ON THE EDDY VISCOSITY MODEL OF PERIODIC TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王新军; 罗纪生; 周恒
2003-01-01
Physical argument shows that eddy viscosity is essentially different from molecular viscosity. By direct numerical simulation, it was shown that for periodic turbulent flows, there is phase difference between Reynolds stress and rate of strain. This finding posed great challenge to turbulence modeling, because most turbulence modeling, which use the idea of eddy viscosity, do not take this effect into account.
Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;
2013-01-01
The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...
A synthesis of similarity and eddy-viscosity models
Verstappen, R.; Friedrich, R; Geurts, BJ; Metais, O
2004-01-01
In large-eddy simulation, a low-pass spatial filter is usually applied to the Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting commutator of the filter and the nonlinear term is usually modelled by an eddy-viscosity model, by a similarity model or by a mix thereof. Similarity models possess the proper mathema
An eddy viscosity calculation method for a turbulent duct flow
Antonia, R. A.; Bisset, D. K.; Kim, J.
1991-01-01
The mean velocity profile across a fully developed turbulent duct flow is obtained from an eddy viscosity relation combined with an empirical outer region wake function. Results are in good agreement with experiments and with direct numerical simulations in the same flow at two Reynolds numbers. In particular, the near-wall trend of the Reynolds shear stress and its variation with Reynolds number are similar to those of the simulations. The eddy viscosity method is more accurate than previous mixing length or implicit function methods.
RECENT PROGRESS IN NONLINEAR EDDY-VISCOSITY TURBULENCE MODELING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
符松; 郭阳; 钱炜祺; 王辰
2003-01-01
This article presents recent progresses in turbulence modeling in the Unit for Turbulence Simulation in the Department of Engineering Mechanics at Tsinghua University. The main contents include: compact Non-Linear Eddy-Viscosity Model (NLEVM) based on the second-moment closure, near-wall low-Re non-linear eddy-viscosity model and curvature sensitive turbulence model.The models have been validated in a wide range of complex flow test cases and the calculated results show that the present models exhibited overall good performance.
Ekman Spiral in Horizontally Inhomogeneous Ocean with Varying Eddy Viscosity
2015-01-01
1 Ekman Spiral in Horizontally Inhomogeneous Ocean with Varying Eddy Viscosity...Oceanography Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA Manuscript Click here to download Manuscript: Ekman -chu-pageoph-rev.docx 1...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ekman Spiral
A Study of Eddy Viscosity Coefficient in Numerical Tidal Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永平; 雷智益
2001-01-01
Based on the fluid motion equations, the physical meaning of eddy viscosity coefficient and the rationality of theBoussinesq hypothesis are discussed in this paper. The effect of the coefficient on numerical stability is analyzed briefly.A semi-enclosed rectangular sea area, with an orthogonal spur dike, is applied in a 2-D numerical model to study the effect of horizontal eddy viscosity coefficient (AH). The computed result shows that AH has little influence on the tidal level and averaged flow velocity, but has obvious influence on the intensity and the range of return flow around near thespur dike. Correspondingly, a wind-driven current pool and an annular current are applied in a 3-D numerical modelrespectively to study the effect of vertical eddy viscosity coefficient (AV). The computed result shows that the absolute value of AV is inversely proportional to that of horizontal velocity, and the vertical gradient value of AV determines the ver-tical distribution of horizontal velocity. The distribution form of AV is theoretically recommended as a parabolic type, ofwhich the maximum value appears at 0.5 H.
Modeling of the eddy viscosity by breaking waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Breaking wave induced nearsurface turbulence has important consequences for many physical and biochemical processes including water column and nutrients mixing, heat and gases exchange across air-sea interface. The energy loss from wave breaking and the bubble plume penetration depth are estimated. As a consequence, the vertical distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the TKE dissipation rate and the eddy viscosity induced by wave breaking are also provided. It is indicated that model results are found to be consistent with the observational evidence that most TKE generated by wave breaking is lost within a depth of a few meters near the sea surface. High turbulence level with intensities of eddy viscosity induced by breaking is nearly four orders larger than υwl(=κu *wz), the value predicted for the wall layer scaling close to the surface, where u *w is the friction velocity in water, κ with 0.4 is the von Kármán constant, and z is the water depth, and the strength of the eddy viscosity depends both on wind speed and sea state, and decays rapidly through the depth. This leads to the conclusion that the breaking wave induced vertical mixing is mainly limited to the near surface layer, well above the classical values expected from the similarity theory. Deeper down, however, the effects of wave breaking on the vertical mixing become less important.
An alternative eddy-viscosity representation and its implication to turbulence modeling
Jakirlic, Suad; Jovanovic, Jovan; Basara, Branislav
2013-11-01
Large majority of turbulence models in the RANS framework (it holds also in the case of the LES method) is based on the eddy-viscosity rationale. The principle task of modeling the Reynolds stress tensor reduces to modeling the eddy-viscosity, representing, according to Boussinesq (1877), the ``coefficient of proportionality'' between the Reynolds stress and mean rate of strain tensors. In the present contribution an extended formulation based on the least square approach applied to the Boussinesq's correlation is presented. Furthermore, a Taylor-microscale-based formulation is derived originating from the equilibrium assumption related to the equality between the production and dissipation rates of kinetic energy of turbulence. Finally, an expression is proposed reflecting the Reynolds stress anisotropy influence on the eddy-viscosity damping by approaching the solid wall as well as including an appropriate length-scale switch accounting for the viscosity effects through inclusion of the Kolmogorov scales blended with those of the energy-containing eddies. The latter formulation is successfully applied in the framework of an instability-sensitive Reynolds stress model of turbulence. The afore-mentioned eddy-viscosity definitions are comparatively assessed in a series of wall-bounded flow configurations (including separation) in a Reynolds number range.
Renormalization-group theory for the eddy viscosity in subgrid modeling
Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Hossain, Murshed
1988-01-01
Renormalization-group theory is applied to incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence so as to eliminate unresolvable small scales. The renormalized Navier-Stokes equation now includes a triple nonlinearity with the eddy viscosity exhibiting a mild cusp behavior, in qualitative agreement with the test-field model results of Kraichnan. For the cusp behavior to arise, not only is the triple nonlinearity necessary but the effects of pressure must be incorporated in the triple term. The renormalized eddy viscosity will not exhibit a cusp behavior if it is assumed that a spectral gap exists between the large and small scales.
When Does Eddy Viscosity Damp Subfilter Scales Sufficiently?
Verstappen, Roel
2011-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) seeks to predict the dynamics of spatially filtered turbulent flows. The very essence is that the LES-solution contains only scales of size >=Delta, where Delta denotes some user-chosen length scale. This property enables us to perform a LES when it is not feasible to com
When Does Eddy Viscosity Damp Subfilter Scales Sufficiently?
Verstappen, Roel
2011-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) seeks to predict the dynamics of spatially filtered turbulent flows. The very essence is that the LES-solution contains only scales of size ≥Δ, where Δ denotes some user-chosen length scale. This property enables us to perform a LES when it is not feasible to compute the
Hughes, T.J.R.; Wells, G.N.; Wray, A.A.
2004-01-01
Energy transfers within large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) grids are studied. The spectral eddy viscosity for conventional dynamic Smagorinsky and variational multiscale LES methods are compared with DNS results. Both models underestimate the DNS results for a very coa
Toroidal field instability and eddy viscosity in Taylor-Couette flows
Gellert, M
2008-01-01
Toroidal magnetic fields subject to the Tayler instability can transport angular momentum. We show that the Maxwell and Reynolds stress of the nonaxisymmetric field pattern depend linearly on the shear in the cylindrical gap geometry. Resulting angular momentum transport also scales linear with shear. It is directed outwards for astrophysical relevant flows and directed inwards for superrotating flows with dOmega/dR>0. We define an eddy viscosity based on the linear relation between shear and angular momentum transport and show that its maximum for given Prandtl and Hartmann number depends linear on the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. For Rm=1000 the eddy viscosity is of the size of 30 in units of the microscopic value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Bum Suk; Huh, Jong Chul [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Go, Young Jun [Hanjin Ind, Co., Ltd., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-01-15
The wake effects behind wind turbines were investigated by using data from a Met Mast tower and the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system for a wind turbine. The results of the wake investigations and predicted values for the velocity deficit based on the eddy viscosity model were compared with the turbulence intensity from the Lange model. As a result, the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity of the wake increased as the free stream wind speed decreased. In addition, the magnitude of the velocity deficit for the center of the wake using the eddy viscosity model was overestimated while the turbulence intensity from the Lange model showed similarities with measured values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
Two-equation modeling of turbulent rotating flows
Cazalbou, Jean-Bernard; Chassaing, Patrick; Dufour, Guillaume; CARBONNEAU, Xavier
2005-01-01
The possibility to take into account the effects of the Coriolis acceleration on turbulence is examined in the framework of two-equation eddy-viscosity models. General results on the physical consistency of such turbulence models are derived from a dynamical-system approach to situations of time-evolving homogeneous turbulence in a rotating frame. Application of this analysis to a (k,epsilon) model fitted with an existing Coriolis correction [J. H. G. Howard, S. V. Patankar, and R. M. Bordynu...
Omori, S.; Gross, K. W.
1973-01-01
The turbulent kinetic energy equation is coupled with boundary layer equations to solve the characteristics of compressible turbulent boundary layers with mass injection and combustion. The Reynolds stress is related to the turbulent kinetic energy using the Prandtl-Wieghardt formulation. When a lean mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen is injected through a porous plate into the subsonic turbulent boundary layer of air flow and ignited by external means, the turbulent kinetic energy increases twice as much as that of noncombusting flow with the same mass injection rate of nitrogen. The magnitudes of eddy viscosity between combusting and noncombusting flows with injection, however, are almost the same due to temperature effects, while the distributions are different. The velocity profiles are significantly affected by combustion. If pure hydrogen as a transpiration coolant is injected into a rocket nozzle boundary layer flow of combustion products, the temperature drops significantly across the boundary layer due to the high heat capacity of hydrogen. At a certain distance from the wall hydrogen reacts with the combustion products, liberating an extensive amount of heat.
Estimation of Oceanic Eddy Viscosity Profile and Wind Stress Drag Coefficient Using Adjoint Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qilin Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Adjoint method is used to assimilate pseudoobservations to simultaneously estimate the OEVP and the WSDC in an oceanic Ekman layer model. Five groups of experiments are designed to investigate the influences that the optimization algorithms, step-length, inverse integral time of the adjoint model, prescribed vertical distribution of eddy viscosity, and regularization parameter exert on the inversion results. Experimental results show that the best estimation results are obtained with the GD algorithm; the best estimation results are obtained when the step-length is equal to 1 in Group 2; in Group 3, 8 days of inverse integral time yields the best estimation results, and good assimilation efficiency is achieved by increasing iteration steps when the inverse integral time is reduced; in Group 4, the OEVP can be estimated for some specific distributions; however, when the VEVCs increase along with the depth at the bottom of water, the estimation results are relatively poor. For this problem, we use extrapolation method to deal with the VEVCs in layers in which the estimation results are poor; the regularization method with appropriate regularization parameter can indeed improve the experiment result to some extent. In all experiments in Groups 2-3, the WSDCs are inverted successfully within 100 iterations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laskowski, Gregory Michael
2005-12-01
Flows with strong curvature present a challenge for turbulence models, specifically eddy viscosity type models which assume isotropy and a linear and instantaneous equilibrium relation between stress and strain. Results obtained from three different codes and two different linear eddy viscosity turbulence models are compared to a DNS simulation in order to gain some perspective on the turbulence modeling capability of SIERRA/Fuego. The Fuego v2f results are superior to the more common two-layer k-e model results obtained with both a commercial and research code in terms of the concave near wall behavior predictions. However, near the convex wall, including the separated region, little improvement is gained using the v2f model and in general the turbulent kinetic energy prediction is fair at best.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum potential area of eddy bars (MPAEB) represents the cumulative area of the eddy occupied by sand at different times within the photographic record...
Lanzafame, Giuseppe
2012-01-01
Physical damping, regarding the nonlinear Navier-Stokes viscous flow dynamics, refers to a tensorial turbulent dissipation term, attributed to adjacent moving macroscopic flow components. Mutual dissipation among these parts of fluid is described by a braking term in the momentum equation together with a heating term in the energy equation, both responsible of the damping of the momentum variation and of the viscous conversion of mechanical energy into heat. A macroscopic mixing scale length is currently the only characteristic length needed in the nonlinear modelling of viscous fluid dynamics describing the nonlinear eddy viscosity through the kinematic viscosity coefficient in the viscous stress tensor, without any reference to the chemical composition and to the atomic dimensions. Therefore, in this paper, we write a new formulation for the kinematic viscosity coefficient to the turbulent viscous physical dissipation in the Navier-Stokes equations, where molecular parameters are also included. Results of 2...
Modelling transverse turbulent mixing in a shallow flow by using an eddy viscosity approach
Gualtieri, C.
2009-04-01
The mixing of contaminants in streams and rivers is a significant problem in environmental fluid mechanics and rivers engineering since to understand the impact and the fate of pollutants in these water bodies is a primary goal of water quality management. Since most rivers have a high aspect ratio, that is the width to depth ratio, discharged pollutants become vertically mixed within a short distance from the source and vertical mixing is only important in the so-called near-field. As a rule of thumb, neutrally buoyant solute becomes fully mixed vertically within 50-75 depths from the source. Notably, vertical mixing analysis relies on well-known theoretical basis, that is Prandtl mixing length model, which assumes the hypothesis of plane turbulent shear flow and provides theoretical predictions of the vertical turbulent diffusivity which closely match experimental results. In the mid-field, the vertical concentration gradients are negligible and both subsequent transverse and longitudinal changes of the depth-averaged concentrations of the pollutants should be addressed. In the literature, for the application of one-dimensional water quality models the majority of research efforts were devoted to estimate the rate of longitudinal mixing of a contaminant, that is the development of a plume resulting from a temporally varying pollutant source once it has become cross-sectionally well-mixed, in the far-field. Although transverse mixing is a significant process in river engineering when dealing with the discharge of pollutants from point sources or the mixing of tributary inflows, no theoretical basis exists for the prediction of its rate, which is indeed based upon the results of experimental works carried on in laboratory channels or in streams and rivers. Turbulence models based on the eddy viscosity approach, such as the k-É model, k-? and their variation are the most widely used turbulence models and this is largely due to their ease in implementation
Evaluation of Eddy Viscosity Models in Predicting Free- Stream Turbulence Penetration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kahrom
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulence schemes have long been developed and examined for their accuracy and stability in a variety of environments. While many industrial flows are highly turbulent, models have rarely been tested to explore whether their accuracy withstands such augmented free-stream turbulence intensity or declines to an erroneous solution. In the present study, the turbulence intensity of an air flow stream, moving parallel to a flat plate is augmented by the means of locating a grid screen at a point at which Rex=2.5×105 and the effect on the flow and the near-wall boundary is studied. At this cross section, the turbulence intensity is augmented from 0.4% to 6.6% to flow downstream. Wind tunnel measurements provide reference bases to validate the numerical results for velocity fluctuations in the main stream and at the near-wall. Numerically, four of the most popular turbulence models are examined, namely the oneequation Spalart-Almaras, the two equation Standard k , the two equation Shear Stress Transport and the anisotropy multi equation Reynolds Stress Models (RSM. The resulting solutions for the domain are compared to experimental measurements and then the results are discussed. The conclusion is made that, despite the accuracy that these turbulence models are believed to have, even for some difficult flow field, they fail to handle high intensity turbulence flows. Turbulence models provide a better approach in experiments when the turbulence intensity is at about 2% and/or when the Reynolds number is high.
Hickey, M. P.
1988-01-01
The chemical-dynamical model of Walterscheid et al. (1987), which describes wave-driven fluctuations in OH nightglow, was modified to include the effects of both eddy thermal conduction and viscosity, as well as the Coriolis force (with the shallow atmosphere approximation). Using the new model, calculations were performed for the same nominal case as used by Walterscheid et al. but with only wave periods considered. For this case, the Coriolis force was found to be unimportant at any wave period. For wave periods greater than 2 or 3 hours, the inclusion of thermal conduction alone greatly modified the results (in terms of a complex ratio 'eta' which expresses the relationship between the intensity oscillation about the time-averaged intensity and the temperature oscillation about the time-averaged temperature); this effect was reduced with the further inclusion of the eddy viscosity.
Pohlmann, Thomas
1996-02-01
The vertical eddy viscosity ( Av) is estimated using a three-dimensional baroclinic shelf sea model that treats the temperature as a prognostic quantity. Av is calculated by means of a turbulent closure approach proposed by Kochergin [(1987) Three-dimensional coastal ocean models, American Geophysical Union, pp. 201-208] which is closely related to a Mellor and Yamada [(1974) Journal of Atmospheric Science, 31, pp. 1791-1806] level-2-model that has been used very successfully in a large number of applications. The annual cycle of the vertical eddy viscosity is discussed by looking at horizontal and vertical A v-distributions for the year 1988. These examples show that the vertical eddy viscosity is subject to a pronounced annual cycle which can be related to heating and cooling processes as well as to mixing induced by wind and bottom friction. A comparison of these results with A v-distributions calculated for the year 1987 additionally demonstrates a strong inter-annual variability.
无壁面参数低雷诺数非线性涡黏性模式研究%STUDY OF WALL-PARAMETER FREE LOW-REYNOLDS NUMBER NONLINEAR EDDY- VISCOSITY MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
符松; 郭阳
2001-01-01
建立了一个低雷诺数的非线性涡黏性湍流模式.该模式的一个显著特征是它不包含壁面参数(如y+,n等)，因而特别适用于复杂几何流场的计算.本模式在几种包括回流、分离、激波等典型流动中进行了验证，结果令人满意.%In complex wall-bounded turbulent flows, the "universal" behavior of the law of wall is often not observed and the application of the wall-law in conjunction with linear two-equation turbulence models fail to give accurate predictions. For these flow calculations low-Reynoldsnumber high-order models are required, for instance, full Reynolds-stress transport model and explicit algebraic stress model. In most of these models, wall-distance or normal unit vector to the wall appears in damping functions or wall-reflection term. These wall parameters are difficult to define when the flow geometry is complex. A wall-parameter-free low-Reynolds-number high-order turbulence model is thus of great benefit to the prediction of complex wall-bounded turbulent flows. Based on the turbulence near-wall asymptotic behavior, this article presents a low-Reynoldsnumber nonlinear eddy-viscosity model. A particular feature of the model is that it contains no wall parameters like y+, n which are difficult to define in complex flow geometry. The turbulence time scale in the model is modified to adapt to Kolmogorov time scale very close to the wall while remaining the eddy-turnover time scale away from the wall. To validate the performance of these models, a number of test cases have been calculated and results are compared with DNS or experiment data which include fully-developed channel flow, sink channel flow, flow through an asymmetric plane diffuser, ONERA A-Airfoil flow, shock/boundary-layer interaction. The results are very satisfactory as compared with experiments or DNS data which shows the present model can be applied to the calculations of a wide range of complex flows with practical significance
Matsushima, M.
2016-12-01
Diffusive processes of large scales in the Earth's core are dominated not by the molecular diffusion but by the eddy diffusion. To carry out numerical simulations of realistic geodynamo models, it is important to adopt appropriate parameters. However, the eddy viscous diffusion, or the eddy viscosity, is not a property of the core fluid but of the core flow. Hence it is significant to estimate the eddy viscosity from core flow models. In fact, fluid motion near the Earth's core surface provides useful information on core dynamics, features of the core-mantle boundary (CMB), and core-mantle coupling, for example. Such core fluid motion can be estimated from spatial and temporal distributions of the geomagnetic field. Most of core surface flow models rely on the frozen-flux approximation (Roberts and Scott, 1965), in which the magnetic diffusion is neglected. It should be noted, however, that there exists a viscous boundary layer at the CMB, where the magnetic diffusion may play an important role in secular variations of geomagnetic field. Therefore, a new approach to estimation of core surface flow has been devised by Matsushima (2015). That is, the magnetic diffusion is explicitly incorporated within the viscous boundary layer, while it is neglected below the boundary layer at the CMB which is assumed to be a spherical surface. A core surface flow model between 1840 and 2015 has been derived from a geomagnetic field model, COV-OBS.x1 (Gillet et al., 2015). Temporal variations of core flows contain information on phenomena in relation with core-mantle coupling, such as the LOD (length-of-day), and spin-up/spin-down of core flows. In particular, core surface flows inside the viscous boundary layer at the CMB may reveal an interesting feature in relation with Earth's rotation. We have examined time series of the LOD and vorticity derived from the core surface flow model. We have found a possible correlation between the LOD and the axial component of global vorticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vijay K. Garg
1998-01-01
reason for the discrepancy on the pressure surface could be the presence of unsteady effects due to stator-rotor interaction in the experiments which are not modeled in the present computations. Prediction using the two-equation model is in general poorer than that using the zero-equation model, while the former requires at least 40% more computational resources.
2007-03-30
termed as "stagnation point anomaly" ( Durbin 1996; Champion & Libby 1994, 1991). A fundamental difficulty with the two equation models is that...computational grid is generated by an algebraic multi-surface method (Eiseman 1985) in the x - y plane which guarantees the grid orthogonality at the wall...production, one remedy ( Durbin 1996) based on realizability consideration introduces an upper bound on the eddy viscosity, Tr ’< k where [SI is the
Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Geurts, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
A suite of large-eddy simulation(LESs) of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is performed and compared to wind-tunnel experiments in the tradition of Comte-Bellot and Corrsin. The error-landscape approach is used for the evaluation of the Smagorinsky model, and the re
Annual Cycle of the Vertical Eddy Viscosity in the Bohai Sea%渤海垂直湍流混合强度季节变化的数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵亮; 魏皓
2001-01-01
渤海为极浅陆架海，其中湍流耗散作用显著。将三维斜压陆架海模式HAMSOM应用于渤海，以渤海周边台站每天4次的常规气象资料作为风和热驱动，渤海海峡开边界以5个主要分潮调和常数计算水位强迫，计算了渤海1982年水文要素和流场变化，并用模式以湍的局地平衡理论封闭计算出垂直湍流粘性的时空分布。结果表明：渤海湍流混合冬强夏弱，变化幅度较大（10～200cm2/s），这是风搅拌和潮混合的湍流输入在密度层化调整下的结果；风的作用在冬季强于潮的作用，而底层则由潮混合控制呈现半月周期；渤海湍粘性系数的空间分布十分复杂，这是在渤海地形和岸形轮廓限制下，由一定大气条件驱动的流场和密度场导致的湍流混合强度不同所致。%The intensity of turbulence is measured by the vertical eddy viscosity (Av) in the ocean. It is necessary for us to discuss its spatial and temporal distribution, because it influences not only the structure of the current but also the calculated tidal elevation. It has also been shown that it is of importance to the complex system of physical and biological processes, especially to the distribution of the biomass of plankton. The role of the vertical eddy viscosity is more significant in the Bohai Sea due to its small depth. Based on a three-dimensional coastal shelf sea modelHAMSOM, the current field and other variables are obtained in 1982. The model is driven by wind and heat flux every 6 hours per day, and five tidal components are imported through the open boundary. The vertical eddy viscosity is calculated at the same time based on the hypotheses of local turbulent equilibrium. The spatial and temporal distribution of the vertical eddy viscosity is related to the processes of warming, cooling, wind mixing and tidal mixing. The grid space is 1/12 degree and the time step is 360s.
Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Field in Vector Flow Clean-Room
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
樊洪明; 刘顺隆; 何钟怡; 李先庭
2002-01-01
The turbulent large eddy simulation (LES) technique and the finite element method (FEM) of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to predict the three-dimensional flow field in a vector flow clean-room under empty state and static state conditions. The partly expanded Taylor-Galerkin (TG) discretization scheme is combined with implicit stream-upwind diffusion in the finite element formulation of the basic equations with Gauss filtering. The vortex viscosity subgrid model is used in the numerical simulation. The numerical results agree well with the available experimental data, showing that the LES method can more accurately predict the size and location of large eddies in clean-rooms than the standard k-ε two equation model.
Renormalization group formulation of large eddy simulation
Yakhot, V.; Orszag, S. A.
1985-01-01
Renormalization group (RNG) methods are applied to eliminate small scales and construct a subgrid scale (SSM) transport eddy model for transition phenomena. The RNG and SSM procedures are shown to provide a more accurate description of viscosity near the wall than does the Smagorinski approach and also generate farfield turbulence viscosity values which agree well with those of previous researchers. The elimination of small scales causes the simultaneous appearance of a random force and eddy viscosity. The RNG method permits taking these into account, along with other phenomena (such as rotation) for large-eddy simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
De-You Li
2016-06-01
Full Text Available For pump–turbines, most of the instabilities couple with high-level pressure fluctuations, which are harmful to pump–turbines, even the whole units. In order to understand the causes of pressure fluctuations and reduce their amplitudes, proper numerical methods should be chosen to obtain the accurate results. The method of large eddy simulation with wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model was chosen to predict the pressure fluctuations in pump mode of a pump–turbine compared with the method of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes with two-equation turbulence model shear stress transport k–ω. Partial load operating point (0.91QBEP under 15-mm guide vane opening was selected to make a comparison of performance and frequency characteristics between large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes based on the experimental validation. Good agreement indicates that the method of large eddy simulation could be applied in the simulation of pump–turbines. Then, a detailed comparison of variation for peak-to-peak value in the whole passage was presented. Both the methods show that the highest level pressure fluctuations occur in the vaneless space. In addition, the propagation of amplitudes of blade pass frequency, 2 times of blade pass frequency, and 3 times of blade pass frequency in the circumferential and flow directions was investigated. Although the difference exists between large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes, the trend of variation in different parts is almost the same. Based on the analysis, using the same mesh (8 million, large eddy simulation underestimates pressure characteristics and shows a better result compared with the experiments, while unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes overestimates them.
Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.
1992-01-01
An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.
Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lohmann, Iris P.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2006-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found...... size. The results indicate that the large eddies develop in the resolved scale, corresponding to fluid with an effective viscosity decided by the sum of the kinematic and subgrid viscosity. Regarding case 2, the results are qualitatively in accordance with experimental findings. Injection generally...... significantly. Ventilation therefore results in a net current, even in symmetric waves....
A LARGE EDDY SIMULATION TURBULENCE MODEL FOR COASTAL SEAS AND SHALLOW WATER PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In large scale motions of circulations in coastal seas and shallow-water problems, different characteristics of flow in the horizontal plane and in the vertical direction are expected. In this paper, a new large eddy simulation model was proposed. There are some differences between the present method and the other LES models. The philosophy of the large eddy simulation and the directional eddy viscosity method were applied in the horizontal plane and in the vertical direction, respectively. Comparied with the other LES models in which there is no difference between horizontal viscosity and vertical viscosity, the proposed method is resonable.
Large Eddy Simulation of Transitional Boundary Layer
Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2009-11-01
A sixth order compact finite difference code is employed to investigate compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of subharmonic transition of a spatially developing zero pressure gradient boundary layer, at Ma = 0.2. The computational domain extends from Rex= 10^5, where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and sub-harmonic modes, to fully turbulent stage at Rex= 10.1x10^5. Numerical sponges are used in the neighborhood of external boundaries to provide non-reflective conditions. Our interest lies in the performance of the dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model [1] in the transition process. It is observed that in early stages of transition the eddy viscosity is much smaller than the physical viscosity. As a result the amplitudes of selected harmonics are in very good agreement with the experimental data [2]. The model's contribution gradually increases during the last stages of transition process and the dynamic eddy viscosity becomes fully active and dominant in the turbulent region. Consistent with this trend the skin friction coefficient versus Rex diverges from its laminar profile and converges to the turbulent profile after an overshoot. 1. Moin P. et. al. Phys Fluids A, 3(11), 2746-2757, 1991. 2. Kachanov Yu. S. et. al. JFM, 138, 209-247, 1983.
Geurts, Bernard J.; Meyers, Johan
2006-01-01
We propose the successive inverse polynomial interpolation method to optimize model parameters in subgrid parameterization for large-eddy simulation. This approach is illustrated for the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model used in homogeneous decaying turbulence. The optimal Smagorinsky parameter is re
Geurts, Bernardus J.; Meyers, Johan
We propose the successive inverse polynomial interpolation method to optimize model parameters in subgrid parameterization for large-eddy simulation. This approach is illustrated for the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model used in homogeneous decaying turbulence. The optimal Smagorinsky parameter is
Stationary mesoscale eddies, upgradient eddy fluxes, and the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity
Lu, Jianhua; Wang, Fuchang; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Pengfei
2016-01-01
The mesoscale eddies of which parameterization is needed in coarse-resolution ocean models include not only the transient eddies akin to baroclinic instability but also the stationary eddies associated with topography. By applying a modified Lorenz-type decomposition to the eddy-permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate, we show that the stationary mesoscale eddies contribute a significant part to the total eddy kinetic energy, eddy enstrophy, and the total eddy-induced isopycnal thickness and potential vorticity fluxes. We find that beneath middepth (about 1000 m) the upgradient eddy fluxes, or so-called "negative" eddy diffusivities, are mainly attributed to the stationary mesoscale eddies, whereas the remaining transient eddy diffusivity is positive, for which the Gent and McWilliams (1990) parameterization scheme applies well. A quantitative method of measuring the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity is presented. The effect of stationary mesoscale eddies is one of major sources responsible for the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity. We suggest that an independent parameterization scheme for stationary mesoscale eddies may be needed for coarse-resolution ocean models, although the transient eddies remain the predominant part of mesoscale eddies in the oceans.
Chang, Cheng-Ling; Peyroux, Juliette; Perez, Alex; Tsui, Chi-Leung; Wang, Wei-Chih
2009-03-01
Viscosity measurement by bend loss of fiber is presented. The sensing principle makes use of the damping characteristic of a vibrating optical fiber probe with fix-free end configuration. By measuring the displacement of the fiber probe, the viscosity can be determined by matching the probe's displacement with the displacement built in the database obtained by either experimental method or Finite element calculation. Experimental results are presented by measuring the sucrose and glycerol solutions of different concentrations with a viscosity varying from 1 to 15 cP. Stokes' flow assumption is utilized to attenuate the mass density effect and simplify the viscosity measurement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)
2004-02-15
Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.
Employing Taylor and Heisenberg subfilter viscosities to simulate turbulent statistics in LES models
Degrazia, G. A.; Rizza, U.; Puhales, F. S.; Welter, G. S.; Acevedo, O. C.; Maldaner, S.
2012-02-01
A turbulent subfilter viscosity for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based on the Taylor statistical diffusion theory is proposed. This viscosity is described in terms of a velocity variance and a time scale, both associated to the inertial subrange. This new subfilter viscosity contains a cutoff wavenumber kc, presenting an identical form (differing by a constant) to the Heisenberg subfilter viscosity. Therefore, both subfilter viscosities are described in terms of a sharp division between large and small wavenumbers of a turbulent flow and, henceforth, Taylor and Heisenberg subfilter viscosities are in agreement with the sharp Fourier filtering operation, frequently employed in LES models. Turbulent statistics of different orders, generated from atmospheric boundary layer simulations employing both Taylor and Heisenberg subfilter viscosities have been compared with observations and results provided by other simulations. The comparison shows that the LES model utilizing the approaches of Taylor and Heisenberg reproduces these turbulent statistics correctly in different vertical regions of a planetary convective boundary layer (CBL).
Chai, Tianfeng; Lin, Ching-Long
2001-11-01
We present a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) technique with optimized eddy viscosity for the retrieval of the detailed atmospheric boundary-layer structures from High-Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) radial velocity observations. The 4D-Var is based on the calculus of variations and optimal control theory to recover complete and dynamically consistent data set by minimizing the difference between limited observations and corresponding model predictions. To reflect the nature of the atmospheric boundary layer under various stability conditions, eddy viscosity is treated as part of control variables to be optimized in the 4D-Var model. The mathematical formulation for optimizing eddy viscosity is presented. The model is validated by conducting numerical experiments that utilize synthetic observations. We then apply the 4D-Var to the HRDL data measured under convective and stable conditions.
McPherson, Brian J. O. L.; Han, Weon Shik; Cole, Barret S.
2008-05-01
The purpose of the study presented in this manuscript is to describe and make available two equation-of-state (EOS) algorithms assembled for multiphase flow and transport of carbon dioxide (CO2). The algorithms presented here calculate solubility, compressibility factor, density, viscosity, fugacity, and enthalpy of CO2 in gaseous and supercritical phases, and mixtures or solutions of CO2 in water, as functions of pressure and temperature. Several features distinguish the two algorithms, but the primary distinction concerns treatment of supercritical/gas-phase CO2: one EOS we assembled is based on Redlich and Kwong's original algorithm developed in 1949, and the other is based on an algorithm developed by Span and Wagner in 1996. Both were modified for application to sedimentary basin studies of multiphase CO2 flow processes, including carbon sequestration applications. We present a brief comparison of these two EOS algorithms. Source codes for both algorithms are provided, including "stand-alone" Matlab © scripts for the interactive calculation of fluid properties at specified P-T conditions and FORTRAN subroutines for inclusion in existing FORTRAN multiphase fluid simulation packages. These routines are intended for fundamental analyses of CO2 sequestration and the like; more advanced studies, such as brine processes and reactive transport, require more advanced EOS algorithms.
LARGE EDDY SIMULATION FOR PLUNGING BREAKER WAVE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bai Yu-chuan; Wang Zhao-yin
2003-01-01
As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling effect leads to increase of wave height, and at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is powerful agents for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamical processes in the surf zone, so a proper numerical model for describing the turbulent effect is needed urgently. A numerical model is set up to simulate the wave breaking process, which consists of a free surface model using the surface marker method and the vertical two-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence is described by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method where the larger turbulent features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and the small-scale turbulence that is represented by a sub-grid model. A dynamic eddy viscosity sub-grid scale stress model has been used for the present simulation. The large eddy simulation model, which we presented in this paper, can be used to study the propagation of a solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of a non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. To track free-surface movements, The TUMMAC method is employed. By applying the model to wave breaking problem in the surf zone, we found that these model results compared very well with experimental data. In addition, this model is able to reproduce the complicated flow phenomena, especially the plunging breaker.
Piomelli, Ugo; Zang, Thomas A.; Speziale, Charles G.; Lund, Thomas S.
1990-01-01
An eddy viscosity model based on the renormalization group theory of Yakhot and Orszag (1986) is applied to the large-eddy simulation of transition in a flat-plate boundary layer. The simulation predicts with satisfactory accuracy the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles, as well as the development of the important scales of motion. The evolution of the structures characteristic of the nonlinear stages of transition is also predicted reasonably well.
Large eddy simulation of water flow over series of dunes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun LU
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Large eddy simulation was used to investigate the spatial development of open channel flow over a series of dunes. The three-dimensional filtered Navier-Stokes (N-S equations were numerically solved with the fractional-step method in sigma coordinates. The subgrid-scale turbulent stress was modeled with a dynamic coherent eddy viscosity model proposed by the authors. The computed velocity profiles are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The mean velocity and the turbulent Reynolds stress affected by a series of dune-shaped structures were compared and analyzed. The variation of turbulence statistics along the flow direction affected by the wavy bottom roughness has been studied. The turbulent boundary layer in a complex geographic environment can be simulated well with the proposed large eddy simulation (LES model.
Discrete large eddy simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L.TAO; K.R.RAJAGOPAL
2001-01-01
Despite the intense effort expended towards obtaining a model for describing the turbulent flows of fluid,there is no model at hand that can do an adequate job.This leads us to look for a non-traditional approach to turbulence modeling.In this work we conjoin the notion of large eddy simulation with those of fuzzy sets and neural networks to describe a class of turbulent flow.in previous works we had discussed several issues concerning large eddy simulation such as filtering and averaging,Here,we discuss the use of fuzzy sets to improve the filtering procedure.
A Note on Two-Equation Closure Modelling of Canopy Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sogachev, Andrey
2009-01-01
The note presents a rational approach to modelling the source/sink due to vegetation or buoyancy effects that appear in the turbulent kinetic energy, E, equation and a supplementary equation for a length-scale determining variable, φ, when two-equation closure is applied to canopy and atmospheric...
A Note on Two-Equation Closure Modelling of Canopy Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sogachev, Andrey
2009-01-01
The note presents a rational approach to modelling the source/sink due to vegetation or buoyancy effects that appear in the turbulent kinetic energy, E, equation and a supplementary equation for a length-scale determining variable, φ, when two-equation closure is applied to canopy and atmospheric...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark C.; Leclerc, Monique Y.
2012-01-01
A self-consistent two-equation closure treating buoyancy and plant drag effects has been developed, through consideration of the behaviour of the supplementary equation for the length-scale-determining variable in homogeneous turbulent flow. Being consistent with the canonical flow regimes of gri...
Schaefer, Claire
1989-01-01
Presents a lesson that introduces students in grades K-three to sources of design inspiration in contemporary urban settings. Using Don Eddy's painting of a jewelry store window display, asks students to describe and analyze the interplay of shape, pattern, and color. Suggests studio activities, including an activity in which students build a…
Owen, Hazel
2013-01-01
Eddie Reisch is currently working as a policy advisor for Te Reo Maori Operational Policy within the Student Achievement group with the Ministry of Education in New Zealand, where he has implemented and led a range of e-learning initiatives and developments, particularly the Virtual Learning Network (VLN). He is regarded as one of the leading…
2002-01-01
This true-color satellite image shows a large phytoplankton bloom, several hundred square kilometers in size, in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Tasmania. In this scene, the rich concentration of microscopic marine plants gives the water a lighter, more turquoise appearance which helps to highlight the current patterns there. Notice the eddies, or vortices in the water, that can be seen in several places. It is possible that these eddies were formed by converging ocean currents flowing around Tasmania, or by fresh river runoff from the island, or both. Often, eddies in the sea serve as a means for stirring the water, thus providing nutrients that help support phytoplankton blooms, which in turn provide nutrition for other organisms. Effectively, these eddies help feed the sea (click to read an article on this topic). This image was acquired November 7, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Tasmania is located off Australia's southeastern coast. Image courtesy SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE
Chen, X
2001-01-01
Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.
Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kysela Bohuš
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAMAKANT SHARMA
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The density and viscosity results of thorium soaps in benzene methanol mixture have been explained satisfactorily in terms of the equations proposed by Einstein, Vand and Jones-Dole. The values of the CMC and molar volume of thorium soaps calculated from these equations are in close agreement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katz, J.I.
1980-01-01
Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.
Viscosity of colloidal suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
1995-12-31
Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.
Emergent eddy saturation from an energy constrained eddy parameterisation
Mak, J.; Marshall, D. P.; Maddison, J. R.; Bachman, S. D.
2017-04-01
The large-scale features of the global ocean circulation and the sensitivity of these features with respect to forcing changes are critically dependent upon the influence of the mesoscale eddy field. One such feature, observed in numerical simulations whereby the mesoscale eddy field is at least partially resolved, is the phenomenon of eddy saturation, where the time-mean circumpolar transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current displays relative insensitivity to wind forcing changes. Coarse-resolution models employing the Gent-McWilliams parameterisation with a constant Gent-McWilliams eddy transfer coefficient seem unable to reproduce this phenomenon. In this article, an idealised model for a wind-forced, zonally symmetric flow in a channel is used to investigate the sensitivity of the circumpolar transport to changes in wind forcing under different eddy closures. It is shown that, when coupled to a simple parameterised eddy energy budget, the Gent-McWilliams eddy transfer coefficient of the form described in Marshall et al. (2012) [A framework for parameterizing eddy potential vorticity fluxes, J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 42, 539-557], which includes a linear eddy energy dependence, produces eddy saturation as an emergent property.
