, necessary and sufficient solvable conditions for the hybrid estimation problem are provided in terms of solutions to a Riccati differential equation. Moreover, one possible estimator is proposed if the solvable conditions are satisfied.The estimator is characterized by a gain matrix and an output mapping matrix that reflects the internal relations between the unknown input and output estimation error. Both state and unknown inputs estimation are realized by the proposed estimator. Thus, the results in this paper are also capable of dealing with fault diagnosis problems of linear time-varying systems. At last, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach.
Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen
1982-01-01
Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…
Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen
1982-01-01
Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…
Pareto Strategy of Two-Person Zero-Sum Game with Fuzzy Multi-Goals%模糊多目标两人零和博弈的Pareto策略
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
逄金辉; 张强
2008-01-01
利用Sakawa模糊目标函数研究了多目标两人零和博弈Pareto最优安全策略. 在分析模糊多目标Pareto策略性质的基础上,提出了该策略的确定方法. 证明了当博弈达到Pareto均衡时模糊多目标向量函数满足的等价条件,该条件体现了博弈均衡受到局中人模糊偏好的影响.
Benjamin, S C; Benjamin, Simon C.; Hayden, Patrick M.
2001-01-01
Game theory is a mature field of applied mathematics. It formalizes the conflict between competing agents, and has found applications ranging from economics through to biology. Recently the first efforts have been made to introduce quantum information into game theory. For two-player games, it has been found that when the allowed `moves' are extended to include everything quantum mechanically possible, then the predominant strategies in the game can disappear, and only reappear if the players degrade the quantum coherence. Here we present the first study of quantum games with more than two players. We demonstrate that such games can exhibit `coherent' equilibrium strategies which have no analogue in classical games, or even in two-player quantum games. These equilibria are generally of a cooperative nature: quantum players can exploit their environment highly efficiently through the use of collaborative strategies.
Karlin, Anna R
2016-01-01
This book presents a rigorous introduction to the mathematics of game theory without losing sight of the joy of the subject. This is done by focusing on theoretical highlights (e.g., at least six Nobel Prize winning results are developed from scratch) and by presenting exciting connections of game theory to other fields, such as computer science, economics, social choice, biology, and learning theory. Both classical topics, such as zero-sum games, and modern topics, such as sponsored search auctions, are covered. Along the way, beautiful mathematical tools used in game theory are introduced, including convexity, fixed-point theorems, and probabilistic arguments. The book is appropriate for a first course in game theory at either the undergraduate or graduate level, whether in mathematics, economics, computer science, or statistics. Game theory's influence is felt in a wide range of disciplines, and the authors deliver masterfully on the challenge of presenting both the breadth and coherence of its underlying ...
Robust trajectory tracking: differential game/cheap control approach
Turetsky, Vladimir; Glizer, Valery Y.; Shinar, Josef
2014-11-01
A robust trajectory tracking problem is treated in the framework of a zero-sum linear-quadratic differential game of a general type. For the cheap control version of this game, a novel solvability condition is derived. The sufficient condition, guaranteeing that the tracking problem is solved by the optimal strategy of the minimiser in the cheap control game, is established. The boundedness of the time realisations of this strategy is analysed. An illustrative example is presented.
Quantum games in noninertial frame
Khan, Salman
2011-01-01
We study the influence of Unruh effect on quantum non-zero sum games. In particular, we investigate the quantum prisoners' dilemma under different conditions and show that the acceleration of the noninertial frames disturbs the symmetry of the game. It is shown that under some particular situations, the classical strategy C (cooperation) becomes the dominant strategy. Our investigation shows that any quantum strategy does no better for any player against the classical strategies. The miracle move of Eisert et al [5] is no more a superior move. We show that the dilemma like situation under every condition of the game is resolved.
Non-cooperative monomino games
Timmer, Judith B.; Aarts, Henricus F.M.; van Dorenvanck, Peter; Klomp, Jasper
In this paper we study monomino games. These are two player games, played on a rectangular board with C columns and R rows. The game pieces are monominoes, which cover exactly one cell of the board. One by one each player selects a column of the board, and places a monomino in the lowest uncovered
Non-cooperative monomino games
Timmer, Judith; Aarts, Harry; Dorenvanck, van Peter; Klomp, Jasper
2011-01-01
In this paper we study monomino games. These are two player games, played on a rectangular board with C columns and R rows. The game pieces are monominoes, which cover exactly one cell of the board. One by one each player selects a column of the board, and places a monomino in the lowest uncovered c
Games with vector-valued payoffs and their application to competition between organizations
John Roemer
2005-01-01
In 1959, Lloyd Shapley wrote a short paper on games with vector payoffs. He analyzed zero-sum matrix games. Here, we extend Shapley's equilibrium concept to general games with vector payoffs, introduce an organizational interpretation of the concept, elaborate the relationship of the original concept to another equilibrium concept where each player can be viewed as running a bargaining game among internal â€˜factions,'' and finally comment upon its relationship to the concept of party unanimi...
乒乓球战术行为博弈分析的理论体系建构%Theoretical Construction on Table Tennis Tactical Behavior Game
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘文明; 唐建军
2012-01-01
以博弈论理论为理论基础,构建了乒乓球战术行为博弈分析的理论体系,阐述了乒乓球战术行为博弈分析理论的概念、构成要素、博弈类属及表示方法。指出乒乓球战术行为博弈理论是关于乒乓球战术行为合理运用的理论体系,是研究如何在乒乓球竞赛实践中战胜对手,提高胜算,获取比赛优胜的理论;整个体系由参与人、行动、信息、战略、支付、次序、结果和均衡等要素构成;博弈类属含有两人博弈、序贯博弈、零和博弈、重复博弈、完美但不完全信息博弈,规则对比赛结果有重大影响等特征;乒乓球战术行为博弈模型有战略式和拓展式两种博弈表述方式,并有着不同的纳什均衡求解方法。%The research constructs theoretical framework of tactical behaviors in table tennis based on game theory and elaborates relative concepts,elements,categories and methods in the framework.Table tennis tactical behavior game theory is the theoretical construction about rational use of strategies and tactics during table tennis competition and how to increase the probability of winning the game.The whole behavior game is composed of elements such as players,actions or moves,information,strategies,payoffs,orders,outcome and equilibrium.The game can be categorized as sequential game,two players game,zero-sum game,repeated game,perfect but not completely information game and game features as rules have significant impact on the outcomes.The study also seeks the models can represents the theory.Two kinds of models strategy form representation and extensive form representation are introduced at last.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宗翔; 张冬梅; 黄宏伟
2012-01-01
Due to uncertainties of the surrounding environments ,there are enormous risks in tunnel and underground engineering. It is imperative to cut down uncertainties and reduce risks. To solve this problem, this paper introduces game theory into tunnel and underground engineering, which considers the design and construction as the game between constructor and nature. After analysis, the above-mentioned game can be identified as zero-sum game of two players. Based on game theory, both of safety and economy can be thought. Furthermore, optimal control measures can be found to cut down uncertainties and reduce risks. To have a better comprehensive understanding of this method, an application of the actual engineering project is given.%隧道及地下工程由于所处环境的不确定性存在着巨大的风险,如何减小不确定性,降低工程风险已成为迫切解决的问题.本文把博弈论引入隧道及地下工程,认为工程的设计和施工可看成是建设者和大自然之间的博弈行为.通过分析,可以认为上述博弈属于两人零和博弈.根据博弈论的方法,可以同时考虑工程的安全性和经济性,找到建设方在工程建设中的最优控制措施,从而达到减小不确定性,降低工程风险的目的.为了更好的理解此方法,本文给出了一个实际工程应用案例.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨晓军; 翁正新; 田作华; 施颂椒
2005-01-01
The H∞ hybrid estimation problem for linear continuous time-varying systems is investigated in this paper, where estimated signals are linear combination of state and input. Design objective requires the worst-case energy gain from disturbance to estimation error be less than a prescribed level. Optimal solution of the hybrid estimation problem is the saddle point of a two-player zero sum differential game. Based on the differential game approach, necessary and sufficient solvable conditions for the hybrid estimation problem are provided in terms of solutions to a Riccati differential equation. Moreover, one possible estimator is proposed if the solvable conditions are satisfied.The estimator is characterized by a gain matrix and an output mapping matrix that reflects the internal relations between the unknown input and output estimation error. Both state and unknown inputs estimation are realized by the proposed estimator. Thus, the results in this paper are also capable of dealing with fault diagnosis problems of linear time-varying systems. At last, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach.
Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor
2014-01-01
This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.
Infinite Dimensional Differential Games with Hybrid Controls
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A J Shaiju; Sheetal Dharmatti
2007-05-01
A two-person zero-sum infinite dimensional differential game of infinite duration with discounted payoff involving hybrid controls is studied. The minimizing player is allowed to take continuous, switching and impulse controls whereas the maximizing player is allowed to take continuous and switching controls. By taking strategies in the sense of Elliott–Kalton, we prove the existence of value and characterize it as the unique viscosity solution of the associated system of quasi-variational inequalities.
Multipartite entanglement in XOR games
J. Briët (Jop); H. Buhrman (Harry); T. J. Lee (Troy); T. Vidick
2013-01-01
htmlabstractWe study multipartite entanglement in the context of XOR games. In particular, we study the ratio of the entangled and classical biases, which measure the maximum advantage of a quantum or classical strategy over a uniformly random strategy. For the case of two-player XOR games,
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Reinhard
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Review of Never Alone (Kisima Ingitchuna, an atmospheric platformer and puzzle game (built on the Unity engine released in late 2014 by Upper One Games and education company E-Line Media. It invites one or two players to explore a central story from the Iñupiat, Native Alaskans, with the rewards of additional storytelling by elders and community members.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.
Application of Differential Games in Mechatronic Control System
Hendzel, Z.; Penar, P.
2016-12-01
Differential games are a combination of game theory and optimum control methods. Their solutions are based on Bellman's principle of optimality. In this paper, the zero-sum differential game theory has been used for the purposes of controlling a mechatronic object: a single-link manipulator. In this case, analytical solutions are unavailable, thus approximate solutions were used. Two approximation methods were compared with the use of numerical simulations and selected quality indicators. The results confirm previous assumptions and the connection between the differential game theory and H∞ control problems.
Evolutionary games in the multiverse.
Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Traulsen, Arne
2010-03-23
Evolutionary game dynamics of two players with two strategies has been studied in great detail. These games have been used to model many biologically relevant scenarios, ranging from social dilemmas in mammals to microbial diversity. Some of these games may, in fact, take place between a number of individuals and not just between two. Here we address one-shot games with multiple players. As long as we have only two strategies, many results from two-player games can be generalized to multiple players. For games with multiple players and more than two strategies, we show that statements derived for pairwise interactions no longer hold. For two-player games with any number of strategies there can be at most one isolated internal equilibrium. For any number of players with any number of strategies , there can be at most isolated internal equilibria. Multiplayer games show a great dynamical complexity that cannot be captured based on pairwise interactions. Our results hold for any game and can easily be applied to specific cases, such as public goods games or multiplayer stag hunts.
Quantum Locality in Game Strategy
Melo-Luna, Carlos A.; Susa, Cristian E.; Ducuara, Andrés F.; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H.
2017-03-01
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players’ input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.
Quantum Locality in Game Strategy.
Melo-Luna, Carlos A; Susa, Cristian E; Ducuara, Andrés F; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H
2017-03-22
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artem O. Pichugin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Quite often within the activity subjects are compelled to interact with other subjects of one system. And this interaction can have antagonistic character in spite of the fact that they are within one system, and game by which interaction in systems is described, isn’t game with the zero sum. In the article the mechanism which allows to change interaction of players from antagonism to cooperation is offered.
Quantum games on evolving random networks
Pawela, Łukasz
2016-09-01
We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.
Quantum games on evolving random networks
Pawela, Łukasz
2015-01-01
We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.
Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints
Li, Lichun
2017-01-05
In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.
Duke, Richard D
2014-01-01
Als Richard Duke sein Buch ""Gaming: The Future's Language"" 1974 veröffentlichte, war er ein Pionier für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Planspielen in Politik, Strategieentwicklung und Management. Das Buch wurde zu einem viel zitierten Standardwerk. 2014 feiert die von Richard D. Duke gegründete International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA) ihr 45-jähriges Bestehen. Gleichzeitig legt Richard D. Duke eine überarbeitete Auflage seines Klassikers vor. Inhaltsverzeichnis TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgments Preface SECTION I1. The ProblemSECTION II2. Modes of Human Communication3. Mode
Quantum Games of Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xi; QIN Gan; ZHOU Xian-Yi; DU Jiang-Feng
2005-01-01
@@ We study two-player quantum games of incomplete information in which both the sides have partial information.The previous results of Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 016124] are incorporated in our more general formalism.Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits many interesting features.
On Zero Sum Subsequences of Restricted Size
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B K Moriya
2010-09-01
Let be a finite abelian group with $\\exp(G)=e$. Let $s(G)$ be the minimal integer with the property that any sequence of elements in contains an -term subsequence with sum zero. Let , and be positive integers and ≥ 3. Furthermore, $(C^r_m)=a_r(m-1)+1$, for some constant $a_r$ depending on and is a fixed positive integer such that $$n≥\\frac{m^r(c(r)m-a_r(m-1)+m-3)(m-1)-(m+1)+(m+1)(a_r+1)}{m(m+1)(a_r+1)}$$ and $s(C^r_n)=(a_r+1)(n-1)+1$. In the above lower bound on $n,c(r)$ is the Alon-Dubiner constant. Then $s(C^r_{nm})=(a_r+1)(nm-1)+1$.
Remarks on some Zero-Sum Theorems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S D Adhikari; Sanoli Gun; Purusottam Rath
2009-06-01
In the present paper, we give a new proof of a weighted generalization of a result of Gao in a particular case. We also give new methods for determining the weighted Davenport constant and another similar constant for some particular weights.
Generalizations of some Zero Sum Theorems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M N Chintamani; B K Moriya
2012-02-01
Given an abelian group of order , and a finite non-empty subset of integers, the Davenport constant of with weight , denoted by $D_A(G)$, is defined to be the least positive integer such that, for every sequence $(x_1,\\ldots,x_t)$ with $x_i\\in G$, there exists a non-empty subsequence $(x_{j_1},\\ldots,x_{j_l})$ and $a_i\\in A$ such that $\\sum^l_{i=1}a_ix_{j_i}=0$. Similarly, for an abelian group of order $n,E_A(G)$ is defined to be the least positive integer such that every sequence over of length contains a subsequence $(x_{j_1},\\ldots,x_{j_n})$ such that $\\sum^n_{i=1}a_ix_{j_i}=0$, for some $a_i\\in A$. When is of order , one considers to be a non-empty subset of $\\{1,\\ldots,n-1\\}$. If is the cyclic group $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$, we denote $E_A(G)$ and $D_A(G)$ by $E_A(n)$ and $D_A(n)$ respectively. In this note, we extend some results of Adhikari et al(Integers 8(2008) Article A52) and determine bounds for $D_{R_n}(n)$ and $E_{R_n}(n)$, where $R_n=\\{x^2:x\\in(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^∗\\}$. We follow some lines of argument from Adhikari et al(Integers 8 (2008) Article A52) and use a recent result of Yuan and Zeng (European J. Combinatorics 31 (2010) 677–680), a theorem due to Chowla (Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) 2 (1935) 242–243) and Kneser’s theorem (Math. Z.58(1953) 459–484;66(1956) 88–110;61(1955) 429–434).
Some Zero-Sum Constants with Weights
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S D Adhikari; R Balasubramanian; F Pappalardi; P Rath
2008-05-01
For an abelian group , the Davenport constant () is defined to be the smallest natural number such that any sequence of elements in has a non-empty subsequence whose sum is zero (the identity element). Motivated by some recent developments around the notion of Davenport constant with weights, we study them in some basic cases. We also define a new combinatorial invariant related to $(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^d$, more in the spirit of some constants considered by Harborth and others and obtain its exact value in the case of $(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^2$ where is an odd integer.
Zero-sum partition theorems for graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Caro
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Let q=pn be a power of an odd prime p. We show that the vertices of every graph G can be partitioned into t(q classes V(G=⋃t=1t(qVi such that the number of edges in any induced subgraph 〈Vi〉 is divisible by q, where t(q≤32(q−1−(2(q−1−1124+98, and if q=2n, then t(q=2q−1.
Applying Metric Regularity to Compute Condition measure of Smoothing Algorithm for Matrix Games
Mordukhovich, Boris; Roshchina, Vera
2010-01-01
We develop an approach of variational analysis and generalized differentiation to conditioning issues for two-person zero-sum matrix games. Our major results establish precise relationships between a certain condition measure of the smoothing first-order algorithm proposed in [A. Gilpin, J. Pe\\~na and T. Sandholm, First-order algorithm with O(ln(1/\\epsilon)) convergence for \\epsilon-equilibrium in two-person zero-sum games, in Proc. 23rd Nat. Conf. Art. Intel. (AAAI), 2008, pp. 75-82] and the exact bound of metric regularity for an associated set-valued mapping. In this way we compute the aforementioned condition measure in terms of the initial matrix game data.
Reciprocal Trust Mediates Deep Transfer of Learning between Games of Strategic Interaction
Juvina, Ion; Saleem, Muniba; Martin, Jolie M.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Lebiere, Christian
2013-01-01
We studied transfer of learning across two games of strategic interaction. We found that the interpersonal relation between two players during and across two games influence development of reciprocal trust and transfer of learning from one game to another. We show that two types of similarities between the games affect transfer: (1) deep…
Symposium of the International Society of Dynamic Games
Haurie, Alain; Annals of the International Society of Dynamic Games
1994-01-01
Recent years have witnessed a surge of activity in the field of dynamic both theory and applications. Theoretical as well as practical games, in problems in zero-sum and nonzero-sum games, continuous time differential and discrete time multistage games, and deterministic and stochastic games games are currently being investigated by researchers in diverse disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, biology, economics, management science, and political science. This surge of interest has led to the formation of the International Society of Dynamic Games (ISDG) in 1990, whose primary goal is to foster the development of advanced research and applications in the field of game theory. One important activity of the Society is to organize biannually an international symposium which aims at bringing together all those who contribute to the development of this active field of applied science. In 1992 the symposium was organized in Grimentz, Switzerland, under the supervision of an international scientific committe...
A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em
Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian
A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘燕; 盛立人
2009-01-01
棒球赛最重要也是最激烈的环节发生在击球手与投手之间的较量.本文根据美国棒球大联盟部分统计资料,通过投手与击球手的对策局势表,用优化方法与图解法即期望值的计算出投手和击球手之间的最佳对策.
Quantum Game Theory and Open Access Publishing
Hanauske, M; Dugall, B; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt; Hanauske, Matthias
2006-01-01
The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv for example is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners' dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of sc...
Pebble games with algebraic rules
Dawar, Anuj
2012-01-01
We define a general framework of partition games for formulating two-player pebble games over finite structures. We show that one particular such game, which we call the invertible-map game, yields a family of polynomial-time approximations of graph isomorphism that is strictly stronger than the well-known Weisfeiler-Lehman method. The general framework we introduce includes as special cases the pebble games for finite-variable logics with and without counting. It also includes a matrix-equivalence game, introduced here, which characterises equivalence in the finite-variable fragments of matrix-rank logic. We show that the equivalence defined by the invertible-map game is a refinement of the equivalence defined by each of these games for finite-variable logics.
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent
2012-11-02
Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objectives. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is logspace-equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.
Cortical mechanisms for reinforcement learning in competitive games.
Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol
2008-12-12
Game theory analyses optimal strategies for multiple decision makers interacting in a social group. However, the behaviours of individual humans and animals often deviate systematically from the optimal strategies described by game theory. The behaviours of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in simple zero-sum games showed similar patterns, but their departures from the optimal strategies were well accounted for by a simple reinforcement-learning algorithm. During a computer-simulated zero-sum game, neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex often encoded the previous choices of the animal and its opponent as well as the animal's reward history. By contrast, the neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex predominantly encoded the animal's reward history. Using simple competitive games, therefore, we have demonstrated functional specialization between different areas of the primate frontal cortex involved in outcome monitoring and action selection. Temporally extended signals related to the animal's previous choices might facilitate the association between choices and their delayed outcomes, whereas information about the choices of the opponent might be used to estimate the reward expected from a particular action. Finally, signals related to the reward history might be used to monitor the overall success of the animal's current decision-making strategy.
Prisoner's Dilemma Applied and in the Classroom: The TV Game Show "Friend or Foe"
Coe, Paul R.; Alonzi, Loreto Peter; Condon, Daniel; Butterworth, William T.
2007-01-01
Prisoner's Dilemma is a common game theory scenario in which two players must choose between acting cooperatively or out of pure self-interest. What a player decides affects not only his own outcome but also that of the other player. "Friend or Foe," a TV game show that has appeared on the cable Game Show Network (GSN), places pairs of contestants…
A threshold for the Maker-Breaker clique game
Muller, Tobias; Stojakovic, Milos
2014-01-01
We study the Maker-Breaker k-clique game played on the edge set of the random graph G(n, p). In this game, two players, Maker and Breaker, alternately claim unclaimed edges of G(n, p), until all the edges are claimed. Maker wins if he claims all the edges of a k-clique; Breaker wins otherwise. We de
Social decisions under risk. Evidence from the probabilistic dictator game
M. Krawczyk; F. Le Lec
2008-01-01
This paper reports results of a 'probabilistic dictator game' experiment in which subjects had to allocate chances to win a prize between themselves and a dummy player. We have manipulated (within subjects) two aspects of the game: the relative values of the prizes (being equal for the two players,
Mobile Rhythmic Interaction in a Sonic Tennis Game
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baldan, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania
2013-01-01
This paper presents a game for mobile devices which simulates a tennis match between two players. It is an audio-based game, so the majority of information and feedback to the user is given through sound instead of being displayed on a screen. As users are not requested to keep their eyes......) and sighted users....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonidas eSpiliopoulos
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible nxn normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both---the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a
Discounting in Games across Time Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnendu Chatterjee
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We introduce two-level discounted games played by two players on a perfect-information stochastic game graph. The upper level game is a discounted game and the lower level game is an undiscounted reachability game. Two-level games model hierarchical and sequential decision making under uncertainty across different time scales. We show the existence of pure memoryless optimal strategies for both players and an ordered field property for such games. We show that if there is only one player (Markov decision processes, then the values can be computed in polynomial time. It follows that whether the value of a player is equal to a given rational constant in two-level discounted games can be decided in NP intersected coNP. We also give an alternate strategy improvement algorithm to compute the value.
Discounting in Games across Time Scales
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; 10.4204/EPTCS.25.6
2010-01-01
We introduce two-level discounted games played by two players on a perfect-information stochastic game graph. The upper level game is a discounted game and the lower level game is an undiscounted reachability game. Two-level games model hierarchical and sequential decision making under uncertainty across different time scales. We show the existence of pure memoryless optimal strategies for both players and an ordered field property for such games. We show that if there is only one player (Markov decision processes), then the values can be computed in polynomial time. It follows that whether the value of a player is equal to a given rational constant in two-level discounted games can be decided in NP intersected coNP. We also give an alternate strategy improvement algorithm to compute the value.
Adaptation and complexity in repeated games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maenner, Eliot Alexander
2008-01-01
The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...
Okasha, S; Martens, J
2016-03-01
Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Jammer Type Estimation in LTE with a Smart Jammer Repeated Game
Aziz, Farhan
2017-02-22
LTE/LTE-Advanced networks are known to be vulnerable to denial-of-service (DOS) and loss-of-service attacks from smart jammers. The interaction between the network and the smart jammer has been modeled as an infinite-horizon general-sum (non-zero-sum) Bayesian game with asymmetric information, with the network being the uninformed player. Although significant work has been done on optimal strategy computation and control of information revelation of the informed player in repeated asymmetric information games, it has been limited to zero-sum games with perfect monitoring. Recent progress on the strategy computation of the uninformed player is also limited to zero-sum games with perfect monitoring and is focused on expected payoff formulations. Since the proposed formulation is a general-sum game with imperfect monitoring, existing formulations cannot be leveraged for estimating true state of nature (the jammer type). Hence, a threat-based mechanism is proposed for the uninformed player (the network) to estimate the informed player’s type (jammer type). The proposed mechanism helps the network resolve uncertainty about the state of nature (jammer type) so that it can compute a repeated-game strategy conditioned on its estimate. The proposed algorithm does not rely on the commonly assumed “full monitoring” premise, and uses a combination of threat-based mechanism and non-parametric estimation to estimate the jammer type. In addition, it does not require any explicit feedback from the network users nor does it rely on a specific distribution (e.g., Gaussian) of test statistic. It is shown that the proposed algorithm’s estimation performance is quite robust under realistic modeling and observational constraints despite all the aforementioned challenges.
Complex dynamics in learning complicated games
Galla, Tobias
2011-01-01
Game theory is the standard tool used to model strategic interactions in evolutionary biology and social science. Traditional game theory studies the equilibria of simple games. But is traditional game theory applicable if the game is complicated, and if not, what is? We investigate this question here, defining a complicated game as one with many possible moves, and therefore many possible payoffs conditional on those moves. We investigate two-person games in which the players learn based on experience. By generating games at random we show that under some circumstances the strategies of the two players converge to fixed points, but under others they follow limit cycles or chaotic attractors. The dimension of the chaotic attractors can be very high, implying that the dynamics of the strategies are effectively random. In the chaotic regime the payoffs fluctuate intermittently, showing bursts of rapid change punctuated by periods of quiescence, similar to what is observed in fluid turbulence and financial marke...
The Generalized Quantization Schemes for Games and its Application to Quantum Information
Nawaz, Ahmad
2010-01-01
Theory of quantum games is relatively new to the literature and its applications to various areas of research are being explored. It is a novel interpretation of strategies and decisions in quantum domain. In the earlier work on quantum games considerable attention was given to the resolution of dilemmas present in corresponding classical games. Two separate quantum schemes were presented by Eisert et al. and Marinatto and Weber to resolve dilemmas in Prisoners' Dilemma and Battle of Sexes games respectively. However for the latter scheme it was argued that dilemma was not resolved. We have modified the quantization scheme of Marinatto and Weber to resolve the dilemma. We have developed a generalized quantization scheme for two person non-zero sum games which reduces to the existing schemes under certain conditions. Applications of this generalized quantization scheme to quantum information theory are studied. Measurement being ubiquitous in quantum mechanics can not be ignored in quantum games. With the help...
Energy Games in Multiweighted Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fahrenberg, U.; Juhl, L.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;
2011-01-01
Energy games have recently attracted a lot of attention. These are games played on finite weighted automata and concern the existence of infinite runs subject to boundary constraints on the accumulated weight, allowing e.g only for behaviours where a resource is always available (nonnegative...... accumulated weight), yet does not exceed a given maximum capacity. We extend energy games to a multiweighted and parameterized setting, allowing us to model systems with multiple quantitative aspects. We present reductions between Petri nets and multiweighted automata and among different types...... of multiweighted automata and identify new complexity and (un)decidability results for both one- and two-player games. We also investigate the tractability of an extension of multiweighted energy games in the setting of timed automata....
Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal
2014-12-01
A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.
Game Refinement Relations and Metrics
de Alfaro, Luca; Raman, Vishwanath; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2008-01-01
We consider two-player games played over finite state spaces for an infinite number of rounds. At each state, the players simultaneously choose moves; the moves determine a successor state. It is often advantageous for players to choose probability distributions over moves, rather than single moves. Given a goal, for example, reach a target state, the question of winning is thus a probabilistic one: what is the maximal probability of winning from a given state? On these game structures, two fundamental notions are those of equivalences and metrics. Given a set of winning conditions, two states are equivalent if the players can win the same games with the same probability from both states. Metrics provide a bound on the difference in the probabilities of winning across states, capturing a quantitative notion of state similarity. We introduce equivalences and metrics for two-player game structures, and we show that they characterize the difference in probability of winning games whose goals are expressed in the...
Linear programming models and methods of matrix games with payoffs of triangular fuzzy numbers
Li, Deng-Feng
2016-01-01
This book addresses two-person zero-sum finite games in which the payoffs in any situation are expressed with fuzzy numbers. The purpose of this book is to develop a suite of effective and efficient linear programming models and methods for solving matrix games with payoffs in fuzzy numbers. Divided into six chapters, it discusses the concepts of solutions of matrix games with payoffs of intervals, along with their linear programming models and methods. Furthermore, it is directly relevant to the research field of matrix games under uncertain economic management. The book offers a valuable resource for readers involved in theoretical research and practical applications from a range of different fields including game theory, operational research, management science, fuzzy mathematical programming, fuzzy mathematics, industrial engineering, business and social economics. .
Average-Time Games on Timed Automata
Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh
2009-01-01
An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...
Continuous-variable quantum games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Hui; Du Jiangfeng; Massar, Serge
2002-12-30
We investigate the quantization of games in which the players can access to a continuous set of classical strategies, making use of continuous-variable quantum systems. For the particular case of the Cournot's duopoly, we find that, even though the two players both act as 'selfishly' in the quantum game as they do in the classical game, they are found to virtually cooperate due to the quantum entanglement between them. We also find that the original Einstein-Podolksy-Rosen state contributes to the best profits that the two firms could ever attain. Moreover, we propose a practical experimental setup for the implementation of such quantum games.
Spiliopoulos, Leonidas
2015-01-01
The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible n × n normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both—the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a strategically heterogeneous
Scheme for Implementation of Quantum Game in Cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li-Chun; CAO Shu-Ai; WU Yue-Qin; FANG Mao-Fa; LI Huai-Fan; ZHENG Xiao-Juan; ZHAO Ren; WANG Xin-Wen; LI Ze-Hua
2008-01-01
We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement two-player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). During the process, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. The scheme can be realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.
Beneficial long communication in the multiplayer electronic mail game
De Jaegher, K.J.M.
2015-01-01
In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and reconfirmations are made available to players. In the multiplayer EMG, however, we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of the
Quantum game theory and open access publishing
Hanauske, Matthias; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt
2007-08-01
The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv, for example, is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners’ dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of scientists belonging to “non-open access communities”. From an individual perspective, they have no incentive to deviate from the Nash equilibrium of traditional publishing. By extending the model using the quantum game theory approach it can be shown, that if the strength of entanglement exceeds a certain value, the scientists will overcome the dilemma and terminate to publish only traditionally in all three settings.
Mathematical games, abstract games
Neto, Joao Pedro
2013-01-01
User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.
Zero-determinant strategies in iterated multi-strategy games
Jin-Li Guo
2014-01-01
Self-serving, rational agents sometimes cooperate to their mutual benefit. The two-player iterated prisoner's dilemma game is a model for including the emergence of cooperation. It is generally believed that there is no simple ultimatum strategy which a player can control the return of the other participants. The recent discovery of the powerful class of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma dramatically expands our understanding of the classic game by uncovering stra...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bosansky, Branislav; Xin Jiang, Albert; Tambe, Milind
2015-01-01
with incremental strategy generation. We experimentally compare CS-DO with the standard approaches and analyze the impact of the size of the support on the performance of the algorithms. Results show that CS-DO dramatically improves the convergence rate in games with non-trivial support...... representation of sequential strategies and linear programming, or by incremental strategy generation of iterative double-oracle methods. In this paper, we present novel hybrid of these two approaches: compact-strategy double-oracle (CS-DO) algorithm that combines the advantages of the compact representation......Many search and security games played on a graph can be modeled as normal-form zero-sum games with strategies consisting of sequences of actions. The size of the strategy space provides a computational challenge when solving these games. This complexity is tackled either by using the compact...
Mobile Rhythmic Interaction in a Sonic Tennis Game
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baldan, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania
2013-01-01
This paper presents a game for mobile devices which simulates a tennis match between two players. It is an audio-based game, so the majority of information and feedback to the user is given through sound instead of being displayed on a screen. As users are not requested to keep their eyes...... on the display, the device can be used as a motion-based controller, exploiting its internal motion sensors to their full potential. The game aims to be useful for both entertainment and educational purposes, and enjoyable both by visually-impaired (the main target audience for audio-based games nowadays...
Recursive Concurrent Stochastic Games
Etessami, Kousha
2008-01-01
We study Recursive Concurrent Stochastic Games (RCSGs), extending our recent analysis of recursive simple stochastic games [16,17] to a concurrent setting where the two players choose moves simultaneously and independently at each state. For multi-exit games, our earlier work already showed undecidability for basic questions like termination, thus we focus on the important case of single-exit RCSGs (1-RCSGs). We first characterize the value of a 1-RCSG termination game as the least fixed point solution of a system of nonlinear minimax functional equations, and use it to show PSPACE decidability for the quantitative termination problem. We then give a strategy improvement technique, which we use to show that player 1 (maximizer) has \\epsilon-optimal randomized Stackless & Memoryless (r-SM) strategies for all \\epsilon > 0, while player 2 (minimizer) has optimal r-SM strategies. Thus, such games are r-SM-determined. These results mirror and generalize in a strong sense the randomized memoryless determinacy r...
Merging the virtual and the real: A collaborative cross-reality game
Bergs, Jessica; Livingstone, Daniel; Loranger, Brian
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a collaborative cross-reality game for two players, Lab2, which blends tangible board game and immersive virtual reality playing spaces in a gameplay that aims to promote and train collaborative behaviour. As collaborative learning has been stressed as an effective teaching method for many years, Lab2 could assist learners in exploring and further developing their collaborative skills in a playful manner. One player controls a physical game board showing a moveable m...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Aminof
2014-04-01
Full Text Available First cycle games (FCG are played on a finite graph by two players who push a token along the edges until a vertex is repeated, and a simple cycle is formed. The winner is determined by some fixed property Y of the sequence of labels of the edges (or nodes forming this cycle. These games are traditionally of interest because of their connection with infinite-duration games such as parity and mean-payoff games. We study the memory requirements for winning strategies of FCGs and certain associated infinite duration games. We exhibit a simple FCG that is not memoryless determined (this corrects a mistake in \\it Memoryless determinacy of parity and mean payoff games: a simple proof by Björklund, Sandberg, Vorobyov (2004 that claims that FCGs for which Y is closed under cyclic permutations are memoryless determined. We show that Θ(n! memory (where n is the number of nodes in the graph, which is always sufficient, may be necessary to win some FCGs. On the other hand, we identify easy to check conditions on Y (i.e., Y is closed under cyclic permutations, and both Y and its complement are closed under concatenation that are sufficient to ensure that the corresponding FCGs and their associated infinite duration games are memoryless determined. We demonstrate that many games considered in the literature, such as mean-payoff, parity, energy, etc., satisfy these conditions. On the complexity side, we show (for efficiently computable Y that while solving FCGs is in PSPACE, solving some families of FCGs is PSPACE-hard.
Algorithmic entropy, thermodynamics, and game interpretation
Sakhnovich, Lev
2011-01-01
Basic relations for the mean length and algorithmic entropy are obtained by solving a new extremal problem. Using this extremal problem, they are obtained in a most simple and general way. The length and entropy are considered as two players of a new type of a game, in which we follow the scheme of our previous work on thermodynamic characteristics in quantum and classical approaches.
Optimal threshold estimation for binary classifiers using game theory.
Sanchez, Ignacio Enrique
2016-01-01
Many bioinformatics algorithms can be understood as binary classifiers. They are usually compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic ( ROC) curve. On the other hand, choosing the best threshold for practical use is a complex task, due to uncertain and context-dependent skews in the abundance of positives in nature and in the yields/costs for correct/incorrect classification. We argue that considering a classifier as a player in a zero-sum game allows us to use the minimax principle from game theory to determine the optimal operating point. The proposed classifier threshold corresponds to the intersection between the ROC curve and the descending diagonal in ROC space and yields a minimax accuracy of 1-FPR. Our proposal can be readily implemented in practice, and reveals that the empirical condition for threshold estimation of "specificity equals sensitivity" maximizes robustness against uncertainties in the abundance of positives in nature and classification costs.
Moral calculations game theory, logic, and human frailty
Mérő, László
1998-01-01
Are people ever rational? Consider this: You auction off a one-dollar bill to the highest bidder, but you set the rules so that the second highest bidder also has to pay the amount of his last bid, even though he gets nothing. Would people ever enter such an auction? Not only do they, but according to Martin Shubik, the game's inventor, the average winning bid (for a dollar, remember) is $3.40. Many winners report that they bid so high only because their opponent "went completely crazy." This game lies at the intersection of three subjects of eternal fascination: human psychology, morality, and John von Neumann's game theory. Hungarian game-theorist Laszlo Mero introduces us to the basics of game theory, including such concepts as zero-sum games, Prisoner's Dilemma and the origins of altruism; shows how game theory is applicable to fields ranging from physics to politics; and explores the role of rational thinking in the context of many different kinds of thinking. This fascinating, urbane book will interest ...
Autocratic strategies for alternating games.
McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph
2017-02-01
Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities. In a strictly-alternating game with two players, X and Y, we give conditions for the existence of autocratic strategies for player X when (i) X moves first and (ii) Y moves first. Furthermore, we show that autocratic strategies exist even for (iii) games with randomly-alternating moves. Particularly important categories of autocratic strategies are extortionate and generous strategies, which enforce unfavorable and favorable outcomes for the opponent, respectively. We illustrate these strategies using the continuous Donation Game, in which a player pays a cost to provide a benefit to the opponent according to a continuous cooperative investment level. Asymmetries due to alternating moves could easily arise from dominance hierarchies, and we show that they can endow subordinate players with more autocratic strategies than dominant players.
An Alternative African Developmentalism: A Critique of Zero-sum ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2012-12-17
Dec 17, 2012 ... Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, authored by Walter. Rostow (1960). ..... expanding market conditions and the like. The drive to ... research centres, with the sole exception of Ghana's eclectic mix of socialist .... links are maintained on the strict priority granted to that nation. Similar.
The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory
Etienne, Rampal S.; Alonso, David; McKane, Alan J.
2007-01-01
The neutral theory of biodiversity as put forward by Hubbell in his 2001 monograph has received much criticism for its unrealistic simplifying assumptions. These are the assumptions of functional equivalence among different species (neutrality), the assumption of point mutation speciation, and the a
The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory
Etienne, R.S.; Alonso, D.; McKane, A.J.