Numerical study of two equation turbulence models for subchannel thermal hydraulics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazififard, Mohammad; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
The need for more accurate computational methods for the analysis of nuclear reactor systems has generated rising interests for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and growing range of applications of commercial CFD software. This study presents results of the sensitivity analysis using the two equation turbulence models for several grid configurations. The Turbulence Enhanced Mixing Analysis (TEMA) result contributes further to turbulent convective heat transfer mechanisms in a subchannel of a square array rod bundle.
Evaluation of scale-aware subgrid mesoscale eddy models in a global eddy-rich model
Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank
2017-07-01
Two parameterizations for horizontal mixing of momentum and tracers by subgrid mesoscale eddies are implemented in a high-resolution global ocean model. These parameterizations follow on the techniques of large eddy simulation (LES). The theory underlying one parameterization (2D Leith due to Leith, 1996) is that of enstrophy cascades in two-dimensional turbulence, while the other (QG Leith) is designed for potential enstrophy cascades in quasi-geostrophic turbulence. Simulations using each of these parameterizations are compared with a control simulation using standard biharmonic horizontal mixing.Simulations using the 2D Leith and QG Leith parameterizations are more realistic than those using biharmonic mixing. In particular, the 2D Leith and QG Leith simulations have more energy in resolved mesoscale eddies, have a spectral slope more consistent with turbulence theory (an inertial enstrophy or potential enstrophy cascade), have bottom drag and vertical viscosity as the primary sinks of energy instead of lateral friction, and have isoneutral parameterized mesoscale tracer transport. The parameterization choice also affects mass transports, but the impact varies regionally in magnitude and sign.
Viscosity model of high-viscosity dispersing system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏先福; 王娜; 黄蓓青; 孙承博
2008-01-01
High-viscosity dispersing system is formed by dispersing the solid particles in the high-viscosity continuous medium.It is very easy to form the three-dimensional network structure for solid particles in the system and the rheology behavior becomes complicated.The apparent viscosity of this dispersing system always has the connection with the volume ratio and the shear rate.In order to discuss the rheology behavior and put up the viscosity model,the suspension of silicon dioxide and silicon oil were prepared.Through testing the viscosity,the solid concentration and the shear rate,the effects of the ratio and the shear rate on viscosity was analyzed,the model of the high-viscosity dispersing system was designed and the model with the printing ink were validated.The experiment results show that the model is applicable to the high-viscosity dispersing systems.
2003-01-01
We were saddened to learn that Eddy Powell had passed away on Saturday 26 July after a long illness. Eddy had so many friends at CERN and made such a contribution to the Organisation that it is impossible that his passing goes without comment. Eddy was born in England on 4 August 1939 and, after serving his apprenticeship with the U.K. Ministry of Defence, he joined CERN in September 1965. As an electrical design draftsman with the Synchro-cyclotron Division he played an important role in the upgrades of that machine in the early 1970's, particularly on the RF systems and later on the development of the ISOLDE facility. This brought him into close contact with many of the technical support services in CERN and, unlike many of his compatriots, he acquired a remarkably good fluency in French. Always inquisitive on the physics carried out at CERN, he spent a great deal of time learning from physicists and engineers at all levels. When he felt sufficiently confident he became a CERN Guide for general public visit...
New subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.
2016-09-01
At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and the theory of turbulence, a new eddy-viscosity model for Large-eddy simulation has been recently proposed by Trias et al.[PoF, 27, 065103 (2015)]. The S3PQR-model has the proper cubic near-wall behaviour and no intrinsic limitations for statistically inhomogeneous flows. In this work, the new model has been tested for an air turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in a rectangular cell of aspect ratio unity and n span-wise open-ended distance. To do so, direct numerical simulation has been carried out at two Rayleigh numbers Ra = 108 and 1010, to assess the model performance and investigate a priori the effect of the turbulent Prandtl number. Using an approximate formula based on the Taylor series expansion, the turbulent Prandtl number has been calculated and revealed a constant and Ra-independent value across the bulk region equals to 0.55. It is found that the turbulent components of eddy-viscosity and eddy-diffusivity are positively prevalent to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. On the other hand, the new eddy-viscosity model is preliminary tested for the case of Ra = 108 and showed overestimation of heat flux within the boundary layer but fairly good prediction of turbulent kinetics at this moderate turbulent flow.
The role of bulk viscosity on the decay of compressible, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence
Johnsen, Eric; Pan, Shaowu
2016-11-01
The practice of neglecting bulk viscosity in studies of compressible turbulence is widespread. While exact for monatomic gases and unlikely to strongly affect the dynamics of fluids whose bulk-to-shear viscosity ratio is small and/or of weakly compressible turbulence, this assumption is not justifiable for compressible, turbulent flows of gases whose bulk viscosity is orders of magnitude larger than their shear viscosities (e.g., CO2). To understand the mechanisms by which bulk viscosity and the associated phenomena affect compressible turbulence, we conduct DNS of freely decaying compressible, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence for ratios of bulk-to-shear viscosity ranging from 0-1000. Our simulations demonstrate that bulk viscosity increases the decay rate of turbulent kinetic energy; while enstrophy exhibits little sensitivity to bulk viscosity, dilatation is reduced by an order of magnitude within the two eddy turnover time. Via a Helmholtz decomposition of the flow, we determined that bulk viscosity damps the dilatational velocity and reduces dilatational-solenoidal exchanges, as well as pressure-dilatation coupling. In short, bulk viscosity renders compressible turbulence incompressible by reducing energy transfer between translational and internal modes.
Application and Comparison of Two SGS Models in Large Eddy Simulation of Free Turbulent Jet Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HongYAN; MingdeSU
1999-01-01
Large eddy simulations of spatially evolved turbulent round jets were presented.The two SGS models called the standard Smagorinsky;s eddy viscosity model and the non-eddy viscosity stimulated small scale (SSS) model developed by shah & Ferziger were applied.The Reynolds number of the flow was taken as 10000 based on the orifice diameter and the axial velocity in the orifice.The comparison between these two models 0.1 underestimated the turbulent intersity,while the SSS model showed a better agreement with the experiment.Also the SSS model was used to investigate the development of vortex.The convective boundary condition at the outflow boundary was adopted to ensure less effect of noise on the upstream.
Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭
2001-01-01
In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a
Eddy Flow during Magma Emplacement: The Basemelt Sill, Antarctica
Petford, N.; Mirhadizadeh, S.
2014-12-01
The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, forms part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province. Comprising a vertical stack of interconnected sills, the complex provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle macrostructure of a congested magma slurry1. Image-based numerical modelling where the intrusion geometry defines its own unique finite element mesh allows simulations of the flow regime to be made that incorporate realistic magma particle size and flow geometries obtained directly from field measurements. One testable outcome relates to the origin of rhythmic layering where analytical results imply the sheared suspension intersects the phase space for particle Reynolds and Peclet number flow characteristic of macroscopic structures formation2. Another relates to potentially novel crystal-liquid segregation due to the formation of eddies locally at undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. The eddies are transient and mechanical in origin, unrelated to well-known fluid dynamical effects around obstacles where flow is turbulent. Numerical particle tracing reveals that these low Re number eddies can both trap (remove) and eject particles back into the magma at a later time according to their mass density. This trapping mechanism has potential to develop local variations in structure (layering) and magma chemistry that may otherwise not occur where the contact between magma and country rock is linear. Simulations indicate that eddy formation is best developed where magma viscosity is in the range 1-102 Pa s. Higher viscosities (> 103 Pa s) tend to dampen the effect implying eddy development is most likely a transient feature. However, it is nice to think that something as simple as a bumpy contact could impart physical and by implication chemical diversity in igneous rocks. 1Marsh, D.B. (2004), A
Sawko, Robert; Thompson, Chris P.
2010-09-01
This paper presents a series of numerical simulations of non-Newtonian fluids in high Reynolds number flows in circular pipes. The fluids studied in the computations have shear-thinning and yield stress properties. Turbulence is described using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the Boussinesq eddy viscosity hypothesis. The evaluation of standard, two-equation models led to some observations regarding the order of magnitude as well as probabilistic information about the rate of strain. We argue that an accurate estimate of the rate of strain tensor is essential in capturing important flow features. It is first recognised that an apparent viscosity comprises two flow dependant components: one originating from rheology and the other from the turbulence model. To establish the relative significance of the terms involved, an order of magnitude analysis has been performed. The main observation supporting further discussion is that in high Reynolds number regimes the magnitudes of fluctuating rates of strain and fluctuating vorticity dominate the magnitudes of their respective averages. Since these quantities are included in the rheological law, the values of viscosity obtained from the fluctuating and mean velocity fields are different. Validation against Direct Numerical Simulation data shows at least an order of magnitude discrepancy in some regions of the flow. Moreover, the predictions of the probabilistic analysis show a favourable agreement with statistics computed from DNS data. A variety of experimental, as well as computational data has been collected. Data come from the latest experiments by Escudier et al. [1], DNS from Rudman et al. [2] and zeroth-order turbulence models of Pinho [3]. The fluid rheologies are described by standard power-law and Herschel-Bulkley models which make them suitable for steady state calculations of shear flows. Suitable regularisations are utilised to secure numerical stability. Two new models have been
EDDIE RICKENBACKER: RACETRACK ENTREPRENEUR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. David Lewis
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Edward V. (Eddie Rickenbacker (1890-1973 is best remembered for hisrecord as a combat pilot in World War I, in which he shot down 26 Germa naircraft and won fame as America’s "Ace of Aces." From 1934 until 1963 he was general manager, president, and board chairman of Eastern Air Lines, which was for a time the most profitable air carrier in the United States. This paper shows how Rickenbacker’s fiercely entrepreneurial style of management was born in his early involvement in the automobile industry, and particularly in his career as an automobile racing driver from 1909 through 1916.
Emergent eddy saturation from an energy constrained eddy parameterisation
Mak, Julian; Marshall, David P; Bachman, Scott D
2016-01-01
The large-scale features of the global ocean circulation and the sensitivity of these features with respect to forcing changes are critically dependent upon the influence of the mesoscale eddy field. One such feature, observed in numerical simulations whereby the mesoscale eddy field is at least partially resolved, is the phenomenon of eddy saturation, where the time-mean circumpolar transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current displays relative insensitivity to wind forcing changes. Coarse-resolution models employing the Gent--McWilliams parameterisation with a constant Gent--McWilliams coefficient seem unable to reproduce this phenomenon. In this article, an idealised model for a wind-forced, zonally symmetric flow in a channel is used to investigate the sensitivity of the circumpolar transport to changes in wind forcing under different eddy closures. It is shown that, when coupled to a simple parameterised eddy energy budget, the Gent--McWilliams coefficient of the form described in Marshall et al. (2012...
A near-wall two-equation model for compressible turbulent flows
Zhang, H. S.; So, R. M. C.; Speziale, C. G.; Lai, Y. G.
1992-01-01
A near-wall two-equation turbulence model of the k-epsilon type is developed for the description of high-speed compressible flows. The Favre-averaged equations of motion are solved in conjunction with modeled transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and solenoidal dissipation wherein a variable density extension of the asymptotically consistent near-wall model of So and co-workers is supplemented with new dilatational models. The resulting compressible two-equation model is tested in the supersonic flat plate boundary layer - with an adiabatic wall and with wall cooling - for Mach numbers as large as 10. Direct comparisons of the predictions of the new model with raw experimental data and with results from the K-omega model indicate that it performs well for a wide range of Mach numbers. The surprising finding is that the Morkovin hypothesis, where turbulent dilatational terms are neglected, works well at high Mach numbers, provided that the near wall model is asymptotically consistent. Instances where the model predictions deviate from the experiments appear to be attributable to the assumption of constant turbulent Prandtl number - a deficiency that will be addressed in a future paper.
Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, X.; Liu, C. [Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Sung, C.H. [David Taylor Model Basin, Bethesda, MD (United States)
1996-12-31
Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.
Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.
1986-01-01
Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...
Hall Viscosity I: Linear Response Theory for Viscosity
Bradlyn, Barry; Goldstein, Moshe; Read, Nicholas
2012-02-01
In two dimensional systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, there can exist a non-dissipative viscosity coefficient [1,2,3]. This Hall viscosity is similar in nature to the non-dissipative Hall conductivity. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, we develop a linear response formalism for viscosity. We derive a Kubo formula for the frequency dependent viscosity tensor in the long wavelength limit. We compute the viscosity tensor for the free electron gas, integer quantum Hall systems, and two-dimensional paired superfluids. In the zero frequency limit, we show how the known results [3,4] for the Hall viscosity are recovered.[4pt] [1] J. Avron, R. Seiler, and P. Zograf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 697 (1995).[0pt] [2] P. Levay, J. Math. Phys. 36, 2792 (1995).[0pt] [3] N. Read, Phys. Rev. B 79, 045308 (2009).[0pt] [4] N. Read and E. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085316 (2011).
Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.
Mesoscale eddies are not resolved in coarse resolution ocean models and must be modeled. They affect both mean momentum and scalars. At present, no generally accepted model exists for the former; in the latter case, mesoscales are modeled with a bolus velocity u∗ to represent a sink of mean potential energy. However, comparison of u∗(model) vs. u∗ (eddy resolving code, [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]) has shown that u∗(model) is incomplete and that additional terms, "unrelated to thickness source or sinks", are required. Thus far, no form of the additional terms has been suggested. To describe mesoscale eddies, we employ the Navier-Stokes and scalar equations and a turbulence model to treat the non-linear interactions. We then show that the problem reduces to an eigenvalue problem for the mesoscale Bernoulli potential. The solution, which we derive in analytic form, is used to construct the momentum and thickness fluxes. In the latter case, the bolus velocity u∗ is found to contain two types of terms: the first type entails the gradient of the mean potential vorticity and represents a positive contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy; the second type of terms, which is new, entails the velocity of the mean flow and represents a negative contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy, or equivalently, a backscatter process whereby a fraction of the mesoscale potential energy is returned to the original reservoir of mean potential energy. This type of terms satisfies the physical description of the additional terms given by [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]. The mesoscale flux that enters the momentum equations is also contributed by two types of terms of the same physical nature as those entering the thickness flux. The potential vorticity flux is also shown to contain two types of terms: the first is of the gradient-type while the other terms entail the velocity of the mean flow. An expression is derived for the mesoscale
Mesolayer of attached eddies in turbulent channel flow
Hwang, Yongyun
2016-10-01
Recent experimental measurements have reported that the outer peak of the streamwise wave-number spectra of the streamwise velocity depends on the Reynolds number. Starting from this puzzling observation, here it is proposed that the wall-parallel velocity components of each of the energy-containing motions in the form of Towsnend's attached eddies exhibit an inner-scaling nature in the region close to the wall. Some compelling evidence on this proposition has been presented with a careful inspection of scaling of velocity spectra from direct numerical simulations, a linear analysis with an eddy viscosity, and the recently computed statistical structure of the self-similar energy-containing motions in the logarithmic region. This observation suggests that the viscous wall effect would not be negligible at least below the peak wall-normal location of each of the energy-containing motions in the logarithmic and outer regions, reminiscent of the concept of the mesolayer previously observed in the mean momentum balance. It is shown that this behavior emerges due to a minimal form of scale interaction, modeled by the eddy viscosity in the linear theory, and enables one to explain the Reynolds-number-dependent behavior of the outer peak as well as the near-wall penetration of the large-scale outer structures in a consistent manner. Incorporation of this viscous wall effect to Townsend's attached eddies, which were originally built with an inviscid approximation at the wall, also reveals that the self-similarity of the wall-parallel velocity components of the energy-containing motions would be theoretically broken in the region close to the wall.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pascale KULISA; Cédric DANO
2006-01-01
Three linear two-equation turbulence models k- ε, k- ω and k- 1 and a non-linear k- l model are used for aerodynamic and thermal turbine flow prediction. The pressure profile in the wake and the heat transfer coefficient on the blade are compared with experimental data. Good agreement is obtained with the linear k- l model. No significant modifications are observed with the non-linear model. The balance of transport equation terms in the blade wake is also presented. Linear and non-linear k- l models are evaluated to predict the threedimensional vortices characterising the turbine flows. The simulations show that the passage vortex is the main origin of the losses.
Viscosity of the earth's core.
Gans, R. F.
1972-01-01
Calculation of the viscosity of the core at the boundary of the inner and outer core. It is assumed that this boundary is a melting transition and the viscosity limits of the Andrade (1934,1952) hypothesis (3.7 to 18.5 cp) are adopted. The corresponding kinematic viscosities are such that the precessional system explored by Malkus (1968) would be unstable. Whether it would be sufficiently unstable to overcome a severely subadiabatic temperature gradient cannot be determined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph Mathew
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Large eddy simulation (LES is an emerging technique for obtaining an approximation to turbulent flow fields. It is an improvement over the widely prevalent practice of obtaining means of turbulent flows when the flow has large scale, low frequency, unsteadiness. An introduction to the method, its general formulation, and the more common modelling for flows without reaction, is discussed. Some attempts at extension to flows with combustion have been made. Examples from present work for flows with and without combustion are given. The final example of the LES of the combustor of a helicopter engine illustrates the state-of-the-art in application of the technique.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.598-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.602
Hunt, Julian C. R.; Moustaoui, Mohamed; Mahalov, Alex
2015-09-01
High resolution three-dimensional simulations are presented of the interactions between turbulent shear flows moving with mean relative velocity ΔU below a stably stratified region with buoyancy frequency (N+). An artificial forcing in the simulation, with a similar effect as a small negative eddy viscosity, leads to a steady state flow which models thin interfaces. Characteristic eddies of the turbulence have length scale L. If the bulk Richardson number Rib=(LN+/ΔU)2 lies between lower and upper critical values denoted as Ri∗(temperature. Comparisons are made with shear turbulent interfaces with no stratification. When Rib>R~i, vertical propagating waves are generated, with shear stresses carrying significant momentum flux and progressively less as Rib increases. Simulations for a jet and a turbulent mixing layer show similar results. A perturbation analysis, using inhomogeneous Rapid Distortion Theory, models the transition zone between shear eddies below the interface and the fluctuations in the stratified region, consistent with the simulations. It demonstrates how the wave-momentum-flux has a maximum when Rib˜2 and then decreases as Rib increases. This coupling mechanism between eddies and waves, which is neglected in eddy viscosity models for shear layers, can drive flows in the stratosphere and the deeper ocean, with significant consequences for short- and long-term flow phenomena. The "detached layer" is a mechanism that contributes to the formation of stratus clouds and polluted layers above the atmospheric boundary layer.
Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.
2008-12-01
Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.
Can bulk viscosity drive inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.
1987-09-15
Contrary to other claims, we argue that bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of non- relativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk-viscosity effects of a weakly interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles.
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System
Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat,...
An eddy closure for potential vorticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ringler, Todd D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.
Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity
Webb, S.
2015-12-01
The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.
Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Swegle, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.
1994-08-01
This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.
A simple model of eddy saturation
Marshall, D. P.; Ambaum, M.; Munday, D. R.; Novak, L.; Maddison, J. R.
2016-02-01
A simple model is developed for eddy saturation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC): the relative insensitivity of its volume transport to the magnitude of the surface wind stress in ocean models with explicit eddies. The simple model solves prognostic equations for the ACC volume transport and the eddy energy, forming a 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. In equilibrium, the volume transport is independent of the surface wind stress but scales with the bottom drag, whereas the eddy energy scales with the wind stress but is independent of bottom drag. The magnitude of the eddy energy is controlled by the zonal momentum balance between the surface wind stress and eddy form stress, whereas the baroclinic volume transport is controlled by the eddy energy balance between the mean-to-eddy energy conversion and bottom dissipation. The theoretical predictions are confirmed in eddy-resolving numerical calculations for an idealised reentrant channel. The results suggest that the rate of eddy energy dissipation has a strong impact not only the volume transport of the ACC, but also on global ocean stratification and heat content through the thermal wind relation. Moreover, a vital ingredient in this model is a relation between the eddy form stress and eddy energy derived in the eddy parameterisation framework of Marshall et al. (2012, J. Phys. Oceanogr.), offering the prospect of obtaining eddy saturation in ocean models with parameterised eddies.
Navier-Stokes turbine heat transfer predictions using two-equation turbulence
Ameri, Ali A.; Arnone, Andrea
1992-01-01
Navier-Stokes calculations were carried out in order to predict the heat transfer rates on turbine blades. The calculations were performed using TRAF2D which is a two-dimensional, explicit, finite volume mass-averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Turbulence was modeled using q-omega and k-epsilon two-equation models and the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model. The model equations along with the flow equations were solved explicitly on a non-periodic C grid. Implicit residual smoothing (IRS) or a combination of multigrid technique and IRS was applied to enhance convergence rates. Calculations were performed to predict the Stanton number distributions on the first stage vane and blade row as well as the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbine. The comparison with the experimental results, although generally favorable, serves to highlight the weaknesses of the turbulence models and the possible areas of improving these models for use in turbomachinery heat transfer calculations.
Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Prediction of Heat Transfer on a Transonic Turbine Blade
Garg, Vijay K.; Ameri, Ali A.; Gaugler, R. E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Two versions of the two-equation k-omega model and a shear stress transport (SST) model are used in a three-dimensional, multi-block, Navier-Stokes code to compare the detailed heat transfer measurements on a transonic turbine blade. It is found that the SST model resolves the passage vortex better on the suction side of the blade, thus yielding a better comparison with the experimental data than either of the k-w models. However, the comparison is still deficient on the suction side of the blade. Use of the SST model does require the computation of distance from a wall, which for a multiblock grid, such as in the present case, can be complicated. However, a relatively easy fix for this problem was devised. Also addressed are issues such as (1) computation of the production term in the turbulence equations for aerodynamic applications, and (2) the relation between the computational and experimental values for the turbulence length scale, and its influence on the passage vortex on the suction side of the turbine blade.
Heat Transfer on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade Using a Two Equation Turbulence Model
Garg, Vijay K.
1998-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compare the heat transfer coefficient on a film-cooled, rotating turbine blade. The blade chosen is the ACE rotor with five rows containing 93 film cooling holes covering the entire span. This is the only film-cooled rotating blade over which experimental data is available for comparison. Over 2.278 million grid points are used to compute the flow over the blade including the tip clearance region, using Coakley's q-omega turbulence model. Results are also compared with those obtained by Garg and Abhari (1997) using the zero-equation Baldwin-Lomax (B-L) model. A reasonably good comparison with the experimental data is obtained on the suction surface for both the turbulence models. At the leading edge, the B-L model yields a better comparison than the q-omega model. On the pressure surface, however, the comparison between the experimental data and the prediction from either turbulence model is poor. A potential reason for the discrepancy on the pressure surface could be the presence of unsteady effects due to stator-rotor interaction in the experiments which are not modeled in the present computations. Prediction using the two-equation model is in general poorer than that using the zero-equation model, while the former requires at least 40% more computational resources.
Implementation of two-equation soot flamelet models for laminar diffusion flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbonell, D.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, Colom 11, E-08222, Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)
2009-03-15
The two-equation soot model proposed by Leung et al. [K.M. Leung, R.P. Lindstedt, W.P. Jones, Combust. Flame 87 (1991) 289-305] has been derived in the mixture fraction space. The model has been implemented using both Interactive and Non-Interactive flamelet strategies. An Extended Enthalpy Defect Flamelet Model (E-EDFM) which uses a flamelet library obtained neglecting the soot formation is proposed as a Non-Interactive method. The Lagrangian Flamelet Model (LFM) is used to represent the Interactive models. This model uses direct values of soot mass fraction from flamelet calculations. An Extended version (E-LFM) of this model is also suggested in which soot mass fraction reaction rates are used from flamelet calculations. Results presented in this work show that the E-EDFM predict acceptable results. However, it overpredicts the soot volume fraction due to the inability of this model to couple the soot and gas-phase mechanisms. It has been demonstrated that the LFM is not able to predict accurately the soot volume fraction. On the other hand, the extended version proposed here has been shown to be very accurate. The different flamelet mathematical formulations have been tested and compared using well verified reference calculations obtained solving the set of the Full Transport Equations (FTE) in the physical space. (author)
Dynamic Stall Prediction of a Pitching Airfoil using an Adjusted Two-Equation URANS Turbulence Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galih Bangga
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The necessity in the analysis of dynamic stall becomes increasingly important due to its impact on many streamlined structures such as helicopter and wind turbine rotor blades. The present paper provides Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD predictions of a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil at reduced frequency of 0.1 and at small Reynolds number value of 1.35e5. The simulations were carried out by adjusting the k − ε URANS turbulence model in order to damp the turbulence production in the near wall region. The damping factor was introduced as a function of wall distance in the buffer zone region. Parametric studies on the involving variables were conducted and the effect on the prediction capability was shown. The results were compared with available experimental data and CFD simulations using some selected two-equation turbulence models. An improvement of the lift coefficient prediction was shown even though the results still roughly mimic the experimental data. The flow development under the dynamic stall onset was investigated with regards to the effect of the leading and trailing edge vortices. Furthermore, the characteristics of the flow at several chords length downstream the airfoil were evaluated.
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir
2016-01-01
The nonperturbative quantization technique \\`{a} la Heisenberg is applied for non-Abelian gauge theories. The operator Yang-Mills equation is written, which on the corresponding averaging gives an infinite set of equations for all Green functions. We split all degrees of freedom into two groups: in the former, we have $A^a_\\mu \\in \\mathcal G \\subset SU(N)$, and in the second group we have coset degrees of freedom $SU(N) / \\mathcal G$. Using such splitting and some assumptions about 2- and 4-point Green functions, we truncate the infinite set of equations to two equations. The first equation is for the gauge fields from the subgroup $\\mathcal G$, and the second equation is for a gluon condensate which is the dispersion of quantum fluctuations of the coset fields. As an example, we obtain a flux tube solution describing longitudinal color electric fields stretched between quark and antiquark located at the $\\pm$ infinities. This solution represents the dual Meissner effect: the electric field is pushed out from...
Baurle, R. A.
2015-01-01
Steady-state and scale-resolving simulations have been performed for flow in and around a model scramjet combustor flameholder. The cases simulated corresponded to those used to examine this flowfield experimentally using particle image velocimetry. A variety of turbulence models were used for the steady-state Reynolds-averaged simulations which included both linear and non-linear eddy viscosity models. The scale-resolving simulations used a hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation strategy that is designed to be a large eddy simulation everywhere except in the inner portion (log layer and below) of the boundary layer. Hence, this formulation can be regarded as a wall-modeled large eddy simulation. This effort was undertaken to formally assess the performance of the hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation modeling approach in a flowfield of interest to the scramjet research community. The numerical errors were quantified for both the steady-state and scale-resolving simulations prior to making any claims of predictive accuracy relative to the measurements. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged results showed a high degree of variability when comparing the predictions obtained from each turbulence model, with the non-linear eddy viscosity model (an explicit algebraic stress model) providing the most accurate prediction of the measured values. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large eddy simulation results were carefully scrutinized to ensure that even the coarsest grid had an acceptable level of resolution for large eddy simulation, and that the time-averaged statistics were acceptably accurate. The autocorrelation and its Fourier transform were the primary tools used for this assessment. The statistics extracted from the hybrid simulation strategy proved to be more accurate than the Reynolds-averaged results obtained using the linear eddy viscosity models. However, there was no predictive improvement noted over the results obtained from the explicit
ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation
Kaukler, William
2001-01-01
The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.
Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt
Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
2006-01-01
The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.
Applied large eddy simulation.
Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain
2009-07-28
Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity.
Viscosity of particle laden films
Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence
2017-06-01
We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.
Fission hindrance and nuclear viscosity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Mazumdar
2015-08-01
We discuss the role of nuclear viscosity in hindering the fission of heavy nuclei as observed in the experimental measurements of GDR -ray spectra from the fissioning nuclei. We review a set of experiments carried out and reported by us previously [see Dioszegi et al, Phys. Rev. C 61, 024613 (2000); Shaw et al, Phys. Rev. C 61, 044612 (2000)] and argue that the nuclear viscosity parameter has no apparent dependence on temperature. However, it may depend upon the deformation of the nucleus.
Viscosities of the quasigluon plasma
Bluhm, M; Redlich, K
2010-01-01
We investigate bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon plasma within relaxation time approximation to an effective Boltzmann-Vlasov type kinetic theory by viewing the plasma as describable in terms of quasigluon excitations with temperature dependent self-energies. The found temperature dependence of the transport coefficients agrees fairly well with available lattice QCD results. The impact of some details in the quasigluon dispersion relation on the specific shear viscosity is discussed.
Can bulk viscosity drive inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.
1987-04-01
Contrary to other claims, we argue that, bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of nonrelativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk viscosity effects of a weakly-interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles. 13 refs., 1 fig.
Viscosity model for aluminosilicate melt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang G.H.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The structurally based viscosity model proposed in our previous study is extended to include more components, e.g. SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O and K2O. A simple method is proposed to calculate the numbers of different types of oxygen ions classified by the different cations they bonded with, which is used to characterize the influence of composition on viscosity. When dealing with the aluminosilicate melts containing several basic oxides, the priority order is established for different cations for charge compensating Al3+ ions, according to the coulombic force between cation and oxygen anion. It is indicated that basic oxides have two paradox influences on viscosity: basic oxide with a higher basicity decreases viscosity more greatly by forming weaker non-bridging oxygen bond; while it increases viscosity more greatly by forming stronger bridging oxygen bond in tetrahedron after charge compensating Al3+ ion. The present model can extrapolate its application range to the system without SiO2. Furthermore, it could also give a satisfy interpretation to the abnormal phenomenon that viscosity increases when adding K2O to CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melt within a certain composition range.
Remote field eddy current testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M
2001-03-01
The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included.
A dynamic subgrid-scale model for the large eddy simulation of stratified flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘宁宇; 陆夕云; 庄礼贤
2000-01-01
A new dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model, including subgrid turbulent stress and heat flux models for stratified shear flow is proposed by using Yoshizawa’ s eddy viscosity model as a base model. Based on our calculated results, the dynamic subgrid-scale model developed here is effective for the large eddy simulation (LES) of stratified turbulent channel flows. The new SGS model is then applied to the large eddy simulation of stratified turbulent channel flow under gravity to investigate the coupled shear and buoyancy effects on the near-wall turbulent statistics and the turbulent heat transfer at different Richardson numbers. The critical Richardson number predicted by the present calculation is in good agreement with the value of theoretical analysis.
A dynamic subgrid-scale model for the large eddy simulation of stratified flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A new dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model, including subgrid turbulent stress and heat flux models for stratified shear flow is proposed by using Yoshizawa's eddy viscosity model as a base model. Based on our calculated results, the dynamic subgrid-scale model developed here is effective for the large eddy simulation (LES) of stratified turbulent channel flows. The new SGS model is then applied to the large eddy simulation of stratified turbulent channel flow under gravity to investigate the coupled shear and buoyancy effects on the near-wall turbulent statistics and the turbulent heat transfer at different Richardson numbers. The critical Richardson number predicted by the present calculation is in good agreement with the value of theoretical analysis.
Formation and propagation of the Aleutian eddy
Ishiyama, H.; Ueno, H.; Inatsu, M.
2012-12-01
Aleutian eddies are anticyclonic eddies which form south of the Aleutian Islands between 170°E and 175°E and propagate southwestward. In this study we investigated formation and propagation of the Aleutian eddy through analysis of 18-year time series of satellite altimeter data distributed by AVISO. Neighbor enclosed area tracking algorithm was applied to track each eddy identified using Okubo-Weiss parameter. Zero to five Aleutian eddies were formed per year and the number of Aleutian eddy formed per year changed with a period of three to four years. Meanwhile, the propagation route of the Aleutian eddy did not show marked interannual variation. Most of the Aleutian eddies propagate toward the center of western subarctic gyre; the rest propagate toward Kamchatka Peninsula or into the Bering Sea.
Dynamic Model of Mesoscale Eddies
Dubovikov, Mikhail S.
2003-04-01
Oceanic mesoscale eddies which are analogs of well known synoptic eddies (cyclones and anticyclones), are studied on the basis of the turbulence model originated by Dubovikov (Dubovikov, M.S., "Dynamical model of turbulent eddies", Int. J. Mod. Phys.B7, 4631-4645 (1993).) and further developed by Canuto and Dubovikov (Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: I. General formalism", Phys. Fluids8, 571-586 (1996a) (CD96a); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: II. Sheardriven flows", Phys. Fluids8, 587-598 (1996b) (CD96b); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S., Cheng, Y. and Dienstfrey, A., "A dynamical model for turbulence: III. Numerical results", Phys. Fluids8, 599-613 (1996c)(CD96c); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Dienstfrey, A., "A dynamical model for turbulence: IV. Buoyancy-driven flows", Phys. Fluids9, 2118-2131 (1997a) (CD97a); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: V. The effect of rotation", Phys. Fluids9, 2132-2140 (1997b) (CD97b); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Wielaard, D.J., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VI. Two dimensional turbulence", Phys. Fluids9, 2141-2147 (1997c) (CD97c); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "Physical regimes and dimensional structure of rotating turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 666-669 (1997d) (CD97d); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Dienstfrey, A., "Turbulent convection in a spectral model", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 662-665 (1997e) (CD97e); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A new approach to turbulence", Int. J. Mod. Phys.12, 3121-3152 (1997f) (CD97f); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "Two scaling regimes for rotating Raleigh-Benard convection", Phys. Rev. Letters78, 281-284, (1998) (CD98); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VII. The five invariants for shear driven flows", Phys. Fluids11, 659-664 (1999a) (CD99a); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Yu, G., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VIII. IR and UV
Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.
2015-06-16
A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.
Quantifying mesoscale eddies in the Lofoten Basin
Raj, R. P.; Johannessen, J. A.; Eldevik, T.; Nilsen, J. E. Ø.; Halo, I.
2016-07-01
The Lofoten Basin is the most eddy rich region in the Norwegian Sea. In this paper, the characteristics of these eddies are investigated from a comprehensive database of nearly two decades of satellite altimeter data (1995-2013) together with Argo profiling floats and surface drifter data. An automated method identified 1695/1666 individual anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin from more than 10,000 altimeter-based eddy observations. The eddies are found to be predominantly generated and residing locally. The spatial distributions of lifetime, occurrence, generation sites, size, intensity, and drift of the eddies are studied in detail. The anticyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin are the most long-lived eddies (>60 days), especially in the western part of the basin. We reveal two hotspots of eddy occurrence on either side of the Lofoten Basin. Furthermore, we infer a cyclonic drift of eddies in the western Lofoten Basin. Barotropic energy conversion rates reveals energy transfer from the slope current to the eddies during winter. An automated colocation of surface drifters trapped inside the altimeter-based eddies are used to corroborate the orbital speed of the anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Moreover, the vertical structure of the altimeter-based eddies is examined using colocated Argo profiling float profiles. Combination of altimetry, Argo floats, and surface drifter data is therefore considered to be a promising observation-based approach for further studies of the role of eddies in transport of heat and biomass from the slope current to the Lofoten Basin.
Viscosity of liquid undercooled tungsten
Paradis, Paul-François; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Yoda, Shinichi
2005-05-01
Knowledge of the viscosity and its temperature dependence is essential to improve metallurgical processes as well as to validate theoretical and empirical models of liquid metals. However, data for metals with melting points above 2504K could not be determined yet due to contamination and containment problems. Here we report the viscosity of tungsten, the highest melting point metal (3695K), measured by a levitation technique. Over the 3350-3700-K temperature range, which includes the undercooled region by 345K, the viscosity data could be fitted as η(T )=0.108exp[1.28×105/(RT)](mPas). At the melting point, the datum agrees with the proposed theoretical and empirical models of liquid metals but presents atypical temperature dependence, suggesting a basic change in the mechanism of momentum transfer.
Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter
2010-01-01
, temperature, and chain length dependencies of the reciprocal and real-space viscosity kernels are presented. We find that the density has a major effect on the shape of the kernel. The temperature range and chain lengths considered here have by contrast less impact on the overall normalized shape. Functional...... forms that fit the wave-vector-dependent kernel data over a large density and wave-vector range have also been tested. Finally, a structural normalization of the kernels in physical space is considered. Overall, the real-space viscosity kernel has a width of roughly 3–6 atomic diameters, which means...
Observed eddy dissipation in the Agulhas Current
Braby, Laura; Backeberg, Björn C.; Ansorge, Isabelle; Roberts, Michael J.; Krug, Marjolaine; Reason, Chris J. C.
2016-08-01
Analyzing eddy characteristics from a global data set of automatically tracked eddies for the Agulhas Current in combination with surface drifters as well as geostrophic currents from satellite altimeters, it is shown that eddies from the Mozambique Channel and south of Madagascar dissipate as they approach the Agulhas Current. By tracking the offshore position of the current core and its velocity at 30°S in relation to eddies, it is demonstrated that eddy dissipation occurs through a transfer of momentum, where anticyclones consistently induce positive velocity anomalies, and cyclones reduce the velocities and cause offshore meanders. Composite analyses of the anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddy-current interaction events demonstrate that the positive (negative) velocity anomalies propagate downstream in the Agulhas Current at 44 km/d (23 km/d). Many models are unable to represent these eddy dissipation processes, affecting our understanding of the Agulhas Current.
Jin, Guodong; Zhang, Jian; He, Guo-Wei; Wang, Lian-Ping
2010-12-01
Particle-laden turbulent flow is a typical non-equilibrium process characterized by particle relaxation time τp and the characteristic timescale of the flows τf, in which the turbulent mixing of heavy particles is related to different scales of fluid motions. The preferential concentration (PC) of heavy particles could be strongly affected by fluid motion at dissipation-range scales, which presents a major challenge to the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach. The errors in simulated PC by LES are due to both filtering and the subgrid scale (SGS) eddy viscosity model. The former leads to the removal of the SGS motion and the latter usually results in a more spatiotemporally correlated vorticity field. The dependence of these two factors on the flow Reynolds number is assessed using a priori and a posteriori tests, respectively. The results suggest that filtering is the dominant factor for the under-prediction of the PC for Stokes numbers less than 1, while the SGS eddy viscosity model is the dominant factor for the over-prediction of the PC for Stokes numbers between 1 and 10. The effects of the SGS eddy viscosity model on the PC decrease as the Reynolds number and Stokes number increase. LES can well predict the PC for particle Stokes numbers larger than 10. An SGS model for particles with small and intermediate Stokes numbers is needed to account for the effects of the removed SGS turbulent motion on the PC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin Guodong; Zhang Jian; He Guowei; Wang Lianping, E-mail: hgw@lnm.imech.ac.cn [LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2010-12-15
Particle-laden turbulent flow is a typical non-equilibrium process characterized by particle relaxation time {tau}{sub p} and the characteristic timescale of the flows {tau}{sub f}, in which the turbulent mixing of heavy particles is related to different scales of fluid motions. The preferential concentration (PC) of heavy particles could be strongly affected by fluid motion at dissipation-range scales, which presents a major challenge to the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach. The errors in simulated PC by LES are due to both filtering and the subgrid scale (SGS) eddy viscosity model. The former leads to the removal of the SGS motion and the latter usually results in a more spatiotemporally correlated vorticity field. The dependence of these two factors on the flow Reynolds number is assessed using a priori and a posteriori tests, respectively. The results suggest that filtering is the dominant factor for the under-prediction of the PC for Stokes numbers less than 1, while the SGS eddy viscosity model is the dominant factor for the over-prediction of the PC for Stokes numbers between 1 and 10. The effects of the SGS eddy viscosity model on the PC decrease as the Reynolds number and Stokes number increase. LES can well predict the PC for particle Stokes numbers larger than 10. An SGS model for particles with small and intermediate Stokes numbers is needed to account for the effects of the removed SGS turbulent motion on the PC.
Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes
Lima, J A S; Waga, I
2007-01-01
We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.
Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael
1999-01-01
The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves...
Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.
2012-01-01
We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...
The Universe With Bulk Viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Exact solutions for a model with variable G, A and bulk viscosity areobtained. Inflationary solutions with constant (de Sitter-type) and variable energydensity are found. An expanding anisotropic universe is found to isotropize duringits expansion but a static universe cannot isotropize. The gravitational constant isfound to increase with time and the cosmological constant decreases with time asAo∝t-2.
Fluid viscosity under confined conditions
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.
2014-12-01
Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.
A family of dynamic models for large-eddy simulation
Carati, D.; Jansen, K.; Lund, T.
1995-01-01
Since its first application, the dynamic procedure has been recognized as an effective means to compute rather than prescribe the unknown coefficients that appear in a subgrid-scale model for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The dynamic procedure is usually used to determine the nondimensional coefficient in the Smagorinsky (1963) model. In reality the procedure is quite general and it is not limited to the Smagorinsky model by any theoretical or practical constraints. The purpose of this note is to consider a generalized family of dynamic eddy viscosity models that do not necessarily rely on the local equilibrium assumption built into the Smagorinsky model. By invoking an inertial range assumption, it will be shown that the coefficients in the new models need not be nondimensional. This additional degree of freedom allows the use of models that are scaled on traditionally unknown quantities such as the dissipation rate. In certain cases, the dynamic models with dimensional coefficients are simpler to implement, and allow for a 30% reduction in the number of required filtering operations.
Large eddy simulation of mechanical mixing in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2012-03-01
A comprehensive study of anaerobic digestion requires an advanced turbulence model technique to accurately predict mixing flow patterns because the digestion process that involves mass transfer between anaerobes and their substrates is primarily dependent on detailed information about the fine structure of turbulence in the digesters. This study presents a large eddy simulation (LES) of mechanical agitation of non-Newtonian fluids in anaerobic digesters, in which the sliding mesh method is used to characterize the impeller rotation. The three subgrid scale (SGS) models investigated are: (i) Smagorinsky-Lilly model, (ii) wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model, and (iii) kinetic energy transport (KET) model. The simulation results show that the three SGS models produce very similar flow fields. A comparison of the simulated and measured axial velocities indicates that the LES profile shapes are in general agreement with the experimental data but they differ markedly in velocity magnitudes. A check of impeller power and flow numbers demonstrates that all the SGS models give excellent predictions, with the KET model performing the best. Moreover, the performance of six Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models are assessed and compared with the LES results.
Kroy, K; Djabourov, M; Kroy, Klaus; Capron, Isabelle; Djabourov, Madeleine
1999-01-01
Combining direct computations with invariance arguments, Taylor's constitutive equation for an emulsion can be extrapolated to high shear rates. We show that the resulting expression is consistent with the rigorous limits of small drop deformation and that it bears a strong similarity to an a priori unrelated rheological quantity, namely the dynamic (frequency dependent) linear shear response. More precisely, within a large parameter region the nonlinear steady-state shear viscosity is obtained from the real part of the complex dynamic viscosity, while the first normal stress difference is obtained from its imaginary part. Our experiments with a droplet phase of a binary polymer solution (alginate/caseinate) can be interpreted by an emulsion analogy. They indicate that the predicted similarity rule generalizes to the case of moderately viscoelastic constituents that obey the Cox-Merz rule.
Large Eddy Simulation for Plunge Breaker and Sediment Suspension
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI Yuchuan(白玉川); C.O.NG
2002-01-01
Breaking waves are a powerful agent for generating turbulence that plays an important role in many fluid dynamicalprocesses, particularly in the mixing of materials. Breaking waves can dislodge sediment and throw it into suspension,which will then be carried by wave-induced steady current and tidal flow. In order to investigate sediment suspension bybreaking waves, a numerical model based on large-eddy-simulation (LES) is developed. This numerical model can beused to simulate wave breaking and sediment suspension. The model consists of a free-surface model using the surfacemarker method combined with a two-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence and the turbulentdiffusion are described by a large-eddy-simulation (LES) method where the large turbulence features are simulated bysolving the flow equations, and a subgrid model represents the small-scale turbulence that is not resolved by the flowmodel. A dynamic eddy viscosity subgrid scale stress model has been used for the present simulation. By applying thismodel to Stokes' wave breaking problem in the surf zone, we find that the model results agree very well with experimentaldata. By use of this model to simulation of the breaking process of a periodic wave, it can be found that the model canreproduce the complicated flow phenomena, especially the plunging breaker. It reflects the dynamic structures of roller orvortex in the plunging breaker, and when the wave breaks, many strong vortex structures will be produced in the innersurf zone where the concentration of suspended sediment can thereby become relatively high.
Shear viscosity of nuclear matter
Magner, A G; Grygoriev, U V; Plujko, V A
2016-01-01
Shear viscosity $\\eta$ is calculated for the nuclear matter described as a system of interacting nucleons with the van der Waals (VDW) equation of state. The Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation is solved in terms of the plane waves of the collective overdamped motion. In the frequent collision regime, the shear viscosity depends on the particle number density $n$ through the mean-field parameter $a$ which describes attractive forces in the VDW equation. In the temperature region $T=15\\div 40$~MeV, a ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density $s$ is smaller than 1 at the nucleon number density $n =(0.5\\div 1.5)\\,n^{}_0$, where $n^{}_0=0.16\\,$fm$^{-3}$ is the particle density of equilibrium nuclear matter at zero temperature. A minimum of the $\\eta/s$ ratio takes place somewhere in a vicinity of the critical point of the VDW system. Large values of $\\eta/s\\gg 1$ are however found in both the low density, $n\\ll n^{}_0$, and high density, $n>2n^{}_0$, regions. This makes the ideal hydrodynamic approach ina...
Viscosity of Earth's Outer Core
Smylie, D E
2007-01-01
A viscosity profile across the entire fluid outer core is found by interpolating between measured boundary values, using a differential form of the Arrhenius law governing pressure and temperature dependence. The discovery that both the retrograde and prograde free core nutations are in free decay (Palmer and Smylie, 2005) allows direct measures of viscosity at the top of the outer core, while the reduction in the rotational splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of the inner core allows it to be measured at the bottom. We find 2,371 plus/minus 1,530 Pa.s at the top and 1.247 plus/minus 0.035 x 10^11 Pa.s at the bottom. Following Brazhkin (1998) and Brazhkin and Lyapin (2000) who get 10^2 Pa.s at the top, 10^11 Pa.s at the bottom, by an Arrhenius extrapolation of laboratory experiments, we use a differential form of the Arrhenius law to interpolate along the melting temperature curve to find a viscosity profile across the outer core. We find the variation to be closely log-linear between the meas...
Viscosity Index Improvers and Thickeners
Stambaugh, R. L.; Kinker, B. G.
The viscosity index of an oil or an oil formulation is an important physical parameter. Viscosity index improvers, VIIs, are comprised of five main classes of polymers: polymethylmethacrylates (PMAs), olefin copolymers (OCPs), hydrogenated poly(styrene-co-butadiene or isoprene) (HSD/SIP/HRIs), esterified polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (SPEs) and a combination of PMA/OCP systems. The chemistry, manufacture, dispersancy and utility of each class are described. The comparative functions, properties, thickening ability, dispersancy and degradation of VIIs are discussed. Permanent and temporary shear thinning of VII-thickened formulations are described and compared. The end-use performance and choice of VI improvers is discussed in terms of low- and high-temperature viscosities, journal bearing oil film thickness, fuel economy, oil consumption, high-temperature pumping efficiency and deposit control. Discussion of future developments concludes that VI improvers will evolve to meet new challenges of increased thermal-oxidative degradation from increased engine operating temperatures, different base stocks of either synthetic base oils or vegetable oil-based, together with alcohol- or vegetable oil-based fuels. VI improvers must also evolve to deal with higher levels of fuel dilution and new types of sludge and also enhanced low-temperature requirements.
Garg, Vijay K.; Ameri, Ali A.
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the heat transfer coefficient on two film-cooled turbine blades, namely, the VKI rotor with six rows of cooling holes, including three rows on the shower head and the C3X vane with nine rows of holes, including five rows on the shower head. Predictions of heat transfer coefficient at the blade surface using three two-equation turbulence model specifically, Coakley's q-omega model, Chien's k-epsilon model and Wilcox's k-omega model with Menter's modifications, have been compared with the experimental data of Camci and Arts for the VKI rotor, and of Hylton et al. for the C3X vane along with predictions using the Baldwin-Lomar (B-L) model taken from Garg and Gaugler. It is found that for the cases considered here the two equation models predict the blade heat transfer somewhat better than the B-L model except immediately downstream of the film-cooled holes on the suction surface of the VKI rotor, and over most of the suction surface of the C3X vane. However, all two-equation models require 40% more computer core than the B-L model for solution, and while the q-omega and k-epsilon models need 40% more computer time than the B-L model the k-omega model requires at least 65% more time because of the slower rate of convergence. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient exhibit a strong spanwise as well as streamwise variation for both blades and all turbulence models.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jiang-tao; XUN Chen; CUI Chun-li; WANG Hui-fang; WU Yi-tai; YUN Ai-hong; JIANG Xiao-feng; MA Jun
2012-01-01
Background The new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was developed to address the systematic underestimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in patients with relatively well-preserved kidney function.Performance of the new equation in the Chinese population is unknown.The goal of the present study was to compare performance of these two equations in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods We enrolled 450 Chinese patients (239 women and 211 men) with CKD in the present study.The renal dynamic imaging method was used to measure the referenced standard GFR (rGFR) for comparison with estimations using the two equations.Their overall performance was assessed with the Bland-Altman method and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.Performance of the two equations in lower and higher estimated GFR (eGFR) subgroups was further investigated.Results Both eGFRs correlated well with rGFR (r=0.88,0.81,P＜0.05).In overall performance,the CKD-EPI equation showed less bias,higher precision and improved accuracy,and was better for detecting CKD.In the higher-eGFR subgroup,the CKD-EPI equation corrected the underestimation of GFR by the abbreviated MDRD equation.Conclusions The CKD-EPI equation outperformed the abbreviated MDRD equation not only in overall performance but also in the subgroups studied.For the present,the CKD-EPI equation appears to be the first-choice prediction equation for estimating GFR.
2013-02-01
midlatitudes. The v = 0, FL = 0.4 experiment consists of densely packed vorti- ces (e.g., McWilliams 1984), in rough similarity to a typical snapshot of...acknowledge helpful discussions with Dudley Chelton, Joe LaCasce, Roger Samelson, Ted Shepherd, and Alan Wallcraft. BKA received support from Office...O., and M. E. Mclntyre, 2005: Wave capture and wave- vortex duality. J. Fluid Mech., 534, 67-95. Capet, X., J. C. McWilliams , M. J. Molemaker, and
A new LES model derived from generalized Navier-Stokes equations with nonlinear viscosity
Rodríguez, José M
2015-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a very useful tool when simulating turbulent flows if we are only interested in its "larger" scales. One of the possible ways to derive the LES equations is to apply a filter operator to the Navier-Stokes equations, obtaining a new equation governing the behavior of the filtered velocity. This approach introduces in the equations the so called subgrid-scale tensor, that must be expressed in terms of the filtered velocity to close the problem. One of the most popular models is that proposed by Smagorinsky, where the subgrid-scale tensor is modeled by introducing an eddy viscosity. In this work, we shall propose a new approximation to this problem by applying the filter, not to the Navier-Stokes equations, but to a generalized version of them with nonlinear viscosity. That is, we shall introduce a nonlinear viscosity, not as a procedure to close the subgrid-scale tensor, but as part of the model itself (see below). Consequently, we shall need a different method to close the subgri...
Transient eddy current flow metering
Forbriger, Jan
2015-01-01
Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.
Transient eddy current flow metering
Forbriger, J.; Stefani, F.
2015-10-01
Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.
Extension of Radiative Viscosity to Superfluid Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PI Chun-Mei; YANG Shu-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Ping
2011-01-01
The radiative viscosity of superfluid npe matter is studied and it is found that to the lowest order of δμ/T,the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity is the same as that of its normal matter.As one of the most important transport coefficients,the bulk viscosities of simple npe matter,of hyperon matter and even of quark matter,both in normal and superfluid states,have been extensively studied,[1-18] for more detail see Ref.[19].%The radiative viscosity of superfluid npe matter is studied and it is found that to the lowest order of δμ/T, the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity is the same as that of its normal matter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. O. Abramovych
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction. At present there are many electrical schematic metal detectors (the most common kind of ground penetrating radar, which are differ in purpose. Each scheme has its own advantages and disadvantages compared to other schemes. Designing metal detector problem of optimal selection of functional units most schemes can only work with a narrow range of special purpose units. Functional units used in circuits can be replaced by better ones, but specialization schemes do not provide such a possibility. Description of problem. Author has created a "complex for research of functional units of metal detectors" that is the universal system that meets the task. With this set of studies conducted on the practical implementation of radar-eddy current method of distinguishing non-ferrous metals (gold, copper, etc. is based. Description of method. Mathematical tools using have to be treated as a signal metal detector to distinguish metals: gold, copper and others. Conclusions. Processing of partial pulses may have information about beforehand signal loss during propagation in heterogeneous media with lossy nonuniform distribution parameters. Using eddy currents To calculate the value of the input voltage depending on the conductivity of the metal in the receiving antenna.Combining two different methods for processing the received signal theoretically it could be proved that with high probability can distinguish non-ferrous metals - gold, copper etc.
Mesoscale Ocean Large Eddy Simulations
Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank
2015-11-01
The highest resolution global climate models (GCMs) can now resolve the largest scales of mesoscale dynamics in the ocean. This has the potential to increase the fidelity of GCMs. However, the effects of the smallest, unresolved, scales of mesoscale dynamics must still be parametrized. One such family of parametrizations are mesoscale ocean large eddy simulations (MOLES), but the effects of including MOLES in a GCM are not well understood. In this presentation, several MOLES schemes are implemented in a mesoscale-resolving GCM (CESM), and the resulting flow is compared with that produced by more traditional sub-grid parametrizations. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate flows where the largest scales of turbulent motion are resolved, but the smallest scales are not resolved. LES has traditionally been used to study 3D turbulence, but recently it has also been applied to idealized 2D and quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence. The MOLES presented here are based on 2D and QG LES schemes.
Viscosity of a nucleonic fluid
Mekjian, Aram Z
2012-01-01
The viscosity of nucleonic matter is studied both classically and in a quantum mechanical description. The collisions between particles are modeled as hard sphere scattering as a baseline for comparison and as scattering from an attractive square well potential. Properties associated with the unitary limit are developed which are shown to be approximately realized for a system of neutrons. The issue of near perfect fluid behavior of neutron matter is remarked on. Using some results from hard sphere molecular dynamics studies near perfect fluid behavior is discussed further.
The viscosity of dimethyl ether
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen
2007-01-01
Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. Engines fuelled by DME emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. This is only possible in the case of diesel oil operation if expensive and efficient lowering particles...... for pressurisation in these methods. The results of the VFVM are consolidated by measurements of the viscosities of propane and butane: these agree with the outcome of measurements using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) a method that is supposedly less sensible than the Reynolds number....
Oceanic eddies in synthetic aperture radar images
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Andrei Yu Ivanov; Anna I Ginzburg
2002-09-01
Continuous observations since 1991 by using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board the Almaz-1, ERS-1/2, JERS-1, and RADARSAT satellites support the well-known fact that oceanic eddies are distributed worldwide in the ocean. The paper is devoted to an evaluation of the potential of SAR for detection of eddies and vortical motions in the ocean. The classification of typical vortical features in the ocean detected in remote sensing images (visible, infrared, and SAR) is presented as well as available information on their spatial and temporal scales. Examples of the Almaz-1 and ERS-1/2 SAR images showing different eddy types, such as rings, spiral eddies of the open ocean, eddies behind islands and in bays, spin-off eddies and mushroom-like structures (vortex dipoles) are given and discussed. It is shown that a common feature for most of the eddies detected in the SAR images is a broad spectrum of spatial scales, spiral shape and shear nature. It is concluded that the spaceborne SARs give valuable information on ocean eddies, especially in combination with visible and infrared satellite data.
Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rouault, M
2016-01-01
Full Text Available speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above warm eddies, there is no relationship between the increase...
Exploring Eddy-Covariance Measurements Using a Spatial Approach: The Eddy Matrix
Engelmann, Christian; Bernhofer, Christian
2016-10-01
Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis states that "standard" eddy-covariance measurements of fluxes at a fixed location can replace a spatial ensemble of instantaneous values at multiple locations. For testing this hypothesis, a unique turbulence measurement set-up was used for two measurement campaigns over desert (Namibia) and grassland (Germany) in 2012. This "Eddy Matrix" combined nine ultrasonic anemometer-thermometers and 17 thermocouples in a 10 m × 10 m regular grid with 2.5-m grid distance. The instantaneous buoyancy flux derived from the spatial eddy covariance of the Eddy Matrix was highly variable in time (from -0.3 to 1 m K s^{-1}). However, the 10-min average reflected 83 % of the reference eddy-covariance flux with a good correlation. By introducing a combined eddy-covariance method (the spatial eddy covariance plus the additional flux of the temporal eddy covariance of the spatial mean values), the mean flux increases by 9 % relative to the eddy-covariance reference. Considering the typical underestimation of fluxes by the standard eddy-covariance method, this is seen as an improvement. Within the limits of the Eddy Matrix, Taylor's hypothesis is supported by the results.
Modeling the mesoscale eddy field in the Gulf of Alaska
Xiu, Peng; Chai, Fei; Xue, Huijie; Shi, Lei; Chao, Yi
2012-05-01
Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies are a common feature in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). A three-dimensional circulation model is used to examine the general characteristics of eddies in the GOA during 1993-2009. Using an eddy detection algorithm, we tracked on average 6.5 eddies formed each year from the modeled results and 6.9 eddies from altimeter data. Modeled eddy characteristics agree with the remote sensing derived eddy statistics in terms of eddy magnitude, propagation speed, and eddy-core diameter. From the model results, strong seasonal and interannual variations were found in both the number and areal coverage of GOA eddies. At the seasonal scale, more eddies are observed to form from March to May, while the eddy-covered area usually peaks around October. At the interannual scale, our results suggest the years with large eddy-covered area do not necessarily have more eddies generated. The long-term variation of eddy-covered area in the GOA is modulated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events through altering the local wind stress. Model results indicate one typical Haida eddy could transport 37×1018 J of heat and 27 km3 of freshwater from the shelf to the central gulf. The equivalent fluxes caused by Haida eddies are comparable with the annual mean of net heat flux and freshwater flux from the atmosphere into the ocean in the Haida region, implying that mesoscale eddies are important sources contributing to the heat and freshwater budgets.
Intense submesoscale upwelling in anticyclonic eddies
Brannigan, L.
2016-04-01
Observations from around the global ocean show that enhanced biological activity can be found in anticyclonic eddies. This may mean that upwelling of nutrient-rich water occurs within the eddy, but such upwelling is not captured by models that resolve mesoscale processes. High-resolution simulations presented here show intense submesoscale upwelling from the thermocline to the mixed layer in anticyclonic eddies. The properties of the upwelling are consistent with a process known as symmetric instability. A simple limiting nutrient experiment shows that this upwelling can drive much higher biological activity in anticyclonic eddies when there is a high nutrient concentration in the thermocline. An estimate for the magnitude of upwelling associated with symmetric instability in anticyclonic eddies in the Sargasso Sea shows that it may be of comparable magnitude to other processes, though further work is required to understand the full implications for basin-scale nutrient budgets.
Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity
Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver
2016-11-01
Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
Viscosity of ring polymer melts
Pasquino, Rossana
2013-10-15
We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Convective Heat Transfer over a Wall Mounted Cube Using Large Eddy Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habibollah Heidarzadeh
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Fluid flow and convective heat transfer over wall mounted cube have been studied numerically using Large Eddy Simulation. Surface of wall mounted cube and plane floor has a constant heat flux. Two subgrid scale models were used in this study; Wall-Adapting Eddy viscosity (WALE and Dynamic Smagorinsky (DS. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data of Nakamura et al [2] that showed DS model has better results toward WALE model. Results contain the plots of time averaged normalized streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress in different positions, Temperature contours, local Nusselt number over the surfaces of cube and some characteristics of flow field and heat transfer. The local convective heat transfer from the surfaces of the cube and plate are directly related to the complexity of flow field.
Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darlington, R
1999-12-01
This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.
Bulk viscosity-driven suppression of shear viscosity effects on the flow harmonics at RHIC
Noronha-Hostler, J; Grassi, F
2014-01-01
The interplay between shear and bulk viscosities on the flow harmonics, $v_n$'s, at RHIC is investigated using the newly developed relativistic 2+1 hydrodynamical code v-USPhydro that includes bulk and shear viscosity effects both in the hydrodynamic evolution and also at freeze-out. While shear viscosity is known to attenuate the flow harmonics, we find that the inclusion of bulk viscosity decreases the shear viscosity-induced suppression of the flow harmonics bringing them closer to their values in ideal hydrodynamical calculations. Depending on the value of the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\zeta/s$, in the quark-gluon plasma, the bulk viscosity-driven suppression of shear viscosity effects on the flow harmonics may require a re-evaluation of the previous estimates of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, of the quark-gluon plasma previously extracted by comparing hydrodynamic calculations to heavy ion data.
Davit, Y.
2012-07-26
In this work, we study the transient behavior of homogenized models for solute transport in two-region porous media. We focus on the following three models: (1) a time non-local, two-equation model (2eq-nlt). This model does not rely on time constraints and, therefore, is particularly useful in the short-time regime, when the timescale of interest (t) is smaller than the characteristic time (τ 1) for the relaxation of the effective macroscale parameters (i. e., when t ≤ τ 1); (2) a time local, two-equation model (2eq). This model can be adopted when (t) is significantly larger than (τ 1) (i.e., when t≫τ 1); and (3) a one-equation, time-asymptotic formulation (1eq ∞). This model can be adopted when (t) is significantly larger than the timescale (τ 2) associated with exchange processes between the two regions (i. e., when t≫τ 2). In order to obtain insight into this transient behavior, we combine a theoretical approach based on the analysis of spatial moments with numerical and analytical results in several simple cases. The main result of this paper is to show that there is only a weak asymptotic convergence of the solution of (2eq) towards the solution of (1eq ∞) in terms of standardized moments but, interestingly, not in terms of centered moments. The physical interpretation of this result is that deviations from the Fickian situation persist in the limit of long times but that the spreading of the solute is eventually dominating these higher order effects. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maja eBoric
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.
Large Eddy Simulations in Astrophysics
Schmidt, Wolfram
2014-01-01
In this review, the methodology of large eddy simulations (LES) is introduced and applications in astrophysics are discussed. As theoretical framework, the scale decomposition of the dynamical equations for neutral fluids by means of spatial filtering is explained. For cosmological applications, the filtered equations in comoving coordinates are also presented. To obtain a closed set of equations that can be evolved in LES, several subgrid scale models for the interactions between numerically resolved and unresolved scales are discussed, in particular the subgrid scale turbulence energy equation model. It is then shown how model coefficients can be calculated, either by dynamical procedures or, a priori, from high-resolution data. For astrophysical applications, adaptive mesh refinement is often indispensable. It is shown that the subgrid scale turbulence energy model allows for a particularly elegant and physically well motivated way of preserving momentum and energy conservation in AMR simulations. Moreover...
Conformable eddy current array delivery
Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes
2016-02-01
The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.
EDDY CURRENT CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOMATERIALS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A YOUNES
2015-06-01
Full Text Available NDT Magnetic measurements as impedance in Eddy currents, corecitif and residual field in hysteresis loop are used to study the different stages of mechanical alloying in the Fe–Co system. In this paper, we changed the electromagnetic properties of Fe-Co, by developing their metallurgical parameters such as grain size. For this we are used a planetary ball mill, we are milled the FeCo alloy for different milling times until to obtain nanostructure, the lamellar structure with some small particles embedded in them was observed during the first stage of mechanical alloying. XRD patterns show after 10 h of milling the formation of a disordered solid solution having a body-centered cubic (bcc structure. After 40h of milling, morphological studies indicated that the average crystallites size is around 15 nm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iver Brevik
2012-11-01
Full Text Available A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shownthat, based on a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found forquantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions mayincorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition inthe cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided.
Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients
Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.
Drop spreading with random viscosity
Xu, Feng
2016-01-01
We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated v...
Shear Viscosity from Lattice QCD
Mages, Simon W; Fodor, Zoltán; Schäfer, Andreas; Szabó, Kálmán
2015-01-01
Understanding of the transport properties of the the quark-gluon plasma is becoming increasingly important to describe current measurements at heavy ion collisions. This work reports on recent efforts to determine the shear viscosity h in the deconfined phase from lattice QCD. The main focus is on the integration of the Wilson flow in the analysis to get a better handle on the infrared behaviour of the spectral function which is relevant for transport. It is carried out at finite Wilson flow time, which eliminates the dependence on the lattice spacing. Eventually, a new continuum limit has to be carried out which sends the new regulator introduced by finite flow time to zero. Also the non-perturbative renormalization strategy applied for the energy momentum tensor is discussed. At the end some quenched results for temperatures up to 4 : 5 T c are presented
A western boundary current eddy characterisation study
Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel
2016-12-01
The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.
Hyperon bulk viscosity in strong magnetic fields
Sinha, Monika
2008-01-01
We study bulk viscosity in neutron star matter including $\\Lambda$ hyperons in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Relaxation time and bulk viscosity due to both the non-leptonic weak process involving $\\Lambda$ hyperons and the direct Urca (dUrca) process are calculated here. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, bulk viscosity coefficients are enhanced when protons, electrons and muons are populated in their respective zeroth Landau levels compared with the field free cases. The enhancement of bulk viscosity coefficient is larger for the dUrca case.
The effects of viscosity on circumplanetary disks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
De-Fu Bu; Hsien Shang; Feng Yuan
2013-01-01
The effects of viscosity on the circumplanetary disks residing in the vicinity of protoplanets are investigated through two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with the shearing sheet model.We find that viscosity can considerably affect properties of the circumplanetary disk when the mass of the protoplanet Mp (＜) 33 M(⊙),where M(⊙) is the Earth's mass.However,effects of viscosity on the circumplanetary disk are negligibly small when the mass of the protoplanet Mp(＞) 33 M(⊙).We find that when Mp(＜) 33 M(⊙),viscosity can markedly disrupt the spiral structure of the gas around the planet and smoothly distribute the gas,which weakens the torques exerted on the protoplanet.Thus,viscosity can slow the migration speed of a protoplanet.After including viscosity,the size of the circumplanetary disk can be decreased by a factor of (＞) 20％.Viscosity helps to transport gas into the circumplanetary disk from the differentially rotating circumstellar disk.The mass of the circumplanetary disk can be increased by a factor of 50％ after viscosity is taken into account when Mp(＜) 33 M(⊙).Effects of viscosity on the formation of planets and satellites are briefly discussed.
Viscosity of oil and water mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corlett, A.E.; Hall, A.R.W. [National Engineering Laboratory, Glasgow (United Kingdom)
1999-07-01
A study was performed to investigate the apparent viscosity of oil and water mixtures using the pressure loss along a horizontal pipe. Water fractions between 100% to 5% were examined at three flow velocities and three temperatures. Four combinations of crude oil and saline solution were used. Tests found that the mixture viscosity exhibited a peak at the position of phase inversion. The value of this maximum viscosity depended upon the temperature and fluid combination used, but not the velocity. Physical properties of the fluids were important factors in the viscosity/water fraction behaviour. (author)
Anatomy of a subtropical intrathermocline eddy
Barceló-Llull, Bàrbara; Sangrà, Pablo; Pallàs-Sanz, Enric; Barton, Eric D.; Estrada-Allis, Sheila N.; Martínez-Marrero, Antonio; Aguiar-González, Borja; Grisolía, Diana; Gordo, Carmen; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Arístegui, Javier
2017-06-01
An interdisciplinary survey of a subtropical intrathermocline eddy was conducted within the Canary Eddy Corridor in September 2014. The anatomy of the eddy is investigated using near submesoscale fine resolution two-dimensional data and coarser resolution three-dimensional data. The eddy was four months old, with a vertical extension of 500 m and 46 km radius. It may be viewed as a propagating negative anomaly of potential vorticity (PV), 95% below ambient PV. We observed two cores of low PV, one in the upper layers centered at 85 m, and another broader anomaly located between 175 m and the maximum sampled depth in the three-dimensional dataset (325 m). The upper core was where the maximum absolute values of normalized relative vorticity (or Rossby number), |Ro| =0.6, and azimuthal velocity, U=0.5 m s-1, were reached and was defined as the eddy dynamical core. The typical biconvex isopleth shape for intrathermocline eddies induces a decrease of static stability, which causes the low PV of the upper core. The deeper low PV core was related to the occurrence of a pycnostad layer of subtropical mode water that was embedded within the eddy. The eddy core, of 30 km radius, was in near solid body rotation with period of 4 days. It was encircled by a thin outer ring that was rotating more slowly. The kinetic energy (KE) content exceeded that of available potential energy (APE), KE/APE=1.58; this was associated with a low aspect ratio and a relatively intense rate of spin as indicated by the relatively high value of Ro. Inferred available heat and salt content anomalies were AHA=2.9×1018 J and ASA=14.3×1010 kg, respectively. The eddy AHA and ASA contents per unit volume largely exceed those corresponding to Pacific Ocean intrathermocline eddies. This suggests that intrathermocline eddies may play a significant role in the zonal conduit of heat and salt along the Canary Eddy Corridor.
Modal Wave Number Spectrum for Mesoscale Eddies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KANG Ying; PENG Linhui
2003-01-01
The variations of ocean environmental parameters invariably result in variations of local modal wave numbers of a sound pressure field. The asymptotic Hankel transform with a short sliding window is applied to the complex sound pressure field in the water containing a mesoscale eddy to examine the variation of local modal wave numbers in such a range-dependent environment. The numerical simulation results show that modal wave number spectra obtained by this method can reflect the location and strength of a mesoscale eddy, therefore it can be used to monitor the strength and spatial scale of ocean mesoscale eddies.
Eddy Current Testing, RQA/M1-5330.17.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.
As one in the series of classroom training handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, instructional material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on eddy current testing. The subject is presented under the following headings: Introduction, Eddy Current Principles, Eddy Current Equipment, Eddy Current Methods,…
Artificial Fluid Properties for Large-Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, A W
2007-01-08
An alternative methodology is described for Large-Eddy Simulation of flows involving shocks, turbulence and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of an ''LES'' fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a 10th-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in crisp fashion.
Artificial fluid properties for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent mixing
Cook, Andrew W.
2007-05-01
An alternative methodology is described for large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows involving shocks, turbulence, and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of a LES fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a tenth-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in a crisp fashion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiqing Si
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Lattice Boltzmann method combined with large eddy simulation is developed in the article to simulate fluid flow at high Reynolds numbers. A subgrid model is used as a large eddy simulation model in the numerical simulation for high Reynolds flow. The idea of subgrid model is based on an assumption to include the physical effects that the unresolved motion has on the resolved fluid motion. It takes a simple form of eddy viscosity models for the Reynolds stress. Lift and drag evaluation in the lattice Boltzmann equation takes momentum-exchange method for curved body surface. First of all, the present numerical method is validated at low Reynolds numbers. Second, the developed lattice Boltzmann method/large eddy simulation method is performed to solve flow problems at high Reynolds numbers. Some detailed quantitative comparisons are implemented to show the effectiveness of the present method. It is demonstrated that lattice Boltzmann method combined with large eddy simulation model can efficiently simulate high Reynolds numbers’ flows.
Surface dilatational viscosity of Langmuir monolayers
Lopez, Juan; Vogel, Michael; Hirsa, Amir
2003-11-01
With increased interest in microfluidic systems, interfacial phenomena is receiving more attention. As the length scales of fluid problems decrease, the surface to volume ratio increases and the coupling between interfacial flow and bulk flow becomes increasingly dominated by effects due to intrinsic surface viscosities (shear and dilatational), in comparison to elastic effects (due to surface tension gradients). The surface shear viscosity is well-characterized, as cm-scale laboratory experiments are able to isolate its effects from other interfacial processes (e.g., in the deep-channel viscometer). The same is not true for the dilatational viscosity, because it acts in the direction of surface tension gradients. Their relative strength scale with the capillary number, and for cm-scale laboratory flows, surface tension effects tend to dominate. In microfluidic scale flows, the scaling favors viscosity. We have devised an experimental apparatus which is capable of isolating and enhancing the effects of dilatational viscosity at the cm scales by driving the interface harmonically in time, while keeping the interface flat. In this talk, we shall present both the theory for how this works as well as experimental measurements of surface velocity from which we deduce the dilatational viscosity of several monolayers on the air-water interface over a substantial range of surface concentrations. Anomalous behavior over some range of concentration, which superficially indicates negative viscosity, maybe explained in terms of compositional effects due to large spatial and temporal variations in concentration and corresponding viscosity.
Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields.
Tao, R; Huang, K
2011-07-01
Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ~1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells' normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.
The Friction Theory for Viscosity Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2001-01-01
In this work the one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) general models have been extended to the viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. It is demonstrated that these simple models, which take advantage of the repulsive and attractive pressure terms of cubic equations of state...... such as the SRK, PR and PRSV, can provide accurate viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. In the case of light reservoir oils, whose properties are close to those of normal alkanes, the one-parameter f-theory general models can predict the viscosity of these fluids with good accuracy. Yet......, in the case when experimental information is available a more accurate modeling can be obtained by means of a simple tuning procedure. A tuned f-theory general model can deliver highly accurate viscosity modeling above the saturation pressure and good prediction of the liquid-phase viscosity at pressures...
Plasma Viscosity : A Risk Factor In Hypertension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Puniyani R. R
1989-01-01
Full Text Available Haemorrheological study on hypertension was done at Indian Institute of Technology Hospital, Bombay. Male population in the age groups of 35 to 60 years was screened for hypertension from February 1986 to February 1987. Out of 340 subjects examined, 44 hypertensive cases were found, who were investigated for blood viscosity profile and were compared with 45 controls. The parameters studied were plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, red cell aggregation, red cell deformability and haematocrit W.H.O. criteria of hypertension (HT was strictly adhered to (B.P. above 160/95 mm of Hg. When compared to control group, plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were elevated in freshly detected and uncontrolled hypertensives. Red cell aggregation and deformability were significantly altered in chronic hypertensives than in normal, but haematocrit was not affected in any group.
Improved engine wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
Plengsaard, Chalearmpol
Improved wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are presented in this research. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model is used along with near-wall sub-grid scale viscosity. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy is employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To gain better heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model is also used. Because no experimental wall shear stress results are available in engines, the fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct is chosen to validate the new wall models. The model constants in the new wall models are set to 0.01 and 0.8, respectively and are kept constant throughout the investigation. The resulting time- and spatially-averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data at Re = 50,000. In order to study the effect of hot air impinging walls, jet impingement on a flat plate is also tested with the new wall models. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 21,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. As predicted by the new wall models, the time-averaged skin friction coefficient agrees well with experimental data, while the computed Nusselt number agrees fairly well when r/D > 2.0. Additionally, the model is validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion. Sixteen different operating engine conditions are simulated. The majority of the predicted heat flux results from each thermocouple location follow similar trends when compared with experimental data. The magnitude of peak heat fluxes as predicted by the new wall models is in the range of typical measured values in diesel combustion, while most heat flux results from previous LES wall models are over-predicted. The new wall models generate more accurate predictions and agree better with experimental data.
Large Eddy Simulations in Astrophysics
Schmidt, Wolfram
2015-12-01
In this review, the methodology of large eddy simulations (LES) is introduced and applications in astrophysics are discussed. As theoretical framework, the scale decomposition of the dynamical equations for neutral fluids by means of spatial filtering is explained. For cosmological applications, the filtered equations in comoving coordinates are also presented. To obtain a closed set of equations that can be evolved in LES, several subgrid-scale models for the interactions between numerically resolved and unresolved scales are discussed, in particular the subgrid-scale turbulence energy equation model. It is then shown how model coefficients can be calculated, either by dynamic procedures or, a priori, from high-resolution data. For astrophysical applications, adaptive mesh refinement is often indispensable. It is shown that the subgrid-scale turbulence energy model allows for a particularly elegant and physically well-motivated way of preserving momentum and energy conservation in adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations. Moreover, the notion of shear-improved models for in-homogeneous and non-stationary turbulence is introduced. Finally, applications of LES to turbulent combustion in thermonuclear supernovae, star formation and feedback in galaxies, and cosmological structure formation are reviewed.
Requirements for large-eddy simulation of surface wind gusts in a mountain valley
Revell, Michael J.; Purnell, Don; Lauren, Michael K.
1996-09-01
During the passage of a front, data from a light-weight cup anemometer and wind vane, sited in a steep-walled glacial valley of the Mt Cook region of the Southern Alps of New Zealand, were analysed to derive a power spectrum of the wind velocity for periods between 0.5 and 16 min. The energy spectrum roughly followed a -5/3 power law over the range of periods from 0.5 4 min — as might be expected in the case of an inertial subrange of eddies. However, any inertial subrange clearly does not extend to periods longer than this. We suggest that the observed eddies were generated in a turbulent wake associated with flow separation at the ridge crests, and large eddies are shed at periods of 4 8 min or more. A compressible fluid-dynamic model, with a Smagorinsky turbulence closure scheme and a “law of the wall” at the surface, was used to calculate flow over a cross section through this area in neutrally stratified conditions. A range of parameters was explored to assess some of the requirements for simulating surface wind gusts in mountainous terrain in New Zealand. In order to approximate the observed wind spectrum at Tasman aerodrome, Mount Cook, we found the model must be three-dimensional, with a horizontal resolution better than 250 m and with a Reynolds-stress eddy viscosity of less than 5 m2 s-1. In two-dimensional simulations, the eddies were too big in size and in amplitude and at the surface this was associated with reversed flow extending too far downstream. In contrast the three-dimensional simulations gave a realistic gusting effect associated with large scale “cat's paws” (a bigger variety of those commonly seen over water downstream of moderate hills), with reversed flow only at the steep part of the lee slope. The simulations were uniformly improved by better resolution, at all tested resolutions down to 250 m mesh size. The spectra of large eddies simulated in steep terrain were not very sensitive to the details of the eddy stress formulation
Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.
Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric
2015-01-01
To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
A Study of Oil Viscosity Mental Model
Albaiti; Liliasari; Sumarna, Omay; Abdulkadir Martoprawiro, Muhamad
2017-02-01
There is no study regarding on how to learn viscosity of the liquid (e.g. oil) by interconnecting macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the mental model of the oil viscosity. Intermolecular attractive force of oil constituent on the sub-microscopic level is depicted in the form of mental models. In this research, the viscosity data for some types of oil was measured by using Hoppler method. Viscosity of mineral oil SAE 20W-50, mineral oil SAE 15W-40 and synthetic oil SAE 10W-40 were 1.75, 1.31, and 1.03 Pa s, and the densities of these oils were 908.64, 885.04, and 877.02 kg/m3, respectively. The results showed that the greater density of the mineral oil that is assumed to be composed of linear chains of hydrocarbons, the longer the chain of hydrocarbon linear. Consequently, there are stronger the London force and greater the oil viscosity. The density and viscosity of synthetic oil are lower than that of both mineral oils. Synthetic oil structurally forms polymers with large branching. This structure affects a lower synthetic oil viscosity. This study contributes to construct a mental model of pre-service chemistry teachers.
Work done by atmospheric winds on mesoscale ocean eddies
Xu, Chi; Zhai, Xiaoming; Shang, Xiao-Dong
2016-12-01
Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in the ocean and dominate the ocean's kinetic energy. However, physical processes influencing ocean eddy energy remain poorly understood. Mesoscale ocean eddy-wind interaction potentially provides an energy flux into or out of the eddy field, but its effect on ocean eddies has not yet been determined. Here we examine work done by atmospheric winds on more than 1,200,000 mesoscale eddies identified from satellite altimetry data and show that atmospheric winds significantly damp mesoscale ocean eddies, particularly in the energetic western boundary current regions and the Southern Ocean. Furthermore, the large-scale wind stress curl is found to on average systematically inject kinetic energy into anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies in the subtropical (subpolar) gyres while mechanically damps anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies in the subpolar (subtropical) gyres.
Eddies in the Red Sea: A statistical and dynamical study
Zhan, Peng
2014-06-01
Sea level anomaly (SLA) data spanning 1992–2012 were analyzed to study the statistical properties of eddies in the Red Sea. An algorithm that identifies winding angles was employed to detect 4998 eddies propagating along 938 unique eddy tracks. Statistics suggest that eddies are generated across the entire Red Sea but that they are prevalent in certain regions. A high number of eddies is found in the central basin between 18°N and 24°N. More than 87% of the detected eddies have a radius ranging from 50 to 135 km. Both the intensity and relative vorticity scale of these eddies decrease as the eddy radii increase. The averaged eddy lifespan is approximately 6 weeks. AEs and cyclonic eddies (CEs) have different deformation features, and those with stronger intensities are less deformed and more circular. Analysis of long-lived eddies suggests that they are likely to appear in the central basin with AEs tending to move northward. In addition, their eddy kinetic energy (EKE) increases gradually throughout their lifespans. The annual cycles of CEs and AEs differ, although both exhibit significant seasonal cycles of intensity with the winter and summer peaks appearing in February and August, respectively. The seasonal cycle of EKE is negatively correlated with stratification but positively correlated with vertical shear of horizontal velocity and eddy growth rate, suggesting that the generation of baroclinic instability is responsible for the activities of eddies in the Red Sea.
Vertically localised equilibrium solutions in large-eddy simulations of homogeneous shear flow
Sekimoto, Atsushi
2016-01-01
Unstable equilibrium solutions in a homogeneous shear flow with sinuous symmetry are numerically found in large-eddy simulations (LES) with no kinetic viscosity. The small-scale properties are determined by the mixing length scale $l_S$ used to define eddy viscosity, and the large-scale motion is induced by the mean shear at the integral scale, which is limited by the spanwise box dimension $L_z$. The fraction $ R_S= L_z/l_S$, which plays the role of a Reynolds number, is used as a numerical continuation parameter. It is shown that equilibrium solutions appear by a subcritical-type bifurcation as $R_S$ increases, and that they resemble those in plane Couette flow with the same symmetry. The vortical structures of both lower- and upper-branch solutions become spontaneously localised in the vertical direction. The lower-branch solution is an edge state at low $R_S$, and takes the form of a thin critical layer as $R_S$ increases, as in the asymptotic theory of generic shear flow at high-Reynolds numbers. On the ...
The tropical marine boundary layer under a deep convection system: a large-eddy simulation study
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D A Randall
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The tropical marine PBL under the influence of a deep convection system is investigated using a largedomain LES that resolves a wide range of scales, from mesoscale cloud clusters down to energy-containing turbulence. The simulated PBL is dominated by both turbulence and cloud-induced cold-pools. The variance of vertical velocity in the PBL resides mostly in the turbulence scales while that of water vapor mixing ratio resides mostly at the cold-pool scales; however, both turbulence and cold-pool scales contribute about equally to their covariance. The broad scale range of the LES flow field is decomposed into the filtered (i.e., cloud system and the subfilter (i.e., small convection and turbulence components using a Gaussian filter with various filter widths. Such decomposed flow fields are used to retrieve information of spatial distribution of the subfilter-scale fluxes and their relationship to the filtered field. This information is then used to evaluate the performance of an eddy-viscosity model commonly used in cloud-resolving models. The subfilter-scale fluxes computed from the eddy-viscosity model correlate reasonably with those retrieved from the LES in the lower cloud layer but not in the PBL; the correlation coefficients between the modeled and the retrieved fluxes are about 0.5 in the lower cloud layer but smaller than 0.2 in the PBL.
Chaynikov, S.; Porta, G.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.
2012-04-01
We focus on a theoretical analysis of nonreactive solute transport in porous media through the volume averaging technique. Darcy-scale transport models based on continuum formulations typically include large scale dispersive processes which are embedded in a pore-scale advection diffusion equation through a Fickian analogy. This formulation has been extensively questioned in the literature due to its inability to depict observed solute breakthrough curves in diverse settings, ranging from the laboratory to the field scales. The heterogeneity of the pore-scale velocity field is one of the key sources of uncertainties giving rise to anomalous (non-Fickian) dispersion in macro-scale porous systems. Some of the models which are employed to interpret observed non-Fickian solute behavior make use of a continuum formulation of the porous system which assumes a two-region description and includes a bimodal velocity distribution. A first class of these models comprises the so-called ''mobile-immobile'' conceptualization, where convective and dispersive transport mechanisms are considered to dominate within a high velocity region (mobile zone), while convective effects are neglected in a low velocity region (immobile zone). The mass exchange between these two regions is assumed to be controlled by a diffusive process and is macroscopically described by a first-order kinetic. An extension of these ideas is the two equation ''mobile-mobile'' model, where both transport mechanisms are taken into account in each region and a first-order mass exchange between regions is employed. Here, we provide an analytical derivation of two region "mobile-mobile" meso-scale models through a rigorous upscaling of the pore-scale advection diffusion equation. Among the available upscaling methodologies, we employ the Volume Averaging technique. In this approach, the heterogeneous porous medium is supposed to be pseudo-periodic, and can be represented through a (spatially) periodic unit cell
Temporal Large-Eddy Simulation
Pruett, C. D.; Thomas, B. C.
2004-01-01
In 1999, Stolz and Adams unveiled a subgrid-scale model for LES based upon approximately inverting (defiltering) the spatial grid-filter operator and termed .the approximate deconvolution model (ADM). Subsequently, the utility and accuracy of the ADM were demonstrated in a posteriori analyses of flows as diverse as incompressible plane-channel flow and supersonic compression-ramp flow. In a prelude to the current paper, a parameterized temporal ADM (TADM) was developed and demonstrated in both a priori and a posteriori analyses for forced, viscous Burger's flow. The development of a time-filtered variant of the ADM was motivated-primarily by the desire for a unifying theoretical and computational context to encompass direct numerical simulation (DNS), large-eddy simulation (LES), and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS). The resultant methodology was termed temporal LES (TLES). To permit exploration of the parameter space, however, previous analyses of the TADM were restricted to Burger's flow, and it has remained to demonstrate the TADM and TLES methodology for three-dimensional flow. For several reasons, plane-channel flow presents an ideal test case for the TADM. Among these reasons, channel flow is anisotropic, yet it lends itself to highly efficient and accurate spectral numerical methods. Moreover, channel-flow has been investigated extensively by DNS, and a highly accurate data base of Moser et.al. exists. In the present paper, we develop a fully anisotropic TADM model and demonstrate its utility in simulating incompressible plane-channel flow at nominal values of Re(sub tau) = 180 and Re(sub tau) = 590 by the TLES method. The TADM model is shown to perform nearly as well as the ADM at equivalent resolution, thereby establishing TLES as a viable alternative to LES. Moreover, as the current model is suboptimal is some respects, there is considerable room to improve TLES.
Bardina, J. E.
1994-01-01
A new computational efficient 3-D compressible Reynolds-averaged implicit Navier-Stokes method with advanced two equation turbulence models for high speed flows is presented. All convective terms are modeled using an entropy satisfying higher-order Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme based on implicit upwind flux-difference split approximations and arithmetic averaging procedure of primitive variables. This method combines the best features of data management and computational efficiency of space marching procedures with the generality and stability of time dependent Navier-Stokes procedures to solve flows with mixed supersonic and subsonic zones, including streamwise separated flows. Its robust stability derives from a combination of conservative implicit upwind flux-difference splitting with Roe's property U to provide accurate shock capturing capability that non-conservative schemes do not guarantee, alternating symmetric Gauss-Seidel 'method of planes' relaxation procedure coupled with a three-dimensional two-factor diagonal-dominant approximate factorization scheme, TVD flux limiters of higher-order flux differences satisfying realizability, and well-posed characteristic-based implicit boundary-point a'pproximations consistent with the local characteristics domain of dependence. The efficiency of the method is highly increased with Newton Raphson acceleration which allows convergence in essentially one forward sweep for supersonic flows. The method is verified by comparing with experiment and other Navier-Stokes methods. Here, results of adiabatic and cooled flat plate flows, compression corner flow, and 3-D hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows are presented. The robust 3-D method achieves a better computational efficiency of at least one order of magnitude over the CNS Navier-Stokes code. It provides cost-effective aerodynamic predictions in agreement with experiment, and the capability of predicting complex flow structures in
Viscosity studies of water based magnetite nanofluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anu, K.; Hemalatha, J. [Advanced Materials Lab, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India – 620015 (India)
2016-05-23
Magnetite nanofluids of various concentrations have been synthesized through co-precipitation method. The structural and topographical studies made with the X-Ray Diffractometer and Atomic Force Microscope are presented in this paper. The density and viscosity studies for the ferrofluids of various concentrations have been made at room temperature. The experimental viscosities are compared with theoretical values obtained from Einstein, Batchelor and Wang models. An attempt to modify the Rosensweig model is made and the modified Rosensweig equation is reported. In addition, new empirical correlation is also proposed for predicting viscosity of ferrofluid at various concentrations.
Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence
Kaushal, R
2002-01-01
Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.
Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes
Mallavajula, Rajesh K.
2013-11-06
We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Transformed eddy-PV flux and positive synoptic eddy feedback onto low-frequency flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Hong-Li [University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); China Meteorological Administration, Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Jin, Fei-Fei [University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kug, Jong-Seong [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Li [University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); China Meteorological Administration, Numerical Prediction Center, National Meteorological Center, Beijing (China)
2011-06-15
Interaction between synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) has been the subject of many studies. In this study, we further examine the interaction by introducing a transformed eddy-potential-vorticity (TEPV) flux that is obtained from eddy-potential-vorticity flux through a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity inversion. The main advantage of using the TEPV flux is that it combines the effects of the eddy-vorticity and heat fluxes into the net acceleration of the low-frequency flow in such a way that the TEPV flux tends to be analogous to the eddy-vorticity fluxes in the barotropic framework. We show that the anomalous TEPV fluxes are preferentially directed to the left-hand side of the low-frequency flow in all vertical levels throughout the troposphere for monthly flow anomalies and for climate modes such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Furthermore, this left-hand preference of the TEPV flux direction is a convenient three-dimensional indicator of the positive reinforcement of the low-frequency flow by net eddy-induced acceleration. By projecting the eddy-induced net accelerations onto the low-frequency flow anomalies, we estimate the eddy-induced growth rates for the low frequency flow anomalies. This positive eddy-induced growth rate is larger (smaller) in the lower (upper) troposphere. The stronger positive eddy feedback in the lower troposphere may play an important role in maintaining an equivalent barotropic structure of the low-frequency atmospheric flow by balancing some of the strong damping effect of surface friction. (orig.)
Transformed eddy-PV flux and positive synoptic eddy feedback onto low-frequency flow
Ren, Hong-Li; Jin, Fei-Fei; Kug, Jong-Seong; Gao, Li
2011-06-01
Interaction between synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) has been the subject of many studies. In this study, we further examine the interaction by introducing a transformed eddy-potential-vorticity (TEPV) flux that is obtained from eddy-potential-vorticity flux through a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity inversion. The main advantage of using the TEPV flux is that it combines the effects of the eddy-vorticity and heat fluxes into the net acceleration of the low-frequency flow in such a way that the TEPV flux tends to be analogous to the eddy-vorticity fluxes in the barotropic framework. We show that the anomalous TEPV fluxes are preferentially directed to the left-hand side of the low-frequency flow in all vertical levels throughout the troposphere for monthly flow anomalies and for climate modes such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Furthermore, this left-hand preference of the TEPV flux direction is a convenient three-dimensional indicator of the positive reinforcement of the low-frequency flow by net eddy-induced acceleration. By projecting the eddy-induced net accelerations onto the low-frequency flow anomalies, we estimate the eddy-induced growth rates for the low frequency flow anomalies. This positive eddy-induced growth rate is larger (smaller) in the lower (upper) troposphere. The stronger positive eddy feedback in the lower troposphere may play an important role in maintaining an equivalent barotropic structure of the low-frequency atmospheric flow by balancing some of the strong damping effect of surface friction.
Analysis of the Pump-turbine S Characteristics Using the Detached Eddy Simulation Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Hui; XIAO Ruofu; WANG Fujun; XIAO Yexiang; LIU Weichao
2015-01-01
Current research on pump-turbine units is focused on the unstable operation at off-design conditions, with the characteristic curves in generating mode being S-shaped. Unlike in the traditional water turbines, pump-turbine operation along the S-shaped curve can lead to difficulties during load rejection with unusual increases in the water pressure, which leads to machine vibrations. This paper describes both model tests and numerical simulations. A reduced scale model of a low specific speed pump-turbine was used for the performance tests, with comparisons to computational fluid dynamics(CFD) results. Predictions using the detached eddy simulation(DES) turbulence model, which is a combined Reynolds averaged Naviers-Stokes(RANS) and large eddy simulation(LES) model, are compared with the two-equation turbulence mode results. The external characteristics as well as the internal flow are for various guide vane openings to understand the unsteady flow along the so called S characteristics of a pump-turbine. Comparison of the experimental data with the CFD results for various conditions and times shows that DES model gives better agreement with experimental data than the two-equation turbulence model. For low flow conditions, the centrifugal forces and the large incident angle create large vortices between the guide vanes and the runner inlet in the runner passage, which is the main factor leading to the S-shaped characteristics. The turbulence model used here gives more accurate simulations of the internal flow characteristics of the pump-turbine and a more detailed force analysis which shows the mechanisms controlling of the S characteristics.
An eddy tracking algorithm based on dynamical systems theory
Conti, Daniel; Orfila, Alejandro; Mason, Evan; Sayol, Juan Manuel; Simarro, Gonzalo; Balle, Salvador
2016-11-01
This work introduces a new method for ocean eddy detection that applies concepts from stationary dynamical systems theory. The method is composed of three steps: first, the centers of eddies are obtained from fixed points and their linear stability analysis; second, the size of the eddies is estimated from the vorticity between the eddy center and its neighboring fixed points, and, third, a tracking algorithm connects the different time frames. The tracking algorithm has been designed to avoid mismatching connections between eddies at different frames. Eddies are detected for the period between 1992 and 2012 using geostrophic velocities derived from AVISO altimetry and a new database is provided for the global ocean.
Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huang, Jing; Golaz, Jean-Christophe
2011-11-01
A disconnect remains between our improved physical understanding of boundary layers stabilized by buoyancy and how we parameterize them in coarse atmospheric models. Most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing in such conditions to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. Using Large-eddy simulation, we revisit some of the basic challenges in parameterizing stable atmospheric boundary layers: eddy-viscosity closure is found to be more reliable due to an improved alignment of vertical Reynolds stresses and mean strains under stable conditions, but the dependence of the magnitude of the eddy viscosity on stability is not well represented by several models tested here. Thus, we propose a new closure that reproduces the different stability regimes better. Subsequently, tests of this model in the GFDL's single-column model (SCM) are found to yield good agreement with LES results in idealized steady-stability cases, as well as in cases with gradual and sharp changes of stability with time.
Vertical eddy heat fluxes from model simulations
Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung
1991-01-01
Vertical eddy fluxes of heat are calculated from simulations with a variety of climate models, ranging from three-dimensional GCMs to a one-dimensional radiative-convective model. The models' total eddy flux in the lower troposphere is found to agree well with Hantel's analysis from observations, but in the mid and upper troposphere the models' values are systematically 30 percent to 50 percent smaller than Hantel's. The models nevertheless give very good results for the global temperature profile, and the reason for the discrepancy is unclear. The model results show that the manner in which the vertical eddy flux is carried is very sensitive to the parameterization of moist convection. When a moist adiabatic adjustment scheme with a critical value for the relative humidity of 100 percent is used, the vertical transports by large-scale eddies and small-scale convection on a global basis are equal: but when a penetrative convection scheme is used, the large-scale flux on a global basis is only about one-fifth to one-fourth the small-scale flux. Comparison of the model results with observations indicates that the results with the latter scheme are more realistic. However, even in this case, in mid and high latitudes the large and small-scale vertical eddy fluxes of heat are comparable in magnitude above the planetary boundary layer.
Modelling of the North Atlantic eddy characteristics
Ushakov, Konstantin; Ibrayev, Rashit
2017-04-01
We investigate eddy characteristics of the Atlantic basin circulation and their impact on the ocean heat transport. A 15-year-long numerical experiment is performed with the global 3-dimensional z-coordinate INMIO ocean general circulation model of 0.1 deg., 49 levels resolution in conditions of the CORE-II protocol. The model is tuned to maximal intensity of eddies production by using only biharmonic filters instead of lateral viscous and diffusive terms in the model equations. Comparison with viscous and coarse-resolution simulations shows the increase of explicitly resolved heat transfer fraction and absolute values. Vertical turbulent mixing is parameterized by the Munk-Anderson scheme including convective adjustment. The sea ice is described by a simple thermodynamic submodel. The eddying velocity and temperature field components are defined as anomalies relative to the 3-month sliding mean. The regional distributions of hydrological parameters, eddy kinetic energy, heat convergence, meridional heat transport (MHT) and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction, and their temporal variability are analyzed. In some parts of the basin the simulated eddy heat transport is opposite to the mean flow transport and may change direction with depth. The MHT intensity is slightly below observationally based assessments with notable influence of the East Greenland current simulation bias. The work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project N 14-27-00126) and performed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences.
TCC-III Engine Benchmark for Large-Eddy Simulation of IC Engine Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schiffmann P.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A collaborative effort is described to benchmark the TCC-III engine, and to illustrate the application of this data for the evaluation of sub-grid scale models and valve simulation details on the fidelity of Large-Eddy Simulations (LES. The TCC-III is a spark ignition 4-stroke 2-valve engine with a flat head and piston and is equipped with a full quartz liner for maximum optical access that allows high-speed flow measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV; the TCC-III has new valve seats and a modified intake-system compared to previous configurations. This work is an extension of a previous study at an engine speed of 800 RPM and an intake manifold pressure (MAP of 95 kPa, where a one-equation eddy viscosity LES model yielded accurate qualitative and quantitative predictions of ensemble averaged mean and RMS velocities during the intake and compression stroke. Here, experimental data were acquired with parametric variation of engine speed and intake manifold absolute pressure to assess the capability of LES models over a range of operating conditions of practical relevance. This paper focuses on the repeatability and accuracy of the measured PIV data, acquired at 1 300 RPM, at two different MAP (95 kPa and 40 kPa, and imaged at multiple data planes and crank angles. Two examples are provided, illustrating the application of this data to LES model development. In one example, the experimental data are used to distinguish between the efficacies of a one-equation eddy viscosity model versus a dynamic structure one-equation model for the sub-grid stresses. The second example addresses the effects of numerical intake-valve opening strategy and local mesh refinement in the valve curtain.
Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor
Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.
1998-01-01
A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.
An approximate Expression for Viscosity of Nanosuspensions
Domostroeva, N G
2009-01-01
We consider liquid suspensions with dispersed nanoparticles. Using two-points Pade approximants and combining results of both hydrodynamic and molecular dynamics methods, we obtain the effective viscosity for any diameters of nanoparticles
Sludge based Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides: viscosity impacts.
Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y
2005-08-01
Viscosity studies were performed on raw, pre-treated (sterilised and thermal alkaline hydrolysed or both types of treatment) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) fermented sludges at different solids concentration (10-40 g/L) for production of biopesticides. Correlations were established among rheological parameter (viscosity), solids (total and dissolved) concentration and entomotoxicity (Tx) of Bt fermented sludges. Exponential and power laws were preferentially followed by hydrolysed fermented compared to raw fermented sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand variation corroborated with increase in dissolved solids concentration on pre-treatments, contributing to changes in viscosity. Moreover, Tx was higher for hydrolysed fermented sludge in comparison to raw fermented sludge owing to increased availability of nutrients and lower viscosity that improved oxygen transfer. The shake flask results were reproducible in fermenter. This study will have major impact on selecting fermentation, harvesting and formulation techniques of Bt fermented sludges for biopesticide production.
Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity
Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; Moore, Joel E.
2017-06-01
In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.; Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.
2009-05-01
We present initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [2]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. As a test case, we apply the code to modeling flows in the HSX stellarator. Due to variations in the neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Keywords: Variable viscosity, Chemical Reaction, Viscous Dissipation, Finite difference method, Suction.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSE
Mahadevan, N.; Venkatesh, Sama; Suresh, B
1998-01-01
Dodonaea viscose, Linn is a widely grown plant of Nilgiris district of Tamil and is commonly used by the tribals of Nilgiris as a traditional medicine for done fracture and joint sprains. Since it is generally believed tat fractures are accompanied by either some degree of injury or inflammations, it was felt desirable to carry our anti inflammatory activity of Dodonaea viscose. Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant was carried out by carrageenin induced paw edema method in Wister albino rats.
Anti-inflammatory activity of dodonaea viscose.
Mahadevan, N; Venkatesh, S; Suresh, B
1998-10-01
Dodonaea viscose, Linn is a widely grown plant of Nilgiris district of Tamil and is commonly used by the tribals of Nilgiris as a traditional medicine for done fracture and joint sprains. Since it is generally believed tat fractures are accompanied by either some degree of injury or inflammations, it was felt desirable to carry our anti inflammatory activity of Dodonaea viscose. Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant was carried out by carrageenin induced paw edema method in Wister albino rats.
Viscosity anomaly in core-softened liquids
Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.
2013-01-01
The present article presents a molecular dynamics study of several anomalies of core-softened systems. It is well known that many core-softened liquids demonstrate diffusion anomaly. Usual intuition relates the diffusion coefficient to shear viscosity via Stockes-Einstein relation. However, it can break down at low temperature. In this respect it is important to see if viscosity also demonstrates anomalous behavior.
STUDY OF THE VISCOSITY OF PROTEIN SOLUTIONS THROUGH THE RAPID VISCOSITY ANALYZER (RVA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maura P. Alves
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine viscosity curves prepared from whey protein concentrates (WPCs by the rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA and determine the optimal heat treatment time in order to obtain the maximum viscosity solutions at this stage. The WPCs produced from whey samples initially subjected to thermal treatment and microfiltration presented composition compatible with the international standards, with a significant difference (p<0.05 for fat concentration. Viscographic profiles indicated that WPCs produced from microfiltered whey had higher viscosities than those subjected to heat treatment. In addition, 10 min was determined to be the optimal length of time for heat treatment in order to maximise WPCs viscosity. These results indicate that WPC production can be designed for different food applications. Finally, a rapid viscosity analyzer was demonstrated to be an appropriate tool to study the application of whey proteins in food systems.
Viscosity of mafic magmas at high pressures
Cochain, B.; Sanloup, C.; Leroy, C.; Kono, Y.
2017-01-01
While it is accepted that silica-rich melts behave anomalously with a decrease of their viscosity at increased pressures (P), the viscosity of silica-poor melts is much less constrained. However, modeling of mantle melts dynamics throughout Earth's history, including the magma ocean era, requires precise knowledge of the viscous properties of silica-poor magmas. We extend here our previous measurements on fayalite melt to natural end-members pyroxenite melts (MgSiO3 and CaSiO3) using in situ X-ray radiography up to 8 GPa. For all compositions, viscosity decreases with P, rapidly below 5 GPa and slowly above. The magnitude of the viscosity decrease is larger for pyroxene melts than for fayalite melt and larger for the Ca end-member within pyroxene melts. The anomalous viscosity decrease appears to be a universal behavior for magmas up to 13 GPa, while the P dependence of viscosity beyond this remains to be measured. These results imply that mantle melts are very pervasive at depth.
Turbulent fluxes by "Conditional Eddy Sampling"
Siebicke, Lukas
2015-04-01
Turbulent flux measurements are key to understanding ecosystem scale energy and matter exchange, including atmospheric trace gases. While the eddy covariance approach has evolved as an invaluable tool to quantify fluxes of e.g. CO2 and H2O continuously, it is limited to very few atmospheric constituents for which sufficiently fast analyzers exist. High instrument cost, lack of field-readiness or high power consumption (e.g. many recent laser-based systems requiring strong vacuum) further impair application to other tracers. Alternative micrometeorological approaches such as conditional sampling might overcome major limitations. Although the idea of eddy accumulation has already been proposed by Desjardin in 1972 (Desjardin, 1977), at the time it could not be realized for trace gases. Major simplifications by Businger and Oncley (1990) lead to it's widespread application as 'Relaxed Eddy Accumulation' (REA). However, those simplifications (flux gradient similarity with constant flow rate sampling irrespective of vertical wind velocity and introduction of a deadband around zero vertical wind velocity) have degraded eddy accumulation to an indirect method, introducing issues of scalar similarity and often lack of suitable scalar flux proxies. Here we present a real implementation of a true eddy accumulation system according to the original concept. Key to our approach, which we call 'Conditional Eddy Sampling' (CES), is the mathematical formulation of conditional sampling in it's true form of a direct eddy flux measurement paired with a performant real implementation. Dedicated hardware controlled by near-real-time software allows full signal recovery at 10 or 20 Hz, very fast valve switching, instant vertical wind velocity proportional flow rate control, virtually no deadband and adaptive power management. Demonstrated system performance often exceeds requirements for flux measurements by orders of magnitude. The system's exceptionally low power consumption is ideal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Rui Xin
2014-01-01
Two important nonlinear properties of seawater thermodynamics linked to changes of water density, cab-beling and elasticity (compressibility), are discussed. Eddy diffusion and advection lead to changes in den-sity;as a result, gravitational potential energy of the system is changed. Therefore, cabbeling and elasticity play key roles in the energetics of lateral eddy diffusion and advection. Vertical eddy diffusion is one of the key elements in the mechanical energy balance of the global oceans. Vertical eddy diffusion can be con-ceptually separated into two steps:stirring and subscale diffusion. Vertical eddy stirring pushes cold/dense water upward and warm/light water downward;thus, gravitational potential energy is increased. During the second steps, water masses from different places mix through subscale diffusion, and water density is increased due to cabbeling. Using WOA01 climatology and assuming the vertical eddy diffusivity is equal to a constant value of 2×103 Pa2/s, the total amount of gravitational potential energy increase due to vertical stirring in the world oceans is estimated at 263 GW. Cabbeling associated with vertical subscale diffusion is a sink of gravitational potential energy, and the total value of energy lost is estimated at 73 GW. Therefore, the net source of gravitational potential energy due to vertical eddy diffusion for the world oceans is estimated at 189 GW.
Eddy parameterization challenge suite I: Eady spindown
Bachman, S.; Fox-Kemper, B.
2013-04-01
The first set of results in a suite of eddy-resolving Boussinesq, hydrostatic simulations is presented. Each set member consists of an initially linear stratification and shear as in the Eady problem, but this profile occupies only a limited region of a channel and is allowed to spin-down via baroclinic instability. The diagnostic focus is on the spatial structure and scaling of the eddy transport tensor, which is the array of coefficients in a linear flux-gradient relationship. The advective (antisymmetric) and diffusive (symmetric) components of the tensor are diagnosed using passive tracers, and the resulting diagnosed tensor reproduces the horizontal transport of the active tracer (buoyancy) to within ± 7% and the vertical transport to within ± 12%. The derived scalings are shown to be close in form to the standard Gent-McWilliams (antisymmetric) and Redi diffusivity (symmetric) tensors with a magnitude that varies in space (concentrated in the horizontal and vertical near the center of the frontal shear) and time as the eddies energize. The Gent-McWilliams eddy coefficient is equal to the Redi isopycnal diffusivity to within ± 6%, even as these coefficients vary with depth. The scaling for the magnitude of simulation parameters is determined empirically to within ± 28%. To achieve this accuracy, the eddy velocities are diagnosed directly and used in the tensor scalings, rather than assuming a correlation between eddy velocity and the mean flow velocity where ± 97% is the best accuracy achievable. Plans for the next set of models in the challenge suite are described.
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, DR
2011-01-31
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
About Eddy Currents in Induction Melting Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gafiţa Nicolae-Bogdan
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a method forcomputing the eddy currents in induction meltingprocesses for non-ferrous alloys. We take intoconsideration the situation when only the crucible ismoving, inside the coils. This fact makes differentialcomputation methods to be hard to apply, because isnecessary to generate a new mesh and a new systemmatrix for every for every new position of the cruciblerelated to the coils. Integral methods cancel thisdrawback because the mesh is generated only for thedomains with eddy currents. For integral methods, themesh and the inductance matrix remain unchangedduring the movement of the crucible; only the free termsof the equation system will change.
Visualization and analysis of eddies in a global ocean simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Sean J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hecht, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Petersen, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Strelitz, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maltrud, Mathew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hlawitschka, Mario [UC DAVIS; Hamann, Bernd [UC DAVIS
2010-10-15
Eddies at a scale of approximately one hundred kilometers have been shown to be surprisingly important to understanding large-scale transport of heat and nutrients in the ocean. Due to difficulties in observing the ocean directly, the behavior of eddies below the surface is not very well understood. To fill this gap, we employ a high-resolution simulation of the ocean developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using large-scale parallel visualization and analysis tools, we produce three-dimensional images of ocean eddies, and also generate a census of eddy distribution and shape averaged over multiple simulation time steps, resulting in a world map of eddy characteristics. As expected from observational studies, our census reveals a higher concentration of eddies at the mid-latitudes than the equator. Our analysis further shows that mid-latitude eddies are thicker, within a range of 1000-2000m, while equatorial eddies are less than 100m thick.
Evolution of oceanic circulation theory：From gyres to eddies*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Rui-xin
2013-01-01
Physical oceanography is now entering the eddy-resolving era. Eddies are commonly referred to the so-called mesoscale or submesoscale eddies;by definition, they have horizontal scales from 1 to 500 km and vertical scales from meters to hundreds of meters. In one word, the ocean is a turbulent environment; thus, eddy motions are one of the fundamental aspects of oceanic circulation. Studies of these eddies, including observations, theory, laboratory experiments, and parameterization in numerical models, will be the most productive research frontiers for the next 10 to 20 years. Although we have made great efforts to collect data about eddies in the ocean; thus far, we know very little about the three-dimensional structure of these eddies and their contributions to the oceanic general circulation and climate. Therefore, the most important breakthrough may come from observations and physical reasoning about the fundament aspects of eddy structure and their contributions to ocean circulation and climate.
On the similarity of variable viscosity flows
Voivenel, L.; Danaila, L.; Varea, E.; Renou, B.; Cazalens, M.
2016-08-01
Turbulent mixing is ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. Most of them concern different fluids, therefore with variable physical properties (density and/or viscosity). The focus here is on variable viscosity flows and mixing, involving density-matched fluids. The issue is whether or not these flows may be self-similar, or self-preserving. The importance of this question stands on the predictability of these flows; self-similar dynamical systems are easier tractable from an analytical viewpoint. More specifically, self-similar analysis is applied to the scale-by-scale energy transport equations, which represent the transport of energy at each scale and each point of the flow. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are developed for inhomogeneous and anisotropic flows, in which the viscosity varies as a result of heterogeneous mixture or temperature variations. Additional terms are highlighted, accounting for the viscosity gradients, or fluctuations. These terms are present at both small and large scales, thus rectifying the common belief that viscosity is a small-scale quantity. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are then adapted for the particular case of a round jet evolving in a more viscous host fluid. It is further shown that the condition of self-preservation is not necessarily satisfied in variable-viscosity jets. Indeed, the jet momentum conservation, as well as the constancy of the Reynolds number in the central region of the jet, cannot be satisfied simultaneously. This points to the necessity of considering less stringent conditions (with respect to classical, single-fluid jets) when analytically tackling these flows and reinforces the idea that viscosity variations must be accounted for when modelling these flows.
Senocak, I.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Stevens, D. E.; Mansour, N. N.
2004-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a widely used technique in armospheric modeling research. In LES, large, unsteady, three dimensional structures are resolved and small structures that are not resolved on the computational grid are modeled. A filtering operation is applied to distinguish between resolved and unresolved scales. We present two near-surface models that have found use in atmospheric modeling. We also suggest a simpler eddy viscosity model that adopts Prandtl's mixing length model (Prandtl 1925) in the vicinity of the surface and blends with the dynamic Smagotinsky model (Germano et al, 1991) away from the surface. We evaluate the performance of these surface models by simulating a neutraly stratified atmospheric boundary layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bangga, Galih; Weihing, Pascal; Lutz, Thorsten; Krämer, Ewald [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)
2017-05-15
The present study focuses on the impact of grid for accurate prediction of the MEXICO rotor under stalled conditions. Two different blade mesh topologies, O and C-H meshes, and two different grid resolutions are tested for several time step sizes. The simulations are carried out using Delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) with two eddy viscosity RANS turbulence models, namely Spalart- Allmaras (SA) and Menter Shear stress transport (SST) k-ω. A high order spatial discretization, WENO (Weighted essentially non- oscillatory) scheme, is used in these computations. The results are validated against measurement data with regards to the sectional loads and the chordwise pressure distributions. The C-H mesh topology is observed to give the best results employing the SST k-ω turbulence model, but the computational cost is more expensive as the grid contains a wake block that increases the number of cells.
Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas
Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela
2010-05-01
Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where
2013-09-30
layer the eddy flux is significantly diabatic with a shallow eddy-induced (Lagrangian) circulation cell and down-gradient lateral diapycnal flux. These...3D Schematic representation of the eddy effects on the mean buoyancy field decomposed between adiabatic eddy-induced advection and diabatic ...plane). The diabatic component acts to smooth out surface buoyancy extrema and is shown as sinuous arrows in the top plane. Interior diabatic fluxes
Cycloidal meandering of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy
Kizner, Ziv; Shteinbuch-Fridman, Biana; Makarov, Viacheslav; Rabinovich, Michael
2017-08-01
By applying a theoretical approach, we propose a hypothetical scenario that might explain some features of the movement of a long-lived mesoscale anticyclone observed during 1990 in the Bay of Biscay [R. D. Pingree and B. Le Cann, "Three anticyclonic slope water oceanic eddies (SWODDIES) in the southern Bay of Biscay in 1990," Deep-Sea Res., Part A 39, 1147 (1992)]. In the remote-sensing infrared images, at the initial stage of observations, the anticyclone was accompanied by two cyclonic eddies, so the entire structure appeared as a tripole. However, at later stages, only the anticyclone was seen in the images, traveling generally west. Unusual for an individual eddy were the high speed of its motion (relative to the expected planetary beta-drift) and the presence of almost cycloidal meanders in its trajectory. Although surface satellites seem to have quickly disappeared, we hypothesize that subsurface satellites continued to exist, and the coherence of the three vortices persisted for a long time. A significant perturbation of the central symmetry in the mutual arrangement of three eddies constituting a tripole can make reasonably fast cycloidal drift possible. This hypothesis is tested with two-layer contour-dynamics f-plane simulations and with finite-difference beta-plane simulations. In the latter case, the interplay of the planetary beta-effect and that due to the sloping bottom is considered.
Intrathermocline eddies in the Southern Indian Ocean
Nauw, J.J.; van Aken, H.M.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.
2006-01-01
In 2001, two relatively saline intrathermocline eddies (ITEs) were observed southeast of Madagascar at 200 m depth. They are characterized by a subsurface salinity maximum of over 35.8 at potential temperatures between 18 and 22 C. The oxygen concentrations within the high salinity cores are slightl
Inverse modeling for Large-Eddy simulation
Geurts, Bernardus J.
1998-01-01
Approximate higher order polynomial inversion of the top-hat filter is developed with which the turbulent stress tensor in Large-Eddy Simulation can be consistently represented using the filtered field. Generalized (mixed) similarity models are proposed which improved the agreement with the kinetic
Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roualt, M
2016-10-01
Full Text Available )C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of 960 twice daily instantaneous charts of equivalent stability neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with SST during the lifespan of six warm eddies show stronger...
Methane fluxes above the Hainich forest by True Eddy Accumulation and Eddy Covariance
Siebicke, Lukas; Gentsch, Lydia; Knohl, Alexander
2016-04-01
Understanding the role of forests for the global methane cycle requires quantifying vegetation-atmosphere exchange of methane, however observations of turbulent methane fluxes remain scarce. Here we measured turbulent fluxes of methane (CH4) above a beech-dominated old-growth forest in the Hainich National Park, Germany, and validated three different measurement approaches: True Eddy Accumulation (TEA, closed-path laser spectroscopy), and eddy covariance (EC, open-path and closed-path laser spectroscopy, respectively). The Hainich flux tower is a long-term Fluxnet and ICOS site with turbulent fluxes and ecosystem observations spanning more than 15 years. The current study is likely the first application of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) for the measurement of turbulent exchange of methane and one of the very few studies comparing open-path and closed-path eddy covariance (EC) setups side-by-side. We observed uptake of methane by the forest during the day (a methane sink with a maximum rate of 0.03 μmol m-2 s-1 at noon) and no or small fluxes of methane from the forest to the atmosphere at night (a methane source of typically less than 0.01 μmol m-2 s-1) based on continuous True Eddy Accumulation measurements in September 2015. First results comparing TEA to EC CO2 fluxes suggest that True Eddy Accumulation is a valid option for turbulent flux quantifications using slow response gas analysers (here CRDS laser spectroscopy, other potential techniques include mass spectroscopy). The TEA system was one order of magnitude more energy efficient compared to closed-path eddy covariance. The open-path eddy covariance setup required the least amount of user interaction but is often constrained by low signal-to-noise ratios obtained when measuring methane fluxes over forests. Closed-path eddy covariance showed good signal-to-noise ratios in the lab, however in the field it required significant amounts of user intervention in addition to a high power consumption. We conclude
Viscosity of confined inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids.