2007-01-01
The neutral theory of biodiversity as put forward by Hubbell in his 2001 monograph has received much criticism for its unrealistic simplifying assumptions. These are the assumptions of functional equivalence among different species (neutrality), the assumption of point mutation speciation, and the
Modified Zee mass matrix with zero-sum condition
Brahmachari, B; Brahmachari, Biswajoy; Choubey, Sandhya
2006-01-01
We modify the Zee mass matrix by adding a real one parameter perturbation which is purely diagonal and trace-less. We show that in this way we can explain both solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data. There is a correlation between the deviation from strict maximality of $|U_{\\mu 3}|= 1/\\sqrt{2}$, with the emergence of a small but non-zero $U_{e3}$. We calculate how big a value can $U_{e3}$ get when we restrict ourselves within the allowed regions of solar and atmospheric neutrino masses and mixing angles. We also discuss the impact of a $S_2$ permutation symmetry on our mass matrix and show how a small $U_{e3} \
Modified Zee mass matrix with zero-sum condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brahmachari, Biswajoy [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar Evening College, 39, Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata 700006 (India)]. E-mail: biswajoy.brahmachari@cern.ch; Choubey, Sandhya [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom) and Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)]. E-mail: s.choubey1@physics.ox.ac.uk
2006-11-23
We modify the Zee mass matrix by adding a real one parameter perturbation which is purely diagonal and trace-less. We show that in this way we can explain both solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data. There is a correlation between the deviation from strict maximality of vertical bar U{sub {mu}}{sub 3} vertical bar =1/2, with the emergence of a small but non-zero U{sub e3}. We calculate how big a value can U{sub e3} get when we restrict ourselves within the allowed regions of solar and atmospheric neutrino masses and mixing angles. We also discuss the impact of a S{sub 2} permutation symmetry on our mass matrix and show how a small U{sub e3}<>0 can emerge when this S{sub 2} permutation symmetry between the second and the third generation is broken.
Game and Information Theory Analysis of Electronic Counter Measures in Pursuit-Evasion Games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffin, Christopher H [ORNL
2008-01-01
Two-player Pursuit-Evasion games in the literature typically either assume both players have perfect knowledge of the opponent s positions or use primitive sensing models. This unrealistically skews the problem in favor of the pursuer who need only maintain a faster velocity at all turning radii. In real life, an evader usually escapes when the pursuer no longer knows the evader s position. In our previous work, we modeled pursuit-evasion without perfect information as a two-player bi-matrix game by using a realistic sensor model and information theory to compute game theoretic payoff matrices. That game has a saddle point when the evader uses strategies that exploit sensor limitations, while the pursuer relies on strategies that ignore the sensing limitations. In this paper, we consider for the first time the effect of many types of electronic counter measures (ECM) on pursuit evasion games. The evader s decision to initiate its ECM is modeled as a function of the distance between the players. Simulations show how to find optimal strategies for ECM use when initial conditions are known. We also discuss the effectiveness of different ECM technologies in pursuit-evasion games.
Emergence of super cooperation of prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks.
Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi
2015-01-01
Recently, the authors proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game based on the spatial game of Nowak and May, and showed that the game can be played classically. By using this idea, we proposed three generalized prisoner's dilemma (GPD, for short) games based on the weak Prisoner's dilemma game, the full prisoner's dilemma game and the normalized Prisoner's dilemma game, written by GPDW, GPDF and GPDN respectively. Our games consist of two players, each of which has three strategies: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q), and have a parameter γ to measure the entangled relationship between the two players. We found that our generalised prisoner's dilemma games have new Nash equilibrium principles, that entanglement is the principle of emergence and convergence (i.e., guaranteed emergence) of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks, that entanglement provides a threshold for a phase transition of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks, that the role of heterogeneity of the scale-free networks in cooperations and super cooperations is very limited, and that well-defined structures of scale-free networks allow coexistence of cooperators and super cooperators in the evolutions of the weak version of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games.
Emergence of super cooperation of prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angsheng Li
Full Text Available Recently, the authors proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game based on the spatial game of Nowak and May, and showed that the game can be played classically. By using this idea, we proposed three generalized prisoner's dilemma (GPD, for short games based on the weak Prisoner's dilemma game, the full prisoner's dilemma game and the normalized Prisoner's dilemma game, written by GPDW, GPDF and GPDN respectively. Our games consist of two players, each of which has three strategies: cooperator (C, defector (D and super cooperator (denoted by Q, and have a parameter γ to measure the entangled relationship between the two players. We found that our generalised prisoner's dilemma games have new Nash equilibrium principles, that entanglement is the principle of emergence and convergence (i.e., guaranteed emergence of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks, that entanglement provides a threshold for a phase transition of super cooperation in evolutions of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games on scale-free networks, that the role of heterogeneity of the scale-free networks in cooperations and super cooperations is very limited, and that well-defined structures of scale-free networks allow coexistence of cooperators and super cooperators in the evolutions of the weak version of our generalised prisoner's dilemma games.
Lossy Channel Games under Incomplete Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rayna Dimitrova
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate lossy channel games under incomplete information, where two players operate on a finite set of unbounded FIFO channels and one player, representing a system component under consideration operates under incomplete information, while the other player, representing the component's environment is allowed to lose messages from the channels. We argue that these games are a suitable model for synthesis of communication protocols where processes communicate over unreliable channels. We show that in the case of finite message alphabets, games with safety and reachability winning conditions are decidable and finite-state observation-based strategies for the component can be effectively computed. Undecidability for (weak parity objectives follows from the undecidability of (weak parity perfect information games where only one player can lose messages.
Investigations in quantum games using EPR-type set-ups
Iqbal, A
2006-01-01
Research in quantum games has flourished during recent years. However, it seems that opinion remains divided about their true quantum character and content. For example, one argument says that quantum games are nothing but 'disguised' classical games and that to quantize a game is equivalent to replacing the original game by a different classical game. The present thesis contributes towards the ongoing debate about quantum nature of quantum games by developing two approaches addressing the related issues. Both approaches take Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-type experiments as the underlying physical set-ups to play two-player quantum games. In the first approach, the players' strategies are unit vectors in their respective planes, with the knowledge of coordinate axes being shared between them. Players perform measurements in an EPR-type setting and their payoffs are defined as functions of the correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bimatrix games are reproduced if th...
Three is a crowd – inefficient communication in the multi-player electronic mail game
de Jaegher, K.; Rosenkranz, S.
2009-01-01
In a two-player stag hunt with asymmetric information, players may lock each other into requiring a large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another before eventually acting. This intuition has been formalized in the electronic mail game (EMG). The literature provide
What Eye Movements Can Tell about Theory of Mind in a Strategic Game
Meijering, Ben; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke
2012-01-01
This study investigates strategies in reasoning about mental states of others, a process that requires theory of mind. It is a first step in studying the cognitive basis of such reasoning, as strategies affect tradeoffs between cognitive resources. Participants were presented with a two-player game
Beneficial Long Communication in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game
De Jaegher, K.J.M.
2015-01-01
In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and re-confirmations are made available to players. In the multi-player EMG, however, as we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of
Three is a crowd – inefficient communication in the multi-player electronic mail game
de Jaegher, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836842; Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241
In a two-player stag hunt with asymmetric information, players may lock each other into requiring a large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another before eventually acting. This intuition has been formalized in the electronic mail game (EMG). The literature
By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model
De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta
2016-01-01
We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public
Quantum game simulator, using the circuit model of quantum computation
Vlachos, Panagiotis; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.
2009-10-01
We present a general two-player quantum game simulator that can simulate any two-player quantum game described by a 2×2 payoff matrix (two strategy games).The user can determine the payoff matrices for both players, their strategies and the amount of entanglement between their initial strategies. The outputs of the simulator are the expected payoffs of each player as a function of the other player's strategy parameters and the amount of entanglement. The simulator also produces contour plots that divide the strategy spaces of the game in regions in which players can get larger payoffs if they choose to use a quantum strategy against any classical one. We also apply the simulator to two well-known quantum games, the Battle of Sexes and the Chicken game. Program summaryProgram title: Quantum Game Simulator (QGS) Catalogue identifier: AEED_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEED_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3416 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 583 553 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab R2008a (C) Computer: Any computer that can sufficiently run Matlab R2008a Operating system: Any system that can sufficiently run Matlab R2008a Classification: 4.15 Nature of problem: Simulation of two player quantum games described by a payoff matrix. Solution method: The program calculates the matrices that comprise the Eisert setup for quantum games based on the quantum circuit model. There are 5 parameters that can be altered. We define 3 of them as constant. We play the quantum game for all possible values for the other 2 parameters and store the results in a matrix. Unusual features: The software provides an easy way of simulating any two-player quantum games. Running time: Approximately
Sharif, Puya; Heydari, Hoshang
We give a self contained introduction to a few quantum game protocols, starting with the quantum version of the two-player two-choice game of Prisoners dilemma, followed by an n-player generalization trough the quantum minority games, and finishing with a contribution towards an n-player m-choice generalization with a quantum version of a three-player Kolkata restaurant problem. We have omitted some technical details accompanying these protocols, and instead laid the focus on presenting some general aspects of the field as a whole. This review contains an introduction to the formalism of quantum information theory, as well as to important game theoretical concepts, and is aimed to work as a review suiting economists and game theorists with limited knowledge of quantum physics as well as to physicists with limited knowledge of game theory.
An Eavesdropping Game with SINR as an Objective Function
Garnaev, Andrey; Trappe, Wade
We examine eavesdropping over wireless channels, where secret communication in the presence of an eavesdropper is formulated as a zero-sum game. In our problem, the legitimate receiver does not have complete knowledge about the environment, i.e. does not know the exact values of the channels gains, but instead knows just their distribution. To communicate secretly, the user must decide how to transmit its information across subchannels under a worst-case condition and thus, the legal user faces a max-min optimization problem. To formulate the optimization problem, we pose the environment as a secondary player in a zero-sum game whose objective is to hamper communication by the user. Thus, nature faces a min-max optimization problem. In our formulation, we consider signal-to-interference ratio (SINR) as a payoff function. We then study two specific scenarios: (i) the user does not know the channels gains; and (ii) the user does not know how the noise is distributed among the main channels. We show that in model (i) in his optimal behavior the user transmits signal energy uniformly across a subset of selected channels. In model (ii), if the user does not know the eavesdropper’s channel gains he/she also employs a strategy involving uniformly distributing energy across a subset of channels. However, if the user acquires extra knowledge about environment, e.g. the eavesdropper’s channel gains, the user may better tune his/her power allocation among the channels. We provide criteria for selecting which channels the user should transmit on by deriving closed-form expressions for optimal strategies for both players.
AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation
Huntsberger, Terrance L.
2013-01-01
AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.
Intelligent cognitive radio jamming - a game-theoretical approach
Dabcevic, Kresimir; Betancourt, Alejandro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S.
2014-12-01
Cognitive radio (CR) promises to be a solution for the spectrum underutilization problems. However, security issues pertaining to cognitive radio technology are still an understudied topic. One of the prevailing such issues are intelligent radio frequency (RF) jamming attacks, where adversaries are able to exploit on-the-fly reconfigurability potentials and learning mechanisms of cognitive radios in order to devise and deploy advanced jamming tactics. In this paper, we use a game-theoretical approach to analyze jamming/anti-jamming behavior between cognitive radio systems. A non-zero-sum game with incomplete information on an opponent's strategy and payoff is modelled as an extension of Markov decision process (MDP). Learning algorithms based on adaptive payoff play and fictitious play are considered. A combination of frequency hopping and power alteration is deployed as an anti-jamming scheme. A real-life software-defined radio (SDR) platform is used in order to perform measurements useful for quantifying the jamming impacts, as well as to infer relevant hardware-related properties. Results of these measurements are then used as parameters for the modelled jamming/anti-jamming game and are compared to the Nash equilibrium of the game. Simulation results indicate, among other, the benefit provided to the jammer when it is employed with the spectrum sensing algorithm in proactive frequency hopping and power alteration schemes.
Combinatorial Analysis of a Subtraction Game on Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Adams
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We define a two-player combinatorial game in which players take alternate turns; each turn consists of deleting a vertex of a graph, together with all the edges containing such vertex. If any vertex became isolated by a player’s move then it would also be deleted. A player wins the game when the other player has no moves available. We study this game under various viewpoints: by finding specific strategies for certain families of graphs, through using properties of a graph’s automorphism group, by writing a program to look at Sprague-Grundy numbers, and by studying the game when played on random graphs. When analyzing Grim played on paths, using the Sprague-Grundy function, we find a connection to a standing open question about Octal games.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher;
2015-01-01
Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks at the neglec......Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks...
"Need to Know" Versus "Spread the Word": Collective Action in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game
de Jaegher, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836842
2008-01-01
As shown by Rubinstein (1989, AER), in the two-player electronic mail game, players are better off if the extent to which they can check each other’s information, check each other’s information about each other’s information, etc., is limited. This paper investigates to what extent this result
Opacity Issues in Games with Imperfect Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bastien Maubert
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We study in depth the class of games with opacity condition, which are two-player games with imperfect information in which one of the players only has imperfect information, and where the winning condition relies on the information he has along the play. Those games are relevant for security aspects of computing systems: a play is opaque whenever the player who has imperfect information never "knows" for sure that the current position is one of the distinguished "secret" positions. We study the problems of deciding the existence of a winning strategy for each player, and we call them the opacity-violate problem and the opacity-guarantee problem. Focusing on the player with perfect information is new in the field of games with imperfect-information because when considering classical winning conditions it amounts to solving the underlying perfect-information game. We establish the EXPTIME-completeness of both above-mentioned problems, showing that our winning condition brings a gap of complexity for the player with perfect information, and we exhibit the relevant opacity-verify problem, which noticeably generalizes approaches considered in the literature for opacity analysis in discrete-event systems. In the case of blindfold games, this problem relates to the two initial ones, yielding the determinacy of blindfold games with opacity condition and the PSPACE-completeness of the three problems.
N-person game theory concepts and applications
Rapoport, Anatol
2013-01-01
N-person game theory provides a logical framework for analyzing contests in which there are more than two players or sets of conflicting interests-anything from a hand of poker to the tangled web of international relations. In this sequel to his Two-Person Game Theory, Dr. Rapoport provides a fascinating and lucid introduction to the theory, geared towards readers with little mathematical background but with an appetite for rigorous analysis.Following an introduction to the necessary mathematical notation (mainly set theory), in Part I the author presents basic concepts and models, including
Multi-Player and Multi-Choice Quantum Game
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜江峰; 李卉; 许晓栋; 周先意; 韩荣典
2002-01-01
We investigate a multi-player and multi-choice quantum game. We start from a two-player and two-choice game,and the result is better than its classical version. Then we extend this to N-player and N-choice cases. In the quantum domain, we provide a strategy with which players can always avoid the worst outcome. Also, by changing the value of the parameter of the initial state, the probabilities for players to obtain the best pay-off will be much higher than in its classical version.
A Game Theory Approach for Product Specialization in International Trade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana-Veronica ALEXA
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Game theory, in its most basic form, considers two players and analyses the different strategies that they can use and the effect that these strategies will have on each player. International trade allows countries to use better their resources (labor, technology or capital. Since countries have different capital or natural resources, some of them will produce a good more efficiently than others and therefore could sell it cheaper than other countries. By using game theory in international trade we could determine if the H-O-S model is correct and what would be the best specialization for each country.
The shortest game of Chinese Checkers and related problems
Bell, George I.
2008-01-01
In 1979, David Fabian found a complete game of two-person Chinese Checkers in 30 moves (15 by each player) [Martin Gardner, Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers, MAA, 1997]. This solution requires that the two players cooperate to generate a win as quickly as possible for one of them. We show, using computational search techniques, that no shorter game is possible. We also consider a solitaire version of Chinese Checkers where one player attempts to move her pieces across the board in as few mov...
Fabac, Robert; Radošević, Danijel; Magdalenić, Ivan
2014-01-01
When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants' decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, "the tramp," one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players.
Friedman, Avner
2006-01-01
This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest
Makedon, Alexander
A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…
Stochastic differential game formulation on the reinsurance and investment problem
Li, Danping; Rong, Ximin; Zhao, Hui
2015-09-01
This paper focuses on a stochastic differential game between two insurance companies, a big one and a small one. The big company has sufficient asset to invest in a risk-free asset and a risky asset and is allowed to purchase proportional reinsurance or acquire new business, and the small company can transfer part of the risk to a reinsurer via proportional reinsurance. The game studied here is zero-sum, where the big company is trying to maximise the expected exponential utility of the difference between two insurance companies' surpluses at the terminal time to keep its advantage on surplus, while simultaneously the small company is trying to minimise the same quantity to reduce its disadvantage. Particularly, the relationships between the surplus processes and the price process of the risky asset are considered. By applying stochastic control theory, we provide and prove the verification theorem and obtain the Nash equilibrium strategy of the game, explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effects of parameters on the equilibrium strategy as well as the economic meanings behind.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Zwick, Uri
2013-01-01
-based stochastic games with discounted zero-sum rewards. This provides the first strongly polynomial algorithm for solving these games, solving a long standing open problem. Combined with other recent results, this provides a complete characterization of the complexity the standard strategy iteration algorithm......Ye [2011] showed recently that the simplex method with Dantzig’s pivoting rule, as well as Howard’s policy iteration algorithm, solve discounted Markov decision processes (MDPs), with a constant discount factor, in strongly polynomial time. More precisely, Ye showed that both algorithms terminate...... terminates after at most O(m1−γ log n1−γ) iterations. Second, and more importantly, we show that the same bound applies to the number of iterations performed by the strategy iteration (or strategy improvement) algorithm, a generalization of Howard’s policy iteration algorithm used for solving 2-player turn...
Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game
Ichinose, Genki
2014-01-01
The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players decide how to split a certain amount of money. One player (proposer) makes only one offer to the other player (responder). If the responder accepts the offer, the money will be split between them accordingly, but if not, neither receives anything. Although making minimal offers and accepting any offers is the most rational choice in UG, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in experiments. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation or empathy is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if the game is probabilistic, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). In NQUG, players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.
Convex Games versus Clan Games
Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.
2006-01-01
In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games.We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games.Furthermore, each monotonic
An introduction to multi-player, multi-choice quantum games
Sharif, Puya
2012-01-01
We give a self contained introduction to a few quantum game protocols, starting with the quantum version of the two-player two-choice game of Prisoners dilemma, followed by a n-player generalization trough the quantum minority games, and finishing with a contribution towards a n-player m-choice generalization with a quantum version of a three-player Kolkata restaurant problem. We have omitted some technical details accompanying these protocols, and instead laid the focus on presenting some general aspects of the field as a whole. This review contains an introduction to the formalism of quantum information theory, as well as to important game theoretical concepts, and is aimed to work as an introduction suiting economists and game theorists with limited knowledge of quantum physics as well as to physicists with limited knowledge of game theory.
Autonomous Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V Decision Making in Roundabout using Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Roundabout intersections promote a continuous flow of traffic. Roundabouts entry move traffic through an intersection more quickly, and with less congestion on approaching roads. With the introduction of smart vehicles and cooperative decision-making, roundabout management shortens the waiting time and leads to a more efficient traffic without breaking the traffic laws and earning penalties. This paper proposes a novel approach of cooperative behavior strategy in conflict situations between the autonomous vehicles in roundabout using game theory. The game theory presents a strategic decision-making technique between independent agents - players. Each individual player tends to achieve best payoff, by analyzing possible actions of other players and their influence on game outcome. The Prisoner's Dilemma game strategy is selected as approach to autonomous vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V decision making at roundabout test-bed, because the commonly known traffic laws dictate certain rules of vehicle's behavior at roundabout. It is shown that, by integrating non-zero-sum game theory in autonomous vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V decision making capabilities, the roundabout entry problem can be solved efficiently with shortened waiting times for individual autonomous vehicles.