Zhang, Junfang; Todd, B D; Travis, Karl P
2004-12-01
We use the nonlocal linear hydrodynamic constitutive model, proposed by Evans and Morriss [Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids (Academic, London, 1990)], for computing an effective spatially dependent shear viscosity of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids. The model is applied to a simple atomic fluid undergoing planar Poiseuille flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width. We compare the spatially dependent viscosity with a local generalization of Newton's law of viscosity and the Navier-Stokes viscosity, both of which are known to suffer extreme inaccuracies for highly inhomogeneous systems. The nonlocal constitutive model calculates effective position dependent viscosities that are free from the notorious singularities experienced by applying the commonly used local constitutive model. It is simple, general, and has widespread applicability in nanofluidics where experimental measurement of position dependent transport coefficients is currently inaccessible. In principle the method can be used to predict approximate flow profiles of any arbitrary inhomogeneous system. We demonstrate this by predicting the flow profile for a simple fluid undergoing planar Couette flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width.
Viscosity and electric properties of water aerosols
Shavlov, A. V.; Sokolov, I. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.
2016-09-01
The flow of water mist in a narrow duct has been studied experimentally. The profile of the velocity of drops has been measured, and the viscosity of the mist has been calculated using the Navier-Stokes equation. It has been found that at low gradients of the rate of shear the viscosity of the mist can exceed that of clean air by tens and even hundreds of times. The electric charge of the drops has been measured. It has been found that the viscosity of the mist differs from that of clean air at gradients of the rate of shear that are less than the frequency of the establishment of electric equilibrium between the drops. A comparative analysis of the viscosities of the mist and a drop cluster has been carried out, and the dependence of the viscosity of the water aerosol on the radius and the charge of the drops has been predicted. The possible role of aerosols that contain submicron drops in the known "clear air turbulence" problem has been shown.
Viscosity model for fully liquid silicate melt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Guo-Hua
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A model for estimating the viscosity of silicate melt as derived in our previous paper is extended to the system containing MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O, which can express the nonlinear variation of activation energy of viscosity with the composition. It is found that the optimized parameters of model which characterize the deforming ability of bonds around non-bridging oxygen decrease with increasing the bond strength of M-O bond expressed by I=2Q/RMz+ + rO2-2 (where Q is the valence of cation M; r is the radius. It is pointed out that viscosity is not only determined by the bond strength, but also by the radius of cation which is defined as the size effect. The radius of cation plays paradox roles in the two factors: smaller radius leads to a stronger bond, thus a higher viscosity; while cations with smaller radius are easier to diffuse when neglecting the interaction force, thus a lower viscosity will be.
High temperature viscosity measurement system and viscosity of a common dielectric liquid
Tuncer, Enis
2013-01-01
A device to measure viscosity of dielectric oils was developed. The device is an inset to an autoclave system where the temperature and the pressure could be controlled. The device is capable of measuring viscosities up to 400C and 5000psi, which are the limits of our autoclave at the moment.
A modified method to estimate eddy diffusivity in the North Pacific using altimeter eddy statistics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zhiwei; LI Yaru; TIAN Jiwei
2013-01-01
The method proposed by Stammer (1998) is modified using eddy statistics from altimeter observation to obtain more realistic eddy diffusivity (K) for the North Pacific.Compared with original estimates,the modified K has remarkably reduced values in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) and North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) regions,but slightly enhanced values in the Subtropical Counter Current (STCC) region.In strong eastward flow areas like the KE and NECC,owing to a large difference between mean flow velocity and propagation velocity of mesoscale eddies,tracers inside the mesoscale eddies are transported outside rapidly by advection,and mixing length L is hence strongly suppressed.The low eddy probability (P) is also responsible for the reduced K in the NECC area.In the STCC region,however,L is mildly suppressed and P is very high,so K there is enhanced.The zonally-averaged K has two peaks with comparable magnitudes,in the latitude bands of the STCC and KE.In the core of KE,because of the reduced values of P and L,the zonally-averaged K is a minimum.Zonally-integrated eddy heat transport in the KE band,calculated based on the modified K,is much closer to the results of previous independent research,indicating the robustness of our modified K.The map of modified K provides useful information for modeling studies in the North Pacific.
Obituary: John Allen Eddy (1931-2009)
Gingerich, Owen
2011-12-01
Jack Eddy, who was born 25 March 1931 in Pawnee City in southeastern Nebraska, died after a long battle with cancer in Tucson, Arizona, on 10 June 2009. Best known for his work on the long-term instability of the sun, described in a landmark paper in Science titled "The Maunder Minimum," he also deserves recognition as one of the triumvirate who founded the Historical Astronomy Division of the AAS. His father ran a cooperative farm store where Jack worked as a teenager; his parents were of modest means and there were concerns whether he could afford college, but one of the state senators, also from Pawnee City, nominated him for the U.S. Naval Academy. A course in celestial navigation gave him a love of the sky. After graduation in 1953, he served four years on aircraft carriers in the Pacific during the Korean War and then as a navigator and operations officer on a destroyer in the Persian Gulf. In 1957, he left the Navy and entered graduate school at the University of Colorado in Boulder, where in 1962 he received a Ph.D. in astro-geophysics. His thesis, supervised by Gordon Newkirk, dealt with light scattering in the upper atmosphere, based on data from stratospheric balloon flights. He then worked as teacher and researcher at the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder. Always adventuresome and willing to explore new frontiers, on his own time Eddy examined an Amerindian stone circle in the Big Horn mountains of Wyoming, a so-called medicine wheel, concluding that there were alignments with both the solstitial sun and Aldebaran. His conjectures became a cover story on Science magazine in June of 1974. In 1971 Jack privately reproduced for his friends a small collection of his own hilarious cartoons titled "Job Opportunities for Out-of-work Astronomers," with an abstract beginning, "Contrary to popular belief, a PhD in Astronomy/Astrophysics need not be a drawback in locating work in this decade." For example, under merchandising, a used car salesman advertises
Viscosity near Earth's solid inner core
Smylie
1999-04-16
Anomalous splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of oscillation of Earth's solid inner core is used to estimate the effective viscosity just outside its boundary. Superconducting gravimeter observations give periods of 3.5822 +/- 0.0012 (retrograde) and 4.0150 +/- 0.0010 (prograde) hours. With the use of Ekman layer theory to estimate viscous drag forces, an inferred single viscosity of 1.22 x 10(11) Pascal seconds gives calculated periods of 3.5839 and 4.0167 hours for the two modes, close to the observed values. The large effective viscosity is consistent with a fluid, solid-liquid mixture surrounding the inner core associated with the "compositional convection" that drives Earth's geodynamo.
Viscosity jump in Earth's mid-mantle.
Rudolph, Maxwell L; Lekić, Vedran; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina
2015-12-11
The viscosity structure of Earth's deep mantle affects the thermal evolution of Earth, the ascent of mantle plumes, settling of subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the mixing of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle. Based on a reanalysis of the long-wavelength nonhydrostatic geoid, we infer viscous layering of the mantle using a method that allows us to avoid a priori assumptions about its variation with depth. We detect an increase in viscosity at 800- to 1200-kilometers depth, far greater than the depth of the mineral phase transformations that define the mantle transition zone. The viscosity increase is coincident in depth with regions where seismic tomography has imaged slab stagnation, plume deflection, and changes in large-scale structure and offers a simple explanation of these phenomena.
Relativistic r-modes and shear viscosity
Gualtieri, L; Miralles, J A; Ferrari, V
2006-01-01
We derive the relativistic equations for stellar perturbations, including in a consistent way shear viscosity in the stress-energy tensor, and we numerically integrate our equations in the case of large viscosity. We consider the slow rotation approximation, and we neglect the coupling between polar and axial perturbations. In our approach, the frequency and damping time of the emitted gravitational radiation are directly obtained. We find that, approaching the inviscid limit from the finite viscosity case, the continuous spectrum is regularized. Constant density stars, polytropic stars, and stars with realistic equations of state are considered. In the case of constant density stars and polytropic stars, our results for the viscous damping times agree, within a factor two, with the usual estimates obtained by using the eigenfunctions of the inviscid limit. For realistic neutron stars, our numerical results give viscous damping times with the same dependence on mass and radius as previously estimated, but sys...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Ye [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thornber, Ben [The Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
2016-04-12
Here, the implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) has been utilized as an effective approach for calculating many complex flows at high Reynolds number flows. Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) induced flow can be viewed as a homogeneous decaying turbulence (HDT) after the passage of the shock. In this article, a critical evaluation of three methods for estimating the effective Reynolds number and the effective kinematic viscosity is undertaken utilizing high-resolution ILES data. Effective Reynolds numbers based on the vorticity and dissipation rate, or the integral and inner-viscous length scales, are found to be the most self-consistent when compared to the expected phenomenology and wind tunnel experiments.
Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ban, Heng [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-02-09
Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.
Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements
Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing
1992-01-01
A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.
Shear Viscosity of a Unitary Fermi Gas
Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E.
2012-01-01
We present the first ab initio determination of the shear viscosity eta of the Unitary Fermi Gas, based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism. We determine the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. The minimum of eta/s appears to be located above the critical temperature for the superfluid-to-normal phase transition with the most probable value being eta/s approx 0.2 hbar/kB, which almost saturates...
Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas
Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2007-01-01
The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio \\eta/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg-> gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic ggggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For \\alpha_s=0.3 we find \\eta/s=0.13 and for \\alpha_s=0.6, \\eta/s=0.076. The small \\eta/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrah...
Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2011-05-01
A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szuszkiewicz, E. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Astrophysik)
1990-05-15
The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim discs. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard {alpha}-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic black hole candidates and LMXBs. We show here that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations. (author).
Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure
Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini
1987-01-01
Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.
Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)
2004-12-01
The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)
A new gauge-invariant method for diagnosing eddy diffusivities
Mak, Julian; Marshall, David P
2015-01-01
Coarse resolution numerical ocean models must typically include a parameterisation for mesoscale turbulence. A common recipe for such parameterisations is to invoke down-gradient mixing, or diffusion, of some tracer quantity, such as potential vorticity or buoyancy. However, it is well known that eddy fluxes include large rotational components which necessarily do not lead to any mixing; eddy diffusivities diagnosed from unfiltered fluxes are thus contaminated by the presence of these rotational components. Here a new methodology is applied whereby eddy diffusivities are diagnosed directly from the eddy force function. The eddy force function depends only upon flux divergences, is independent of any rotational flux components, and is inherently non-local and smooth. A one-shot inversion procedure is applied, minimising the mis-match between parameterised force functions and force functions derived from eddy resolving calculations. This enables diffusivities associated with the eddy potential vorticity and buo...
Biogeochemical properties of eddies in the California Current System
Chenillat, Fanny; Franks, Peter J. S.; Combes, Vincent
2016-06-01
The California Current System (CCS) has intense mesoscale activity that modulates and exports biological production from the coastal upwelling system. To characterize and quantify the ability of mesoscale eddies to affect the local and regional planktonic ecosystem of the CCS, we analyzed a 10 year-long physical-biological model simulation, using eddy detection and tracking to isolate the dynamics of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. As they propagate westward across the shelf, cyclonic eddies efficiently transport coastal planktonic organisms and maintain locally elevated production for up to 1 year (800 km offshore). Anticyclonic eddies, on the other hand, have a limited impact on local production over their ~6 month lifetime as they propagate 400 km offshore. At any given time ~8% of the model domain was covered by eddy cores. Though the eddies cover a small area, they explain ~50 and 20% of the transport of nitrate and plankton, respectively.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
SOME ASPECTS OF THE REACTIVITY OF PULP INTENDED FOR HIGH-VISCOSITY VISCOSE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linda Ostberg,
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to reduce the consumption of C2S when preparing high-viscosity viscose by pre-treating two softwood pulps with enzymes prior to the viscose stages. Reactivity was evaluated in two ways, Fock´s test of the pulp and the gamma number of the viscose solution prior to regeneration. Whilst the reactivity of a pulp that had been subjected to enzyme pretreatment increased according to Fock´s test, it did not increase according to the gamma number. This unexpected difference between the two reactivity tests was investigated. It was concluded that Fock´s test measures the extent to which C2S reacts with a pulp sample during a standardized test, whereas the gamma number measures the resulting degree of xanthate substitution on the cellulose backbone. The gamma number was judged to be the more relevant of the two tests, since it reflects the dissolution ability of a pulp in the viscose preparation. A higher gamma number also means that the coagulation time in the spinning process is prolonged; this is beneficial, as it can be used to increase the tenacity of the viscose fibres. Measuring the reactivity according to Fock´s test, on the contrary, provides more dubious results, as the test has no undisputed correlation to the viscose preparation process.
Tan, Carlos Antonio R.; Capuno, Joseph J.
2012-01-01
The treatment of drinking water is advocated to reduce the incidence of child diarrhea. However, evaluating the impact of water treatment with only observational data leads to biased estimates since it could be the occurrence of child diarrhea that induced the household to treat their drinking water. To deal with the possible simultaneity between the treatment of drinking water and the incidence of child diarrhea, we specify non-recursive two-equation causal models and apply it on a sub-sampl...
Sensor for Viscosity and Shear Strength Measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dillon, J.; Moore, J.E. Jr.; Ebadian, M.A.; Jones, W.K.
1998-10-20
Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. The work for this project will be performed in three phases. The first phase, carried out in FY96, involved (1) an evaluation of acoustic and other methods for viscosity measurement; (2) measurement of the parameters of slurries over the range of percent solids found in tanks and transport systems; (3) a comparison of physical properties (e.g., viscosity and density) to percent solids found composition; and (4) the design of a prototype sensor. The second phase (FY97) will involve the fabrication of a prototype hybrid sensor to measure the viscosity and mechanical properties of slurries in remote, high-radiation environments. Two different viscometer designs are being investigated in this study: a magnetostrictive pulse wave guide viscometer; an oscillating cylinder viscometer. In FY97, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), which has printed circuit, thick film, thin film, and co-fired ceramic fabrication capability, will fabricate five probes for demonstration after technology selection and evaluation.
Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2006-01-01
The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...
Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2006-01-01
The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational viscos...
Viscose and Terylene Market Witnesses Positive Activity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hua xiaowei; Guoyun
2010-01-01
@@ Viscose and terylene staple fiber market is very hot as prices rise this year. The main reason for the positive market activity is that cotton prices hay increased rapidly. But, there is a worry that the appreciation of the yuan, to gether with the rate hike will squeeze profit margins of the industry.
Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants
Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...
Commensurability Effects in Viscosity of Nanoconfined Water.
Neek-Amal, Mehdi; Peeters, Francois M; Grigorieva, Irina V; Geim, Andre K
2016-03-22
The rate of water flow through hydrophobic nanocapillaries is greatly enhanced as compared to that expected from macroscopic hydrodynamics. This phenomenon is usually described in terms of a relatively large slip length, which is in turn defined by such microscopic properties as the friction between water and capillary surfaces and the viscosity of water. We show that the viscosity of water and, therefore, its flow rate are profoundly affected by the layered structure of confined water if the capillary size becomes less than 2 nm. To this end, we study the structure and dynamics of water confined between two parallel graphene layers using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the shear viscosity is not only greatly enhanced for subnanometer capillaries, but also exhibits large oscillations that originate from commensurability between the capillary size and the size of water molecules. Such oscillating behavior of viscosity and, consequently, the slip length should be taken into account in designing and studying graphene-based and similar membranes for desalination and filtration.
Viscosity in accretion discs. [for binary stars
Katz, J. I.
1980-01-01
Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.
Viscosity-dependent Janus particle chain dynamics.
Ren, Bin; Kretzschmar, Ilona
2013-12-03
Iron oxide (Fe3O4) Janus particles assemble into staggered chains parallel to the field lines in an ac electric field. Subsequent application of an external magnetic field leads to contraction of the staggered chains into double chains. The relation between the viscosity of the surrounding solution and the contraction rate of the iron oxide Janus particle chains is studied. Further, the influence of particle size and chain length (i.e., number of particles in chain) on the contraction rate is investigated. The base material for the Janus structure is silica (SiO2) with particle sizes of 1, 2, and 4 μm, and the cap material is Fe3O4. Addition of increasing amounts of glycerol to the aqueous system reveals that the contraction dynamics strongly correlate with the viscosity of the solution. The average chain contraction rate for each particle size can be fitted in the low viscosity range from 1 to 30 mPa·s with a power function of the form A/μ(0.9) - B/μ, in which the coefficients A and B are particle size, electric field, and magnetic-field-dependent constants. Using this function, the viscosity of an unknown solution can be determined, thereby pointing to the potential application of these Janus particle chain assemblies as in situ microviscometers.
Shear Viscosity of Turbulent Chiral Plasma
Kumar, Avdhesh; Das, Amita; Kaw, P K
2016-01-01
It is well known that the difference between the chemical potentials of left-handed and right-handed particles in a parity violating (chiral) plasma can lead to an instability. We show that the chiral instability may drive turbulent transport. Further we estimate the anomalous viscosity of chiral plasma arising from the enhanced collisionality due to turbulence.
Bulk viscosity effects on ultrasonic thermoacoustic instability
Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus
2016-11-01
We have carried out unstructured fully-compressible Navier-Stokes simulations of a minimal-unit traveling-wave ultrasonic thermoacoustic device in looped configuration. The model comprises a thermoacoustic stack with 85% porosity and a tapered area change to suppress the fundamental standing-wave mode. A bulk viscosity model, which accounts for vibrational and rotational molecular relaxation effects, is derived and implemented via direct modification of the viscous stress tensor, τij ≡ 2 μSij +λ/2 μ ∂uk/∂xk δij , where the bulk viscosity is defined by μb ≡ λ +2/3 μ . The effective bulk viscosity coefficient accurately captures acoustic absorption from low to high ultrasonic frequencies and matches experimental wave attenuation rates across five decades. Using pressure-based similitude, the model was downscaled from total length L = 2 . 58 m to 0 . 0258 m, corresponding to the frequency range f = 242 - 24200 Hz, revealing the effects of bulk viscosity and direct modification of the thermodynamic pressure. Simulations are carried out to limit cycle and exhibit growth rates consistent with linear stability analyses, based on Rott's theory.
Effect of Viscosity on Liquid Curtain Stability
Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Francis, Lorraine; Carvalho, Marcio; Dow Chemical Company Collaboration; PUC Rio Collaboration; University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Collaboration
2016-11-01
The effect of viscosity on the stability of Newtonian liquid curtains was explored by high-speed visualization. Glycerol/water solutions with viscosity ranging from 19.1 to 210 mPa.s were used as coating liquids. The experimental set-up used a slide die delivery and steel tube edge guides. The velocity along curtain at different positions was measured by tracking small particles at different flow conditions. The measurements revealed that away from edge guides, velocity is well described by free fall effect. However, close to edge guides, liquid moves slower, revealing formation of a viscous boundary layer. The size of boundary layer and velocity near edge guides are strong function of viscosity. The critical condition was determined by examining flow rate below which curtain broke. Curtain failure was initiated by growth of a hole within liquid curtain, close to edge guides. Visualization results showed that the hole forms in a circular shape then becomes elliptical as it grows faster in vertical direction compared to horizontal direction. As viscosity rises, minimum flow rate for destabilization of curtain increased, indicating connection between interaction with edge guides and curtain stability. We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Dow Chemical Company.
Constraints on Crustal Viscosity from Geodetic Observations
Houseman, Gregory
2015-04-01
Laboratory measurements of the ductile deformation of crustal rocks demonstrate a range of crystal deformation mechanisms that may be represented by a viscous deformation law, albeit one in which the effective viscosity may vary by orders of magnitude, depending on temperature, stress, grain size, water content and other factors. In such measurements these factors can be separately controlled and effective viscosities can be estimated more or less accurately, though the measured deformation occurs on much shorter time scales and length scales than are typical of geological deformation. To obtain bulk measures of the in situ crustal viscosity law for actual geological processes, estimated stress differences are balanced against measured surface displacement or strain rates: at the continental scale, surface displacement and strain rates can be effectively measured using GPS, and stress differences can be estimated from the distribution of gravitational potential energy; this method has provided constraints on a depth-averaged effective viscosity for the lithosphere as a whole in regions that are actively deforming. Another technique measures the post-seismic displacements that are interpreted to occur in the aftermath of a large crustal earthquake. Stress-differences here are basically constrained by the co-seismic deformation and the elastic rigidity (obtained from seismic velocity) and the strain rates are again provided by GPS. In this technique the strain is a strong function of position relative to the fault, so in general the interpretation of this type of data depends on a complex calculation in which various simplifying assumptions must be made. The spatial variation of displacement history on the surface in this case contains information about the spatial variation of viscosity within the crust. Recent post-seismic studies have shown the potential for obtaining measurements of both depth variation and lateral variation of viscosity in the crust beneath
Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies.
Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Bo
2014-07-18
Oceanic transports of heat, salt, fresh water, dissolved CO2, and other tracers regulate global climate change and the distribution of natural marine resources. The time-mean ocean circulation transports fluid as a conveyor belt, but fluid parcels can also be trapped and transported discretely by migrating mesoscale eddies. By combining available satellite altimetry and Argo profiling float data, we showed that the eddy-induced zonal mass transport can reach a total meridionally integrated value of up to 30 to 40 sverdrups (Sv) (1 Sv = 10(6) cubic meters per second), and it occurs mainly in subtropical regions, where the background flows are weak. This transport is comparable in magnitude to that of the large-scale wind- and thermohaline-driven circulation.
Eddy diffusivities of inertial particles under gravity
Afonso, Marco Martins; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo
2011-01-01
The large-scale/long-time transport of inertial particles of arbitrary mass density under gravity is investigated by means of a formal multiple-scale perturbative expansion in the scale-separation parametre between the carrier flow and the particle concentration field. The resulting large-scale equation for the particle concentration is determined, and is found to be diffusive with a positive-definite eddy diffusivity. The calculation of the latter tensor is reduced to the resolution of an auxiliary differential problem, consisting of a coupled set of two differential equations in a (6+1)-dimensional coordinate system (3 space coordinates plus 3 velocity coordinates plus time). Although expensive, numerical methods can be exploited to obtain the eddy diffusivity, for any desirable non-perturbative limit (e.g. arbitrary Stokes and Froude numbers). The aforementioned large-scale equation is then specialized to deal with two different relevant perturbative limits: i) vanishing of both Stokes time and sedimenting...
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion
2006-03-15
Application to an HCCI Engine . Proceedings of the 4th Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, 2005. [34] K. Fieweger...LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT COMBUSTION Principle Investigator: Heinz Pitsch Flow Physics and Computation Department of Mechanical Engineering ...burners and engines found in modern, industrially relevant equipment. In the course of this transition of LES from a scientifically interesting method
HYCOM High-resolution Eddying Simulations
2014-07-01
number of vertical profiles of temperature and salinity in place of XBT temperature profiles. The reanalysis was completed in February 2014. As noted...10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.011. Metzger, E. J., and Coauthors, 2014a: US Navy operational global ocean and Arctic ice prediction systems. Oceanography...has collaborated on developing and demonstrating the performance and application of eddy-resolving, real-time global and basin-scale ocean prediction
Anisotropic Mesoscale Eddy Transport in Ocean General Circulation Models
Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Bachman, S.; Bryan, F.; Dennis, J.; Danabasoglu, G.
2014-12-01
Modern climate models are limited to coarse-resolution representations of large-scale ocean circulation that rely on parameterizations for mesoscale eddies. The effects of eddies are typically introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. Thus, only a single parameter, namely the eddy diffusivity, is used at each spatial and temporal location to impart the influence of mesoscale eddies on the resolved flow. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, potential vorticity barriers, oceanic turbulence, and instabilities, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters to three: a major diffusivity, a minor diffusivity, and the principal axis of alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the newly introduced parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces global temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved even further by parameterizing the anisotropic transport mechanisms in the ocean.
Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers
Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru
1995-04-01
Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as a type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature.
Large eddy simulation of a shocked gas cylinder instability induced turbulence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations for compressible fluid are solved with the operator splitting technique and LES (large eddy simulation) with the Smagorinsky model. A computational code MVFT (multi-viscosity-fluid and turbulence) is developed to study hydrodynamic instability and the induced turbulent mixing for multi compressible fluid. In order to validate the code MVFT,the LANL’s shock tube experiment of shocked SF6 gas cylinder is simulated with the initial state of SF6 gas cylinder described by dissipative ITL (interface transition layer). It is shown that the width and height of gas cylinder calculated with MVFT are closer to the experimental results than RAGE,and that the velocities of upstream edge,downstream edge and vortex edge agree with the experimental results,and are appreciably smaller than the RAGE results. The code MVFT has been pre-liminarily validated.
Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.
Zhou, Ye; Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Haines, Brian M
2014-01-01
In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest.
Cummins 903, Low Viscosity Synthetic Oil Test
2012-04-17
test cell 5. Test cell 5 is located in building 212 at U.S. Army TARDEC in Warren MI. Power was absorbed from the Cummins engine with one eddy current ...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...26 Figure 13: 0hr Engine Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, JP-8, 77F Air, 86F Fuel .................... 27 Figure 14: 0hr Engine Brake Specific Fuel
Why Eddy Momentum Fluxes are Concentrated in the Upper Troposphere
Ait-Chaalal, Farid
2015-01-01
The extratropical eddy momentum flux (EMF) is controlled by generation, propagation, and dissipation of large-scale eddies and is concentrated in Earth's upper troposphere. An idealized GCM is used to investigate how this EMF structure arises. In simulations in which the poles are heated more strongly than the equator, EMF is concentrated near the surface, demonstrating that surface drag generally is not responsible for the upper-tropospheric EMF concentration. Although Earth's upper troposphere favors linear wave propagation, quasi-linear simulations in which nonlinear eddy-eddy interactions are suppressed demonstrate that this is likewise not primarily responsible for the upper-tropospheric EMF concentration. The quasi-linear simulations reveal the essential role of nonlinear eddy-eddy interactions in the surf zone in the upper troposphere, where wave activity absorption away from the baroclinic generation regions occurs through the nonlinear generation of small scales. In Earth-like atmospheres, wave activ...
Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Nishizawa
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We examine the influence of the grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing on turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL in a large-eddy simulation (LES. In order to clarify and distinguish them from other artificial effects caused by numerical schemes, we used a fully compressible meteorological LES model with a fully explicit scheme of temporal integration. The influences are investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with parameter sweeps of spatial resolution and grid aspect ratio. We confirmed that the mixing length of the eddy viscosity and diffusion due to sub-grid-scale turbulence plays an essential role in reproducing the theoretical −5/3 slope of the energy spectrum. If we define the filter length in LES modeling based on consideration of the numerical scheme, and introduce a corrective factor for the grid aspect ratio into the mixing length, the theoretical slope of the energy spectrum can be obtained; otherwise, spurious energy piling appears at high wave numbers. We also found that the grid aspect ratio has influence on the turbulent statistics, especially the skewness of the vertical velocity near the top of the PBL, which becomes spuriously large with large aspect ratio, even if a reasonable spectrum is obtained.
Tran, Steven; Sahni, Onkar; RPI Team
2015-11-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) provide high fidelity in which the large-scale turbulent structures are resolved while their interactions with the subgrid scales are modeled. In a Smagorinsky-based LES approach, the unresolved stresses are modeled using an eddy viscosity which in-turn involves a model parameter that is unknown a priori and varies in space and time for complex problems. Therefore, dynamic procedures are employed to determine this parameter where averaging is applied to make the procedure robust. When applicable, spatial averaging is applied across homogeneous directions. However, for complex flows the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model employing averaging over pathlines becomes attractive. In contrast to the dynamic Smagorinsky model, variational multiscale (VMS) models have also been developed for LES. In this study, we investigate dynamic mixed models for LES based on the combinations of the Lagrangian subgrid-scale model and the residual-based VMS (RBVMS) approach to study complex, inhomogeneous turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. Applications range from flow through a channel to flow over an airfoil at a moderate angle of attack. Experimental and DNS data are used to make comparisons.
Subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows
Silvis, Maurits; Trias, Xavier; Abkar, Mahdi; Bae, Hyunji Jane; Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Verstappen, Roel
2016-11-01
This paper discusses subgrid models for large-eddy simulation of anisotropic flows using anisotropic grids. In particular, we are looking into ways to model not only the subgrid dissipation, but also transport processes, since these are expected to play an important role in rotating turbulent flows. We therefore consider subgrid-scale models of the form τ = - 2νt S +μt (SΩ - ΩS) , where the eddy-viscosity νt is given by the minimum-dissipation model, μt represents a transport coefficient; S is the symmetric part of the velocity gradient and Ω the skew-symmetric part. To incorporate the effect of mesh anisotropy the filter length is taken in such a way that it minimizes the difference between the turbulent stress in physical and computational space, where the physical space is covered by an anisotropic mesh and the computational space is isotropic. The resulting model is successfully tested for rotating homogeneous isotropic turbulence and rotating plane-channel flows. The research was largely carried out during the CTR SP 2016. M.S, and R.V. acknowledge the financial support to attend this Summer Program.
Large Eddy Simulation of Dilute Sediment Suspension in an Open Channel Flow
Agegnehu, Getnet; Smith, Heather D.
2012-11-01
Flow and suspended sediment transport in fully developed turbulent open channel flow has been investigated using Large Eddy Simulation. We used a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM for this study. Pre-evaluation of three existing turbulence closure schemes is performed by comparing the mean flow and turbulent quantities with the direct numerical simulation results of Moser et al. (1999). It is found that the Dynamic Mixed Smagorinsky model underestimates the wall shear stress compared to the Dynamic Smagorinsky and one equation Eddy Viscosity schemes. Moreover, the Dynamic Smagorinsky scheme gives relatively better results in both the mean and turbulent quantities. The advection-diffusion equation is solved for suspended sediment transport and the effect of sediment roughness is included in the momentum equation based on the rough wall formulation proposed by Cebeci and Bradshaw (1977). A pick up function based on van Rijn (1984) is used to determine the sediment erosion. The settling process is taken into account with a settling velocity appearing in the concentration equation. Sediment and flow quantities are validated by comparing with the experimental data of Lyn (1988). The coupled hydrodynamics results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
A dynamic wall model for Large-Eddy simulations of wind turbine dedicated airfoils
J, Calafell; O, Lehmkuhl; A, Carmona; D, Pérez-Segarra C.; A, Oliva
2014-06-01
This work aims at modelling the flow behavior past a wind turbine dedicated airfoil at high Reynolds number and large angle of attack (AoA). The DU-93-W-210 airfoil has been selected. To do this, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed. Momentum equations have been solved with a parallel unstructured symmetry preserving formulation while the wall-adapting local-eddy viscosity model within a variational multi-scale framework (VMS- WALE) is used as the subgrid-scales model. Since LES calculations are still very expensive at high Reynolds Number, specially at the near-wall region, a dynamic wall model has been implemented in order to overcome this limitation. The model has been validated with a very unresolved Channel Flow case at Reτ = 2000. Afterwards, the model is also tested with the Ahmed Car case, that from the flow physics point of view is more similar to an stalled airfoil than the Channel Flow is, including flow features as boundary layer detachment and recirculations. This case has been selected because experimental results of mean velocity profiles are available. Finally, a flow around a DU-93-W-210 airfoil is computed at Re = 3 x 106 and with an AoA of 15°. Numerical results are presented in comparison with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or experimental data for all cases.
Silvis, Maurits H.; Remmerswaal, Ronald A.; Verstappen, Roel
2017-01-01
We study the construction of subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent flows. In particular, we aim to consolidate a systematic approach of constructing subgrid-scale models, based on the idea that it is desirable that subgrid-scale models are consistent with the mathematical and physical properties of the Navier-Stokes equations and the turbulent stresses. To that end, we first discuss in detail the symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, and the near-wall scaling behavior, realizability and dissipation properties of the turbulent stresses. We furthermore summarize the requirements that subgrid-scale models have to satisfy in order to preserve these important mathematical and physical properties. In this fashion, a framework of model constraints arises that we apply to analyze the behavior of a number of existing subgrid-scale models that are based on the local velocity gradient. We show that these subgrid-scale models do not satisfy all the desired properties, after which we explain that this is partly due to incompatibilities between model constraints and limitations of velocity-gradient-based subgrid-scale models. However, we also reason that the current framework shows that there is room for improvement in the properties and, hence, the behavior of existing subgrid-scale models. We furthermore show how compatible model constraints can be combined to construct new subgrid-scale models that have desirable properties built into them. We provide a few examples of such new models, of which a new model of eddy viscosity type, that is based on the vortex stretching magnitude, is successfully tested in large-eddy simulations of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence and turbulent plane-channel flow.
Plasma Viscosity with Mass Transport in Spherical ICF Implosion Simulations
Vold, Erik L; Ortega, Mario I; Moll, Ryan; Fenn, Daniel; Molvig, Kim
2015-01-01
The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrange hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduc...
Mechanism of viscosity effect on magnetic island rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Konovalov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V.D. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tsypin, V.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, SP (Brazil)
2000-04-01
It is shown that plasma viscosity does not influence the magnetic island rotation directly. Nevertheless, it leads to nonstationarity of the plasma velocity. This nonstationarity is the reason of the viscosity effect on island rotation. (author)
On the relationship between Southern Ocean eddies and phytoplankton
Frenger, Ivy; Münnich, Matthias; Gruber, Nicolas
2017-04-01
Effects on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean are crucial for the global ocean nutrient and carbon cycles. Such effects potentially arise from mesoscale eddies which are omnipresent in the region. Eddies are known to affect phytoplankton through either advection and mixing, or the stimulation/suppression of growth. Yet, the climatological relationship between Southern Ocean eddies and phytoplankton has not been quantified in detail. To provide an estimate of this relationship, we identified more than100,000 eddies in the Southern Ocean and determined associated phytoplankton anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll-a (chl) measurements. The eddies have a very substantial impact on the chl levels, with eddy associated chl differing by more than 10% from the background over wide areas. The structure of these anomalies is largely zonal, with positive anomalies north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and negative anomalies within the circumpolar belt of the ACC for cyclonic eddies. The pattern is similar but of opposite sign for anticyclonic eddies. The seasonality of this signal is weak north to the ACC, but pronounced in the vicinity of the ACC. The spatial structure and seasonality of the signal can be explained largely by advection, i.e., the eddy-circulation driven lateral transport of anomalies across large-scale gradients. We conclude this based on the shape of local chl anomalies of eddies and ambient chl gradients. In contrast, ACC winter anomalies are consistent with an effect of eddies on the light exposure of phytoplankton. The clear impact of eddies on chl implies a downstream effect on Southern Ocean biogeochemical properties.
A brief review on viscosity of nanofluids
Mishra, Purna Chandra; Mukherjee, Sayantan; Nayak, Santosh Kumar; Panda, Arabind
2014-10-01
Since the past decade, rapid development in nanotechnology has produced several aspects for the scientists and technologists to look into. Nanofluid is one of the incredible outcomes of such advancement. Nanofluids (colloidal suspensions of metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles in conventional base fluids) are best known for their remarkable change to enhanced heat transfer abilities. Earlier research work has already acutely focused on thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, viscosity is another important property that needs the same attention due to its very crucial impact on heat transfer. Therefore, viscosity of nanofluids should be thoroughly investigated before use for practical heat transfer applications. In this contribution, a brief review on theoretical models is presented precisely. Furthermore, the effects of nanoparticles' shape and size, temperature, volume concentration, pH, etc. are organized together and reviewed.
Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)
2010-11-15
Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Bulk and Shear Viscosity in Hagedorn Fluid
Tawfik, A
2010-01-01
Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses $m<2\\,$GeV obeys the {\\it first-order} theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the {\\it in-medium} thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosities and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equlibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo and hydrodynamics equations of state.
Molten Composition B Viscosity at Elevated Temperature
Zerkle, David K.; Núñez, Marcel P.; Zucker, Jonathan M.
2016-10-01
A shear-thinning viscosity model is developed for molten Composition B at elevated temperature from analysis of falling ball viscometer data. Results are reported with the system held at 85, 110, and 135°C. Balls of densities of 2.7, 8.0, and 15.6 g/cm3 are dropped to generate a range of strain rates in the material. Analysis of video recordings gives the speed at which the balls fall. Computer simulation of the viscometer is used to determine parameters for a non-Newtonian model calibrated to measured speeds. For the first time, viscosity is shown to be a function of temperature and strain rate-dependent maximum RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) particle volume fraction.
Viscosity: From air to hot nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nguyen Dinh Dang
2014-11-01
After a brief review of the history of viscosity from classical to quantal fluids, a discussion of how the shear viscosity of a finite hot nucleus is calculated directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of the nucleus is given in this paper. The ratio / with s being the entropy volume density, is extracted from the experimental systematic of GDR in copper, tin and lead isotopes at finite temperature . These empirical results are compared with the results predicted by several independent models, as well as with almost model-independent estimations. Based on these results, it is concluded that the ratio / in medium and heavy nuclei decreases with increasing to reach (1.3−4)$×\\hbar/(4 k_B)$ at = 5 MeV, which is almost the same as that obtained for quark-gluon plasma at > 170 MeV.
Viscosity effects in wind wave generation
Paquier, Anna; Rabaud, Marc
2016-01-01
We investigate experimentally the influence of the liquid viscosity on the problem of the generation of waves by a turbulent wind at the surface of a liquid, extending the results of Paquier, Moisy and Rabaud [Phys. Fluids {\\bf 27}, 122103 (2015)] over nearly three decades of viscosity. The surface deformations are measured with micrometer accuracy using the Free-Surface Synthetic Schlieren method. We recover the two regimes of surface deformations previously identified: the wrinkles regime at small wind velocity, resulting from the viscous imprint on the liquid surface of the turbulent fluctuations in the boundary layer, and the regular wave regime at large wind velocity. Below the wave threshold, we find that the characteristic amplitude of the wrinkles scales as $\
Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models
Muronga, A
2004-01-01
The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green--Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend o...
A novel dynamic coherent eddy model and its application to LES of a turbulent jet with free surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We has developed a novel dynamic coherent eddy model,in which the coherent structure-Q criterion introduced by Hunt et al(1988)-is taken into account in the subgrid-scale turbulent viscosity based on the eddy viscosity model.One proposed method is to combine the resolved-scale velocity-gradient tensor in the classical Smagorinsky model with Q criterion weighted.A kind of dynamic procedure which was averaged in a general process at temporal direction based on the autocorrelations of the characteristic resolved scales of turbulence was taken for the coefficient of subgrid model.The model is implemented in the σ-coordinate and the filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the operator splitting method.The validation was explored to 2-D turbulent slot jet both in ambient environment and in regular waves.The prediction of the present model was compared with the experiment data,including the averaged velocity profiles,the velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress.The model performance is shown to be satisfactory.
Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays
2012-01-01
Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...
On bulk viscosity and moduli decay
M. Laine
2010-01-01
This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on whic...
Viscosity estimation for slags containing calcium fluoride
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qifeng Shu; Jiayun Zhang
2005-01-01
Based on recently published experimental data, the Riboud model was modified for viscosity estimation of the slags containing calcium fluoride. The estimated values were in good agreement with measured data. Reasonable estimation can be achieved using the modified Riboud model for mould fluxes and ESR (eletro slag remelting) slags. Especially for ESR slags, the modified Riboud model can provide much more precise values than the original Riboud model.