Neutrosophic Game Theoretic Approach to Indo-Pak Conflict over Jammu-Kashmir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surapati Pramanik
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The study deals with the enduring conflict between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir since 1947. The ongoing conflict is analyzed as an enduring rivalry; characterized by three major wars (1947-48, 1965, 1971, low intensity military conflict (Siachen, mini war at Kargil (1999, internal insurgency, cross border terrorism. We examine the progress and the status of the dispute, as well as the dynamics of the India Pakistan relationship by considering the influence of USA and China in crisis dynamics. We discuss the possible solutions offered by the various study groups and persons. Most of the studies were done in crisp environment. Pramanik and Roy (S. Pramanik and T.K. Roy, Game theoretic model to the Jammu-Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan. International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA, 4(8 (2013, 162-170. studied game theoretic model toJammu and Kashmir conflict in crisp environment. In the present study we have extended the concept of the game theoric model of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in neutrosophic envirorment. We have explored the possibilities and developed arguments for an application of principle of neutrosophic game theory to understand properly of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in terms of goals and strategy of either side. Standard 2×2 zero-sum game theoretic model used to identify an optimal solution.
Bakkes, S.; Tan, C.T.; Pisan, Y.
2012-01-01
This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific li
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro
2013-01-01
Game Analytics has gained a tremendous amount of attention in game development and game research in recent years. The widespread adoption of data-driven business intelligence practices at operational, tactical and strategic levels in the game industry, combined with the integration of quantitative...
Marler, Thomas E; Wiecko, Greg; Moore, Aubrey
2012-03-01
We recently described threats to the terrestrial biological resources on the Mariana islands of Guam and Tinian resulting from the large-scale buildup of military operations. Attitudes that view these military buildup plans in a zero sum context whereby the positives of greater security and improved local economy can be attained only with corresponding negatives of environmental destruction are prevalent. We argue these attitudes oversimplify the complicated interactions between military operations and environmental damage. Here we discuss aspects of our case study that would benefit from application of game theory. Declines in ecosystem health are not unavoidable forms of collateral damage of peace-time military operations. We repeat, conservation of environmental resources is not ancillary to national security, it is integral.
Jamming Games in the MIMO Wiretap Channel With an Active Eavesdropper
Mukherjee, Amitav
2010-01-01
This paper investigates reliable and covert transmission strategies in a MIMO wiretap channel with a transmitter, receiver and an adversarial wiretapper, each equipped with multiple antennas. In a departure from existing work, the wiretapper possesses the dual capability to act either as a passive eavesdropper or as an active jammer, under a halfduplex constraint. The transmitter therefore faces a choice between allocating all of its power for data, or broadcasting artificial noise along with the information signal in order to selectively jam the eavesdropper (assuming its instantaneous channel state is unknown). To examine the resulting tradeoffs for both agents, we model the network as a two-person zero-sum game with the ergodic MIMO secrecy rate as the payoff function. We first quantify and rank the various possible MIMO secrecy rate outcomes of the actions available to each player, and derive asymptotic expressions for the same. We then examine conditions for the existence of pure and mixed Nash equilibri...
Graph sharing games: complexity and connectivity
Cibulka, Josef; Mészáros, Viola; Stolař, Rudolf; Valtr, Pavel
2012-01-01
We study the following combinatorial game played by two players, Alice and Bob, which generalizes the Pizza game considered by Brown, Winkler and others. Given a connected graph G with nonnegative weights assigned to its vertices, the players alternately take one vertex of G in each turn. The first turn is Alice's. The vertices are to be taken according to one (or both) of the following two rules: (T) the subgraph of G induced by the taken vertices is connected during the whole game, (R) the subgraph of G induced by the remaining vertices is connected during the whole game. We show that if rules (T) and/or (R) are required then for every epsilon > 0 and for every positive integer k there is a k-connected graph G for which Bob has a strategy to obtain (1-epsilon) of the total weight of the vertices. This contrasts with the original Pizza game played on a cycle, where Alice is known to have a strategy to obtain 4/9 of the total weight. We show that the problem of deciding whether Alice has a winning strategy (i...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Curran
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Computer gaming is a medium by which we can entertain ourselves, a medium that has expanded to the online worldwide market as part as globalization. The growth of online gaming has close ties with the use of broadband, as a good online gaming experience requires a broadband connection. Through online gaming, people can play and communicate with each other freely in almost any country, at any given time. This paper examines the phenomenon of online gaming.
Three is a crowd – inefficient communication in the multi-player electronic mail game
Jaegher, K. De; Rosenkranz, S.
2009-01-01
In a two-player stag hunt with asymmetric information, players may lock each other into requiring a large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another before eventually acting. This intuition has been formalized in the electronic mail game (EMG). The literature provides extensions on the EMG that eliminate inefficient equilibria, suggesting that no formal rules are needed to prevent players from playing inefficiently. The present paper investigates whether these...
The Worst-Case Weighted Multi-Objective Game with an Application to Supply Chain Competitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaojian Qu
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a worst-case weighted approach to the multi-objective n-person non-zero sum game model where each player has more than one competing objective. Our "worst-case weighted multi-objective game" model supposes that each player has a set of weights to its objectives and wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objectives where the maximization is with respect to the set of weights. This new model gives rise to a new Pareto Nash equilibrium concept, which we call "robust-weighted Nash equilibrium". We prove that the robust-weighted Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist even when the weight sets are unbounded. For the worst-case weighted multi-objective game with the weight sets of players all given as polytope, we show that a robust-weighted Nash equilibrium can be obtained by solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC. For an application, we illustrate the usefulness of the worst-case weighted multi-objective game to a supply chain risk management problem under demand uncertainty. By the comparison with the existed weighted approach, we show that our method is more robust and can be more efficiently used for the real-world applications.
On the Saddle-point Solution and the Large-Coalition Behavior of Fingerprinting Games
Huang, Yen-Wei
2010-01-01
We study a fingerprinting game in which the number of colluders and the collusion channel are unknown. The encoder embeds fingerprints into a host sequence and provides the decoder with the capability to trace back pirated copies to the colluders. Fingerprinting capacity has recently been derived as the limit value of a sequence of maximin games with mutual information as their payoff functions. However, these games generally do not admit saddle-point solutions and are very hard to solve numerically. Here under the so-called Boneh-Shaw marking assumption, we reformulate the capacity as the value of a single two-person zero-sum game, and show that it is achieved by a saddle-point solution. If the maximal coalition size is k and the fingerprinting alphabet is binary, we show that capacity decays quadratically with k. Furthermore, we prove rigorously that the asymptotic capacity is 1/(k^2 2ln2) and we confirm our earlier conjecture that Tardos' choice of the arcsine distribution asymptotically maximizes the mutu...
Superparasitism as a differential game.
Hamelin, Frédéric; Bernhard, Pierre; Wajnberg, Eric
2007-11-01
Superparasitism refers to a female parasitoid laying an egg in a host already parasitized by a conspecific. In solitary species, only one offspring per host is expected to complete development, hence the game. Hosts are often clumped in patches and several females exploiting such an aggregate of resource make its state change over time, hence the dynamical character of the game. Two coupled questions arise: (i) Is it worth accepting a parasitized host? (ii) When to leave the host patch? Through these decisions (i) the competition for healthy hosts and (ii) the trade-off between leaving in quest of a better patch and staying to make the patch less profitable for other parasitoids (this is a way to lower superparasitism likely to occur after having left the patch) are addressed. The aim of this work is to characterize a strategy that would be evolutionarily relevant in such a situation, as it directly concerns females' reproductive success. Investigating a (synchronous) nonzero-sum two-player differential game allows us to characterize candidate dynamic evolutionarily stable policies in terms of both oviposition and patch-leaving decisions. For that matter, the game is (in the most part of the parameter space) completely solved if the probability that superparasitism succeeds is assumed to be close to one-half, a fair value under direct competition. The strategic equilibrium consists, for each females, in (i) superparasitizing consistently upon arrival on the patch, and (ii) leaving when the loss of fitness due to superparasitism likely to occur after its departure is reduced to zero. The competing females are thus expected to leave the patch as they arrived: synchronously. Superparasitism does not necessarily lead to a war of attrition.
Writerly Gaming: Political Gaming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Christian Ulrik
2007-01-01
software for private entertainment (looking/feeling real) or they can be pragmatic software used for training of professionals (affecting soldiers’, pilots’, etc. perception of the real). A third, and less debated game-reality relationship, based on public awareness and typically a socio-political agenda...
Zero-Determinant Strategies in Iterated Public Goods Game.
Pan, Liming; Hao, Dong; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao
2015-08-21
Recently, Press and Dyson have proposed a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies for the two-player iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, so-called zero-determinant strategies. A player adopting zero-determinant strategies is able to pin the expected payoff of the opponents or to enforce a linear relationship between his own payoff and the opponents' payoff, in a unilateral way. This paper considers zero-determinant strategies in the iterated public goods game, a representative multi-player game where in each round each player will choose whether or not to put his tokens into a public pot, and the tokens in this pot are multiplied by a factor larger than one and then evenly divided among all players. The analytical and numerical results exhibit a similar yet different scenario to the case of two-player games: (i) with small number of players or a small multiplication factor, a player is able to unilaterally pin the expected total payoff of all other players; (ii) a player is able to set the ratio between his payoff and the total payoff of all other players, but this ratio is limited by an upper bound if the multiplication factor exceeds a threshold that depends on the number of players.
Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi
2015-09-01
The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
game. This development is analogous to that of games of strategy, in which each player is assigned a set of possible ... based system, communication protocols, performance ..... driven and a shorter coding-debugging life cycle. The methods ...
Learning with touchscreen devices: game strategies to improve geometric thinking
Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando
2016-03-01
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The theoretical background of our study lies in the works of J. Hintikka, a Finnish logician, who developed a new type of logic, based on game theory, called the logic of inquiry. In order to experiment with this new approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics, we have prepared five game-activities based on geometric theorems in which two players play against each other in a multi-touch dynamic geometric environment (DGE). In this paper, we present the design of the first game-activity and the relationship between it and the logic of inquiry. Then, adopting the theoretical framework of the instrumental genesis by Vérillon and Rabardel (EJPE 10: 77-101, 1995), we will present and analyse significant actions and dialogues developed by students while they are solving the game. We focus on the presence of a particular way of playing the game introduced by the students, the "reflected game", and highlight its functions for the development of the task.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
2015-01-01
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
2015-01-01
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....
Zero-Determinant Strategies in Iterated Public Goods Game
Liming Pan; Dong Hao; Zhihai Rong; Tao Zhou
2015-01-01
Recently, Press and Dyson have proposed a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies for the two-player iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma, so-called zero-determinant strategies. A player adopting zero-determinant strategies is able to pin the expected payoff of the opponents or to enforce a linear relationship between his own payoff and the opponents’ payoff, in a unilateral way. This paper considers zero-determinant strategies in the iterated public goods game, a representative multi-pl...
Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games
de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R
2012-01-01
Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...
Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.
Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo
2009-04-07
Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions.
Battle of the sexes game analysis using Yang-Baxter operator as quantum gate
López R., Juan M.
2012-06-01
The Battle of the Sexes game is analyzed from quantum game theory using quantum initial states as possible strategies for two players. Quantum circuits are presented as schemes of development proposing also the use of Yang-Baxter operators as quantum gates in the circuits. This formalism is implemented using a Computer Algebra Software (CAS) due to its complex and long mathematical treatment. Payoff matrices of the players are given as the results for each case shown. Biology and finances applications are also proposed.
Dufwenberg, Martin
2011-03-01
Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Ertløv
2015-01-01
Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put f...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states.......Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...
Convex games, clan games, and their marginal games
Branzei , Rodica; Dimitrov, Dinko; Tijs, Stef
2005-01-01
We provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games. As it turns out, a cooperative game is convex if and only if all its marginal games are superadditive, and a monotonic game satisfying the veto player property with respect to the members of a coalition C is a total clan game (with clan C) if and only if all its C-based marginal games are subadditive.
Three is a crowd â€“ inefficient communication in the multi-player electronic mail game
Jaegher, K. De; Rosenkranz, S.
2009-01-01
In a two-player stag hunt with asymmetric information, players may lock each other into requiring a large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another before eventually acting. This intuition has been formalized in the electronic mail game (EMG). The literature provides extensions on the EMG that eliminate inefficient equilibria, suggesting that no formal rules are needed to prevent players from playing inefficiently. The present paper investigates whether these...
Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaare B Mikkelsen
Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness......” in his classic work “Homo Ludens” (Huizinga 1938, translated into English 1971). This has since been developed into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person cross the magic circle of a game, he...
Jamming/anti-jamming game with a cognitive jammer in space communication
Tian, Xin; Tian, Zhi; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan
2012-06-01
In this paper a basic cognitive jamming/anti-jamming problem is studied in the context of space communication. The scenario involves a pair of transmitter and receiver, and a cognitive jammer. The cognitive jammer is assumed to have powerful spectrum sensing capability that allows it to detect data transmission from the transmitter to the receiver over the communication channels. Accordingly the jammer uses a "detect and jam" strategy; while the transmitter-receiver side uses the direct frequency hopping spread spectrum approach to mitigate the jamming impact. The basic jamming/anti-jamming problem is formulated as a two-side zero sum game between the jammer and the transmitterreceiver sides. For spectrum sensing, it is assumed that the jammer uses the energy detection in a sliding window fashion, namely, sliding window energy detection. As a conservative strategy of the transmitter-receiver side, Maxmin solutions to the jamming/anti-jamming game are obtained under various conditions. The impacts of factors such as signal propagation delay, channel bandwidth, and jammer/receiver side signal noise ratio on the game results are discussed. The results show the potential threats of cognitive jammers and provide important information for the configuration of jamming resistant space communication networks.
N-player quantum games in an EPR setting
Chappell, James M; Abbott, Derek
2012-01-01
The $N$-player quantum game is analyzed in the context of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment. In this setting, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for $N$-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the mixed Nash equilibrium and the payoffs are determined. Players' payoffs are then defined with linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the $N$-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific exa...
Cognitive hierarchy theory and two-person games
Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir
2016-01-01
The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian Beauty Contests and Entry Games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-players-two-actions games and establish an algorithm to find the players' strategies according to the Cognitive Hierarchy Approach. We show that the Snowdrift Game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: i) any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter -- its class, ii) they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off's space. Final...
Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Gracia-Lázaro
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.
Nonlocal correlations: Fair and unfair strategies in Bayesian games
Roy, Arup; Mukherjee, Amit; Guha, Tamal; Ghosh, Sibasish; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Banik, Manik
2016-09-01
An interesting connection has been established between two apparently unrelated concepts, namely, quantum nonlocality and Bayesian game theory. It has been shown that nonlocal correlations in the form of advice can outperform classical equilibrium strategies in common-interest Bayesian games and also in conflicting-interest Bayesian games. Classical equilibrium strategies can be of two types, fair and unfair. Whereas in fair equilibrium payoffs of different players are equal, in the unfair case they differ. An advantage of nonlocal correlation has been demonstrated over fair strategies only. We show that quantum strategies can outperform even the unfair classical equilibrium strategies. For this purpose we consider a class of two-player Bayesian games. It becomes that such games can have only fair equilibria, both fair and unfair equilibria, or only unfair ones. We provide a simple analytic method to characterize the nonlocal correlations that are advantageous over the classical equilibrium strategies in these games. We also show that quantum advice provides a better social optimality solution (a relevant notion of equilibrium for the unfair case) over the classical one.
Kokko, Hanna; Griffith, Simon C; Pryke, Sarah R
2014-10-22
The hawk-dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive 'hawks' and peaceful 'doves', with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) provides a real-life example. The aggressive red morph is behaviourally dominant and successfully invades black populations, but when red 'hawks' become too common, their fitness is severely compromised (via decreased parental ability). We also investigate the effects of real-life deviations, particularly sexual reproduction, from the simple original game, which assumed asexual reproduction. A protected polymorphism requires mate choice to be sufficiently assortative. Assortative mating is adaptive for individuals because of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybrid offspring fitness, but by allowing red 'hawks' to persist, it also leads to significantly reduced population sizes. Because reductions in male contributions to parental care are generally known to lead to lower population productivity in birds, we expect zero-sum competition to often have wide ranging population consequences.
Kokko, Hanna; Griffith, Simon C.; Pryke, Sarah R.
2014-01-01
The hawk–dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive ‘hawks’ and peaceful ‘doves’, with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) provides a real-life example. The aggressive red morph is behaviourally dominant and successfully invades black populations, but when red ‘hawks’ become too common, their fitness is severely compromised (via decreased parental ability). We also investigate the effects of real-life deviations, particularly sexual reproduction, from the simple original game, which assumed asexual reproduction. A protected polymorphism requires mate choice to be sufficiently assortative. Assortative mating is adaptive for individuals because of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybrid offspring fitness, but by allowing red ‘hawks’ to persist, it also leads to significantly reduced population sizes. Because reductions in male contributions to parental care are generally known to lead to lower population productivity in birds, we expect zero-sum competition to often have wide ranging population consequences. PMID:25209943
Dov Monderer; Moshe Tennenholtz
1997-01-01
The Internet exhibits forms of interactions which are not captured by existing models in economics, artificial intelligence and game theory. New models are needed to deal with these multi-agent interactions. In this paper we present a new model--distributed games. In such a model each players controls a number of agents which participate in asynchronous parallel multi-agent interactions (games). The agents jointly and strategically control the level of information monitoring by broadcasting m...
Giddings, S.
2013-01-01
This chapter outlines the conventions and pleasures of simulation games as a category, and explores the complicated and contested term simulation. This concept goes to the heart of what computer games and video games are, and the ways in which they articulate ideas, processes, and phenomena between their virtual worlds and the actual world. It has been argued that simulations generate and communicate knowledge and events quite differently from the long-dominant cultural mode of narrative. Th...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Christian Ulrik
2006-01-01
T hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand
2007-01-01
. Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design......In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand...
Eberly, David H
2010-01-01
""Game Physics, 2nd Edition"" provides clear descriptions of the mathematics and algorithms needed to create a powerful physics engine - while providing a solid reference for all of the math you will encounter anywhere in game development: quaternions, linear algebra, and calculus. Implementing physical simulations for real-time games is a complex task that requires a solid understanding of a wide range of concepts from the fields of mathematics and physics. Previously, the relevant information could only be gleaned through obscure research papers. Thanks to ""Game Physics"", all this informa
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand
2007-01-01
In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand....... Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Christian Ulrik
2006-01-01
T hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
, called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... or she suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply. This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. Even so, the concept of the magic circle has never been analysed with respect to the spatial configuration...
Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner's dilemma games on networks.
Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi
2014-09-05
It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold arccos √b/b for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree γ is less than the threshold arccos √b/b, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree γ, and that if γ is less than arccos √b/b and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases.
Bargaining Mechanisms for One-Way Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Abeliuk
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We introduce one-way games, a two-player framework whose distinguishable feature is that the private payoff of one (independent player is determined only by her own strategy and does not depend on the actions taken by the other (dependent player. We show that the equilibrium outcome in one-way games without side payments and the social cost of any ex post efficient mechanism can be far from the optimum. We also show that it is impossible to design a Bayes–Nash incentive-compatible mechanism for one-way games that is budget-balanced, individually rational and efficient. To address this negative result, we propose a privacy-preserving mechanism based on a single-offer bargaining made by the dependent player that leverages the intrinsic advantage of the independent player. In this setting the outside option of the dependent player is not known a priori; however, we show that the mechanism satisfies individual rationality conditions, is incentive-compatible, budget-balanced and produces an outcome that is more efficient than the equilibrium without payments. Finally, we show that a randomized multi-offer extension brings no additional benefit in terms of efficiency.
On the game chromatic number of sparse random graphs
Frieze, Alan; Lavrov, Mikhail
2012-01-01
Given a graph G and an integer k, two players take turns coloring the vertices of G one by one using k colors so that neighboring vertices get different colors. The first player wins iff at the end of the game all the vertices of $G$ are colored. The game chromatic number \\chi_g(G) is the minimum k for which the first player has a winning strategy. The paper \\cite{BFS} began the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of this parameter for a random graph G_{n,p}. This paper provides some further analysis for graphs with constant average degree i.e. np=O(1) and for random regular graphs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Espen R. Jakobsen
2002-05-01
Full Text Available Using the maximum principle for semicontinuous functions [3,4], we prove a general ``continuous dependence on the nonlinearities'' estimate for bounded Holder continuous viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic equations. Furthermore, we provide existence, uniqueness, and Holder continuity results for bounded viscosity solutions of such equations. Our results are general enough to encompass Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs's equations of zero-sum, two-player stochastic differential games. An immediate consequence of the results obtained herein is a rate of convergence for the vanishing viscosity method for fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic equations.
Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Junji
1993-01-01
Mutual imitation games among artificial birds are studied. By employing a variety of mappings and game rules, the evolution to the edge between chaos and windows is universally confirmed. Some other general features are observed, including punctuated equilibria, and successive alternations of dominant species with temporal complexity. Diversity of species aided by the symbolization of artificial birds' song are also shown.
The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game
Owen, Guillermo
1992-01-01
Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...
The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game
Owen, Guillermo
1992-01-01
Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...
Linear Quadratic Differential Game Strategies with Two-pursuit Versus Single-evader
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yanfang; QI Naiming; TANG Zhiwei
2012-01-01
In order to intercept the future targets that are characterized by high maneuverability,multiple interceptors may be launched and aimed at single target.The scenario of two missiles P and Q intercepting a single target is modeled as a two-pursuit single-evader non-zero-sum linear quadratic differential game.The intercept space is decomposed into three subspaces which are mutually disjoint and their union covers the entire intercept space.The effect of adding the second interceptor arises in the intercept space of both P and Q (PQ-intercept space).A guidance law is derived from the Nash equilibrium strategy set (NESS) of the game.Simulation studies are focused on the PQ-intercept space.It is indicated that 1) increasing the target's maneuverability will enlarge PQ-intercept space; 2) the handover conditions will be released if the initial zero-effort-miss (ZEM) of both interceptors has opposite sign; 3) overvaluation of the target's maneuverability by choosing a small weight coefficient will generate robust performance with respect to the target maneuvering command switch time and decrease the fuel requirement; and 4) cooperation between interceptors increases the interception probability.
Game Theory in water resources management
Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George
2015-04-01
Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will
Game development tool essentials
Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo
2014-01-01
Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.
... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Jens
Serious Games er et nyt it-forretningsområde, der siden årtusindskiftet er vokset frem, først i USA og dernæst i Vesteuropa og and i-lande. Til forskel fra computerspil er serious games ikke underholdning, men tænkt som et værktøj til støtte for statens og erhvervslivets forskellige funktioner. D...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI XIAO
2010-01-01
@@ China is not expected to sweep the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games the way it dominated the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.However,it has made Chinese Olympic history after winning three gold medals when the Games passed the halfway point of scheduled competition on February 20.On that day,18-year-old Zhou Yang overcame three South Korean rivals to win the women's short-track speed skating 1,500-meter final.
Playing Games with Timed Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas
2009-01-01
In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. Following the example of timed simulation between timed automata, we define timed alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata......, which preserves controllability. We define a method to reduce the timed alternating simulation problem to a safety game. We show how timed alternating simulation can be used to control efficiently a partially observable system. This method is illustrated by a generic case study....
Playing Games with Timed Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas
2009-01-01
In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. Following the example of timed simulation between timed automata, we define timed alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata......, which preserves controllability. We define a method to reduce the timed alternating simulation problem to a safety game. We show how timed alternating simulation can be used to control efficiently a partially observable system. This method is illustrated by a generic case study....
The effect of power asymmetries on cooperation and punishment in a prisoner's dilemma game.
Bone, Jonathan E; Wallace, Brian; Bshary, Redouan; Raihani, Nichola J
2015-01-01
Recent work has suggested that punishment is detrimental because punishment provokes retaliation, not cooperation, resulting in lower overall payoffs. These findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal: in reality individuals are expected to vary in the power with which they can punish defectors. Here, we allowed strong players to interact with weak players in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game with punishment. Defecting players were most likely to switch to cooperation if the partner cooperated: adding punishment yielded no additional benefit and, under some circumstances, increased the chance that the partner would both defect and retaliate against the punisher. Our findings show that, in a two-player game, cooperation begets cooperation and that punishment does not seem to yield any additional benefits. Further work should explore whether strong punishers might prevail in multi-player games.
The effect of power asymmetries on cooperation and punishment in a prisoner's dilemma game.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan E Bone
Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that punishment is detrimental because punishment provokes retaliation, not cooperation, resulting in lower overall payoffs. These findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal: in reality individuals are expected to vary in the power with which they can punish defectors. Here, we allowed strong players to interact with weak players in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game with punishment. Defecting players were most likely to switch to cooperation if the partner cooperated: adding punishment yielded no additional benefit and, under some circumstances, increased the chance that the partner would both defect and retaliate against the punisher. Our findings show that, in a two-player game, cooperation begets cooperation and that punishment does not seem to yield any additional benefits. Further work should explore whether strong punishers might prevail in multi-player games.
Do quantum strategies always win? A case study in the entangled quantum penny flip game
Anand, Namit
2014-01-01
In a seminal paper, Meyer\\cite{Meyer} described the advantages of quantum game theory by looking at the classical penny flip game. A player using quantum strategy can win against a classical player almost 100% of the time. Here we make a slight modification of the quantum game in which the two players share an entangled state to begin with. We then analyse two different scenarios one in which the quantum player makes unitary transformations to her qubit while classical player uses a pure strategy of either flipping or not flipping the state of his qubit. In the second scenario we have the quantum player making similar unitary transformations while the classical player makes use of a mixed strategy wherein he either flips or not with some probability "p". We show that in the second scenario 100% win record of a quantum player is drastically reduced and for a particular probability "p" the classical player may even win against the quantum player.
Gamers on Games and Gaming: Implications for Educational Game Design
Van Staalduinen, J.P.
2012-01-01
In the past two decades, there has been a steadily increasing interest in the use of games for educational purposes. This has led to an increased design, use and study of educational games; games where the players learn through playing. However, experiments with the educational use of games have not
Gamers on Games and Gaming: Implications for Educational Game Design
Van Staalduinen, J.P.
2012-01-01
In the past two decades, there has been a steadily increasing interest in the use of games for educational purposes. This has led to an increased design, use and study of educational games; games where the players learn through playing. However, experiments with the educational use of games have not
Social learning in the ultimatum game.
Zhang, Boyu
2013-01-01
In the ultimatum game, two players divide a sum of money. The proposer suggests how to split and the responder can accept or reject. If the suggestion is rejected, both players get nothing. The rational solution is that the responder accepts even the smallest offer but humans prefer fair share. In this paper, we study the ultimatum game by a learning-mutation process based on quantal response equilibrium, where players are assumed boundedly rational and make mistakes when estimating the payoffs of strategies. Social learning is never stabilized at the fair outcome or the rational outcome, but leads to oscillations from offering 40 percent to 50 percent. To be precise, there is a clear tendency to increase the mean offer if it is lower than 40 percent, but will decrease when it reaches the fair offer. If mutations occur rarely, fair behavior is favored in the limit of local mutation. If mutation rate is sufficiently high, fairness can evolve for both local mutation and global mutation.
The Golden Ratio as a proposed solution of the Ultimatum Game: An explanation by continued fractions
Schuster, Stefan
2015-01-01
The Ultimatum Game is a famous sequential, two-player game intensely studied in Game Theory. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some amount of a valuable good, for example, money. A responder can either accept, in which case the money is shared accordingly, or reject the offer, in which case the two players receive nothing. While most authors suggest that the fairest split of 50 % vs. 50 % would be the equilibrium solution, recently R. Suleiman (An aspirations-homeostasis theory of interactive decisions (2014)) suggested the Golden Ratio, 0.618, to be the solution and argued that such a partitioning would be considered fair by both sides. He provided a justification in terms of an approach termed aspirations-homeostasis theory. The main idea is that responders tend to accept the minor fraction of the Golden Ratio because they feel that this fraction equals, in comparison to the larger fraction obtained by the proposer, the ratio of the larger fraction and the whole amount. Here we give an alternative ...
A New Solution Concept for the Ultimatum Game leading to the Golden Ratio.
Schuster, Stefan
2017-07-17
The Ultimatum Game is a paradigmatic two-player game. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some valuable good. A responder can accept the offer or reject it, implying that the two players receive nothing. The only subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is to only offer an infinitesimal amount and to accept this. However, this equilibrium is not in agreement with experimental observations, which show varying accepted offers around 40%. While some authors suggest that the fairest split of 50% vs. 50% would be explainable on theoretical grounds or by computer simulation, a few authors (including myself) have recently suggested that the Golden Ratio, about 0.618 vs. about 0.382, would be the solution, in striking agreement with observations. Here we propose a solution concept, based on an optimality approach and epistemic arguments, leading to that suggested solution. The optimality principle is explained both in an axiomatic way and by bargaining arguments, and the relation to Fibonacci numbers is outlined. Our presentation complements the Economic Harmony theory proposed by R. Suleiman and is based on infinite continued fractions. The results are likely to be important for the theory of fair salaries, justice theory and the predictive value of game theory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘天虎; 黄武军; 许维胜; 吴启迪
2011-01-01
The competition of real estate developer for the resources has the character of zero-sum games,and there has significant value for the research of developer economic game model with asymmetric information.This study considers the existence of developer Cartel alliance in the real estate market, focuses on the Markov game model and research relevant game equilibrium between Cartel alliance and competitor with incomplete information,develops the optimal strategies and algorithm for game participant.Eventually,a practical example is provided to illustrate the validity and feasibility of this model.%房地产开发商对于资源的争夺存在零和博弈的特点,在信息不对称条件下对开发商经济博弈模型的研究具有重要价值.该研究考虑到市场上存在开发商Cartel联盟的情形,以Markov博弈模型为核心,针对不完全信息下的Cartel联盟与竞争者的Markov博弈均衡进行研究,得到了博弈双方的最优策略及演算方法.最后,利用实例对该模型的有效性和可行性进行了说明.
Mean field game theoretic approach for security in mobile ad-hoc networks
Wang, Yanwei; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Huang, Minyi
2013-05-01
Game theory can provide a useful tool to study the security problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Most existing work on applying game theories to security only considers two players in the security game model: an attacker and a defender. While this assumption is valid for a network with centralized administration, it may not be realistic in MANETs, where centralized administration is not available. Consequently, each individual node in a MANET should be treated separately in the security game model. In this paper, using recent advances in mean field game theory, we propose a novel game theoretic approach for security in MANETs. Mean field game theory provides a powerful mathematical tool for problems with a large number of players. Since security defence mechanisms consume precious system resources (e.g., energy), the proposed scheme considers not only the security requirement of MANETs but also the system resources. In addition, each node only needs to know its own state information and the aggregate effect of the other nodes in the MANET. Therefore, the proposed scheme is a fully distributed scheme. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Genesereth, Michael
2014-01-01
General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell
Valuing rewards to others in a prisoner's dilemma game.
Safin, Vasiliy; Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard
2013-10-01
People value rewards to others but discount those rewards based on social distance; rewards to a socially closer person are valued more than identical rewards to a socially more distant person (Jones and Rachlin, 2006). The concept of social discounting can explain cooperation and defection in two-player prisoner's dilemma (PD) games (Axelrod, 1980). The contingencies of a PD game are such that in any single game cooperation is costly to each player herself but beneficial to the other player. From the viewpoint of each player, the costs of cooperation are fully realized, but the benefits of cooperation are discounted by the social distance to the other player. The present experiment measured cooperation and defection in two PD-game conditions with differing reward magnitudes. In one (the 1-2-3-4 condition), the cost of cooperation exceeded its socially discounted benefit, and players were predicted to defect; in the other (the 1-2-9-10 condition), the discounted benefit of cooperation exceeded its cost, and players were predicted to cooperate. Over the course of repeated trials defection increased with the 1-2-3-4 condition but not with the 1-2-9-10 condition. Moreover, participants who rated their partners as closer, relative to random classmates, cooperated at higher rates--consistent with social discounting.
Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game
Ichinose, Genki; Sayama, Hiroki
2014-05-01
The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players (proposer and responder) decide how to split a certain amount of money. While traditional economic theories based on rational decision making predict that the proposer should make a minimal offer and the responder should accept it, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in UG. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation, empathy, or spatial structure is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). Evolutionary simulations of NQUG showed that the probabilistic decision making contributes to the increase of proposers' offer amounts to avoid rejection, while the repetition of the game works to responders' advantage because they can wait until a good offer comes. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.
From Parity and Payoff Games to Linear Programming
Schewe, Sven
This paper establishes a surprising reduction from parity and mean payoff games to linear programming problems. While such a connection is trivial for solitary games, it is surprising for two player games, because the players have opposing objectives, whose natural translations into an optimisation problem are minimisation and maximisation, respectively. Our reduction to linear programming circumvents the need for concurrent minimisation and maximisation by replacing one of them, the maximisation, by approximation. The resulting optimisation problem can be translated to a linear programme by a simple space transformation, which is inexpensive in the unit cost model, but results in an exponential growth of the coefficients. The discovered connection opens up unexpected applications - like μ-calculus model checking - of linear programming in the unit cost model, and thus turns the intriguing academic problem of finding a polynomial time algorithm for linear programming in this model of computation (and subsequently a strongly polynomial algorithm) into a problem of paramount practical importance: All advancements in this area can immediately be applied to accelerate solving parity and payoff games, or to improve their complexity analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salovaara-Moring, Inka
There has recently been considerable attention paid to the gamification of digital journalism. Where the current technological and social affordances of web 2.0 storytelling have proved less attractive to younger users, the persuasive features of game logics have added new dimensions to interactive......, participatory journalism. This notion refers to realitybased news games that can act both as an independent medium for news content and as a supplement to traditional forms of coverage. Simultaneously, persuasive logics of gamification offer new ways to engage actuality through media space’s augmented reality....... This paper1 explores the new spatio-epistemological realities of two journalistic games, asking how the spatial, operational, and procedural realities of storytelling change through ‘gamification’. It reflects on the spatial dimension of digital journalism in order to challenge the traditional, generic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Jens
Serious Games er et nyt it-forretningsområde, der siden årtusindskiftet er vokset frem, først i USA og dernæst i Vesteuropa og and i-lande. Til forskel fra computerspil er serious games ikke underholdning, men tænkt som et værktøj til støtte for statens og erhvervslivets forskellige funktioner. Det...... amerikanske militær har været fødselshjælper for den nye teknologi. Herfra har serious games bredt sig til andre sektorer og og i-lande, inkl. Danmark. Bogen skildrer, hvordan det nye forretningsområde er i færd med at blive udkrystalliseret af en række beslægtede industrigrene, og hvordan udviklingen er...
Anttila, Jani
2011-01-01
Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, wh...
"Game" in history, historical in "game"
Fostikov, Aleksandra
2006-01-01
This paper is considered with relation between game and the History, in three various aspects: first part is dedicated to the meaning of noun "game" from its early stages till today, the second part relates to influences of game on human development and the third part deals with objectivity of historical facts in computer games.
Serious Games: Video Games for Good?
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
2015-01-01
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
Serious Games: Video Games for Good?
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
2015-01-01
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Rune; Løssing, Tobias
2004-01-01
Games, er ikke produktudvikling i traditionel forstand, men derimod en reflekteret designproces, der forsøger at optage spilteoretiske og HCI-relaterede problemstillinger. I denne artikel vil vi koncentrere os om udvalgte principielle overvejelser i udviklingen af især forhandlings- og debatspil, som...
Oliva, Constantino; Duca, Edward
2012-01-01
WHAT IS THE STORY behind our smart phones? Phone Story retraces the production stages of our favorite products, showing us the dramatic working conditions behind their assembly. It seems like Apple didn’t like it: the game is now banned from the App Store.
Lum, Lydia
2007-01-01
Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…
van Bottenburg, Maarten
2001-01-01
Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Helms, Niels Henrik
2012-01-01
at forsøge at beskrive nogle af de mekanismer, som gør, at nogle af disse kreative industrier bliver netop kreative og innovative, at de ikke alene kan klare sig, men også ændre og udvikle både indhold, form og organisering – at de bliver det der på managementsprog hedder game changers....
van Bottenburg, Maarten
2001-01-01
Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邢连香
2000-01-01
Do you know there are two kinds of football games? One is American football, the other is soccer. In China, many young people like playing soccer. It is very popular in China. But Chinese don't call it soccer, They call it football. There are eleven players in a team. And the ball is round.
Fletcher, Robert
2017-01-01
This article explores the role of digital (video and computer) games in the rise of what Büscher (2014) calls "nature 2.0": new web-related media that allow users to move beyond passive voyeurism to actively "co-create" or "prosume" the images and processes promoted by organizations committed to
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon
From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...
Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat
2011-01-01
Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…
Prayaga, Lakshmi; Rasmussen, Karen L.
2008-01-01
Computer games are no longer just for entertainment; they have also become a useful instructional strategy for acquiring knowledge. When games are used for purposes other than strict entertainment they become serious games. The goal of serious games is to enable the player to learn a task, master a strategy or develop a skill. Serious games can be…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
2008-01-01
This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
2008-01-01
This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...
Competitive Centipede Games: Zero-End Payoffs and Payoff Inequality Deter Reciprocal Cooperation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva M. Krockow
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Reciprocal cooperation can be studied in the Centipede game, in which two players alternate in choosing between a cooperative GO move and a non-cooperative STOP move. GO sustains the interaction and increases the player pair’s total payoff while incurring a small personal cost; STOP terminates the interaction with a favorable payoff to the defector. We investigated cooperation in four Centipede games differing in their payoffs at the game’s end (positive versus zero and payoff difference between players (moderate versus high difference. The games shared the same game-theoretic solution, therefore they should have elicited identical decision patterns, according to orthodox game theory. Nevertheless, both zero-end payoffs and high payoff inequality were found to reduce cooperation significantly. Contrary to previous predictions, combining these two factors in one game resulted in a slight weakening of their independent deterrent effects. These findings show that small changes in the payoff function have large and significant effects on cooperation, and that the effects do not combine synergistically.