Effective viscosity of magnetic nanofluids through capillaries.
Patel, Rajesh
2012-02-01
The simultaneous effect of magnetic field and temperature on the capillary viscosity of magnetic nanofluid is an important parameter for a new class of applications such as nanoduct flow, nanomotors, micro- and nanofluidic devices, for transformer cooling, magnetic targeted drug delivery, etc. The effective viscosity of a nanofluid is explained based on the rotation of the particles and the effect of torque on it due to an externally applied magnetic field. Two types of fluids are used here, temperature-sensitive and non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids. In both types of fluids, decrease in effective viscosity with temperature is observed, but in both cases the mechanism for the decrement is quite different. One is due to temperature dependence of the magnetic moment and the other is due to removal of the secondary surfactant. For temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids, a Curie temperature of ~80 °C is extracted from this study. For non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids ~65% of the secondary surfactant is removed for a change in temperature, ΔT = 40 °C. This is analogous with removal of a drug from magnetic particles for targeted drug delivery. Further, a linear dependence of effective viscosity with different capillary size and ξ (angle between magnetic field and flow direction, ξε[0,π/2]) is also observed. This linear dependence can also be a good approximation for the study of magnetic drug targeting, as in the human body the capillaries are of different sizes, and the externally applied magnetic field is not always parallel or perpendicular to the drug flow direction.
Impact of Viscosity on DNA Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. ZDRAVKOVI(C); M. V. SATARI(C)
2007-01-01
We study the influence of viscosity on DNA dynamics. By employing the nonlinear Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois (PBD) model, it is shown that the DNA dynamics can be explained by a solution of a complex nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLSE). This is the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) with a nonlinear parameter being a complex number. We compare real and imaginary parts of this nonlinear parameter and show that the latter one should not be negligible, which means that the CNLSE should be solved numerically.
Effects of bulk viscosity on cosmological evolution
Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, L O; Diaz-Rivera, L M
1994-01-01
Abstract:The effect of bulk viscisity on the evolution of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models is considered. Solutions are found, with a barotropic equation of state, and a viscosity coefficient that is proportional to a power of the energy density of the universe. For flat space, power law expansions, related to extended inflation are found as well as exponential solutions, related to old inflation; also a solution with expansion that is an exponential of an exponential of the time is found.
Viscosity Solutions for the two-phase Stefan Problem
Kim, Inwon C
2010-01-01
We introduce a notion of viscosity solutions for the two-phase Stefan problem, which incorporates possible existence of a mushy region generated by the initial data. We show that a comparison principle holds between viscosity solutions, and investigate the coincidence of the viscosity solutions and the weak solutions defined via integration by parts. In particular, in the absence of initial mushy region, viscosity solution is the unique weak solution with the same boundary data.
The Effect of Exercise on Salivary Viscosity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoon J. M. Ligtenberg
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130–140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery. Salivary flow rate, viscosity, amylase activity, total protein, carbohydrate and MUC5B concentration were determined. Salivary flow rate, protein and amylase did not change significantly. Immediately after exercise, the salivary viscosity and carbohydrate concentration were significantly higher than at baseline and after 30 min recovery. Immediately after exercise, the MUC5B concentration was significantly higher than after 30 min recovery. It is concluded that the presence of thick saliva after exercise is at least partially due to an increased secretion of MUC5B.
RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa
2014-06-01
The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.
Cosmological Implications of QGP Bulk Viscosity
Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R
2016-01-01
Recent studies of the hot QCD matter indicate that the bulk viscosity ($\\zeta$) of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) rises sharply near the critical point of the QCD phase transition. In this work, we show that such a sharp rise of the bulk viscosity will lead to an effective negative pressure near the critical temperature, $T_{c}$ which in turn drives the Universe to inflate. This inflation has a natural graceful exist when the viscous effect evanesce. We estimate that, depending upon the peak value of $\\zeta$, universe expands by a factor of $10$ to $80$ times in a very short span ($\\Delta t\\sim 10^{-8}$ seconds). Another important outcome of the bulk viscosity dominated dynamics is the cavitation of QGP around $T \\sim 1.5T_{c}$. This would lead to the phenomenon of formation of cavitation bubbles within the QGP phase. The above scenario is independent of the order of QCD phase transition. We delineate some of the important cosmological consequences of the inflation and the cavitation.
Turbulent viscosity optimized by data assimilation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Leredde
Full Text Available As an alternative approach to classical turbulence modelling using a first or second order closure, the data assimilation method of optimal control is applied to estimate a time and space-dependent turbulent viscosity in a three-dimensional oceanic circulation model. The optimal control method, described for a 3-D primitive equation model, involves the minimization of a cost function that quantifies the discrepancies between the simulations and the observations. An iterative algorithm is obtained via the adjoint model resolution. In a first experiment, a k + L model is used to simulate the one-dimensional development of inertial oscillations resulting from a wind stress at the sea surface and with the presence of a halocline. These results are used as synthetic observations to be assimilated. The turbulent viscosity is then recovered without the k + L closure, even with sparse and noisy observations. The problems of controllability and of the dimensions of the control are then discussed. A second experiment consists of a two-dimensional schematic simulation. A 2-D turbulent viscosity field is estimated from data on the initial and final states of a coastal upwelling event.
Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modelling · Oceanography: physical (turbulence · diffusion · and mixing processes
Tidal generation of large sub-mesoscale eddy dipoles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Callendar
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations of tidal flow past Cape St. James on the south tip of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands are presented that indicate mesoscale dipoles are formed from coalescing tidal eddies. Observations in this region demonstrate robust eddy generation at the Cape, with the primary process being flow separation of buoyant or wind driven outflows forming large anti-cyclonic, negative potential vorticity, Haida Eddies. However, there are other times where dipoles are observed in satellites, indicating a source of positive potential vorticity must also be present. The simulations here build on previous work that implicates oscillating tidal flow past the cape in creating the positive vorticity. Small headland eddies of alternating vorticity are created each tide. During certain tidal cycles, the headland eddies coalesce and self organize in such a way as to create large >20-km diameter eddies that then self-advect into deep water. The self advection speed is faster than the beta drift of anti-cyclones, and the propagation direction appears to be more southerly than typical Haida Eddies, though the model contains no mean wind-driven flows. These eddies are smaller than Haida Eddies, but given their tidal origin, may represent a more consistent source of coastal water that is injected into the interior of the subpolar gyre.
Tidal generation of large sub-mesoscale eddy dipoles
Callendar, W.; Klymak, J. M.; Foreman, M. G. G.
2011-08-01
Numerical simulations of tidal flow past Cape St. James on the south tip of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) are presented that indicate mesoscale dipoles are formed from coalescing tidal eddies. Observations in this region demonstrate robust eddy generation at the Cape, with the primary process being flow separation of buoyant or wind driven outflows forming large anti-cyclonic, negative potential vorticity, Haida Eddies. However, there are other times where dipoles are observed in satellites, indicating a source of positive potential vorticity must also be present. The simulations here build on previous work that implicates oscillating tidal flow past the cape in creating the positive vorticity. Small headland eddies of alternating vorticity are created each tide. During certain tidal cycles, the headland eddies coalesce and self organize in such a way as to create large >20-km diameter eddies that then self-advect into deep water. The self advection speed is faster than the beta drift of anti-cyclones, and the propagation direction appears to be more southerly than typical Haida Eddies, though the model contains no mean wind-driven flows. These eddies are smaller than Haida Eddies, but given their tidal origin, may represent a more consistent source of coastal water that is injected into the interior of the subpolar gyre.
Tidal generation of large sub-mesoscale eddy dipoles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Callendar
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations of tidal flow past Cape St. James on the south tip of Haida Gwai (Queen Charlotte Islands are presented that indicate mesoscale dipoles are formed from coalescing tidal eddies. Observations in this region demonstrate robust eddy generation at the Cape, with the primary process being flow separation of buoyant or wind driven outflows forming large anti-cyclonic, negative potential vorticity, Haida Eddies. However, there are other times where dipoles are observed in satellites, indicating a source of positive potential vorticity must also be present. The simulations here build on previous work that implicates oscillating tidal flow past the cape in creating the positive vorticity. Small headland eddies of alternating vorticity are created each tide. During certain tidal cycles, the headland eddies coalesce and self organize in such a way as to create large >20-km diameter eddies that then self-advect into deep water. The self advection speed is faster than the beta drift of anti-cyclones, and the propagation direction appears to be more southerly than typical Haida Eddies, though the model contains no mean wind-driven flows. These eddies are smaller than Haida Eddies, but given their tidal origin, may represent a more consistent source of coastal water that is injected into to the interior of the subpolar gyre.
IVA Ultrasonic and Eddy Current NDE for ISS Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) instruments and array eddy current testing instruments were tested on hypervelocity impact damaged aluminum plates simulating...
Composition and Temperature Dependence of Shear Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures
1980-07-01
model for viscosity of liquids , we feel that this is a very good correlation between molecular structure and viscosity, and it appears then that the...B. Thole, "The Viscosity of Liquids ," Longmans, Green and Co., London (1914). 15. W. R. Gambill, Chem. Eng, 66, 151 (1959) 16. P. K. Katti and M. M
Liquid viscosity sensing using nonlinear vibration of a fiberoptic sensor.
Wang, Wei-Chih; Liu, Chao-Shih
2013-07-01
This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic motion of a vibrating optical fiber viscosity sensor through representative cases of primary and super-harmonic resonance. The results show that a nonlinear effect drastically improves the sensitivity of the viscosity measurement by nearly an order of magnitude from the previously developed linear systems. Experimental results and several applications of the viscosity sensor are also presented.
Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Ethane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogel, Eckhard, E-mail: eckhard.vogel@uni-rostock.de [Institut für Chemie, Universität Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Span, Roland [Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Herrmann, Sebastian [Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik, Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)
2015-12-15
A new representation of the viscosity for the fluid phase of ethane includes a zero-density correlation and a contribution for the critical enhancement, initially both developed separately, but based on experimental data. The higher-density contributions are correlated as a function of the reduced density δ = ρ/ρ{sub c} and of the reciprocal reduced temperature τ = T{sub c}/T (ρ{sub c}—critical density and T{sub c}—critical temperature). The final formulation contains 14 coefficients obtained using a state-of-the-art linear optimization algorithm. The evaluation and choice of the selected primary data sets is reviewed, in particular with respect to the assessment used in earlier viscosity correlations. The new viscosity surface correlation makes use of the reference equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of ethane by Bücker and Wagner [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 35, 205 (2006)] and is valid in the fluid region from the melting line to temperatures of 675 K and pressures of 100 MPa. The viscosity in the limit of zero density is described with an expanded uncertainty of 0.5% (coverage factor k = 2) for temperatures 290 < T/K < 625, increasing to 1.0% at temperatures down to 212 K. The uncertainty of the correlated values is 1.5% in the range 290 < T/K < 430 at pressures up to 30 MPa on the basis of recent measurements judged to be very reliable as well as 4.0% and 6.0% in further regions. The uncertainty in the near-critical region (1.001 < 1/τ < 1.010 and 0.8 < δ < 1.2) increases with decreasing temperature up to 3.0% considering the available reliable data. Tables of the viscosity calculated from the correlation are listed in an appendix for the single-phase region, for the vapor–liquid phase boundary, and for the near-critical region.
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey
2010-01-01
A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Rui Xin
2014-01-01
Study of oceanic circulation and climate requires models which can simulate tracer eddy diffusion and ad-vection accurately. It is shown that the traditional Eulerian coordinates can introduce large artificial hori-zontal diffusivity/viscosity due to the incorrect alignment of the axis. Therefore, such models can smear sharp fronts and introduce other numerical artifacts. For simulation with relatively low resolution, large lateral diffusion was explicitly used in models;therefore, such numerical diffusion may not be a problem. However, with the increase of horizontal resolution, the artificial diffusivity/viscosity associated with hori-zontal advection in the commonly used Eulerian coordinates may become one of the most challenging ob-stacles for modeling the ocean circulation accurately. Isopycnal eddy diffusion (mixing) has been widely used in numerical models. The common wisdom is that mixing along isopycnal is energy free. However, a careful examination reveals that this is not the case. In fact, eddy diffusion can be conceptually separated into two steps:stirring and subscale diffusion. Due to the thermobaric effect, stirring, or exchanging water masses, along isopycnal surface is associated with the change of GPE in the mean state. This is a new type of instability, called the thermobaric instability. In addition, due to cabbeling subscale diffusion of water parcels always leads to the release of GPE. The release of GPE due to isopycnal stirring and subscale diffusion may lead to the thermobaric instability.
Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Stable stratification turbulence, as a common phenomenon in atmospheric and oceanic flows, is an important mechanism for numerical prediction of such flows. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating stable stratification turbulence numerically. The paper is expected to provide correct statistical results in agreement with those measured in the atmosphere or ocean. The fully developed turbulence is obtained in the stable stratification fluid by large eddy simulation with different initial velocity field and characteristic parameters, i.e. Reynolds number Re and Froude number Fr. The evolution of turbulent kinetic energy, characteristic length scales and parameters is analyzed for investigating the development of turbulence in stable stratification fluid. The three-dimensional energy spectra, horizontal and vertical energy spectrum, are compared between numerical simulation and real observation in the atmosphere and ocean in order to test the reliability of the numerical simulation. The results of numerical cases show that the large eddy simulation is capable of predicting the properties of stable stratification turbulence in consistence with real measurements at less computational cost. It has been found in this paper that the turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominant in the developed stable stratification turbulence. It is also found that the characteristic parameters must satisfy certain conditions in order to have correct statistical property of stable stratification turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean. The Reynolds number and Froude number are unnecessarily equal to those in atmosphere or ocean, but the Reynolds number must be large enough, say, greater than 10 2 , and Froude number must be less than 0.1. The most important parameter is ReFr 2 which must be greater than 10.
Essential parameters in eddy current inspection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stepinski, T. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Signals and Systems
2000-05-01
Our aim was to qualitatively analyze a number of variables that may affect the result of eddy current (EC) inspection but because of various reasons are not considered as essential in common practice. In the report we concentrate on such variables that can vary during or between inspections but their influence is not determined during routine calibrations. We present a qualitative analysis of the influence of the above-mentioned variables on the ability to detect and size flaws using mechanized eddy current testing (ET). ET employs some type of coil or probe, sensing magnetic flux generated by eddy currents induced in the tested specimen. An amplitude-phase modulated signal (with test frequency f0 ) from the probe is sensed by the EC instrument. The amplitude-phase modulated signal is amplified and demodulated in phase-sensitive detectors removing carrier frequency f0 from the signal. The detectors produce an in-phase and a quadrature component of the signal defining it as a point in the impedance plane. Modern instruments are provided with a screen presenting the demodulated and filtered signal in complex plane. We focus on such issues, related to the EC equipment as, probe matching, distortion introduced by phase discriminators and signal filters, and the influence of probe resolution and lift-off on sizing. The influence of different variables is investigated by means of physical reasoning employing theoretical models and demonstrated using simulated and real EC signals. In conclusion, we discuss the way in which the investigated variables may affect the result of ET. We also present a number of practical recommendations for the users of ET and indicate the areas that are to be further analyzed.
An Angular Momentum Eddy Detection Algorithm (AMEDA) applied to coastal eddies
Le Vu, Briac; Stegner, Alexandre; Arsouze, Thomas
2016-04-01
We present a new automated eddy detection and tracking algorithm based on the computation of the LNAM (Local and Normalized Angular Momentum). This method is an improvement of the previous method by Mkhinini et al. (2014) with the aim to be applied to multiple datasets (satellite data, numerical models, laboratory experiments) using as few objective criteria as possible. First, we show the performance of the algorithm for three different source of data: a Mediterranean 1/8° AVISO geostrophic velocities fields based on the Absolute Dynamical Topography (ADT), a ROMS idealized simulation and a high resolution velocity field derived from PIV measurements in a rotating tank experiment. All the velocity fields describe the dynamical evolution of mesoscale eddies generated by the instability of coastal currents. Then, we compare the results of the AMEDA algorithm applied to regional 1/8° AVISO Mediterranean data set with in situ measurements (drifter, ARGO, ADCP…). This quantitative comparisons with few specific test cases enables us to estimate the accuracy of the method to quantify the eddies features: trajectory, size and intensity. We also use the AMEDA algorithm to identify the main formation areas of long-lived eddies in the Mediterranean Sea during the last 15 years.
Large-eddy simulation in hydraulics
Rodi, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Complex turbulence phenomena are of great practical importance in hydraulics, including environmental flows, and require advanced methods for their successful computation. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES), in which the larger-scale turbulent motion is directly resolved and only the small-scale motion is modelled, is particularly suited for complex situations with dominant large-scale structures and unsteadiness. Due to the increasing computer power, LES is generally used more and more in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Also in hydraulics, it offers great potential, especially for near-field probl
Large eddy simulation in the ocean
Scotti, Alberto
2010-12-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a relative newcomer to oceanography. In this review, both applications of traditional LES to oceanic flows and new oceanic LES still in an early stage of development are discussed. The survey covers LES applied to boundary layer flows, traditionally an area where LES has provided considerable insight into the physics of the flow, as well as more innovative applications, where new SGS closure schemes need to be developed. The merging of LES with large-scale models is also briefly reviewed.
Towards technical application of large eddy simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breuer, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Inst. of Fluid Mechanics (LSTM)
2001-07-01
The paper is concerned with the computation of high Reynolds number circular cylinder flow (Re = 3900/140,000) based on the large eddy simulation (LES) technique. Because this flow involves a variety of complex flow features encountered in technical applications, successful simulations for this test case, especially at high Reynolds numbers, can be considered as the first step to real world applications of LES. Based on an efficient finite-volume LES code, a detailed study on different aspects influencing the quality of LES results was carried out. In the present paper, some of the results are presented and compared with experimental measurements available. (orig.)
Decay of eddies at the South-West Indian Ridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew C. Coward
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The South-West Indian Ridge in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean is a region recognised for the creation of particularly intense eddy disturbances in the mean flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Eddies formed at this ridge have been extensively studied over the past decade using hydrographic, satellite, drifter and float data and it is hypothesised that they could provide a vehicle for localised meridional heat and salt exchange. The effectiveness of this process is dependent on the rate of decay of the eddies. However, in order to investigate eddy decay, logistically difficult hydrographic monitoring is required. This study presents the decay of cold eddies at the South-West Indian Ridge, using outputs from a high-resolution ocean model. The model’s representation of the dynamic nature of this region is fully characteristic of observations. On average, 3–4 intense and well-defined cold eddies are generated per year; these eddies have mean longevities of 5.0±2.2 months with average advection speeds of 5±2 km/day. Most simulated eddies reach their peak intensity within 1.5–2.5 months after genesis and have depths of 2000 m – 3000 m. Thereafter they dissipate within approximately 3 months. The decay of eddies is generally characterised by a decrease in their sea surface height signature, a weakening in their rotation rates and a modification in their temperature–salinity characteristics. Subantarctic top predators are suspected to forage preferentially along the edges of eddies. The process of eddy dissipation may thus influence their feeding behaviour.
The Role of Viscosity in TATB Hot Spot Ignition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fried, L E; Zepeda-Ruis, L; Howard, W M; Najjar, F; Reaugh, J E
2011-08-02
The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.
Non-Newtonian viscosity wedge in film formation of EHL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUOF.; WONGP.L.
2001-01-01
This paper aims to evaluate the action of viscosity wedge in the oil film formation ofEHL at opposite sliding and zero entrainment. Using solvers developed for Newtonian and Eyringfluids, the film formation behavior originating from viscosity wedge is investigated. The numericalsimulation displays that lubricant film formation induced by viscosity wedge is different from that bythe well-known geometrical wedge with entrainment in classic EHL. The numerical analyses showthat at high opposite sliding speed the viscosity wedge acts as a leading role in film formation, thenon-Newtonian effects can have a pronounced influence on action of the viscosity wedge.
Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process
Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.
2000-03-01
Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
A parallel algorithm and code MVFT(multi-viscous-fluid and turbulence) of large-eddy simulation(LES) is developed from our MVPPM(multi-viscous-fluid piecewise parabolic method),and performed to solve the multi compressible Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations.The effect of the unresolved subgrid-scale(SGS) motions on the large scales is represented by different SGS stress models in LES.A Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiment of the evolution of a rectangular block of SF6,which occupies half of the height of the shock tube test section,following the interaction with a planar shock wave,is numerically and exhaustively simulated by this code.The comparison between experimental and simulated images of the evolving SF6 block shows that they are consistent.The numerical simulations reproduce the complex developing process of SF6 block,which grows overturningly.The geometric quantities that characterize the extents of SF6 block are also compared in detail between numerical simulations and experiment with good agreements between them,a quantitative demonstration of the developing law of SF6 block.There is an evident discrepancy between the three numerical simulations for the maximum position of the right edge of block at the late stage,because the right interface grows complicated and the dissipation is different for different SGS models.The SGS turbulent dissipation,molecular viscosity dissipation and SGS turbulent kinetic energy have been studied and analyzed.They have a similar distribution to the large eddy structures.The SGS turbulent dissipation is much greater than the molecular viscosity dissipation;the SGS turbulent dissipation of Vreman model is smaller than the Smagorinsky model.In general,the simulated results of Vreman SGS model are better compared with the dynamic viscosity and Smagorinsky SGS model.The vorticity and circulation deposition on the block interface have also been investigated.
Developing large eddy simulation for turbomachinery applications.
Eastwood, Simon J; Tucker, Paul G; Xia, Hao; Klostermeier, Christian
2009-07-28
For jets, large eddy resolving simulations are compared for a range of numerical schemes with no subgrid scale (SGS) model and for a range of SGS models with the same scheme. There is little variation in results for the different SGS models, and it is shown that, for schemes which tend towards having dissipative elements, the SGS model can be abandoned, giving what can be termed numerical large eddy simulation (NLES). More complex geometries are investigated, including coaxial and chevron nozzle jets. A near-wall Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is used to cover over streak-like structures that cannot be resolved. Compressor and turbine flows are also successfully computed using a similar NLES-RANS strategy. Upstream of the compressor leading edge, the RANS layer is helpful in preventing premature separation. Capturing the correct flow over the turbine is particularly challenging, but nonetheless the RANS layer is helpful. In relation to the SGS model, for the flows considered, evidence suggests issues such as inflow conditions, problem definition and transition are more influential.
Magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current flaw detection
Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A giant magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current device effectively detects deep flaws in thick multilayer conductive materials. The probe uses an excitation coil to induce eddy currents in conducting material perpendicularly oriented to the coil's longitudinal axis. A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, surrounded by the excitation coil, is used to detect generated fields. Between the excitation coil and GMR sensor is a highly permeable flux focusing lens which magnetically separates the GMR sensor and excitation coil and produces high flux density at the outer edge of the GMR sensor. The use of feedback inside the flux focusing lens enables complete cancellation of the leakage fields at the GMR sensor location and biasing of the GMR sensor to a location of high magnetic field sensitivity. In an alternate embodiment, a permanent magnet is positioned adjacent to the GMR sensor to accomplish the biasing. Experimental results have demonstrated identification of flaws up to 1 cm deep in aluminum alloy structures. To detect deep flaws about circular fasteners or inhomogeneities in thick multilayer conductive materials, the device is mounted in a hand-held rotating probe assembly that is connected to a computer for system control, data acquisition, processing and storage.
Eddy generation in the Mediterranean undercurrent
Serra, Nuno; Ambar, Isabel
In the framework of the European Union MAST III project Canary Islands Gibraltar Azores Observations, 24 RAFOS floats were deployed in the Mediterranean Water (MW) undercurrent off south Portugal between September 1997 and September 1998. A preliminary analysis of this Lagrangian approach, complemented with XBT and current-meter data, show some of the major aspects of the flow associated with the undercurrent as well as associated eddy activity. Floats that stayed in the undercurrent featured a downstream deceleration and a steering by bottom topography. Three meddy formations at Cape St. Vincent could be isolated from the float data. The dynamical coupling of meddies and cyclones was observed for a considerable period of time. The generation of two dipolar structures in the Portimão Canyon region also was observed with the float data. A major bathymetric relief—Gorringe Bank—was not only an important constraint to the eddy trajectories and of the flow at the MW levels but also a site for meddy formation.
Eddy correlation measurements of submarine groundwater discharge
Crusius, J.; Berg, P.; Koopmans, D.J.; Erban, L.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a new, non-invasive means of quantifying groundwater discharge into marine waters using an eddy correlation approach. The method takes advantage of the fact that, in virtually all aquatic environments, the dominant mode of vertical transport near the sediment-water interface is turbulent mixing. The technique thus relies on measuring simultaneously the fluctuating vertical velocity using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and the fluctuating salinity and/or temperature using rapid-response conductivity and/or temperature sensors. The measurements are typically done at a height of 5-15??cm above the sediment surface, at a frequency of 16 to 64??Hz, and for a period of 15 to 60??min. If the groundwater salinity and/or temperature differ from that of the water column, the groundwater specific discharge (cm d- 1) can be quantified from either a heat or salt balance. Groundwater discharge was estimated with this new approach in Salt Pond, a small estuary on Cape Cod (MA, USA). Estimates agreed well with previous estimates of discharge measured using seepage meters and 222Rn as a tracer. The eddy correlation technique has several desirable characteristics: 1) discharge is quantified under in-situ hydrodynamic conditions; 2) salinity and temperature can serve as two semi-independent tracers of discharge; 3) discharge can be quantified at high temporal resolution, and 4) long-term records of discharge may be possible, due to the low power requirements of the instrumentation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life
Godø, Olav R.
2012-01-17
Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. 2012 God et al.
A subsurface cyclonic eddy in the Bay of Bengal
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Babu, M.T.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Rao, D.P.
CTD data collected from the Northwestern Bay of Bengal during late July 1984 reveal the existence of a cold core subsurface eddy centred at 17 degrees 40'N and 85 degrees 19'E. The thermal structure observed across the eddy indicate...
Anisotropy of eddy variability in the global ocean
Stewart, K. D.; Spence, P.; Waterman, S.; Sommer, J. Le; Molines, J.-M.; Lilly, J. M.; England, M. H.
2015-11-01
The anisotropy of eddy variability in the global ocean is examined in geostrophic surface velocities derived from satellite observations and in the horizontal velocities of a 1/12° global ocean model. Eddy anisotropy is of oceanographic interest as it is through anisotropic velocity fluctuations that the eddy and mean-flow fields interact dynamically. This study is timely because improved observational estimates of eddy anisotropy will soon be available with Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) altimetry data. We find there to be good agreement between the characteristics and distributions of eddy anisotropy from the present satellite observations and model ocean surface. In the model, eddy anisotropy is found to have significant vertical structure and is largest close to the ocean bottom, where the anisotropy aligns with the underlying isobaths. The highly anisotropic bottom signal is almost entirely contained in the barotropic variability. Upper-ocean variability is predominantly baroclinic and the alignment is less sensitive to the underlying bathymetry. These findings offer guidance for introducing a parameterization of eddy feedbacks, based on the eddy kinetic energy and underlying bathymetry, to operate on the barotropic flow and better account for the effects of barotropic Reynolds stresses unresolved in coarse-resolution ocean models.
Significant sink of ocean-eddy energy near western boundaries
Zhai, Xiaoming; Johnson, Helen L.; Marshall, David P.
2010-09-01
Ocean eddies generated through instability of the mean flow are a vital component of the energy budget of the global ocean. In equilibrium, the sources and sinks of eddy energy have to be balanced. However, where and how eddy energy is removed remains uncertain. Ocean eddies are observed to propagate westwards at speeds similar to the phase speeds of classical Rossby waves, but what happens to the eddies when they encounter the western boundary is unclear. Here we use a simple reduced-gravity model along with satellite altimetry data to show that the western boundary acts as a `graveyard' for the westward-propagating ocean eddies. We estimate a convergence of eddy energy near the western boundary of approximately 0.1-0.3TW, poleward of 10° in latitude. This energy is most probably scattered into high-wavenumber vertical modes, resulting in energy dissipation and diapycnal mixing. If confirmed, this eddy-energy sink will have important implications for the ocean circulation.
Eddy Currents: Levitation, Metal Detectors, and Induction Heating
Wouch, G.; Lord, A. E., Jr.
1978-01-01
A simple and accessible calculation is given of the effects of eddy currents for a sphere in the field of a single circular loop of alternating current. These calculations should help toward the inclusion of eddy current effects in upper undergraduate physics courses. (BB)
Calculation of Eddy currents in the ETE spherical torus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ludwig, Gerson Otto
2002-07-01
A circuit model based on a Green's function method was developed to evaluate the currents induced during startup in the vessel of ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment). The eddy currents distribution is calculated using a thin shell approximation for the vacuum vessel and local curvilinear coordinates. The results are compared with values of the eddy currents measured in ETE. (author)
Conditional eddies, or clumps, in ion-beam-generated turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Helene; Pecseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J.
1985-01-01
with a relatively long lifetime in terms of the average bounce period is observed. Particles bouncing in the potential well associated with these `eddies' will necessarily remain correlated for times determined by the eddy lifetime. The results thus provide evidence for clump formation in plasmas...
New Formulation for the Viscosity of Propane
Vogel, Eckhard; Herrmann, Sebastian
2016-12-01
A new viscosity formulation for propane, using the reference equation of state for its thermodynamic properties by Lemmon et al. [J. Chem. Eng. Data 54, 3141 (2009)] and valid in the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 650 K and pressures up to 100 MPa, is presented. At the beginning, a zero-density contribution and one for the critical enhancement, each based on the experimental data, were independently generated in parts. The higher-density contributions are correlated as a function of the reciprocal reduced temperature τ = Tc/T and of the reduced density δ = ρ/ρc (Tc—critical temperature, ρc—critical density). The final formulation includes 17 coefficients inferred by applying a state-of-the-art linear optimization algorithm. The evaluation and choice of the primary data sets are detailed due to its importance. The viscosity at low pressures p ≤ 0.2 MPa is represented with an expanded uncertainty of 0.5% (coverage factor k = 2) for temperatures 273 ≤ T/K ≤ 625. The expanded uncertainty in the vapor phase at subcritical temperatures T ≥ 273 K as well as in the supercritical thermodynamic region T ≤ 423 K at pressures p ≤ 30 MPa is assumed to be 1.5%. In the near-critical region (1.001 < 1/τ < 1.010 and 0.8 < δ < 1.2), the expanded uncertainty increases with decreasing temperature up to 3.0%. It is further increased to 4.0% in regions of less reliable primary data sets and to 6.0% in ranges in which no primary data are available but the equation of state is valid. Tables of viscosity computed for the new formulation are given in an Appendix for the single-phase region, for the vapor-liquid phase boundary, and for the near-critical region.
Collective excitations and viscosity in liquid Bi
Ropo, Matti; Akola, Jaakko; Jones, R. O.
2016-11-01
The analysis of extensive density functional/molecular dynamics simulations (over 500 atoms, up to 100 ps) of liquid bismuth at four temperatures between 573 K and 1023 K has provided details of the dynamical structure factors, the dispersion of longitudinal and transverse collective modes, and related properties (power spectrum, viscosity, and sound velocity). Agreement with available inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering data and with previous simulations is generally very good. The results show that density functional/molecular dynamics simulations can give dynamical information of good quality without the use of fitting functions, even at long wavelengths.
Effect of nuclear viscosity on fission process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Shidong; Kuang Huishun; Zhang Shufa; Xing Jingru; Zhuo Yizhong; Wu Xizhen; Feng Renfa
1989-02-01
According to the fission diffusion model, the deformation motion of fission nucleuses is regarded as a diffusion process of quasi-Brownian particles under fission potential. Through simulating such Brownian motion in two dimensional phase space by Monte-Carlo mehtod, the effect of nuclear visocity on Brownian particle diffusion is studied. Dynamical quanties, such as fission rate, kinetic energy distribution on scission, and soon are numerically calculated for various viscosity coefficients. The results are resonable in physics. This method can be easily extended to deal with multi-dimensional diffusion problems.
From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2010-12-16
This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Nonlinear inertial oscillations of a multilayer eddy: An analytical solution
Dotsenko, S. F.; Rubino, A.
2008-06-01
Nonlinear axisymmetric oscillations of a warm baroclinic eddy are considered within the framework of an reduced-gravity model of the dynamics of a multilayer ocean. A class of exact analytical solutions describing pure inertial oscillations of an eddy formation is found. The thicknesses of layers in the eddy vary according to a quadratic law, and the horizontal projections of the velocity in the layers depend linearly on the radial coordinate. Owing to a complicated structure of the eddy, weak limitations on the vertical distribution of density, and an explicit form of the solution, the latter can be treated as a generalization of the exact analytical solutions of this form that were previously obtained for homogeneous and baroclinic eddies in the ocean.
Effects of Drake Passage on a strongly eddying global ocean
Viebahn, Jan P; Bars, Dewi Le; Dijkstra, Henk A
2015-01-01
The climate impact of ocean gateway openings during the Eocene-Oligocene transition is still under debate. Previous model studies employed grid resolutions at which the impact of mesoscale eddies has to be parameterized. We present results of a state-of-the-art eddy-resolving global ocean model with a closed Drake Passage, and compare with results of the same model at non-eddying resolution. An analysis of the pathways of heat by decomposing the meridional heat transport into eddy, horizontal, and overturning circulation components indicates that the model behavior on the large scale is qualitatively similar at both resolutions. Closing Drake Passage induces (i) sea surface warming around Antarctica due to changes in the horizontal circulation of the Southern Ocean, (ii) the collapse of the overturning circulation related to North Atlantic Deep Water formation leading to surface cooling in the North Atlantic, (iii) significant equatorward eddy heat transport near Antarctica. However, quantitative details sign...
On the interactions between planetary geostrophy and mesoscale eddies
Grooms, Ian; Julien, Keith; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2011-04-01
Multiscale asymptotics are used to derive three systems of equations connecting the planetary geostrophic (PG) equations for gyre-scale flow to a quasigeostrophic (QG) equation set for mesoscale eddies. Pedlosky (1984), following similar analysis, found eddy buoyancy fluxes to have only a small effect on the large-scale flow; however, numerical simulations disagree. While the impact of eddies is relatively small in most regions, in keeping with Pedlosky's result, eddies have a significant effect on the mean flow in the vicinity of strong, narrow currents. First, the multiple-scales analysis of Pedlosky is reviewed and amplified. Novel results of this analysis include new multiple-scales models connecting large-scale PG equations to sets of QG eddy equations. However, only introducing anisotropic scaling of the large-scale coordinates allows us to derive a model with strong two-way coupling between the QG eddies and the PG mean flow. This finding reconciles the analysis with simulations, viz. that strong two-way coupling is observed in the vicinity of anisotropic features of the mean flow like boundary currents and jets. The relevant coupling terms are shown to be eddy buoyancy fluxes. Using the Gent-McWilliams parameterization to approximate these fluxes allows solution of the PG equations with closed tracer fluxes in a closed domain, which is not possible without mesoscale eddy (or other small-scale) effects. The boundary layer width is comparable to an eddy mixing length when the typical eddy velocity is taken to be the long Rossby wave phase speed, which is the same result found by Fox-Kemper and Ferrari (2009) in a reduced gravity layer.
Larsson, Johan; Wang, Qiqi
2014-08-13
In this paper, we try to look into the future to envision how large eddy and detached eddy simulations will be used in the engineering design process about 20-30 years from now. Some key challenges specific to the engineering design process are identified, and some of the critical outstanding problems and promising research directions are discussed.
Solvent viscosity dependence for enzymatic reactions
Sitnitsky, A E
2008-01-01
A mechanism for relationship of solvent viscosity with reaction rate constant at enzyme action is suggested. It is based on fluctuations of electric field in enzyme active site produced by thermally equilibrium rocking (cranckshaft motion) of the rigid plane (in which the dipole moment $\\approx 3.6 D$ lies) of a favourably located and oriented peptide group (or may be a few of them). Thus the rocking of the plane leads to fluctuations of the electric field of the dipole moment. These fluctuations can interact with the reaction coordinate because the latter in its turn has transition dipole moment due to separation of charges at movement of the reacting system along it. The rocking of the plane of the peptide group is sensitive to the microviscosity of its environment in protein interior and the latter is a function of the solvent viscosity. Thus we obtain an additional factor of interrelationship for these characteristics with the reaction rate constant. We argue that due to the properties of the cranckshaft ...
Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound
Hod, Shahar
2017-10-01
For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.
Textural perception of liquid emulsions: Role of oil content, oil viscosity and emulsion viscosity
Aken, van G.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.
2011-01-01
This work describes a study on the in-mouth textural perception of thickened liquid oil-in-water emulsions. The variables studied are oil content, oil viscosity, and the concentration of polysaccharide thickener. Gum arabic was chosen as the thickener because of the nearly Newtonian behavior of its
Importance of Mantle Viscosity in Interseismic Deformation
Wang, K.; He, J.; Hu, Y.
2012-12-01
The role of mantle viscosity in subduction earthquake cycles was postulated when the plate tectonics theory had just gained wide acceptance. The process was described using Elsasser's 1-D model for diffusion of stress from the subduction boundary to the plate interior. Main features of interseismic surface deformation predicted by this elegantly simple model were later verified by GPS observations following giant subduction earthquakes. However, and intriguingly, the vast majority of interseismic deformation models developed in the era of space geodesy assume an elastic Earth, incorrectly regarding interseismic deformation as a subdued mirror image of coseismic deformation. The reason is four-fold. (1) The 1-D model and subsequent 2-D viscoelastic models failed to recognize the role of rupture length in the strike direction and could not self-consistently explain deformation following medium and small earthquakes. (2) Based on global mantle viscosity models derived from glacial isostatic adjustment studies, the viscoelastic mantle should indeed behave elastically in earthquake cycles of a few hundred years. (3) The effect of viscous mantle deformation can often be equivalently described by deep fault creep in a purely elastic Earth. (4) The use of an elastic model provides convenience in inverting geodetic data to determine fault locking and creep. Here we use 3D finite element models to show that the main characteristics of surface deformation following subduction earthquakes of all sizes can be explained with a viscoelastic Earth in which the mantle wedge is less viscous than global upper-mantle average of 1020 - 1021 Pa s by one to two orders of magnitude. Following giant earthquakes, such as 1700 Cascadia, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, 2004 Sumatra, and 2011 Japan, upper-plate land deformation undergoes phases of wholesale seaward motion, opposing motion of coastal and inland areas, and wholesale landward motion. The "speed" of the evolution scales inversely with
Chen, Juhui; Yin, Weijie; Wang, Shuai; Meng, Cheng; Li, Jiuru; Qin, Bai; Yu, Guangbin
2016-07-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) approach is used for gas turbulence, and eddy dissipation concept (EDC)-sub-grid scale (SGS) reaction model is employed for reactions in small eddies. The simulated gas molar fractions are in better agreement with experimental data with EDC-SGS reaction model. The effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification is emphatically analyzed with EDC-SGS reaction model. The distributions of the SGS reaction rates which represent the reactions in small eddies with particles concentration and temperature are analyzed. The distributions of SGS reaction rates have the similar trend with those of total reactions rates and the values account for about 15% of the total reactions rates. The heterogeneous reaction rates with EDC-SGS reaction model are also improved during the biomass gasification process in bubbling fluidized bed.
Large eddy simulations in 2030 and beyond.