What eye movements can tell about theory of mind in a strategic game.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Meijering
Full Text Available This study investigates strategies in reasoning about mental states of others, a process that requires theory of mind. It is a first step in studying the cognitive basis of such reasoning, as strategies affect tradeoffs between cognitive resources. Participants were presented with a two-player game that required reasoning about the mental states of the opponent. Game theory literature discerns two candidate strategies that participants could use in this game: either forward reasoning or backward reasoning. Forward reasoning proceeds from the first decision point to the last, whereas backward reasoning proceeds in the opposite direction. Backward reasoning is the only optimal strategy, because the optimal outcome is known at each decision point. Nevertheless, we argue that participants prefer forward reasoning because it is similar to causal reasoning. Causal reasoning, in turn, is prevalent in human reasoning. Eye movements were measured to discern between forward and backward progressions of fixations. The observed fixation sequences corresponded best with forward reasoning. Early in games, the probability of observing a forward progression of fixations is higher than the probability of observing a backward progression. Later in games, the probabilities of forward and backward progressions are similar, which seems to imply that participants were either applying backward reasoning or jumping back to previous decision points while applying forward reasoning. Thus, the game-theoretical favorite strategy, backward reasoning, does seem to exist in human reasoning. However, participants preferred the more familiar, practiced, and prevalent strategy: forward reasoning.
What eye movements can tell about theory of mind in a strategic game.
Meijering, Ben; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke
2012-01-01
This study investigates strategies in reasoning about mental states of others, a process that requires theory of mind. It is a first step in studying the cognitive basis of such reasoning, as strategies affect tradeoffs between cognitive resources. Participants were presented with a two-player game that required reasoning about the mental states of the opponent. Game theory literature discerns two candidate strategies that participants could use in this game: either forward reasoning or backward reasoning. Forward reasoning proceeds from the first decision point to the last, whereas backward reasoning proceeds in the opposite direction. Backward reasoning is the only optimal strategy, because the optimal outcome is known at each decision point. Nevertheless, we argue that participants prefer forward reasoning because it is similar to causal reasoning. Causal reasoning, in turn, is prevalent in human reasoning. Eye movements were measured to discern between forward and backward progressions of fixations. The observed fixation sequences corresponded best with forward reasoning. Early in games, the probability of observing a forward progression of fixations is higher than the probability of observing a backward progression. Later in games, the probabilities of forward and backward progressions are similar, which seems to imply that participants were either applying backward reasoning or jumping back to previous decision points while applying forward reasoning. Thus, the game-theoretical favorite strategy, backward reasoning, does seem to exist in human reasoning. However, participants preferred the more familiar, practiced, and prevalent strategy: forward reasoning.
Authoring of digital games via card games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela
2014-01-01
Literature and previous studies show that creative play is easy to emerge when children interact with tangible, low-tech toys and games than with digital games. This paradoxical situation is linked to the long-standing problem of end-users (or players) authoring of digital contents and systems. We...... propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....
... Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...
... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
Play the Electrocardiogram Game
... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Fountain, G. H.; Weiss, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Parker, C. L.; MacDonald, L.; Ihde, A. G.; Simpkins, S.; GAIA Team
2011-12-01
In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions embodied in real-world decision making to water scarcity and water resources. We have developed a generalizable, extensible facility we call "GAIA" - Global Assimilation of Information for Action - and applied it to different problem sets. We describe the use of the "Green Country Model" and other gaming/simulation tools to address the impacts of climate and climate disruption issues at the intersection of science, economics, policy, and society. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. Our focus here is on a fundamental and growing issue - water and water availability. We consider water and the role of "virtual water" in the system. Various "actors" are included in the simulations. While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between, for example, treaty agreement, the environment, the economy, and the government. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. As in the real world the problem is competitive - not everyone shares the same
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel
2011-01-01
---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games...... as a target domain for software engineering project courses that focus on reliable systems engineering. This position paper summarizes our experiences in incorporating rigorous software engineering into courses whose projects include computer games.......In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...
Quantum repeated games revisited
Frackiewicz, Piotr
2011-01-01
We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejsing-Duun, Stine
2011-01-01
This chapter analyses the relationship between players, the game world, and the ordinary world in alternative reality games (ARGs) and location-based games (LBGs). These games use technology to create a game world in the everyday scene. The topic of this chapter is the concept of the 'magic circle......', which defines the relationship between play and the ordinary world, and how this concept relates to a new kind of game....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejsing-Duun, Stine
2011-01-01
This chapter analyses the relationship between players, the game world, and the ordinary world in alternative reality games (ARGs) and location-based games (LBGs). These games use technology to create a game world in the everyday scene. The topic of this chapter is the concept of the 'magic circle......', which defines the relationship between play and the ordinary world, and how this concept relates to a new kind of game....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas
This book offers an in-depth examination of the strategic use of State sovereignty in contemporary European and international affairs and the consequences of this for authority relations in Europe and beyond. It suggests a new approach to the study of State sovereignty, proposing to understand th...... the use of sovereignty as games where States are becoming more instrumental in their claims to sovereignty and skilled in adapting it to the challenges that they face....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Andrade
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Due to hardware limitations at the origin of the video game industry, each new game was generally coded from the ground up. Years later, from the evolution of hardware and the need for quick game development cycles, spawned the concept of game engine. A game engine is a reusable software layer allowing the separation of common game concepts from the game assets (levels, graphics, etc.. This paper surveys fourteen different game engines relevant today, ranging from the industry-level to the newcomer-friendlier ones.
Beasley, John D
2006-01-01
""Mind-exercising and thought-provoking.""-New ScientistIf playing games is natural for humans, analyzing games is equally natural for mathematicians. Even the simplest of games involves the fundamentals of mathematics, such as figuring out the best move or the odds of a certain chance event. This entertaining and wide-ranging guide demonstrates how simple mathematical analysis can throw unexpected light on games of every type-games of chance, games of skill, games of chance and skill, and automatic games.Just how random is a card shuffle or a throw of the dice? Is bluffing a valid poker strat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersson, Eva; Brown, David
This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research.......This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research....
Parents Educators MENU Home Videos Games & Apps Activities Sparky Firetrucks Parents Educators Firetrucks Videos Games Sparky Apps Activities The name and image of Sparky are registered trademarks ...
Buffered Simulation Games for Büchi Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milka Hutagalung
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Simulation relations are an important tool in automata theory because they provide efficiently computable approximations to language inclusion. In recent years, extensions of ordinary simulations have been studied, for instance multi-pebble and multi-letter simulations which yield better approximations and are still polynomial-time computable. In this paper we study the limitations of approximating language inclusion in this way: we introduce a natural extension of multi-letter simulations called buffered simulations. They are based on a simulation game in which the two players share a FIFO buffer of unbounded size. We consider two variants of these buffered games called continuous and look-ahead simulation which differ in how elements can be removed from the FIFO buffer. We show that look-ahead simulation, the simpler one, is already PSPACE-hard, i.e. computationally as hard as language inclusion itself. Continuous simulation is even EXPTIME-hard. We also provide matching upper bounds for solving these games with infinite state spaces.
Algorithms for Omega-Regular Games with Imperfect Information
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Henzinger, Thomas A; Raskin, Jean-Francois
2006-01-01
We study observation-based strategies for two-player turn-based games on graphs with omega-regular objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on imperfect information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. Such games occur in the synthesis of a controller that does not see the private state of the plant. Our main results are twofold. First, we give a fixed-point algorithm for computing the set of states from which a player can win with a deterministic observation-based strategy for any omega-regular objective. The fixed point is computed in the lattice of antichains of state sets. This algorithm has the advantages of being directed by the objective and of avoiding an explicit subset construction on the game graph. Second, we give an algorithm for computing the set of states from which a player can win with probability 1 with a randomized observation-based strategy for a Buechi objective. This set is of interest because in the absence of perfect information, randomized...
Heterogenous allocation of chips promotes fairness in the Ultimatum Game
Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wu, Naiqi; Wang, Long
2015-03-01
In an economic Ultimatum Game, two players interact to decide how to split a certain amount of money. The proposer formulates an allocation scheme to divide the sum, and the responder's decision is, either adoption, in which case both players are rewarded in accordance with the scheme, or rejection, in which case neither player is benefited. The economic theory and game theory predict that a rational proposer will offer his opponent a minimal but nonzero share and the responder will admit this scheme. However, this prediction is impractical in real situations and abundant experiments and theories are presented to resolve the discrepancy. Here, we concentrate on investigating the impact of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness in the framework of the evolutionary game theory. The proposer has the privilege to offer the amount of the chips and make the allocation resolution to the responder. Interestingly, it is found that fairness prevails when the proposer is courageous enough to offer more chips to unsuccessful opponents. Moreover, we find that an amplifying group interaction enlarges the effects of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness.
Guaranteed successful strategies for a square achievement game on an n by n grid
Jenrich, Thomas
2011-01-01
At some places (see the references) Martin Erickson describes a certain game: "Two players alternately write O's (first player) and X's (second player) in the unoccupied cells of an n x n grid. The first player (if any) to occupy four cells at the vertices of a square with horizontal and vertical sides is the winner." Then he asks "What is the outcome of the game given optimal play?" or "What is the smallest n such that the first player has a winning strategy?" For n lower than 3 a win is obviously impossible. The aim of this article and the additionally (in the source package) provided computer program SQRGAME is to give and prove sure strategies for the second player not to lose if n is 3 or 4, and for the first player to win if n is 5.
The standard set game of a cooperative game
Bumb, A.F.; Hoede, C.
2003-01-01
We show that for every cooperative game a corresponding set game can be defined, called the standard set game. Values for set games can be applied to this standard game and determine allocations for the cooperative game. On the other hand, notions for cooperative games, like the Shapley value, the
A group search games problem and solving for fixed target%一类对固定目标的集群搜寻对策问题及求解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴晓平; 刘子瑞; 邵立周
2001-01-01
In this paper, the search game models of the search-evade antagonistic is set up with the method of the game theory and the knowledge of the search theory, the results of the models are analysed, the optimal strategies and its application about two players are discussed.%利用集群搜索对策的理论与方法，建立了集群对固定目标的一类搜索对策模型，给出了集群的ε-最优搜寻策略，并考虑了其在搜索过程中的应用.
Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology
Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi
2014-01-01
This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;
2013-01-01
For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
Learning with Calculator Games
Frahm, Bruce
2013-01-01
Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.
2013-01-01
For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersson, Eva; Brown, David
This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research....
Learning with Calculator Games
Frahm, Bruce
2013-01-01
Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…
Environmental Games and Simulations.
Eckman, Tom, Comp.
This publication consists of a lengthy list of environmental games (35) on the market today, their source and purchase price. Included is a description of the major changes the types of games have undergone. The first group of games resembled closely ordinary board games with success dependent on skill and/or chance rather than understanding of…
Au, Wagner James
2012-01-01
Wagner James Au is an author, consultant, and game designer, and was lead writer/mission designer for City of Eternals, a Facebook-based MMO acquired by Electronic Arts. He's written on the subject of gaming for Inside Social Games, Kotaku, and Wired. His blog New World Notes (nwn.blogs.com) covers gaming, 3D technology, and virtual culture.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Erik
2011-01-01
Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hi...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games.......Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide...... into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person enters the magic circle of a game, the player suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.
This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)
Schneiderman, Ellen
1990-01-01
This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hanghøj, Thorkild
2013-01-01
This chapter outlines theoretical and empirical perspectives on how Game-Based Teaching can be integrated within the context of formal schooling. Initially, this is done by describing game scenarios as models for possible actions that need to be translated into curricular knowledge practices...... approaches to game-based teaching, which may or may not correspond with the pedagogical models of particular games....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Sukhov
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This article devoted to the search of relevant sources (primary and secondary and characteristics of computer games that allow to include them in the field of art (such as the creation of artistic games, computer graphics, active interaction with other forms of art, signs of spiritual aesthetic act, own temporality of computer games, “aesthetic illusion”, interactivity. In general, modern computer games can be attributed to commercial art and popular culture (blockbuster games and to elite forms of contemporary media art (author’s games, visionary games.
Game Development in Unity : Game Production, Game Mechanics and the Effects of Gaming
Dansie, Jason
2013-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to examine how video games are designed and to see how differ-ent game mechanics work and how to use them in the development of a game, as well as examine what are both the positive and negative effects games have on adults and children. This thesis looks at how games in general are developed in Unity, a 3D game engine which has become not only popular but a standard in the gaming industry. The thesis describes how the interface in Unity is used to quickly gene...
The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.
Shubik, Martin
2002-01-01
Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)
Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2008-01-01
We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....
Bayesian Games with Intentions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Bjorndahl
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We show that standard Bayesian games cannot represent the full spectrum of belief-dependent preferences. However, by introducing a fundamental distinction between intended and actual strategies, we remove this limitation. We define Bayesian games with intentions, generalizing both Bayesian games and psychological games, and prove that Nash equilibria in psychological games correspond to a special class of equilibria as defined in our setting.
The Prisoner's Dilemma: Introducing Game Theory
Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.
2015-01-01
Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…
Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model
Yen-Ru Shi; Ju-Ling Shih
2015-01-01
How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define ea...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel
2011-01-01
In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...... involved in identifying these problems are not going to solve them. That task will fall to our students, and our students' students. Unfortunately for GC6, the Grand Challenge focusing on Dependable Systems Evolution, interest in formal methods---both by students and within computer science faculties......---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Erik
2014-01-01
What. Urban Games are games that take place in the real-world of the players, and which make use of the properties of the city. Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are urban games that pretend to be conspiracy theories that really are happening in the life of the players. The games are experienced...... through events, challenges and collaborative puzzle solving and may evolve through the engagement of the players. This new design method, Aulaia, addresses the design of urban games in the form of ARGs. Along with the design method several examples from real world ARGs are given. Why. ARGs and other urban...... games are usually large and complicated undertakings, which require many coordinated activities in order to make successful games. This design method secures a structured approach, not only for the design of the game, but also for the launch and running. ARGs develop along with the players and require...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørner, Thomas; Hansen, Charina Benedikte Søgaard
2010-01-01
When designing games with learning purposes used in a classroom, there often occur problems about the lack of learning content or the lack of game contents. Other disadvantages of existing educational games are the difficulty to provide a continual balance between the challenge and the pupils...... games, and to integrate teachers, pupils and game designers needs and requirements. To set up these design principles for educational games we have used a holistic perspective. This means that the design principles must be seen in coherence within the social and physical environment. The design...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Sara Mosberg
2016-01-01
Digital games are still to a great degree considered a medium mainly for young boys. However, available statistics on Western media use show that this is far from the case. Increasingly, people of all ages and genders play digital games, also older adults in their early 60s and beyond. The aim...... of the book is to examine, analyse and discuss: 1) What older adults do with digital games and what meanings the use of digital games take on in the everyday life of older adults; 2) How older adults are perceived by society in relation to digital games; 3) How play and games can be used both...
Implementing Game Cinematography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burelli, Paolo
2015-01-01
Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts and anim......Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts...
Archetypal Game Recommender Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders
2014-01-01
Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games...
Silva, Vladimir
2010-01-01
Do you remember landmark games like Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, and Asteroids? Well, here's an exciting opportunity to build and/or port these games to one of the hottest mobile and netbooks platforms today: Google's Android. Pro Android Games teaches you how to build cool games like Space Blaster and the classic Asteroids from scratch on the latest Android platform. This book also shows you how to port other classic freeware/shareware games like Doom and Wolfenstein 3D from C using the Java Native Interface (JNI) for Android. This book is all about a unique perspective in Android game development:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea
2014-01-01
top games). Therefore, we propose here a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, so to grant children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties individually or socially; this approach is an alternative to the current trend of associating...... programming with digital creativity. In our preliminary study we transposed a digital game into a card game and observed students while shifting between playing and design thinking. Results from this study suggest that the notion of altering a digital game through a card-based transposition of the same game...
Evolution of fairness in the dictator game by multilevel selection.
Schank, Jeffrey C; Smaldino, Paul E; Miller, Matt L
2015-10-01
The most perplexing experimental results on fairness come from the dictator game where one of two players, the dictator, decides how to divide a resource with an anonymous player. The dictator, acting self-interestedly, should offer nothing to the anonymous second player, but in experimental studies, dictators offer much more than nothing. We developed a multilevel selection model to explain why people offer more than nothing in the dictator game. We show that fairness can evolve when population structure emerges from the aggregation and limited dispersal of offspring. We begin with an analytical model that shows how fair behavior can benefit groups by minimizing within-group variance in resources and thereby increasing group fitness. To investigate the generality of this result, we developed an agent-based model with agents that have no information about other agents. We allowed agents to aggregate into groups and evolve different levels of fairness by playing the dictator game for resources to reproduce. This allowed multilevel selection to emerge from the spatiotemporal properties of individual agents. We found that the population structure that emerged under low population densities was most conducive to the evolution of fairness, which is consistent with group selection as a major evolutionary force. We also found that fairness only evolves if resources are not too scarce relative to the lifespan of agents. We conclude that the evolution of fairness could evolve under multilevel selection. Thus, our model provides a novel explanation for the results of dictator game experiments, in which participants often fairly split a resource rather than keeping it all for themselves.
Extortion under uncertainty: Zero-determinant strategies in noisy games.
Hao, Dong; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao
2015-05-01
Repeated game theory has been one of the most prevailing tools for understanding long-running relationships, which are the foundation in building human society. Recent works have revealed a new set of "zero-determinant" (ZD) strategies, which is an important advance in repeated games. A ZD strategy player can exert unilateral control on two players' payoffs. In particular, he can deterministically set the opponent's payoff or enforce an unfair linear relationship between the players' payoffs, thereby always seizing an advantageous share of payoffs. One of the limitations of the original ZD strategy, however, is that it does not capture the notion of robustness when the game is subjected to stochastic errors. In this paper, we propose a general model of ZD strategies for noisy repeated games and find that ZD strategies have high robustness against errors. We further derive the pinning strategy under noise, by which the ZD strategy player coercively sets the opponent's expected payoff to his desired level, although his payoff control ability declines with the increase of noise strength. Due to the uncertainty caused by noise, the ZD strategy player cannot ensure his payoff to be permanently higher than the opponent's, which implies dominant extortions do not exist even under low noise. While we show that the ZD strategy player can still establish a novel kind of extortions, named contingent extortions, where any increase of his own payoff always exceeds that of the opponent's by a fixed percentage, and the conditions under which the contingent extortions can be realized are more stringent as the noise becomes stronger.
Games on Games. Game Design as Critical Reflexive Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Caruso
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Can video game design be compared to more formalized practices of scientific research or speculation within game studies? And, by virtue of an intellectual leap that in itself calls for discussion, can video games be considered as an efficient vehicle for the presentation of certain kinds of knowledge, in the same way in which papers, conference presentations, and books are? What Ratto defines as critical making (2011, the practice of producing artifacts of different sorts in order to supplement and extend critical reflection, may apply to video games as well. Forms of research through design (Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, 2007, of carpentry (Bogost, 2012, and speculative design (Dunne and Raby, 2013 have been analyzed, discussed, and maybe most importantly, put into practice in different fields of cultural and scientific production. To address this gap and to map the current (and future state of self-reflexive games, we asked both researchers and designers to imagine an application of these concepts to video games. Paraphrasing Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, what does research through game design might mean? What epistemological insights can we derive from the act of designing, making and playing video games?
Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma Game Based on Division of Work
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Zhi-Hua; WANG Bing-Hong; LIU Run-Ran; YANG Han-Xin
2009-01-01
We propose a new two-type-player prisoner's dilemma game based on the division of work on a square lattice, in which a fraction of the population μ are assigned type A and the rest B.In a one-shot two-player game, we let both of their original payoffs be scaled by a same multiplicative factor α > 1, if two neighboring players are of different types; however we leave the payoffs unchanged if they are of the same type.Then we show that combined with the two-type setup, the square lattice can assist to induce different social ranks according to players' abilities to collect payoffs.Simulation results show that the density of cooperation is significantly promoted for a wide range of the temptation to defection parameters and that there are optimal values for both α and μ leading to the maximal cooperation level.We reach these results by analyzing the distribution of the players in the social ranks and we also show some typical snapshots of the system.
Infection Spreading and Source Identification: A Hide and Seek Game
Luo, Wuqiong; Tay, Wee Peng; Leng, Mei
2016-08-01
The goal of an infection source node (e.g., a rumor or computer virus source) in a network is to spread its infection to as many nodes as possible, while remaining hidden from the network administrator. On the other hand, the network administrator aims to identify the source node based on knowledge of which nodes have been infected. We model the infection spreading and source identification problem as a strategic game, where the infection source and the network administrator are the two players. As the Jordan center estimator is a minimax source estimator that has been shown to be robust in recent works, we assume that the network administrator utilizes a source estimation strategy that can probe any nodes within a given radius of the Jordan center. Given any estimation strategy, we design a best-response infection strategy for the source. Given any infection strategy, we design a best-response estimation strategy for the network administrator. We derive conditions under which a Nash equilibrium of the strategic game exists. Simulations in both synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate that our proposed infection strategy infects more nodes while maintaining the same safety margin between the true source node and the Jordan center source estimator.
On the path-avoidance vertex-coloring game
Mütze, Torsten
2011-01-01
For any graph $F$ and any integer $r\\geq 2$, the \\emph{online vertex-Ramsey density of $F$ and $r$}, denoted $m^*(F,r)$, is a parameter defined via a deterministic two-player Ramsey-type game (Painter vs.\\ Builder). This parameter was introduced in a recent paper \\cite{mrs11}, where it was shown that the online vertex-Ramsey density determines the threshold of a similar probabilistic one-player game (Painter vs.\\ the binomial random graph $G_{n,p}$). For a large class of graphs $F$, including cliques, cycles, complete bipartite graphs, hypercubes, wheels, and stars of arbitrary size, a simple greedy strategy is optimal for Painter and closed formulas for $m^*(F,r)$ are known. In this work we show that for the case where $F=P_\\ell$ is a (long) path, the picture is very different. It is not hard to see that $m^*(P_\\ell,r)= 1-1/k^*(P_\\ell,r)$ for an appropriately defined integer $k^*(P_\\ell,r)$, and that the greedy strategy gives a lower bound of $k^*(P_\\ell,r)\\geq \\ell^r$. We construct and analyze Painter strat...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea
2014-01-01
In this paper we argue that there is a need for digital games that could be easy to alter by young learners. Unfortunately it was found that digital games do not enable children to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low-fidelity prototypes and non-digital toys (such as card or table...... top games). Therefore, we propose here a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, so to grant children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties individually or socially; this approach is an alternative to the current trend of associating...... programming with digital creativity. In our preliminary study we transposed a digital game into a card game and observed students while shifting between playing and design thinking. Results from this study suggest that the notion of altering a digital game through a card-based transposition of the same game...
Haney, Stephen
2015-01-01
If you wish to create and publish fun iOS games using Swift, then this book is for you. You should be familiar with basic programming concepts. However, no prior game development or Apple ecosystem experience is required.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...
... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sharp, John
Games and art have intersected at least since the early twentieth century, as can be seen in the Surrealists’ use of Exquisite Corpse and other games, Duchamp’s obsession with Chess, and Fluxus event scores and boxes—to name just a few examples. Over the past fifteen years, the synthesis of art...... and games has clouded for both artists and gamemakers. Contemporary art has drawn on the tool set of videogames, but has not considered them a cultural form with its own conceptual, formal, and experiential affordances. For their part, game developers and players focus on the innate properties of games...... and the experiences they provide, giving little attention to what it means to create and evaluate fine art. In Works of Game, John Sharp bridges this gap, offering a formal aesthetics of games that encompasses the commonalities and the differences between games and art. Sharp describes three communities of practice...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea
2014-01-01
In this paper we argue that there is a need for digital games that could be easy to alter by young learners. Unfortunately it was found that digital games do not enable children to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low-fidelity prototypes and non-digital toys (such as card or table...... top games). Therefore, we propose here a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, so to grant children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties individually or socially; this approach is an alternative to the current trend of associating...... programming with digital creativity. In our preliminary study we transposed a digital game into a card game and observed students while shifting between playing and design thinking. Results from this study suggest that the notion of altering a digital game through a card-based transposition of the same game...
Warnars, Spits; Kingdom, United; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2310
2010-01-01
In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizationsâ performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will be a challenge to combine fun and entertainment with Information System. The Challenge to run the information system with entertainment, deliver the entertainment with information system all at once. Game information system can be implemented in many sectors as like the information system itself but in differenceâs view. A view of game which people can joy and happy and do their transaction as a fun things.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niklas Schrape
2014-09-01
Full Text Available James Lovelock’s vision of Earth as a living cybernetic system is popular again. The surprising new preacher of Gaia is Bruno Latour. He uses the concept to refer to a holistic understanding of Earth, in which mankind is situated as integral part. Gaia becomes the catalyst and fundament for his philosophical attempt to design a new believe-system in the time of ecological crisis. But the concept of Gaia is characterised by a tension between the idea of a powerful but indifferent nature and a grandiose vision of total control over it. This tension reveals itself to be deeply rooted in cybernetic thought. It is not only apparent in Lovelock’s own writing, but also in simulation programs based on the Gaia hypothesis such as the Daisyworld model and the computer game “SimEarth: The Living Planet” (1991. The article will distinguish Lovelock’s from Latour’s concept of Gaia and relate them to first- and second order cybernetics as well as to two different approaches to computer simulation: system dynamics and cellular automata.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitrii D. Lozovanu
2005-10-01
Full Text Available We study the max-min paths problem, which represents a game version of the shortest and the longest paths problem in a weighted directed graph. In this problem the vertex set V of the weighted directed graph G=(V,E is divided into two disjoint subsets VA and VB which are regarded as positional sets of two players. The players are seeking for a directed path from the given starting position ν 0 to the final position ν f , where the first player intends to maximize the integral cost of the path while the second one has aim to minimize it. Polynomial-time algorithm for determining max-min path in networks is proposed and its application for solving zero value cyclic games is developed. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90B10, 90C35, 90C27.
Oman, Marko
2012-01-01
This thesis describes educational games and two different technologies used to develop games. It describes the development process and use of educational games in general, also it describes what kind of educational games we know. It Presents HTML5 and Flash technologies, and some programming languages and programs that this two technologies are using. It desribes differences in the way of the development process and display of the final product in both technologies and it describes the adv...
Ortiz, Luis E.
2015-01-01
Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...
Browne, Cameron
2011-01-01
The book describes the world's first successful experiment in fully automated board game design. Evolutionary methods were used to derive new rule sets within a custom game description language, and self-play trials used to estimate each derived game's potential to interest human players. The end result is a number of new and interesting games, one of which has proved popular and gone on to be commercially published.
Oman, Marko
2012-01-01
This thesis describes educational games and two different technologies used to develop games. It describes the development process and use of educational games in general, also it describes what kind of educational games we know. It Presents HTML5 and Flash technologies, and some programming languages and programs that this two technologies are using. It desribes differences in the way of the development process and display of the final product in both technologies and it describes the adv...
Promotion of cooperation induced by discriminators in the spatial multi-player donor-recipient game
Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Ren, Jian-Kang; Lu, Kun; Li, Ming-Chu
2016-11-01
Although the two-player donor-recipient game has been used extensively in studying cooperation in social dilemmas, the scenario in which a donor can simultaneously donate resources to multiple recipients is also common in human societies, economic systems, and social networks. This paper formulates a model of the multi-player donor-recipient game considering a multi-recipient scenario. The promotion of cooperation is also studied by introducing a discriminative cooperation strategy into the game, which donates resources to recipients in proportion to their previous donations with a cost for the collection of information. The evolutionary dynamics of individual strategies are explored in homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios by leveraging spatial evolutionary game theory. The results show that in a homogeneous scenario, defectors can dominate the network at the equilibrium state only when the cost-to-benefit ratio (R) of donated resources is large. In a heterogeneous scenario, three strategies can coexist all the time within the range of R that was studied, and the promotion of cooperation is more effective when the values of R are smaller. Results from a single node evolution and the formation of local patterns of interaction are provided, and it is analytically shown that discriminators can maintain fairness in resource donation and guarantee long-term cooperation when R is not too large.
MODELLING THE INTERACTION IN GAME SPORTS - RELATIVE PHASE AND MOVING CORRELATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Lames
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Model building in game sports should maintain the constitutive feature of this group of sports, the dynamic interaction process between the two parties. For single net/wall games relative phase is suggested to describe the positional interaction between the two players. 30 baseline rallies in tennis were examined and relative phase was calculated by Hilbert transform from the two time-series of lateral displacement and trajectory in the court respectively. Results showed that relative phase indicates some aspects of the tactical interaction in tennis. At a more abstract level the interaction between two teams in handball was studied by examining the relationship of the two scoring processes. Each process can be conceived as a random walk. Moving averages of the scoring probabilities indicate something like a momentary strength. A moving correlation (length = 20 ball possessions describes the momentary relationship between the teams' strength. Evidence was found that this correlation is heavily time-dependent, in almost every single game among the 40 examined ones we found phases with a significant positive as well as significant negative relationship. This underlines the importance of a dynamic view on the interaction in these games.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan
2007-01-01
is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer;
2016-01-01
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...
Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.
2008-01-01
In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role relative to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element
Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; van Megen, F.J.C.
1996-01-01
This paper introduces the notion of protective equilibrium in the context of fin ite games in strategic form.It shows that for matrix games the set of protective equilibria equals the set of proper equilibria.Moreover, in the context of bima trix games, the notion of protective behaviour is used as
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten
2014-01-01
When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return of the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games achieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative st...
Educational Games for Learning
Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos
2014-01-01
The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…
2011-06-01
for Families of Returning Veterans Using Emotionally Responsive Avatars Ron Goldman, Kognito, Inc. Games for Shoppers : Brainstorming Play at...Nutrition Education with Online Game Experiences Sally Schmidt & Jori Clarke, Circle1Network Camp Eatapita: A Nutrition Game for Young Kids Steve
Richardson, Will
2012-01-01
The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea
2015-01-01
game into a trading card game, to investigate the potential of the approach: as expected, students participating to the study shifted between playing and design thinking. The card-based model introduced in this paper works full circle: it enables learners to go from digital games to cards and back...
Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet
1982-01-01
Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)
DeQuadros, Miguel
2015-01-01
If you want to create your own game, but don't know where to start, this is the book for you. Whether you've used GameSalad before, or have prior game development experience or not you are sure to learn! Imaging software experience, such as Photoshop, is good to have, but art and assets are provided in the book's resources.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of making design of digital games accessible to primary school children and their teachers, and we argue for the need of digital games that are easy to alter by young learners. We know from previous research projects that digital games do not enable children ...
Remmele, Bernd
2017-01-01
The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan
2007-01-01
is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...
... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 56 quiz ... Year’s Relationship Resolution Be? Shares · 6 Comments · 0 game Block Party Shares · 36 Comments · 0 quiz Should ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...
Gaydos, Matthew; Harris, Shannon; Squire, Kurt
2016-01-01
Player responses to a brief survey gauging their understanding of content after playing an educational game, "Virulent," are presented. Response accuracy was higher for picture-based questions than text-based questions, despite the presentation of both within the game. Given that games may present educational content in multiple ways…
de Bruin, B.P.
2005-01-01
Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals
Educational Game Development Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Emin Korkusuz
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Recent research on the subject shows that students spend more time on computer games than other activities such as reading book or watching TV. It is possible that this time-consuming activity can become much more effective by educator-game sector cooperation. Which type of game students prefer mostly; how the educational content can be articulated the games without diminishing the playability and enjoyableness of it; and the impact of the competition in the games on process and students are just several titles examined in the studies. This scope presents the types of computer game, qualities of educational games, and educational games designs which are recommended for developing educational games. It also presents a set of knowledge about the importance of educational games in mathematics and physic education, and some studies on this field. In the scope, some strategies, about educational game development process, are recommended educators and software developers in the sector who intend to develop educational games based on the literature.
Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.
1999-01-01
Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the
Resource Allocation Games: A Priming Game for a Series of Instructional Games (The POE Game).
Allen, Layman E.
This paper describes in detail the paper-and-pencil POE (Pelham Odd 'R Even) game, in which units of space are the allocated resources. The game is designed to provide an introduction to the rule structure common to the games of EQUATIONS, WFF 'N PROOF, and ON-SENTS & NON-SENTS. Techniques of playing POE, including goals, solutions, moves, scoring…
Authoring of digital games via card games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela
2014-01-01
propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...
Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. Fox
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.
Shapley's value for fuzzy games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raúl Alvarado Sibaja
2009-02-01
Full Text Available This is the continuation of a previous article titled "Fuzzy Games", where I defined a new type of games based on the Multilinear extensions f, of characteristic functions and most of standard theorems for cooperative games also hold for this new type of games: The fuzzy games. Now we give some other properties and the extension of the definition of Shapley¨s Value for Fuzzy Games Keywords: game theory, fuzzy sets, multiattribute decisions.
Ahmed, Zeeshan
2010-01-01
Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.
From board games to teambuilding
Mikoláš, Jiří
2012-01-01
The Outline of the development and history of a board game. The Mapping of the contemporary situation in the field of board games. Cultural, social and psychological aspects of playing board games. Defence of the stand that board games are not marginal subject beside modern sorts of amusement e.g. computer games. The Classification of modern board games with regard to their dominant cultural background and origin. The sociological survey on board games and motivation to their playing in the s...
2012-01-01
This thesis answers the question of how, and what, people communicate to each other while playing games. The presented conclusions offer guidance to computer game developers on what means of communication they should support in games in order to provide better possibilities for interaction between people that play games together. The data for this study was collected from two sources: the first was during LinCon, an annual game convention in Linköping, and consists of four players playing a g...
Burgun, Keith
2015-01-01
Only by finding and focusing on a core mechanism can you further your pursuit of elegance in strategy game design.Clockwork Game Design is the most functional and directly applicable theory for game design. It details the clockwork game design pattern, which focuses on building around fundamental functionality. You can then use this understanding to prescribe a system for building and refining your rulesets. A game can achieve clarity of purpose by starting with a strong core, then removing elements that conflict with that core while adding elements that support it.Filled with examples and exe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟静
2007-01-01
Grammar learning has often been regarded as a structure based activity .Grammar games which are worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom can help learner to learn and recall a grammar material in a pleasant, entertaining way and motivate learners,promote the communicative competence and generate the fluency. In this essay, the author compares the use of games in learning grammar with some traditional techniques for grammar presentation and revision, in order to find the advantages of using games. Also the author discusses how to choose appropriate games and when to use games.
Batscha, Catherine
2002-09-01
This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.
Action Investment Energy Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri
2012-01-01
We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...... a complexity results overview for the problem of deciding the winner in the game....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Kock; Svenningsen, Anette; Dohn, Niels Bonderup
2016-01-01
in the higher levels of education. In order to obtain this intuition repeated practice is required. This paper presents the development of DiffGame, which consists of a series of exercises that introduce the basic principles of differentiation for high-school students through game-like elements. DiffGame have...... been tested with 117 first-year students from a single Danish high school, who did not have any prior training in differentiation. The students’ learning was assessed by the data obtained directly from DiffGame. The test demonstrated the efficacy of DiffGame, since students at all levels demonstrate...
Hoefer, Martin
2008-01-01
This paper studies the effects of introducing altruistic agents into atomic congestion games. Altruistic behavior is modeled by a trade-off between selfish and social objectives. In particular, we assume agents optimize a linear combination of personal delay of a strategy and the resulting increase in social cost. Our model can be embedded in the framework of congestion games with player-specific latency functions. Stable states are the Nash equilibria of these games, and we examine their existence and the convergence of sequential best-response dynamics. Previous work shows that for symmetric singleton games with convex delays Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist. For concave delay functions we observe that there are games without Nash equilibria and provide a polynomial time algorithm to decide existence for symmetric singleton games with arbitrary delay functions. Our algorithm can be extended to compute best and worst Nash equilibria if they exist. For more general congestion games existence becomes NP...
Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games
Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.
2016-01-01
Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate
Expanding the Game Design Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver
2016-01-01
This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space......, providing a clear game design assignment that involves the formulation of intended player experience and a description of game mechanics. The second layer focuses on game design thinking from six different aspects of game design chosen in relation to the framing of the game design assignment. The third....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...
Quantifying Engagement of Various Games
Xiong, Shuo; ZUO, Long; Chiewvanichakorn, Rachaya; Iida, Hiroyuki
2014-01-01
Game refinement idea is a unique theory that has been proposed based on the uncertainty of game outcome. A game refinement measure was derived from the game information progress model and has been applied in the traditional board games. The present challenge is to apply the game refinement theory in the domain of various games such as RTS(StarCraft II), MOBA(DotA), crane game and score limited sports. In conclusion, this paper makes contribution to apply game refinement theory in these new ar...
Gaming in Early Childhood Education.
Trueblood, Cecil R.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels
This article discusses how developmental and behaviorist learning theories can be used to create educational games. The Piagetian rationale for the use of games is examined and three benefits of gaming are identified: (1) games are related to intellectual, socio-emotional, and motor learning in young children, (2) gaming requires aspects of…
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
2007-01-01
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
2007-01-01
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
Using Commercial Games to Design Teacher-Made Games for the Mathematics Classroom.
McBride, John W.; Lamb, Charles E.
1991-01-01
The use of commercial games to design and construct games to drill specific mathematics skills is discussed. Game types discussed include card games and board games. Two game boards adapted from "Chutes and Ladders" and "Battleship" are provided. (CW)
Game Analytics for Game User Research, Part 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia;
2013-01-01
The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design......The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design...
Game Analytics for Game User Research, Part 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia
2013-01-01
The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design......The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design...
Statistical properties for direction alignment and chasing of players in football games
Narizuka, Takuma
2016-01-01
Focusing on motion of two interacting players in football games, two velocity vectors for the pair of one player and the nearest opponent player exhibit strong alignment. Especially, we find that there exists a characteristic interpersonal distance $ r\\simeq 500 $ cm below which the circular variance for their alignment decreases rapidly. By introducing the order parameter $ \\phi $ in order to measure degree of alignment of players' velocity vectors, we also find that the angle distribution between the above nearest players' velocity vectors changes from the wrapped Cauchy to the mixture of von Mises and wrapped Cauchy distributions at $ \\phi\\simeq 0.7 $. To understand these findings, we construct a simple model with the following two rules: chasing between two players and the reset of the chasing. We numerically show that our model successfully reproduce the results obtained from the actual data. Moreover, from the numerical study, we find that there is another characteristic distance $ r\\simeq 1000 $ cm bel...
Stackelberg Interdependent Security Game in Distributed and Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiajun Shen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the integration of physical plant and network, cyber-physical systems (CPSs are increasingly vulnerable due to their distributed and hierarchical framework. Stackelberg interdependent security game (SISG is proposed for characterizing the interdependent security in CPSs, that is, the interactions between individual CPSs, which are selfish but nonmalicious with the payoff function being formulated from a cross-layer perspective. The pure-strategy equilibria for two-player symmetric SISG are firstly analyzed with the strategy gap between individual and social optimum being characterized, which is known as negative externalities. Then, the results are further extended to the asymmetric and m-player SISG. At last, a numerical case of practical experiment platform is analyzed for determining the comprehensively optimal security configuration for administrator.
... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game About this game Embed the Blood Typing ...
... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood transfusion ... of the game 2012 Winner of the Best Game Category by Swedish Learning Awards " The winner has ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo Vlaev
2007-12-01
Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Søren Tranberg
2011-01-01
in a number of countries is under pressure. Development of new types of technology which can secure self-sustainability and life quality for elderly has been suggested as way to diminish some of the problems caused by an ageing society. It has been shown that even a small amount of physical activity can...... spatio-temporal information about player behaviour - more specifically, I investigate three types of games each using a different control strategy. The first game is based on basic robot control which allows the robot to detect and follow a person. A field study in a rehabilitation centre and a nursing....... The robot facilitates interaction, and the study suggests that robot based games potentially can be used for training balance and orientation. The second game consists in an adaptive game algorithm which gradually adjusts the game challenge to the mobility skills of the player based on spatio...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet
2015-01-01
Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of making design of digital games accessible to primary school children and their teachers, and we argue for the need of digital games that are easy to alter by young learners. We know from previous research projects that digital games do not enable children...... to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low-fidelity prototypes and non-digital toys (such as card or table top games). Therefore, we propose here a novel approach that serves as a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, and grants children more freedom to express...... themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties both individually and socially. This approach, called card-based model for digital game design, is an alternative to the current trend of associating programming with digital creativity. A preliminary study was conducted by transposing a digital...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Thomas Duus
2006-01-01
Learning games are facing a new challenge if it is to meet the educational demand for creativity training. In the article, it is argued that reflection is the key to teach creativity, and that we have to reconsider our current approach to creating educational role-playing games in order to meet...... this demand. The article presents a number of challenges to accomplishing this, as well as a number of tools for designing and using creativity facilitating games....
Hirsch, Richard
2007-01-01
Language has often been compared to the game of Chess. In this article, I claim that a productive analogy for linguistic interaction would be the Asian board game GO. I further explore common aspects of language use and creative play that we find in improvised ensemble music-making. What is said about language and games, and language and improvised music-making is then related to a discussion of linguistic interaction as constitutive of thought and mind.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Thomas Duus
2006-01-01
Learning games are facing a new challenge if it is to meet the educational demand for creativity training. In the article, it is argued that reflection is the key to teach creativity, and that we have to reconsider our current approach to creating educational role-playing games in order to meet...... this demand. The article presents a number of challenges to accomplishing this, as well as a number of tools for designing and using creativity facilitating games....
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.
Beaulieu, Gabriel; Duchêne, Eric
2012-01-01
Coloring games are combinatorial games where the players alternate painting uncolored vertices of a graph one of $k > 0$ colors. Each different ruleset specifies that game's coloring constraints. This paper investigates six impartial rulesets (five new), derived from previously-studied graph coloring schemes, including proper map coloring, oriented coloring, 2-distance coloring, weak coloring, and sequential coloring. For each, we study the outcome classes for special cases and general computational complexity. In some cases we pay special attention to the Grundy function.
On productivity and game fandom
Hanna Wirman
2009-01-01
As a result of its unique characteristics as a technology and a medium, a computer game engages its players with several novel forms of coproductivity, such as modding, the making of machinima videos, and the writing of game play walkthroughs. Depending on the game, genre, and playing style, the player is either expected or encouraged to create game content and game-related texts of her own. This essay discusses the productive practices surrounding computer games, proposing five dimensions of...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarseth, Espen
2012-01-01
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarseth, Espen
2012-01-01
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)
2005-02-25
New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the
Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health.
Brox, E; Fernandez-Luque, L; Tøllefsen, T
2011-01-01
There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion.
Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health
Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.
2011-01-01
Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart
2005-01-01
turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....
Digital Experience: Serious Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2006-01-01
hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja
2006-01-01
This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katinka van der Kooij
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The application of games for behavioral change has seen a surge in popularity but evidence on the efficacy of these games is contradictory. Anecdotal findings seem to confirm their motivational value whereas most quantitative findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT are negative or difficult to interpret. One cause for the contradictory evidence could be that the standard RCT validation methods are not sensitive to serious games’ effects. To be able to adapt validation methods to the properties of serious games we need a framework that can connect properties of serious game design to the factors that influence the quality of quantitative research outcomes. The Persuasive Game Design model [1] is particularly suitable for this aim as it encompasses the full circle from game design to behavioral change effects on the user. We therefore use this model to connect game design features, such as the gamification method and the intended transfer effect, to factors that determine the conclusion validity of an RCT. In this paper we will apply this model to develop guidelines for setting up validation methods for serious games. This way, we offer game designers and researchers handles on how to develop tailor-made validation methods.
Young, Petyon
2014-01-01
The ability to understand and predict behavior in strategic situations, in which an individual's success in making choices depends on the choices of others, has been the domain of game theory since the 1950s. Developing the theories at the heart of game theory has resulted in 8 Nobel Prizes and insights that researchers in many fields continue to develop. In Volume 4, top scholars synthesize and analyze mainstream scholarship on games and economic behavior, providing an updated account of developments in game theory since the 2002 publication of Volume 3, which only covers work through the mi
Game user experience evaluation
Bernhaupt, Regina
2015-01-01
Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi
Nardone, Massimo
2016-01-01
Combining actionable, real-world source code with graphics, Pro Android Games, Third Edition shows you how to build more sophisticated and addictive Android game apps with minimum effort. Harness the power of the latest Android 5.0 SDK to bring countless legendary, action-packed PC games to the Android platform. With actionable real-world source code, this one of a kind book shows you how to build more sophisticated and addictive Android game apps, by leveraging the power of the recent advancements found in the new Android 5.0 software development kit as well as those you've counted on in e
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Torill
2016-01-01
The event known as #GamerGate (GG) emphasized the need to take the study of game culture seriously and pursue it across several platforms. It demonstrated how seemingly ephemeral media created echo chambers of anger, and how the outbursts of hypermasculine aggression exemplified by hooligans also...... can connect to games and play. Starting from how GG gained popular attention, this article outlines and discusses the nature of GG, the relation to the victims, the sense of victimization among the participants, and how it may have been provoked by the long-standing, general disregard of games...... the image of game culture as mainly a culture of isolated consumption...
Digital Experience: Serious Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2006-01-01
hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Erik
2011-01-01
Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide......-and-seek, even though this game is still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seems to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness” in his classic work “Homo Ludens” (Huizinga 1938, translated into English 1955). This has since been developed...... into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person enters the magic circle of a game, the player suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Fernández-Manjón
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.
Archetypal Game Recommender Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders
2014-01-01
feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...
Games, puzzles, and computation
Hearn, Robert A
2009-01-01
The authors show that there are underlying mathematical reasons for why games and puzzles are challenging (and perhaps why they are so much fun). They also show that games and puzzles can serve as powerful models of computation-quite different from the usual models of automata and circuits-offering a new way of thinking about computation. The appendices provide a substantial survey of all known results in the field of game complexity, serving as a reference guide for readers interested in the computational complexity of particular games, or interested in open problems about such complexities.
Gaming practices in everyday life
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm
2015-01-01
This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming. This mult......This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming...
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game
Johnson, Will
2011-01-01
We begin by reviewing and proving the basic facts of combinatorial game theory. We then consider scoring games (also known as Milnor games or positional games), focusing on the "fixed-length" games for which all sequences of play terminate after the same number of moves. The theory of fixed-length scoring games is shown to have properties similar to the theory of loopy combinatorial games, with operations similar to onsides and offsides. We give a complete description of the structure of fixed-length scoring games in terms of the class of short partizan games. We also consider fixed-length scoring games taking values in the two-element boolean algebra, and classify these games up to indistinguishability. We then apply these results to analyze some positions in the knotting-unknotting game of Pechenik, Townsend, Henrich, MacNaughton, and Silversmith.
Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yen-Ru Shi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define each factor and analyze the relationships among the 11 factors to construct a game-based learning design model. Two application examples are analyzed to verify the usability of the model and the performance of these factors. It can assist educational game designers in developing interesting games.
The complexity of interior point methods for solving discounted turn-based stochastic games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
2013-01-01
We study the problem of solving discounted, two player, turn based, stochastic games (2TBSGs). Jurdziński and Savani showed that in the case of deterministic games the problem can be reduced to solving P-matrix linear complementarity problems (LCPs). We show that the same reduction also works...... for general 2TBSGs. This implies that a number of interior point methods can be used to solve 2TBSGs. We consider two such algorithms: the unified interior point method of Kojima, Megiddo, Noma, and Yoshise, and the interior point potential reduction algorithm of Kojima, Megiddo, and Ye. The algorithms run...... states and discount factor γ we get κ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) , −δ=Θ(n√1−γ) , and 1/θ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) in the worst case. The lower bounds for κ, − δ, and 1/θ are all obtained using the same family of deterministic games....
Overpunishing is not necessary to fix cooperation in voluntary public goods games.
Dercole, Fabio; De Carli, Marco; Della Rossa, Fabio; Papadopoulos, Alessandro V
2013-06-07
The fixation of cooperation among unrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and social sciences. It is investigated by means of public goods games, the generalization of the prisoner's dilemma to more than two players. In compulsory public goods games, defect is the dominant strategy, while voluntary participation overcomes the social dilemma by allowing a cyclic coexistence of cooperators, defectors, and non-participants. Experimental and theoretical research has shown how the combination of voluntary participation and altruistic punishment-punishing antisocial behaviors at a personal cost-provides a solution to the problem, as long as antisocial punishment-the punishing of cooperators-is not allowed. Altruistic punishment can invade at low participation and pave the way to the fixation of cooperation. Specifically, defectors are overpunished, in the sense that their payoff is reduced by a sanction proportional to the number of punishers in the game. Here we show that qualitatively equivalent results can be achieved with a milder punishing mechanism, where defectors only risk a fixed penalty per round-as in many real situations-and the cost of punishment is shared among the punishers. The payoffs for the four strategies-cooperate, defect, abstain, and cooperate-&-punish-are derived and the corresponding replicator dynamics analyzed in full detail.
Close games versus blowouts: Optimal challenge reinforces one's intrinsic motivation to win.
Meng, Liang; Pei, Guanxiong; Zheng, Jiehui; Ma, Qingguo
2016-12-01
When immersed in intrinsically motivating activities, individuals actively seek optimal challenge, which generally brings the most satisfaction as they play hard and finally win. To better simulate real-life scenarios in the controlled laboratory setting, a two-player online StopWatch (SW) game was developed, whose format is similar to that of a badminton tournament. During the game, a male opponent played by a confederate ensured that the same-sex participant paired with him won both matches, one with a wide margin (the lack of challenge condition) and another with a narrow one (the optimal challenge condition). Electrophysiological data were recorded during the entire experiment. An enlarged Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was observed in the optimal challenge condition, indicating a more concentrated anticipatory attention toward the feedback and a stronger intrinsic motivation during close games. Thus, this study provided original neural evidence for predictions of Self-determination theory (SDT) and Flow theory, and confirmed and emphasized the significant role of optimal challenge in promoting one's intrinsic motivation to win. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Foundations of game theory noncooperative games
Vorob’ev, Nicolai N
1994-01-01
The English edition differs only slightly from the Russian original. The main struc tural difference is that all the material on the theory of finite noncooperative games has been collected in Chapter 2, with renumbering of the material of the remain ing chapters. New sections have been added in this chapter: devoted to general questions of equilibrium theory in nondegenerate games, subsections 3.9-3.17, by N.N. Vorob'ev, Jr.; and § 4, by A.G. Chernyakov; and § 5, by N.N. Vorob'ev, Jr., on the computational complexity of the process of finding equilibrium points in finite games. It should also be mentioned that subsections 3.12-3.14 in Chapter 1 were written by E.B. Yanovskaya especially for the Russian edition. The author regrets that the present edition does not reflect the important game-theoretical achievements presented in the splendid monographs by E. van Damme (on the refinement of equilibrium principles for finite games), as well as those by J.e. Harsanyi and R. Selten, and by W. Giith and B. Ka...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
2015-01-01
This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how they ...
Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.
2013-01-01
The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Talman, Dolf; Koshevoy, G.A.; Suzuki, Takamasa
2016-01-01
An NTU-game consists of payoff sets for every coalition of players. We introduce the concept of supermodularity of a game to guarantee that all its marginal vectors are in the core. As solution we propose a set of payoff vectors that is determined by the average of all marginal vectors, the Shapley
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Sørensen, Maja Stoholm
2013-01-01
controlling for differences in origin of law, investor rights, corruption and Euro adoption, neither a game-hoarding effect nor an only-game-in-town effect is strongly supported in the European case. The results are important in understanding the concept of local bias in a cross-country framework....
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Linda
2008-01-01
The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating
Korteling, J.E.
2012-01-01
An overview is provided of the activities and results op GATE WP 4.4 entiteld Transfer of Gaming (ToG). This work package has produced the principles and methodologies concerning optimalization and measurement of transfer of training in serious gaming. In addition, true transfer of job-specific comp
Gaming in Technology Education
Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…
Gaming and "Functional Democracy".
Goodman, F. L.
An example of the way gaming can be used to bring attention to, and improve skills in, making democracy function better is presented. The game is played by seven people seated around two triangular playing boards; it involves making choices among least, intermediate, and most preferred alternatives, keeping the preferences of the majority in…
VerBruggen, Robert
2012-01-01
Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…
Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory
2015-01-01
The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-01-06
In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Van Dijk, T.; Keulemans, M.
2006-01-01
Higher education is cautiously exploring a new educational tool: computer games. Educational computer games were recently the focus of a symposium held in Delft. Will we soon be giving and following courses, lectures and trainings in a virtual 3D world, instead of in lecture halls?
Stagner, Alan
2013-01-01
An easy-to-follow, tutorial manner that uses the learning-by-example approach.If you are a developer who wants to start making multiplayer games with the Unity game engine, this book is for you. This book assumes you have some basic experience with programming. No prior knowledge of the Unity IDE is required.
Shor, Mikhael
2003-01-01
States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…
Games and Quantity implicatures
van Rooij, R.
2008-01-01
In this paper we seek to account for scalar implicatures and Horn's division of pragmatic labor in game-theoretical terms by making use mainly of refinements of the standard solution concept of signaling games. Scalar implicatures are accounted for in terms of Farrell's (1993) notion of a 'neologism
DeLoura, Mark
2000-01-01
For the countless tasks involved in creating a game engine there are an equal number of possible solutions. But instead of spending hours and hours trying to develop your own answers, now you can find out how the pros do it! Game Programming Gems is a hands-on, comprehensive resource packed with a variety of game programming algorithms written by experts from the game industry and edited by Mark DeLoura, former software engineering lead for Nintendo of America, Inc. and now the newly appointed editor-in-chief of Game Developer magazine. From animation and artificial intelligence to Z-buffering, lighting calculations, weather effects, curved surfaces, mutliple layer Internet gaming, to music and sound effects, all of the major techniques needed to develop a competitive game engine are covered. Game Programming Gems is written in a style accessible to individuals with a range of expertise levels. All of the source code for each algorithm is included and can be used by advanced programmers immediately. For aspir...
Nelson, Kate
1992-01-01
Describes the development of "The Work Ethic Game" that focuses on integrity in the workplace. Explains that the game is divided into three categories: legal, judgment, and policy issues. Discusses different personality types in the typical employee population. Includes possibilities for use at different education levels. (DK)
Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory
2015-01-01
The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…
Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat
2015-01-01
Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…
Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna
2012-01-01
Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…
Game Learning Analytics: Learning Analytics for Serious Games
Freire, Manuel; Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar
2016-01-01
Video games have become one of the largest entertainment industries, and their power to capture the attention of players worldwide soon prompted the idea of using games to improve education. However, these educational games, commonly referred to as serious games, face different challenges when
Transfer of Gaming : Transfer of training in serious gaming
Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Sluimer, R.R.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kappé, B.
2011-01-01
Serious gaming for learning purposes exploits characteristics of play to help people learn by using computer games. The combination of play, learning and simulation may explain the popularity of the concept of serious gaming. Furthermore, PC based games may have great learning value because they off
Games Graffiti: Language Arts Games to Make for Young Children.
Christenberry, Mary Anne; And Others
This document contains materials for games which are intended to give teachers and parents of young children ideas for making learning games which will provide experiences appropriate to their interests and abilities. While the games may be used by children in small groups, they were designed primarily for the child to explore alone. The games are…
Transfer of Gaming : Transfer of training in serious gaming
Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Sluimer, R.R.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kappé, B.
2011-01-01
Serious gaming for learning purposes exploits characteristics of play to help people learn by using computer games. The combination of play, learning and simulation may explain the popularity of the concept of serious gaming. Furthermore, PC based games may have great learning value because they
Game Learning Analytics: Learning Analytics for Serious Games
Freire, Manuel; Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar
2016-01-01
Video games have become one of the largest entertainment industries, and their power to capture the attention of players worldwide soon prompted the idea of using games to improve education. However, these educational games, commonly referred to as serious games, face different challenges when broug
Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction
Colman, Andrew M
1982-01-01
Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Mette Agger; Brandt, Eva; Mattelmäki, Tuuli;
2014-01-01
Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we...... will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from...... Bruno Latour’s work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft-Nielsen, Claus
, to have access to the dynamic power systems in and around digital games theorized as ‘gaming capital’ (Consalvo, 2007) and who cannot? I argue, in other words, for an understanding of digital gaming competence as a reflection, negotiation, and production of gendered power relations, performed in ways......In a digitally saturated environment digital media users of all kinds, engaged in different areas of activity, are increasingly categorized in terms of their ability to appropriate and use digital media – they are regarded as non-users, experts, natives, or literates for instance. Within...... communication and game studies there are multiple understandings of how digital expertise is expressed and performed, and subsequently how these expressions and performances can be valued, understood and theorized within the research community. Among other things expertise with and within digital games has...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnussen, Rikke
2014-01-01
This paper presents a categorisation of science game formats in relation to the educational possibilities or limitations they offer in science education. This includes discussion of new types of science game formats and gamification of science. Teaching with the use of games and simulations...... or representations of knowledge in digital and physical science environments, Use and design of new types of models or tools for scientific inquiry and innovation education....... in science education dates back to the 1970s and early 80s were the potentials of games and simulations was discussed extensively as the new teaching tool ( Ellington et al. , 1981). In the early 90s the first ITC -based games for exploration of science and technical subjects was developed (Egenfeldt...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars
2010-01-01
The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrer, Sabine; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
2015-01-01
This paper investigates how designers might initiate a dialogue with underrepresented groups, infusing design with individuals’ personal stories and imaginations. It does so alongside the example of Jocoi, a game aiming at mediating the experience of loss and grief over a dead baby. Apart from...... of four informants then served as an initial orientation point marking out the direction of our ensuing game design process. Working out central themes, needs and concerns conveyed by the group, the aim was to addresses some of their emotional challenges appropriately through a game. The paper first...... presents a rationale for the chosen method of collaboration. Most importantly, we embrace a paradigmatic shift from game design as the production of meaning and emotion towards game design as facilitation or mediation. The second section will zoom in to the concrete tools and stages we used in our our...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.
2009-08-29
This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.