Piomelli, U
2014-08-13
Since its introduction, in the early 1970s, large eddy simulations (LES) have advanced considerably, and their application is transitioning from the academic environment to industry. Several landmark developments can be identified over the past 40 years, such as the wall-resolved simulations of wall-bounded flows, the development of advanced models for the unresolved scales that adapt to the local flow conditions and the hybridization of LES with the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Thanks to these advancements, LES is now in widespread use in the academic community and is an option available in most commercial flow-solvers. This paper will try to predict what algorithmic and modelling advancements are needed to make it even more robust and inexpensive, and which areas show the most promise.
Large eddy simulation of breaking waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf
2001-01-01
is described by large eddy simulation where the larger turbulent features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and the small scale turbulence that is not resolved by the flow model is represented by a sub-grid model. A simple Smagorinsky sub-grid model has been used for the present simulations......A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence....... The incoming waves are specified by a flux boundary condition. The waves are approaching in the shore-normal direction and are breaking on a plane, constant slope beach. The first few wave periods are simulated by a two-dimensional model in the vertical plane normal to the beach line. The model describes...
Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.
Menzies, Kevin
2009-07-28
The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle.
Large-eddy simulation of contrails
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chlond, A. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)
1997-12-31
A large eddy simulation (LES) model has been used to investigate the role of various external parameters and physical processes in the life-cycle of contrails. The model is applied to conditions that are typical for those under which contrails could be observed, i.e. in an atmosphere which is supersaturated with respect to ice and at a temperature of approximately 230 K or colder. The sensitivity runs indicate that the contrail evolution is controlled primarily by humidity, temperature and static stability of the ambient air and secondarily by the baroclinicity of the atmosphere. Moreover, it turns out that the initial ice particle concentration and radiative processes are of minor importance in the evolution of contrails at least during the 30 minutes simulation period. (author) 9 refs.
Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)
2007-10-30
A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).
Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)
2009-12-15
A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).
Large-eddy simulation of propeller noise
Keller, Jacob; Mahesh, Krishnan
2016-11-01
We will discuss our ongoing work towards developing the capability to predict far field sound from the large-eddy simulation of propellers. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy, with a dynamic endcapping method (Nitzkorski and Mahesh, 2014) is developed for unstructured grids in a rotating frame of reference. The FW-H surface is generated automatically using Delaunay triangulation and is representative of the underlying volume mesh. The approach is validated for tonal trailing edge sound from a NACA 0012 airfoil. LES of flow around a propeller at design advance ratio is compared to experiment and good agreement is obtained. Results for the emitted far field sound will be discussed. This work is supported by ONR.
Direct and large-eddy simulation IX
Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard; Armenio, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
This volume reflects the state of the art of numerical simulation of transitional and turbulent flows and provides an active forum for discussion of recent developments in simulation techniques and understanding of flow physics. Following the tradition of earlier DLES workshops, these papers address numerous theoretical and physical aspects of transitional and turbulent flows. At an applied level it contributes to the solution of problems related to energy production, transportation, magneto-hydrodynamics and the environment. A special session is devoted to quality issues of LES. The ninth Workshop on 'Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation' (DLES-9) was held in Dresden, April 3-5, 2013, organized by the Institute of Fluid Mechanics at Technische Universität Dresden. This book is of interest to scientists and engineers, both at an early level in their career and at more senior levels.
Turbulence Spectra and Eddy Diffusivity over Forests.
Lee, Xuhui
1996-08-01
The main objectives of this observational study are to examine the stability dependence of velocity and air temperature spectra and to employ the spectral quantities to establish relations for eddy diffusivity over forests. The datasets chosen for the analysis were collected above the Browns River forest and the Camp Borden forest over a wide range of stability conditions.Under neutral and unstable conditions the nondimensional dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) over the forests is lower than that from its Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) function for the smooth-wall surface layer. The agreement is somewhat better under stable conditions but a large scatter is evident. When the frequency is made nondimensional by the height of the stand (h) and the longitudinal velocity at this height (uh, the Kaimal spectral model for neutral air describes the observations very well. The eddy diffusivity formulation K = c 4w/ provides a promising alternative to the MOS approach, where w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity and TKE dissipation rate. Current datasets yield a constant of 0.43 for c for sensible heat in neutral and stable air, a value very close to that for the smooth-wall surface layer. It is postulated that c is a conservative parameter for sensible heat in the unstable air, its value probably falling between 0.41 and 0.54. In the absence of data, it is possible to estimate K from measurements of the local mean wind u and air stability. As a special case, it is shown that K = 0.27(uh/uh)w under neutral stability. This relation is then used to establish a profile model for wind speed and scalar concentration in the roughness sublayer. The analysis points out that uh and h are important scaling parameters in attempts to formulate quantitative relations for turbulence over tall vegetation.
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-01-01
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.
GodunovSPH with shear viscosity : implementation and tests
Cha, Seung-Hoon
2016-01-01
The acceleration and energy dissipation terms due to the shear viscosity have been implemented and tested in GodunovSPH. The double summation method has been employed to avoid the well known numerical noise of the second derivative in particle based codes. The plane Couette flow with various initial and boundary conditions have been used as tests, and the numerical and analytical results show a good agreement. Not only the viscosity--only calculation, but the full hydrodynamics simulations have been performed, and they show expected results as well. The very low kinematic viscosity simulations show a turbulent pattern when the Reynolds number exceeds $\\sim$$10^2$. The critical value of the Reynolds number at the transition point of the laminar and turbulent flows coincides with the previous works approximately. A smoothed dynamic viscosity has been suggested to describe the individual kinematic viscosity of particles. The infinitely extended Couette flow which has two layers of different viscosities has been ...
Isomorphic Viscosity Equation of State for Binary Fluid Mixtures.
Behnejad, Hassan; Cheshmpak, Hashem; Jamali, Asma
2015-01-01
The thermodynamic behavior of the simple binary mixtures in the vicinity of critical line has a universal character and can be mapped from pure components using the isomorphism hypothesis. Consequently, based upon the principle of isomorphism, critical phenomena and similarity between P-ρ-T and T-η-(viscosity)-P relationships, the viscosity model has been developed adopting two cubic, Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) and Peng-Robinson (PR), equations of state (EsoS) for predicting the viscosity of the binary mixtures. This procedure has been applied to the methane-butane mixture and predicted its viscosity data. Reasonable agreement with the experimental data has been observed. In conclusion, we have shown that the isomorphism principle in conjunction with the mapped viscosity EoS suggests a reliable model for calculating the viscosity of mixture of hydrocarbons over a wide pressure range up to 35 MPa within the stated experimental errors.
EFFECT OF ADSORPTION ON THE VISCOSITY OF DILUTE POLYMER SOLUTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rong-shi Cheng; Yu-fang Shao; Ming-zhu Liu; Rong-qing Lu
1999-01-01
Careful measurements of the dilute solution viscosities of polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol in water were carried out. The reduced viscosities of both polymer solutions plot upward curves at extremely dilute concentration levels similar to the phenomena observed for many polymer solutions in the early 1950's. Upon observation of the changes of the flow times of pure water in and the wall surface wettability of the viscometer after measuring solution viscosity, a view was formed that the observed viscosity abnormality at extremely dilute concentration regions is solely due to the effect of adsorption of polymer chains onto the wall surface of viscometer. A theory of adsorption effect based on the Langmuir isotherms was proposed and a mathematical analysis for data treatment was performed. The theory could adequately describe the existing viscosity data. It seems necessary to correct the viscosity result of dilute polymer solutions measured by glass capillary viscometer by taking into account the effect of adsorption in all cases.
Anomalous Viscosity of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Hong, Juhee
2013-01-01
The shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma is predicted to be lower than the collisional viscosity for weak coupling. The estimated ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is rather close to the ratio calculated by N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory for strong coupling, which indicates that the quark-gluon plasma might be strongly coupled. However, in presence of momentum anisotropy, the Weibel instability can arise and affect transport properties. Shear viscosity can be lowered by enhanced collisionality due to turbulence, but the decorrelation time and its relation to underlying dynamics and color-magnetic fields have not been calculated self-consistently. In this paper, we use resonance broadening theory for strong turbulence to calculate the anomalous viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma for nonequilibrium. For saturated Weibel instability, we estimate the scalings of the decorrelation rate and viscosity and compare these with collisional transport. This calculation yields an explicit connection betw...
Modeling the viscosity of silicate melts containing manganese oxide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Wan-Yi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Our recently developed model for the viscosity of silicate melts is applied to describe and predict the viscosities of oxide melts containing manganese oxide. The model requires three pairs of adjustable parameters that describe the viscosities in three systems: pure MnO, MnO-SiO2 and MnO-Al2O3-SiO2. The viscosity of other ternary and multicomponent silicate melts containing MnO is then predicted by the model without any additional adjustable model parameters. Experimental viscosity data are reviewed for melts formed by MnO with SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, PbO, Na2O and K2O. The deviation of the available experimental data from the viscosities predicted by the model is shown to be within experimental error limits.
Modelling cyclonic eddies in the Delagoa Bight region
Cossa, O.; Pous, S.; Penven, P.; Capet, X.; Reason, C. J. C.
2016-05-01
The objective of this study is to document and shed light on the circulation around the Delagoa Bight region in the southern Mozambique Channel using a realistic modelling approach. A simulation including mesoscale forcings at the boundaries of our regional configuration succeeds in reproducing the general circulation in the region as well as the existence of a semi-permanent cyclonic eddy, whose existence is attested by in situ measurements in the Bight. Characterised by a persistent local minimum in SSH located around 26°S-34°E, this cyclonic eddy termed herein the Delagoa Bight lee eddy occurs about 25% of the time with no clear seasonal preference. Poleward moving cyclones, mostly generated further north, occur another 25% of the time in the Bight area. A tracking method applied to eddies generated in Delagoa Bight using model outputs as well as AVISO data confirms the model realism and provides additional statistics. The diameter of the eddy core varies between 61 and 147 km and the average life time exceeds 20 days. Additional model analyses reveal the systematic presence of negative vorticity in the Bight that can organise and form a Delagoa Bight lee eddy depending on the intensity of an intermittent southward flow along the shore and the spatial distribution of surrounding mesoscale features. In addition, the model solution shows other cyclonic eddies generated near Inhambane and eventually travelling through the Bight. Their generation and pathways appears to be linked with large Mozambique Channel rings.
Eddies spatial variability at Makassar Strait – Flores Sea
Nuzula, F.; Syamsudin, M. L.; Yuliadi, L. P. S.; Purba, N. P.; Martono
2017-01-01
This study was aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The study area extends from 115º–125º E to 2.5º–8º S. The datasets were consisted of monthly geostrophic currents, sea surface heights, sea surface temperatures, and chlorophyll-a from 2008 – 2012. The results showed that eddies which found at Makassar Strait (MS) has the highest diameter and speed of 255.3 km and 21.4 cm/s respectively, while at the southern MW has 266.4 km and 15.6 cm/s, and at FS has 182.04 km and 11.4 cm/s. From a total of 51 eddies found, the majority of eddies type was anticyclonic. At MS and FS, eddies formed along the year, whereas at southern MW were found missing in West Season. Moreover, the chlorophyll-a concentration was consistently higher at the eddies area. Even though, the correlation among eddies and the upwelling downwelling phenomena was not significantly as shown by sea surface temperatures value.
Dynamics of Eddies in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean
Hanifah, F.; Ningsih, N. S.; Sofian, I.
2016-08-01
A holistic study was done on eddies in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for 64 years (from 1950 to 2013). The results from the model were verified against the current and the Sea Surface Height Anomaly (SSHA) from Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Real time (OSCAR) and Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic Data (AVISO) respectively. The verification showed that the model simulates the condition in the area of study relatively well. We discovered that the local wind was not the only factor that contributed to the formation of eddies in the area. The difference in South Java Current (SJC) flow compared to the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and South Equatorial Current (SEC) flow as well as the difference in the relative velocity between the currents in the area led us to suspect that shear velocity may be responsible for the formation of eddies. The results from our model corroborated our prediction about shear velocity. Therefore, we attempted to explain the appearance of eddies in the SETIO based on the concept of shear velocity. By observing and documenting the occurrences of eddies in the area, we found that there are 8 cyclonic and 7 anticyclonic eddies in the SETIO. The distribution and frequency of the appearance of eddies varies, depending on the season.
Study on the mesoscale eddies around the Ryukyu Islands
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Shuzong; XU Changsan; WU Huiming; WANG Gang; PEI Junfeng; FAN Yongbin; WANG Xingchi
2016-01-01
Results of the Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) from January 1977 to December 2006 are used to investigate mesoscale eddies near the Ryukyu Islands. The results show that: (1) Larger eddies are mainly east of Taiwan, above the Ryukyu Trench and south of the Shikoku Island. These three sea areas are all in the vicinity of the Ryukyu Current. (2) Eddies in the area of the Ryukyu Current are mainly anticyclonic, and conducive to that current. The transport of water east of the Ryukyu Islands is mainly toward the northeast. (3) The Ryukyu Current is significantly affected by the eddies. The lower the latitude, the greater these effects. However, the Kuroshio is relatively stable, and the effect of mesoscale eddies is not significant. (4) A warm eddy south of the Shikoku Island break away from the Kuroshio and move southwest, and is clearly affected by the Ryukyu Current and Kuroshio. Relationships between the mesoscale eddies, Kuroshio meanders, and Ryukyu Current are discussed.
Conjugate spectrum filters for eddy current signal processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stepinski, T.; Maszi, N. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Technology.)
1993-07-01
The paper addresses the problem of detection and classification of material defects during eddy current inspection. Digital signal processing algorithms for detection and characterization of flaws are considered and a new type of filter for classification of eddy current data is proposed. In the first part of the paper the signal processing blocks used in modern eddy current instruments are presented and analyzed in terms of information transmission. The processing usually consists of two steps: detection by means of amplitude-phase detectors and filtering of the detector output signals by means of analog signal filters. Distortion introduced by the signal filters is considered and illustrated using real eddy current responses. The nature of the distortion is explained and the way to avoid it is indicated. A novel method for processing the eddy current responses is presented in the second part of the paper. The method employs two-dimensional conjugate spectrum filters (CSFs) that are sensitive both to the phase angle and the shape of the eddy current responses. First the theoretical background of the CSF is presented and then two different ways of application, matched filters and orthogonal conjugate spectrum filters, are considered. The matched CSFs can be used for attenuation of all signals with the phase angle different from the selected prototype. The orthogonal filters are able to suppress completely a specific interference, e.g. the response of supporting plate when testing heat exchanger tubes. The performance of the CSFs is illustrated by means of real and simulated eddy current signals.
Modelling viscosity and mass fraction of bitumen - diluent mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miadonye, A.; Latour, N.; Puttagunta, V.R. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)
1999-07-01
In recovery of bitumen in oil sands extraction, the reduction of the viscosity is important above and below ground. The addition of liquid diluent breaks down or weakens the intermolecular forces that create a high viscosity in bitumen. The addition of even 5% of diluent can cause a viscosity reduction in excess of 8%, thus facilitating the in situ recovery and pipeline transportation of bitumen. Knowledge of bitumen - diluent viscosity is highly important because without it, determination of upgrading processes, in situ recovery, well simulation, heat transfer, fluid flow and a variety of other engineering problems would be difficult or impossible to solve. The development of a simple correlation to predict the viscosity of binary mixtures of bitumen - diluent in any proportion is described. The developed correlation used to estimate the viscosities and mass fractions of bitumen - diluent mixtures was within acceptable limits of error. For the prediction of mixture viscosities, the developed correlation gave the best results with an overall average absolute deviation of 12% compared to those of Chironis (17%) and Cragoe (23%). Predictions of diluent mass fractions yielded a much better result with an overall average absolute deviation of 5%. The unique features of the correlation include its computational simplicity, its applicability to mixtures at temperatures other than 30 degrees C, and the fact that only the bitumen and diluent viscosities are needed to make predictions. It is the only correlation capable of predicting viscosities of mixtures, as well as diluent mass fractions required to reduce bitumen viscosity to pumping viscosities. The prediction of viscosities at 25, 60.3, and 82.6 degrees C produced excellent results, particularly at high temperatures with an average absolute deviation of below 10%. 11 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.
Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement
Sinha, Dipen N.
2012-05-01
The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.
Viscosity, thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number of nanoparticle suspensions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Buxuan; ZHOU Leping; PENG Xiaofeng
2004-01-01
Using our reported experimental data of effective thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity for CuO nanoparticle suspensions, the corresponding thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number are calculated. With the hard sphere model and considering effects of particle clustering and surface adsorption, the increase of viscosity for nanoparticle suspension observed is explained. It is shown that the effective thermal conductivity will be strongly affected by the formation and correlated spatial distribution of nanoparticle clusters when compared to viscosity in hosting liquid.
Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea
Zhan, Peng
2015-04-01
In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.
A novel eddy current damper: theory and experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebrahimi, Babak; Khamesee, Mir Behrad [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Golnaraghi, Farid, E-mail: khamesee@mecheng1.uwaterloo.c [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, British Columbia, V3T 0A3 (Canada)
2009-04-07
A novel eddy current damper is developed and its damping characteristics are studied analytically and experimentally. The proposed eddy current damper consists of a conductor as an outer tube, and an array of axially magnetized ring-shaped permanent magnets separated by iron pole pieces as a mover. The relative movement of the magnets and the conductor causes the conductor to undergo motional eddy currents. Since the eddy currents produce a repulsive force that is proportional to the velocity of the conductor, the moving magnet and the conductor behave as a viscous damper. The eddy current generation causes the vibration to dissipate through the Joule heating generated in the conductor part. An accurate, analytical model of the system is obtained by applying electromagnetic theory to estimate the damping properties of the proposed eddy current damper. A prototype eddy current damper is fabricated, and experiments are carried out to verify the accuracy of the theoretical model. The experimental test bed consists of a one-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation system and is used for the frequency and transient time response analysis of the system. The eddy current damper model has a 0.1 m s{sup -2} (4.8%) RMS error in the estimation of the mass acceleration. A damping coefficient as high as 53 Ns m{sup -1} is achievable with the fabricated prototype. This novel eddy current damper is an oil-free, inexpensive damper that is applicable in various vibration isolation systems such as precision machinery, micro-mechanical suspension systems and structure vibration isolation.
Selective Withdrawal with an Inverted Viscosity Ratio
Case, Sarah
2005-03-01
In the selective withdrawal experiment, fluid is withdrawn, at rate Q, through a tube with its tip suspended a distance S above an unperturbed interface separating two immiscible fluids. For high Q, the lower fluid is entrained along with the upper one while for low Q only the upper fluid is withdrawn. We have studied the situation where the ratio of lower to the upper fluid viscosities, η>1. For low Q, the interface forms a steady-state hump and only the upper fluid is withdrawn. When Q is increased, or S is decreased, the interface undergoes a two-stage transition: first the hump forms an unsteady, thin spout which then expands into a second thicker steady-state structure with distinct flow patterns in the lower fluid. This thick-spout structure is not observed for ηCohen and S. R. Nagel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 074501 1- 4 (2002).
On bulk viscosity and moduli decay
Laine, M
2010-01-01
This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, futhermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form.
Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity
Brevik, Iver
2013-01-01
The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...
Non-Newtonian viscosity in magnetized plasma
Johnson, Robert W
2007-01-01
The particle and momentum balance equations can be solved on concentric circular flux surfaces to determine the effective viscous drag present in a magnetized tokamak plasma in the low aspect ratio limit. An analysis is developed utilizing the first-order Fourier expansion of the poloidal variation of quantities on the flux surface akin to that by Stacey and Sigmar [Phys. Fluids, 28, 9 (1985)]. Expressions to determine the poloidal variations of density, poloidal velocity, toroidal velocity, radial electric field, poloidal electric field, and other radial profiles are presented in a multi-species setting. Using as input experimental data for the flux surface averaged profiles of density, temperature, toroidal current, toroidal momentum injection, and the poloidal and toroidal rotations of at least one species of ion, one may solve the equations numerically for the remaining profiles. The resultant effective viscosities are compared to those predicted by Stacey and Sigmar and Shaing, et al., [Nuclear Fusion, 2...
Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO
Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias
2011-01-01
Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.
Heat Transfer Analysis for Peristaltic Mechanism in Variable Viscosity Fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
T.Hayat; F.M.Abbasi; Awatif A.Hendi
2011-01-01
An analysis is carried out for a peristaltic flow of a third-order fluid with heat transfer and variable viscosity when no-slip condition does not hold. Perturbation solution is discussed and a comparative study between the cases of constant and variable viscosities is presented and analyzed.%@@ An analysis is carried out for a peristaltic flow of a third-order fluid with heat transfer and variable viscosity when no-slip condition does not hold.Perturbation solution is discussed and a comparative stuity between the cases of constant and variable viscosities is presented and analyzed.
ANALYSIS OF VISCOSITY ABNORMALITIES OF POLYELECTROLYTES IN DILUTE SOLUTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-qiang Chen; Yu-fang Shao; Zhen Yang; Hu Yang; Rong-shi Cheng
2011-01-01
It was found that the interface effects in viscous capillary flow influenced the process of viscosity measurement greatly,and the abnormal viscosity behaviors of polyelectrolytes as well as neutral polymers in dilute solution region were ascribed to interface effect.According to this theory,we have reviewed the previous viscosity data of derivatives of poly-2-vinylpyridine reported by Maclay and Fuoss first.Then,the abnormal viscosity behaviors of a series of sodium polystyrene sulfonate samples with various molecular weights in dilute aqueous solutions were studied further.The solute adsorption behaviors and structural information of polymers have been discussed carefully.
Notes on shear viscosity bound violation in anisotropic models
Ge, Xian-Hui
2015-01-01
The shear viscosity bound violation in Einstein gravity for anisotropic black branes is discussed, with the aim of constraining the deviation of the shear viscosity-entropy density ratio from the shear viscosity bound using causality and thermodynamics analysis. The results show that no stringent constraints can be imposed. The diffusion bound in anisotropic phases is also studied. Ultimately, it is concluded that shear viscosity violation always occurs in cases where the equation of motion of the metric fluctuations cannot be written in a form identical to that of the minimally coupled massless scalar fields.
Experimental Viscosity Measurements for Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Suspensions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李俊明; 李泽梁; 王补宣
2002-01-01
The viscosity of water with copper oxide nanoparticle suspensions was measured using capillary viscometers. The mass fractions of copper oxide nanoparticles in the experiment, w, varied between 0.02 and 0.10, and the temperature range was 30℃ to 80℃. The experimental results show that the temperature was the major factor affecting the viscosity of the nanoparticle suspensions, while the effect of the mass fraction on the viscosity was not so obvious as that of the temperature for the mass fractions chosen in the experiment. The effect of the capillary tube size on the viscosity was also found to be relatively important at higher mass fractions.
Inference of mantle viscosity for depth resolutions of GIA observations
Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi
2016-11-01
Inference of the mantle viscosity from observations for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process has usually been conducted through the analyses based on the simple three-layer viscosity model characterized by lithospheric thickness, upper- and lower-mantle viscosities. Here, we examine the viscosity structures for the simple three-layer viscosity model and also for the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model defined by viscosities of η670,D (670-D km depth) and ηD,2891 (D-2891 km depth) with D-values of 1191, 1691 and 2191 km. The upper-mantle rheological parameters for the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model are the same as those for the simple three-layer one. For the simple three-layer viscosity model, rate of change of degree-two zonal harmonics of geopotential due to GIA process (GIA-induced J˙2) of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 provides two permissible viscosity solutions for the lower mantle, (7-20) × 1021 and (5-9) × 1022 Pa s, and the analyses with observational constraints of the J˙2 and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf indicate (5-9) × 1022 Pa s for the lower mantle. However, the analyses for the J˙2 based on the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model only require a viscosity layer higher than (5-10) × 1021 Pa s for a depth above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), in which the value of (5-10) × 1021 Pa s corresponds to the solution of (7-20) × 1021 Pa s for the simple three-layer one. Moreover, the analyses with the J˙2 and LGM sea level constraints for the two-layer lower-mantle viscosity model indicate two viscosity solutions: η670,1191 > 3 × 1021 and η1191,2891 ˜ (5-10) × 1022 Pa s, and η670,1691 > 1022 and η1691,2891 ˜ (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The inferred upper-mantle viscosity for such solutions is (1-4) × 1020 Pa s similar to the estimate for the simple three-layer viscosity model. That is, these analyses require a high viscosity layer of (5-10) × 1022 Pa s at least in the deep mantle, and suggest
Eddy-Current Inspection Of Tab Seals On Beverage Cans
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph
1994-01-01
Eddy-current inspection system monitors tab seals on beverage cans. Device inspects all cans at usual production rate of 1,500 to 2,000 cans per minute. Automated inspection of all units replaces visual inspection by microscope aided by mass spectrometry. System detects defects in real time. Sealed cans on conveyor pass near one of two coils in differential eddy-current probe. Other coil in differential eddy-current probe positioned near stationary reference can on which tab seal is known to be of acceptable quality. Signal of certain magnitude at output of probe indicates defective can, automatically ejected from conveyor.
Oceanic eddy detection and lifetime forecast using machine learning methods
Ashkezari, Mohammad D.; Hill, Christopher N.; Follett, Christopher N.; Forget, Gaël.; Follows, Michael J.
2016-12-01
We report a novel altimetry-based machine learning approach for eddy identification and characterization. The machine learning models use daily maps of geostrophic velocity anomalies and are trained according to the phase angle between the zonal and meridional components at each grid point. The trained models are then used to identify the corresponding eddy phase patterns and to predict the lifetime of a detected eddy structure. The performance of the proposed method is examined at two dynamically different regions to demonstrate its robust behavior and region independency.
Sensor for viscosity and shear strength measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebadian, M.A.; Dillion, J.; Moore, J.; Jones, K.
1998-01-01
Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. Two different viscometer techniques are being investigated in this study, based on: magnetostrictive pulse generated acoustic waves; and an oscillating cylinder. Prototype sensors have been built and tested which are based on both techniques. A base capability instrumentation system has been designed, constructed, and tested which incorporates both of these sensors. It requires manual data acquisition and off-line calculation. A broad range of viscous media has been tested using this system. Extensive test results appear in this report. The concept for each technique has been validated by these test results. This base capability system will need to be refined further before it is appropriate for field tests. The mass of the oscillating system structure will need to be reduced. A robust acoustic probe assembly will need to be developed. In addition, in March 1997 it was made known for the first time that the requirement was for a deliverable automated viscosity instrumentation system. Since then such a system has been designed, and the hardware has been constructed so that the automated concept can be proved. The rest of the hardware, which interfaced to a computer, has also been constructed and tested as far as possible. However, for both techniques the computer software for automated data acquisition, calculation, and logging had not been completed before funding and time ran out.
Cosmic String Universes Embedded with Viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Koijam Manihar Singh; Kangujam Priyokumar Singh
2011-01-01
We study string cosmological models with attached particles in LRS BI type space time.The dynamical and physical properties of such universes are studied,and the possibility that during the evolution of the universe the strings disappear,leaving only the particles,is also discussed.It is found that bulk viscosity plays a large role in the evolution of the universe.In these models we find critical instances of when there was a “Bounce”.The studied models are found to be of an inflationary type,and since a desirable feature of a meaningful string cosmological model is the presence of an inflationary epoch in the very early stages of evolution,our models can be thought of as realistic universes.The origin of the universe and the early stages of formation are still interesting areas of research.The concept of string theory was developed to describe the events of the early stages of the evolution of the universe.The universe can be described as a collection of extended (non point) objects.Thus,“string dust” cosmology will provide us with a model to investigate the properties related to this fact.%We study string cosmological models with attached particles in LRS BI type space time. The dynamical and physical properties of such universes are studied, and the possibility that during the evolution of the universe the strings disappear, leaving only the particles, is also discussed. It is found that bulk viscosity plays a large role in the evolution of the universe. In these models we find critical instances of when there was a "Bounce". The studied models are found to be of an inflationary type, and since a desirable feature of a meaningful string cosmological model is the presence of an inflationary epoch in the very early stages of evolution, our models can be thought of as realistic universes.
Eddy Surface properties and propagation at Southern Hemisphere western boundary current systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. S. Pilo
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Oceanic eddies occur in all world oceans, but are more energetic when associated to western boundary currents (WBC systems. In these regions, eddies play an important role on mixing and energy exchange. Therefore, it is important to quantify and qualify eddies occurring within these systems. Previous studies performed eddy censuses in Southern Hemisphere WBC systems. However, important aspects of local eddy population are still unknown. Main questions to be answered relate to eddies' spatial distribution, propagation and lifetime within each system. Here, we use a global eddy dataset to qualify eddies based on their surface characteristics at the Agulhas Current (AC, the Brazil Current (BC and the East Australian Current (EAC Systems. We show that eddy propagation within each system is highly forced by the local mean flow and bathymetry. In the AC System, eddy polarity dictates its propagation distance. BC system eddies do not propagate beyond the Argentine Basin, and are advected by the local ocean circulation. EAC System eddies from both polarities cross south of Tasmania, but only anticyclonics reach the Great Australian Bight. Eddies in all systems and from both polarities presented a geographical segregation according to size. Large eddies occur along the Agulhas Retroflection, the Agulhas Return Current, the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence and the Coral Sea. Small eddies occur in the systems southernmost domains. Understanding eddies' propagation helps to establish monitoring programs, and to better understand how these features would affect local mixing.
Mehrabi Pari, Sharareh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Javidan, Kurosh
2016-10-01
The nuclear suppression factor RAA and elliptic flow ν2 are calculated by considering the effects of shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio η/s, using the viscose hydrodynamics at the first- and second-orders of approximation and considering temperature dependent coupling αs(T). It is shown that the second-order viscose hydrodynamics (varying shear viscosity to entropy ratio) with averaged value of 4πη/s = 1.5 ± 0.1 gives the best results of RAA and ν2 in comparison to the experimental data.
Rheology and tribology of lubricants with polymeric viscosity modifiers
Babak, LotfizadehDehkordi
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has been used to model the lubrication state of antifriction machine elements, where initial viscosity and pressure viscosity coefficients are essential parameters in film thickness modeling. Since the pressures of lubricants in the contact zone can be very high, it is important to know the rheological properties of lubricants in these pressure and temperature regimes. The characteristics of viscosity behavior as a function of pressure are also essential for a universal definition of the pressure viscosity coefficient in order to estimate film thickness in an EHL regime. In this study, viscosities and pressure-viscosity coefficients of ten commercial engine and gear oils and seventeen laboratory-produced oil/polymer viscosity modifiers (VM) additives are measured up to 1.3 GPa at 40, 75 and 100 °C. For the first time, a sharp increase in the viscosity and piezoviscous factor is observed in both mineral-based and synthetic-based oils with different VMs. Analysis of the experimental results indicates that sharp increase in viscosity observed in these experiments are believed to arise from physical changes in the VMs, that is liquid-solid phase transition. Evidence is offered that polymer properties such as molecular weight, concentration and structure influence the onset of the phase transitions. A modified Yasutomi model, which normally describes the pressure dependence of the viscosity of lubricants very well, fails to predict the viscosity of the specimens above the onset of sharp increase in viscosity. A design of experiment (DOE) analysis using Design-Expert software indicates that pressure and temperature are the most critical parameters in the viscosity variation. Tribological tests demonstrate that wear in the contact, zone occurs at temperatures and stresses that coincides with the VM phase transitions in both commercial and laboratory synthesized oil/VMs. Tribological results also indicate that the onset of the
Ergodicity test of the eddy correlation method
Chen, J.; Hu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Lü, S.
2014-07-01
The turbulent flux observation in the near-surface layer is a scientific issue which researchers in the fields of atmospheric science, ecology, geography science, etc. are commonly interested in. For eddy correlation measurement in the atmospheric surface layer, the ergodicity of turbulence is a basic assumption of the Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory, which is confined to steady turbulent flow and homogenous surface; this conflicts with turbulent flow under the conditions of complex terrain and unsteady, long observational period, which the study of modern turbulent flux tends to focus on. In this paper, two sets of data from the Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (NaPlaCE) and the cooperative atmosphere-surface exchange study 1999 (CASE99) were used to analyze and verify the ergodicity of turbulence measured by the eddy covariance system. Through verification by observational data, the vortex of atmospheric turbulence, which is smaller than the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer (i.e., its spatial scale is less than 1000 m and temporal scale is shorter than 10 min) can effectively meet the conditions of the average ergodic theorem, and belong to a wide sense stationary random processes. Meanwhile, the vortex, of which the spatial scale is larger than the scale of the boundary layer, cannot meet the conditions of the average ergodic theorem, and thus it involves non-ergodic stationary random processes. Therefore, if the finite time average is used to substitute for the ensemble average to calculate the average random variable of the atmospheric turbulence, then the stationary random process of the vortex, of which spatial scale was less than 1000 m and thus below the scale of the boundary layer, was possibly captured. However, the non-ergodic random process of the vortex, of which the spatial scale was larger than that of the boundary layer, could not be completely captured. Consequently, when the finite time average was used to substitute
Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.
2011-08-01
The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.
Does the wind systematically energize or damp ocean eddies?
Wilson, Chris
2016-12-01
Globally, mesoscale ocean eddies are a key component of the climate system, involved in transport and mixing of heat, carbon, and momentum. However, they represent one of the major challenges of climate modeling, as the details of their nonlinear dynamics affect all scales. Recent progress analyzing satellite observations of the surface ocean and atmosphere has uncovered energetic interactions between the atmospheric wind stress and ocean eddies that may change our understanding of key processes affecting even large-scale climate. Wind stress acts systematically on ocean eddies and may explain observed asymmetry in the distribution of eddies and details of their lifecycle of growth and decay. These findings provide powerful guidance for climate model development.
Kurczyn, J. A.; Beier, Emilio; Lavín, Miguel,; Chaigneau, Alexis
2012-01-01
Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone (16 degrees N-30 degrees N; 130 degrees W-102 degrees W) are analyzed using nearly 18 years of satellite altimetry and an automated eddy-identification algorithm. Eddies that lasted more than 10 weeks are described based on the analysis of 465 anticyclonic and 529 cyclonic eddy trajectories. We found three near-coastal eddy-prolific areas: (1) Punta Eugenia, (2) Cabo San Lucas, and (3) Cabo Corrientes. These thr...
Eddy heat flux in the Southern Ocean: response to variable wind forcing
Hogg, Andrew Mcc.; Meredith, Michael P.; Blundell, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Christopher
2008-01-01
We assess the role of time-dependent eddy variability in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in influencing warming of the Southern Ocean. For this, we use an eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic model of the wind-driven circulation, and quantify the response of circumpolar transport, eddy kinetic energy and eddy heat transport to changes in winds. On interannual timescales, the model exhibits the behaviour of an "eddy saturated" ocean state, where increases in wind stress do not signicantly ...
Coastal GPS Altimetry for Eddy Monitoring
Cardellach, E.; Treuhaft, R. N.; Chao, Y.; Lowe, S. T.; Young, L. E.; Zuffada, C.
2003-04-01
Coastal zones (within approximately 20-30 km of the coast) are dominated by fast-changing (on the order of days) and small-scale (on the order of km or less) processes. The dynamics and thermodynamics associated with these coastal processes influence the physics, biogeochemistry and the associated carbon cycling in the coastal zones. To monitor these important processes at the highest possible resolution (both spatial and temporal) is therefore an integrated component of the Earth's observing system. Coastal processes are currently not adequately monitored from existing spaceborne observations. The infrared instruments can measure the sea surface temperature in coastal zones with a resolution of approximately 1km daily, but are heavily contaminated by clouds usually found in the land-sea boundaries. The conventional radar altimetry, even with the wide-swath (e.g., OSTM) configuration, can only provide measurements every 10 days, too long to resolve the fast-changing coastal processes, not mentioning the land contamination within the first few footprints (on the order of 20 km) away from the coast. Coastal GPS altimetry from cliffs or structures near the coastline provides a complementary way to measure these coastal processes. The precision of such ground-based grazing angle GPS measurements has been proven to be 2-cm over the smooth surface at Crater Lake [Treuhaft et al., 2001]. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the GPS altimetry over the open sea, significantly affected by roughness, has yet to be assessed. This poster aims to present a set of experiments and analyses to prove the coastal GPS altimetry concept with a few-cm accuracy goal. It includes the analysis of data gathered over the ocean from an oil platform, Platform Harvest, as well as simulations of the GPS reflected signal to identify and correct the effects of the sea roughness. The results of this research are planned to feed the design, execution and processing of an eddy monitoring experiment. It will
Nearby boundaries create eddies near microscopic filter feeders
Pepper, Rachel E.; Roper, Marcus; Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudaira, Paul; Stone, Howard A.
2009-01-01
We show through calculations, simulations and experiments that the eddies often observed near sessile filter feeders are frequently due to the presence of nearby boundaries. We model the common filter feeder Vorticella, which is approximately 50 µm across and which feeds by removing bacteria from ocean or pond water that it draws towards itself. We use both an analytical stokeslet model and a Brinkman flow approximation that exploits the narrow-gap geometry to predict the size of the eddy cau...
Eddy current pulsed phase thermography and feature extraction
He, Yunze; Tian, GuiYun; Pan, Mengchun; Chen, Dixiang
2013-08-01
This letter proposed an eddy current pulsed phase thermography technique combing eddy current excitation, infrared imaging, and phase analysis. One steel sample is selected as the material under test to avoid the influence of skin depth, which provides subsurface defects with different depths. The experimental results show that this proposed method can eliminate non-uniform heating and improve defect detectability. Several features are extracted from differential phase spectra and the preliminary linear relationships are built to measure these subsurface defects' depth.
Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones
Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Holst, J.J.; Graaf, de C.
2009-01-01
In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22 ± 2 y, BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/
A Riemann problem with small viscosity and dispersion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kayyunnapara Thomas Joseph
2006-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we prove existence of global solutions to a hyperbolic system in elastodynamics, with small viscosity and dispersion terms and derive estimates uniform in the viscosity-dispersion parameters. By passing to the limit, we prove the existence of solution the Riemann problem for the hyperbolic system with arbitrary Riemann data.
Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2003-01-01
Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...
Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2006-01-01
The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongation...
Low Viscosity Lubricating Oils with Superior Cold Properties,
The invention concerns low viscosity lubricating oils based on polyakylbenzenes. The patent claims the use of low boiling portions of the...distillation residues occurring in the alkylation of benzene with chloroparaffins or olefins of the C10 to C14 chain length, as low viscosity and low congealing lubricating oils or as congealing point lowering mix components.
On-line measurement of food viscosity during flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mason, Sarah Louise; Friis, Alan
2006-01-01
Sarah L. Mason and Alan Friis discuss some of the principles and equipment used to monitor food viscosity in real time.......Sarah L. Mason and Alan Friis discuss some of the principles and equipment used to monitor food viscosity in real time....
Viscosity of liquids theory, estimation, experiment, and data
Viswanath, Dabir S; Prasad, Dasika HL; Dutt, Nidamarty VK; Rani, Kalipatnapu Y
2007-01-01
Single comprehensive book on viscosity of liquids, as opposed to most of the books in this area which are data books, i.e., a compilation of viscosity data from the literature, where the information is scattered and the description and analysis of the experimental methods and governing theory are not readily available in a single place.
Rotational and spin viscosities of water: Application to nanofluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Bruus, Henrik; Todd, B.D.
2010-01-01
In this paper we evaluate the rotational viscosity and the two spin viscosities for liquid water using equilibrium molecular dynamics. Water is modeled via the flexible SPC/Fw model where the Coulomb interactions are calculated via the Wolf method which enables the long simulation times required...
On-line measurement of food viscosity during flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mason, Sarah Louise; Friis, Alan
2006-01-01
Sarah L. Mason and Alan Friis discuss some of the principles and equipment used to monitor food viscosity in real time.......Sarah L. Mason and Alan Friis discuss some of the principles and equipment used to monitor food viscosity in real time....
Viscosity and electrical resistivity of Al-Li melts
Kononenko, V. I.; Razhabov, A. A.; Ryabina, A. V.
2011-08-01
The kinematic viscosity and electrical resistivity of Al-Li alloys in the liquid state are studied by a combined electrodeless method. Some theoretical calculations performed to determine the viscosity and electrical resistance by comparing the calculated and experimental data are estimated.
Post glacial rebounds measure the viscosity of the lithosphere
Garai, J
2003-01-01
The observed higher uplift rates before the end of deglaciation requires the existence of a low viscosity channel or layer. The uplifts observed after the end of deglaciation does not show any contribution from this low viscosity channel and a homogeneous viscosity model fits very well to the observed uplift. Most of the researchers therefore prefer the homogeneous model and suggest that the higher uplift rate before the end of deglaciation is the result of elastic contamination. It has been shown that the elastic deformation of the lithosphere is far too small to be responsible for the observed extra uplift; therefore, the homogeneous viscosity model should be discredited. The homogeneous viscosity of the postglacial period and the high uplift rate of the late glacial period can be explained with a model which has an upper layer determining the homogeneous viscosity and the layer below it which has a low viscosity. The contribution to the uplift of this low viscosity layer is indistinguishable from an instan...
Improved acoustic viscosimeter technique. [for determining fluid shear viscosity
Fisch, M. R.; Moeller, R. P.; Carome, E. F.
1976-01-01
An improved technique has been developed for studies of the shear viscosity of fluids. It utilizes an acoustic resonator as a four-terminal electrical device; the resonator's amplitude response may be determined directly and simply related to the fluid's viscosity. The use of this technique is discussed briefly and data obtained in several fluids is presented.
Viscosity over entropy ratio in a quark plasma
Czerski, P.; Alberico, W. M.; Chiacchiera, S.; DePace, A.; Hansen, H.; Molinari, A.; Nardi, M.
2009-02-01
The quark viscosity in the quark-gluon plasma is evaluated in the hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation. The different contributions to the viscosity arising from the various components of the quark spectral function are discussed. The calculation is extended to finite values of the chemical potential.
Viscosity Reduction in Liquid Suspensions by Electric or Magnetic Fields
Tao, R.; Xu, X.
Reducing the viscosity of liquid suspensions is of great importance in science and engineering. We present a theory and experiments that a suitable electric or magnetic field pulse can effectively reduce the viscosity for several hours with no appreciable change of temperature. Positive experimental results with magnetorheological fluids and crude oil suggest a broad range of practical applications.
Note: precision viscosity measurement using suspended microchannel resonators.
Lee, I; Park, K; Lee, J
2012-11-01
We report the characterization of a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) for viscosity measurements in a low viscosity regime (<10 mPa s) using two measurement schemes. First, the quality factor (Q-factor) of the SMR was characterized with glycerol-water mixtures. The measured Q-factor at 20 °C exhibits a bilinear behavior with the sensitivity of 1281 (mPa s)(-1) for a lower (1-4 mPa s) and 355 (mPa s)(-1) for a higher viscosity range (4-8 mPa s), respectively. The second scheme is the vibration amplitude monitoring of the SMR running in a closed loop feedback. When compared in terms of the measurement time, the amplitude-based measurement takes only 0.1 ~ 1 ms while the Q-factor-based measurement takes ~30 s. However, the viscosity resolution of the Q-factor-based measurement is at least three times better than the amplitude-based measurement. By comparing the Q-factors of heavy water and 9.65 wt.% glycerol-water mixture that have very similar viscosities but different densities, we confirmed that the SMR can measure the dynamic viscosity without the density correction. The obtained results demonstrate that the SMR can measure the fluid viscosity with high precision and even real-time monitoring of the viscosity change is possible with the amplitude-based measurement scheme.
Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones
Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Holst, J.J.; Graaf, de C.
2009-01-01
In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22 ± 2 y, BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/
Viscosity Prediction of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Based on the Friction Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2001-01-01
The application and capability of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity predictions of hydrocarbon fluids is further illustrated by predicting the viscosity of binary and ternary liquid mixtures composed of n-alkanes ranging from n-pentane to n-decane for wide ranges of temperature and fro...
The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials
Benincasa, P; Naryshkin, R; Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Naryshkin, Roman
2007-01-01
We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.
The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials
Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Naryshkin, Roman
2007-02-01
We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.
Large Eddy Simulation of Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in the Upper Plenum of Fast Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Seokki; Lee, Taeho; Kim, Dongeun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sungho [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The important parameters in the thermal striping are the frequency and the amplitude of the temperature fluctuation. Since the sodium used as coolant in the PGSFR has a high thermal conductivity, the temperature fluctuation can be easily transferred to the solid walls of the components in the upper plenum. To remedy these problems, numerical studies are performed in the present study to analyze the thermal striping for possible improvement of the design and safety of the reactor. For the numerical works, Chacko et al. performed LES for the experiment by Nam and Kim, and found that the LES can produce the oscillation of temperature fluctuation properly, while the realizable k - ε model predicts the amplitude and frequency of the temperature fluctuation very poorly indicating that the LES method is an appropriate calculation method for the thermal striping. In this paper, the simulation of thermal striping in the upper plenum of PGSFR is performed using the LES method. The WALE eddy viscosity model by Nicoud and Ducros built in CFX-13 commercial code is employed for the LES eddy viscosity model. The numerical investigation of the thermal striping is performed with the LES method using the CFX-13 commercial code, where the solution domain is the upper plenum of the PGSFR. As the first step, dozens of monitoring points are set to locations that are anticipated to cause thermal striping. Then, the temperature fluctuations were calculated along with the time-averaged variables such as the velocity and temperature. From these results we have obtained the following conclusions. At the side wall of IHX, a slight fluctuation is observed, but it seems that there is no risk of thermal striping. The flows from the reactor core are not mixed when reaching the UIS. So both the first and second plates need to be considered. Among the first grid plate regions, the shape region is the weakest region for thermal striping. The second weakest region for thermal striping is the shape
Application of altimetry data assimilation on mesoscale eddies simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Mesoscale eddy plays an important role in the ocean circulation. In order to improve the simulation accuracy of the mesoscale eddies, a three-dimensional variation (3DVAR) data assimilation system called Ocean Variational Analysis System (OVALS) is coupled with a POM model to simulate the mesoscale eddies in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this system, the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data by satellite altimeters are assimilated and translated into pseudo temperature and salinity (T-S) profile data. Then, these profile data are taken as observation data to be assimilated again and produce the three-dimensional analysis T-S field. According to the characteristics of mesoscale eddy, the most appropriate assimilation parameters are set up and testified in this system. A ten years mesoscale eddies simulation and comparison experiment is made, which includes two schemes: assimilation and non-assimilation. The results of comparison between two schemes and the observation show that the simulation accuracy of the assimilation scheme is much better than that of non-assimilation, which verified that the altimetry data assimilation method can improve the simulation accuracy of the mesoscale dramatically and indicates that it is possible to use this system on the forecast of mesoscale eddies in the future.
Sonic eddy model of the turbulent boundary layer
Breidenthal, Robert; Dintilhac, Paul; Williams, Owen
2016-11-01
A model of the compressible turbulent boundary layer is proposed. It is based on the notion that turbulent transport by an eddy requires that information of nonsteady events propagates across the diameter of that eddy during one rotation period. The finite acoustic signaling speed then controls the turbulent fluxes. As a consequence, the fluxes are limited by the largest eddies that satisfies this requirement. Therefore "sonic eddies" with a rotational Mach number of about unity would determine the skin friction, which is predicted to vary inversely with Mach number. This sonic eddy model contrasts with conventional models that are based on the energy equation and variations in the density. The effect of density variations is known to be weak in free shear flows, and the sonic eddy model assumes the same for the boundary layer. In general, Mach number plays two simultaneous roles in compressible flow, one related to signaling and the other related to the energy equation. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data and DNS results from the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrach, R.J.; Rogers, F.J.
1981-09-01
Two equation-of-state (EOS) models for multipy ionized matter are evaluated for the case of an aluminum plasma in the temperature range from about one eV to several hundred eV, spanning conditions of weak to strong ionization. Specifically, the simple analytical mode of Zel'dovich and Raizer and the more comprehensive model comprised by Rogers' plasma physics avtivity expansion code (ACTEX) are used to calculate the specific internal energy epsilon and average degree of ionization Z-bar*, as functons of temperature T and density rho. In the absence of experimental data, these results are compared against each other, covering almost five orders-of-magnitude variation in epsilon and the full range of Z-bar* We find generally good agreement between the two sets of results, especially for low densities and for temperatures near the upper end of the rage. Calculated values of epsilon(T) agree to within +- 30% over nearly the full range in T for densities below about 1 g/cm/sup 3/. Similarly, the two models predict values of Z-bar*(T) which track each other fairly well; above 20 eV the discrepancy is less than +- 20% fpr rho< or approx. =1 g/cm/sup 3/. Where the calculations disagree, we expect the ACTEX code to be more accurate than Zel'dovich and Raizer's model, by virtue of its more detailed physics content.
Harrach, Robert J.; Rogers, Forest J.
1981-09-01
Two equation-of-state (EOS) models for multipy ionized matter are evaluated for the case of an aluminum plasma in the temperature range from about one eV to several hundred eV, spanning conditions of weak to strong ionization. Specifically, the simple analytical mode of Zel'dovich and Raizer and the more comprehensive model comprised by Rogers' plasma physics avtivity expansion code (ACTEX) are used to calculate the specific internal energy ɛ and average degree of ionization Z¯*, as functons of temperature T and density ρ. In the absence of experimental data, these results are compared against each other, covering almost five orders-of-magnitude variation in ɛ and the full range of Z¯* We find generally good agreement between the two sets of results, especially for low densities and for temperatures near the upper end of the rage. Calculated values of ɛ(T) agree to within ±30% over nearly the full range in T for densities below about 1 g/cm3. Similarly, the two models predict values of Z¯*(T) which track each other fairly well; above 20 eV the discrepancy is less than ±20% fpr ρ≲1 g/cm3. Where the calculations disagree, we expect the ACTEX code to be more accurate than Zel'dovich and Raizer's model, by virtue of its more detailed physics content.
Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions
Leyva, Yoelsy
2016-01-01
We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with $w<-1$. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interac...
Integrated Solvent Design for CO2 Capture and Viscosity Tuning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cantu Cantu, David; Malhotra, Deepika; Koech, Phillip K.; Heldebrant, David J.; Zheng, Feng; Freeman, Charles J.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra
2017-07-03
We present novel design strategies for reduced viscosity single-component, water-lean CO2 capture organic solvent systems. Through molecular simulation, we identify the main molecular-level descriptor that influences bulk solvent viscosity. Upon loading, a zwitterionic structure forms with a small activation energy of ca 16 kJ/mol and a small stabilization of ca 6 kJ/mol. Viscosity increases exponentially with CO2 loading due to hydrogen-bonding between neighboring Zwitterions. We find that molecular structures that promote internal hydrogen bonding (within the same molecule) and suppress interactions with neighboring molecules have low viscosities. In addition, tuning the acid/base properties leads to a shift of the equilibrium toward a non-charged (acid) form that further reduces the viscosity. Based on the above structural criteria, a reduced order model is also presented that allows for the quick screening of large compound libraries and down selection of promising candidates for synthesis and testing.
Development of high viscosity coatings for advanced Space Shuttle applications
Garofalini, S. H.; Banas, R.; Creedon, J.
1979-01-01
Laboratory studies for increasing the thermal resistance of high viscosity coatings for silica reusable surface insulation are presented. The coatings are intended for the reentry temperature associated with advanced Space Shuttle applications which will involve aerodynamic shear forces during entry from earth orbits. Coating viscosity was increased by (1) reduction in the concentration of the low viscosity additive B2O3; (2) reduction in the particle size of the constituent powders in coatings; and (3) addition of a high viscosity glass former (GeO2). A coating system was produced by combining the three methods which showed apparent higher viscosity than the current coating, while satisfying all the current Shuttle Orbiter coating requirements.
Effect of Fluid Viscosity on Centrifugal Pump Performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Nohhyeong [GS Caltex Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-06-15
The characteristics of centrifugal pump performance according to fluid viscosity change were studied experimentally. A small volute pump with low specific speed was tested by changing the viscosity of an aqueous solution of sugar and glycerin, which is considered a Newtonian fluid. After finishing the test, the total head, shaft horsepower, and pump efficiency were compared with those of a water pump. The results are summarized as follows: when the fluid viscosity is increased, the shut-off head shows very little change but the total head decreases gradually as the flow increases, and this makes the H-Q curve leaning rapidly, and when the fluid viscosity is increased, the shaft horsepower shows very little change at the shutoff condition; however, the shaft horsepower increases more rapidly with an increase in the flow and viscosity.
Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sa' d, Basil A.
2009-08-27
The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)
Viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol under high pressure
Malanowski, Aleksander; Rostocki, A. J.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Kościesza, R.; Tarakowski, R.; Ptasznik, S.; Siegoczyński, R. M.
2013-03-01
The influence of high pressure on viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been presented in this paper. The investigated DAG oil was composed of 82% of DAGs and 18% TAGs (triacylglycerols). The dynamic viscosity of DAG was investigated as a function of the pressure up to 400 MPa. The viscosity was measured by means of the surface acoustic wave method, where the acoustic waveguides were used as sensing elements. As the pressure was rising, the larger ultrasonic wave attenuation was observed, whereas amplitude decreased with the liquid viscosity augmentation. Measured changes of physical properties were most significant in the pressure range near the phase transition. Deeper understanding of DAG viscosity and compressibility changes versus pressure could shed more light on thermodynamic properties of edible oils.
Viscosity and density dependence during maximal flow in man.
Staats, B A; Wilson, T A; Lai-Fook, S J; Rodarte, J R; Hyatt, R E
1980-02-01
Maximal expiratory flow curves were obtained from ten healthy subjects white breathing air and three other gas mixtures with different densities and viscosities. From these data, the magnitudes of the dependence of maximal flow on gas density and viscosity were obtained. The scaling laws of fluid mechanics, together with a model for the flow-limiting mechanism, were used to obtain a prediction of the relationship between the density dependence and the viscosity dependence of maximal flow. Although the data for individual subjects were too variable to allow a precise comparison with this prediction, the relationship between the mean density dependence and the mean viscosity dependence of all usbjects agreed with the theoretic prediction. This agreement supports the assumption, which is frequently made, that flow resistance rather than tissue visoelasticity is the dominant contributor to peripheral resistance. Information on the relationships between the pressure drop to the flow-limiting segment and flow, gas density and viscosity, and lung volume were also obtained.
Measuring Solution Viscosity and its Effect on Enzyme Activity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uribe Salvador
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes undergo large conformational changes as they progress through the catalytic cycle. According to Kramers theory, solvent viscosity results in friction against proteins in solution, and this should result in decreased motion, inhibiting catalysis in motile enzymes. Solution viscosity was increased by adding increasing concentrations of glycerol, sucrose and trehalose, resulting in a decrease in the reaction rate of the H+-ATPase from the plasma membrane of Kluyveromyces lactis. A direct correlation was found between viscosity (&eegr; and the inhibition of the maximum rate of catalysis (V max. The protocol used to measure viscosity by means of a falling ball type viscometer is described, together with the determination of enzyme kinetics and the application of Kramers’ equation to evaluate the effect of viscosity on the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the H+-ATPase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ladislav Janousek
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with variation of eddy current density distribution along material depth and investigates an effect of the variation on a crack signal in eddy current non-destructive testing. Four coaxial rectangular tangential coils are used to induce eddy currents in a tested conductive object. The exciting coils are driven independently by phase-shifted AC currents; a ratio of amplitudes of the exciting currents is continuously changed to vary the distribution of eddy current density along material depth under a circular pick-up coil positioned in centre between the exciting coils. Dependences of a crack signal amplitude and its phase on the ratio are evaluated and special features are extracted. It is revealed that the dependences are strongly influenced by depth of a crack, and thus the extracted features can enhance evaluation of a detected crack.
Eddy Current Flexible Probes for Complex Geometries
Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Decitre, J. M.; Vacher, F.; Fermon, C.; Pannetier, M.; Cattiaux, G.
2006-03-01
The inspection of materials used in aerospace, nuclear or transport industry is a critical issue for the safety of components exposed to stress or/and corrosion. The industry claims for faster, more sensitive, and more flexible techniques. Technologies based on Eddy Current (EC) flexible array probe and magnetic sensor with high sensitivity such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR) could be a good solution to detect surface-breaking flaws in complex shaped surfaces. The CEA has recently developed, with support from the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), a flexible array probe based on micro-coils etched on Kapton. The probe's performances have been assessed for the inspection of reactor residual heat removal pipes, and for aeronautical applications within the framework of the European project VERDICT. The experimental results confirm the very good detection of narrow cracks on plane and curve shaped surfaces. This paper also describes the recent progresses concerning the application of GMR sensors to EC testing, and the results obtained for the detection of small surface breaking flaws.
Advanced Eddy current NDE steam generator tubing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakhtiari, S.
1999-03-29
As part of a multifaceted project on steam generator integrity funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out research on the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). A particular area of interest is the impact of advanced eddy current (EC) NDE technology. This paper presents an overview of work that supports this effort in the areas of numerical electromagnetic (EM) modeling, data analysis, signal processing, and visualization of EC inspection results. Finite-element modeling has been utilized to study conventional and emerging EC probe designs. This research is aimed at determining probe responses to flaw morphologies of current interest. Application of signal processing and automated data analysis algorithms has also been addressed. Efforts have focused on assessment of frequency and spatial domain filters and implementation of more effective data analysis and display methods. Data analysis studies have dealt with implementation of linear and nonlinear multivariate models to relate EC inspection parameters to steam generator tubing defect size and structural integrity. Various signal enhancement and visualization schemes are also being evaluated and will serve as integral parts of computer-aided data analysis algorithms. Results from this research will ultimately be substantiated through testing on laboratory-grown and in-service-degraded tubes.
Viscosity prescription for gravitationally unstable accretion disks
Rafikov, Roman R
2015-01-01
Gravitationally unstable accretion disks emerge in a variety of astrophysical contexts - giant planet formation, FU Orioni outbursts, feeding of AGNs, and the origin of Pop III stars. When a gravitationally unstable disk is unable to cool rapidly it settles into a quasi-stationary, fluctuating gravitoturbulent state, in which its Toomre Q remains close to a constant value Q_0~1. Here we develop an analytical formalism describing the evolution of such a disk, which is based on the assumptions of Q=Q_0 and local thermal equilibrium. Our approach works in the presence of additional sources of angular momentum transport (e.g. MRI), as well as external irradiation. Thermal balance dictates a unique value of the gravitoturbulent stress \\alpha_{gt} driving disk evolution, which is a function of the local surface density and angular frequency. We compare this approach with other commonly used gravitoturbulent viscosity prescriptions, which specify the explicit dependence of stress \\alpha_{gt} on Toomre Q in an ad hoc...
Set, Seng; Ford, David; Kita, Masakazu
2015-01-01
This research revealed that metal ions with different charges could significantly affect the viscosity of aqueous sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) solution. On the basis of an Ostwald viscometer, an improvised apparatus using a dropping ball for examining the viscosity of liquids/solutions has been developed. The results indicate that the…
The viscosity of planetary tholeiitic melts: A configurational entropy model
Sehlke, Alexander; Whittington, Alan G.
2016-10-01
The viscosity (η) of silicate melts is a fundamental physical property controlling mass transfer in magmatic systems. Viscosity can span many orders of magnitude, strongly depending on temperature and composition. Several models are available that describe this dependency for terrestrial melts quite well. Planetary basaltic lavas however are distinctly different in composition, being dominantly alkali-poor, iron-rich and/or highly magnesian. We measured the viscosity of 20 anhydrous tholeiitic melts, of which 15 represent known or estimated surface compositions of Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Io and Vesta, by concentric cylinder and parallel plate viscometry. The planetary basalts span a viscosity range of 2 orders of magnitude at liquidus temperatures and 4 orders of magnitude near the glass transition, and can be more or less viscous than terrestrial lavas. We find that current models under- and overestimate superliquidus viscosities by up to 2 orders of magnitude for these compositions, and deviate even more strongly from measured viscosities toward the glass transition. We used the Adam-Gibbs theory (A-G) to relate viscosity (η) to absolute temperature (T) and the configurational entropy of the system at that temperature (Sconf), which is in the form of log η =Ae +Be /TSconf . Heat capacities (CP) for glasses and liquids of our investigated compositions were calculated via available literature models. We show that the A-G theory is applicable to model the viscosity of individual complex tholeiitic melts containing 10 or more major oxides as well or better than the commonly used empirical equations. We successfully modeled the global viscosity data set using a constant Ae of -3.34 ± 0.22 log units and 12 adjustable sub-parameters, which capture the compositional and temperature dependence on melt viscosity. Seven sub-parameters account for the compositional dependence of Be and 5 for Sconf. Our model reproduces the 496 measured viscosity data points with a 1
LARGE-EDDY AND DETACHED-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF THE SEPARATED FLOW AROUND A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The separated turbulent flow around a circular cylinder is investigated using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES), Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES, or hybrid RANS/LES methods), and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS). The purpose of this study is to examine some typical simulation approaches for the prediction of complex separated turbulent flow and to clarify the capability of applying these approaches to a typical case of the separated turbulent flow around a circular cylinder. Several turbulence models, I.e. Dynamic Sub-grid Scale (SGS) model in LES, the DES-based Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) and Shear-Stress- Transport (SST) models in DES, and the S-A and SST models in URANS, are used in the calculations. Some typical results, e.g., the mean pressure and drag coefficients, velocity profiles, Strouhal number, and Reynolds stresses, are obtained and compared with previous computational and experimental data. Based on our extensive calculations, we assess the capability and performance of these simulation approaches coupled with the relevant turbulence models to predict the separated turbulent flow.
Pal, Abhro; Anupindi, Kameswararao; Delorme, Yann; Ghaisas, Niranjan; Shetty, Dinesh A; Frankel, Steven H
2014-07-01
In the present study, we performed large eddy simulation (LES) of axisymmetric, and 75% stenosed, eccentric arterial models with steady inflow conditions at a Reynolds number of 1000. The results obtained are compared with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data (Varghese et al., 2007, "Direct Numerical Simulation of Stenotic Flows. Part 1. Steady Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 582, pp. 253-280). An inhouse code (WenoHemo) employing high-order numerical methods for spatial and temporal terms, along with a 2nd order accurate ghost point immersed boundary method (IBM) (Mark, and Vanwachem, 2008, "Derivation and Validation of a Novel Implicit Second-Order Accurate Immersed Boundary Method," J. Comput. Phys., 227(13), pp. 6660-6680) for enforcing boundary conditions on curved geometries is used for simulations. Three subgrid scale (SGS) models, namely, the classical Smagorinsky model (Smagorinsky, 1963, "General Circulation Experiments With the Primitive Equations," Mon. Weather Rev., 91(10), pp. 99-164), recently developed Vreman model (Vreman, 2004, "An Eddy-Viscosity Subgrid-Scale Model for Turbulent Shear Flow: Algebraic Theory and Applications," Phys. Fluids, 16(10), pp. 3670-3681), and the Sigma model (Nicoud et al., 2011, "Using Singular Values to Build a Subgrid-Scale Model for Large Eddy Simulations," Phys. Fluids, 23(8), 085106) are evaluated in the present study. Evaluation of SGS models suggests that the classical constant coefficient Smagorinsky model gives best agreement with the DNS data, whereas the Vreman and Sigma models predict an early transition to turbulence in the poststenotic region. Supplementary simulations are performed using Open source field operation and manipulation (OpenFOAM) ("OpenFOAM," http://www.openfoam.org/) solver and the results are inline with those obtained with WenoHemo.
GodunovSPH with shear viscosity: implementation and tests
Cha, Seung-Hoon; Wood, Matt A.
2016-05-01
The acceleration and energy dissipation terms due to the shear viscosity have been implemented and tested in GodunovSPH. The double summation method has been employed to avoid the well-known numerical noise of the second derivative in particle based codes. The plane Couette flow with various initial and boundary conditions have been used as tests, and the numerical and analytical results show a good agreement. Not only the viscosity-only calculation, but the full hydrodynamics simulations have been performed, and they show expected results as well. The very low kinematic viscosity simulations show a turbulent pattern when the Reynolds number exceeds ˜102. The critical value of the Reynolds number at the transition point of the laminar and turbulent flows coincides with the previous works approximately. A smoothed dynamic viscosity has been suggested to describe the individual kinematic viscosity of particles. The infinitely extended Couette flow which has two layers of different viscosities has been simulated to check the smoothed dynamic viscosity, and the result agrees well with the analytic solution. In order to compare the standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and GodunovSPH, the two layers test has been performed again with a density contrast. GodunovSPH shows less dispersion than the standard SPH, but there is no significant difference in the results. The results of the viscous ring evolution has also been presented as well, and the numerical results agrees with the analytic solution.
Odd viscosity in two-dimensional incompressible fluids
Ganeshan, Sriram; Abanov, Alexander G.
2017-09-01
In this work, we present observable consequences of a parity-violating odd-viscosity term in incompressible 2+1D hydrodynamics. For boundary conditions depending on the velocity field (flow) alone we show that (i) the fluid flow quantified by the velocity field is independent of odd viscosity, (ii) the force acting on a closed contour is independent of odd viscosity, and (iii) the odd-viscosity part of torque on a closed contour is proportional to the rate of change of area enclosed by the contour with the proportionality constant being twice the odd viscosity. The last statement allows us to define a measurement protocol of odd viscostance in analogy to Hall resistance measurements. We also consider no-stress boundary conditions that explicitly depend on odd viscosity. A classic hydrodynamics problem with no-stress boundary conditions is that of a bubble in a planar Stokes flow. We solve this problem exactly for shear and hyperbolic flows and show that the steady-state shape of the bubble in the shear flow depends explicitly on the value of odd viscosity.
Viscosity of molten lithium, thorium and beryllium fluorides mixtures
Merzlyakov, Alexander V.; Ignatiev, Victor V.; Abalin, Sergei S.
2011-12-01
Considering development of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept, following Molten Salt fluorides mixtures have been chosen as an object for viscosity studies in this work (in mol%): 78LiF-22ThF 4; 71LiF-27ThF 4-2BeF 2 and 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2. Additionally, the effect of the 3 mol% CeF 3 additives on viscosity of the molten 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2 (mol%) salt mixture has been investigated experimentally. The method of torsional oscillations of cylindrical crucible filled by molten fluorides mixture has been chosen for kinematic viscosity measurement at temperatures up to 800-850 °C. In temperature ranges, where melts behave as normal liquids, dependences on viscosity vs. temperature are received: ν = А exp [B/T(K)], where ν - kinematic viscosity, m 2/s; T - temperature, K. The kinematic viscosity Rout mean squares (RMS) estimated in the assumption about dispersion homoscedasticity is (0.04-0.12) × 10 -6 (m 2/s). Discrepancies left in the data of viscosity for molten mixtures of LiF, BeF 2 and ThF 4 received by different researchers need further investigations in this area to be continued.
Scalar excursions in large-eddy simulations
Matheou, Georgios; Dimotakis, Paul E.
2016-12-01
The range of values of scalar fields in turbulent flows is bounded by their boundary values, for passive scalars, and by a combination of boundary values, reaction rates, phase changes, etc., for active scalars. The current investigation focuses on the local conservation of passive scalar concentration fields and the ability of the large-eddy simulation (LES) method to observe the boundedness of passive scalar concentrations. In practice, as a result of numerical artifacts, this fundamental constraint is often violated with scalars exhibiting unphysical excursions. The present study characterizes passive-scalar excursions in LES of a shear flow and examines methods for diagnosis and assesment of the problem. The analysis of scalar-excursion statistics provides support of the main hypothesis of the current study that unphysical scalar excursions in LES result from dispersive errors of the convection-term discretization where the subgrid-scale model (SGS) provides insufficient dissipation to produce a sufficiently smooth scalar field. In the LES runs three parameters are varied: the discretization of the convection terms, the SGS model, and grid resolution. Unphysical scalar excursions decrease as the order of accuracy of non-dissipative schemes is increased, but the improvement rate decreases with increasing order of accuracy. Two SGS models are examined, the stretched-vortex and a constant-coefficient Smagorinsky. Scalar excursions strongly depend on the SGS model. The excursions are significantly reduced when the characteristic SGS scale is set to double the grid spacing in runs with the stretched-vortex model. The maximum excursion and volume fraction of excursions outside boundary values show opposite trends with respect to resolution. The maximum unphysical excursions increase as resolution increases, whereas the volume fraction decreases. The reason for the increase in the maximum excursion is statistical and traceable to the number of grid points (sample size
Large eddy simulation of powered Fontan hemodynamics.
Delorme, Y; Anupindi, K; Kerlo, A E; Shetty, D; Rodefeld, M; Chen, J; Frankel, S
2013-01-18
Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2-3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3-5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a "biventricular Fontan" circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo(TM)) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data.
Recurrence Analysis of Eddy Covariance Fluxes
Lange, Holger; Flach, Milan; Foken, Thomas; Hauhs, Michael
2015-04-01
The eddy covariance (EC) method is one key method to quantify fluxes in biogeochemical cycles in general, and carbon and energy transport across the vegetation-atmosphere boundary layer in particular. EC data from the worldwide net of flux towers (Fluxnet) have also been used to validate biogeochemical models. The high resolution data are usually obtained at 20 Hz sampling rate but are affected by missing values and other restrictions. In this contribution, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of EC fluxes using Recurrence Analysis (RA). High resolution data from the site DE-Bay (Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen) and fluxes calculated at half-hourly resolution from eight locations (part of the La Thuile dataset) provide a set of very long time series to analyze. After careful quality assessment and Fluxnet standard gapfilling pretreatment, we calculate properties and indicators of the recurrent structure based both on Recurrence Plots as well as Recurrence Networks. Time series of RA measures obtained from windows moving along the time axis are presented. Their interpretation is guided by three different questions: (1) Is RA able to discern periods where the (atmospheric) conditions are particularly suitable to obtain reliable EC fluxes? (2) Is RA capable to detect dynamical transitions (different behavior) beyond those obvious from visual inspection? (3) Does RA contribute to an understanding of the nonlinear synchronization between EC fluxes and atmospheric parameters, which is crucial for both improving carbon flux models as well for reliable interpolation of gaps? (4) Is RA able to recommend an optimal time resolution for measuring EC data and for analyzing EC fluxes? (5) Is it possible to detect non-trivial periodicities with a global RA? We will demonstrate that the answers to all five questions is affirmative, and that RA provides insights into EC dynamics not easily obtained otherwise.
Singularities and Entropy in Bulk Viscosity Dark Energy Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟新河; 窦旭
2011-01-01
In this paper bulk viscosity is introduced to describe the effects of cosmic non-perfect fluid on the cosmos evolution and to build the unified dark energy （DE） with （dark） matter models. Also we derive a general relation between the bulk viscosity form and Hubble parameter that can provide a procedure for the viscosity DE model building. Especially, a redshift dependent viscosity parameter ζ ∝ λ0 ＋λ1（1 ＋z）n proposed in the previous work [X.H. Meng and X. Dou, Commun. Theor. Phys. B2 （2009） 377] is investigated extensively in this present work. Further more we use the recently released supernova dataset （the Constitution dataset） to constrain the model parameters. In order to differentiate the proposed concrete dark energy models from the well known ACDM model, statefinder diagnostic method is applied to this bulk viscosity model, as a complementary to the Om parameter diagnostic and the deceleration parameter analysis performed by us before. The DE model evolution behavior and tendency are shown in the plane of the statefinder diagnostic parameter pair {τ, s} as axes where the fixed point represents the A CDM model The possible singularity property in this bulk viscosity cosmology is also discussed to which we can conclude that in the different parameter regions chosen properly, this concrete viscosity DE model can have various late evolution behaviors and the late time singularity could be avoided. We also calculate the cosmic entropy in the bulk viscosity dark energy frame, and find that the total entropy in the viscosity DE model increases monotonously with respect to the scale factor evolution, thus this monotonous increasing property can indicate an arrow of time in the universe evolution, though the quantum version of the arrow of time is still very puzzling.
Nonlocal transport and the hydrodynamic shear viscosity in graphene
Torre, Iacopo; Tomadin, Andrea; Geim, Andre K.; Polini, Marco
2015-10-01
Motivated by recent experimental progress in preparing encapsulated graphene sheets with ultrahigh mobilities up to room temperature, we present a theoretical study of dc transport in doped graphene in the hydrodynamic regime. By using the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate analytically that measurements of nonlocal resistances in multiterminal Hall bar devices can be used to extract the hydrodynamic shear viscosity of the two-dimensional (2D) electron liquid in graphene. We also discuss how to probe the viscosity-dominated hydrodynamic transport regime by scanning probe potentiometry and magnetometry. Our approach enables measurements of the viscosity of any 2D electron liquid in the hydrodynamic transport regime.
Numerical solutions of Williamson fluid with pressure dependent viscosity
Zehra, Iffat; Yousaf, Malik Muhammad; Nadeem, Sohail
In the present paper, we have examined the flow of Williamson fluid in an inclined channel with pressure dependent viscosity. The governing equations of motion for Williamson fluid model under the effects of pressure dependent viscosity and pressure dependent porosity are modeled and then solved numerically by the shooting method with Runge Kutta Fehlberg for two types of geometries i.e., (i) Poiseuille flow and (ii) Couette flow. Four different cases for pressure dependent viscosity and pressure dependent porosity are assumed and the physical features of pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs.
Numerical solutions of Williamson fluid with pressure dependent viscosity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iffat Zehra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we have examined the flow of Williamson fluid in an inclined channel with pressure dependent viscosity. The governing equations of motion for Williamson fluid model under the effects of pressure dependent viscosity and pressure dependent porosity are modeled and then solved numerically by the shooting method with Runge Kutta Fehlberg for two types of geometries i.e., (i Poiseuille flow and (ii Couette flow. Four different cases for pressure dependent viscosity and pressure dependent porosity are assumed and the physical features of pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs.
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di-Lun Yang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
Yang, Di-Lun; Müller, Berndt
2016-09-01
We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) at weak coupling and N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma (SYMP) at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon-parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Shear viscosity of $\\beta$-stable nuclear matter
Benhar, Omar
2009-01-01
Viscosity plays a critical role in determining the stability of rotating neutron stars. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity of $\\beta$~-~stable matter, carried out using an effective interaction based on a state-of-the-art nucleon-nucleon potential and the formalism of correlated basis functions. Within our approach the equation of state, determining the proton fraction, and the nucleon-nucleon scattering probability are consistently obtained from the same dynamical model. The results show that, while the neutron contribution to the viscosity is always dominant, above nuclear saturation density the electron contribution becomes appreciable.
Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.
Poredos, P; Zizek, B
1996-03-01
Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2
Effect of Electrohydraulic Discharge on Viscosity of Human Blood
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. El-Aragi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Electrohydraulic plasma discharge is a novel technology with high efficiency and high speed and can generate chemically active species like free radicals, ions, atoms, and metastables, accompanied by ultraviolet light emission and shock pressure waves. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of electrohydraulic discharge (EHD system on viscosity of the human blood after different exposure time. The voltage pulsation introduces electric field and temperature jump and at the same time leads to haemolysis of the blood cells. The ratio of blood viscosity under the influence of magnetic field to the viscosity in the absence of magnetic field is directly proportional to the applied magnetic field .
Unification of viscose models for powder suspension system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁叔全; 李伟洲; 黄伯云
2002-01-01
The viscose models for powder suspension system was reviewed and analysed. It is found that by introducing modification function f(φ) in the differential form of classical Einsteins viscosity law, all of viscose models can be unified if f(φ) takes suitable form . Some rational forms of the function f(φ) were discussed according to functional approximation method, and a new rheological model contained two undetermined parameters was consequently developed, more suitable for high particle concentration dispersing system. The experimental results show that this new model is of better consistence.
The eddy kinetic energy budget in the Red Sea
Zhan, Peng
2016-06-09
The budget of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Red Sea, including the sources, redistributions and sink, is examined using a high-resolution eddy-resolving ocean circulation model. A pronounced seasonally varying EKE is identified, with its maximum intensity occurring in winter, and the strongest EKE is captured mainly in the central and northern basins within the upper 200 m. Eddies acquire kinetic energy from conversion of eddy available potential energy (EPE), from transfer of mean kinetic energy (MKE), and from direct generation due to time-varying (turbulent) wind stress, the first of which contributes predominantly to the majority of the EKE. The EPE-to-EKE conversion occurs almost in the entire basin, while the MKE-to-EKE transfer appears mainly along the shelf boundary of the basin (200 miso-bath) where high horizontal shear interacts with topography. The EKE generated by the turbulent wind stress is relatively small and limited to the southern basin. All these processes are intensified during winter, when the rate of energy conversion is about four to five times larger than that in summer. The EKE is redistributed by the vertical and horizontal divergence of energy flux and the advection of the mean flow. As a main sink of EKE, dissipation processes is ubiquitously found in the basin. The seasonal variability of these energy conversion terms can explain the significant seasonality of eddy activities in the Red Sea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Investigation of long-lived eddies on Jupiter
Lewis, S. R.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.; Read, P. L.
1986-01-01
Quasi-geostrophic, two layer models of the Jovian atmosphere are under development; these may be used to simulate eddy phemonena in the atmosphere and include tracer dynamics explicitly. The models permit the investigation of the dynamics of quasi-geostrophic eddies under more controlled conditions than are possible in the laboratory. They can also be used to predict the distribution and behavior of tracer species, and hence to discriminate between different models of the mechanisms forcing the eddies, provided suitable observations can be obtained. At the same time, observational strategies are being developed for the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo Orbiter, with the objective of obtaining composition measurements for comparison with the models. Maps of features at thermal infrared wavelengths near 5 micron and reflected sunlight maps as a function of wavelength and phase angle will be obtained. These should provide further useful information on the morphology, composition and microstructure of clouds within eddy features. Equilibrium chemistry models which incorporate advection may then be used to relate these results of the dynamical models and provide addtional means of classifying different types of eddies.
Mesoscale eddies in the Subantarctic Front-Southwest Atlantic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo D. Glorioso
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Satellite and ship observations in the southern southwest Atlantic (SSWA reveal an intense eddy field and highlight the potential for using continuous real-time satellite altimetry to detect and monitor mesoscale phenomena with a view to understanding the regional circulation. The examples presented suggest that mesoscale eddies are a dominant feature of the circulation and play a fundamental role in the transport of properties along and across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. The main ocean current in the SSWA, the Falkland-Malvinas Current (FMC, exhibits numerous embedded eddies south of 50°S which may contribute to the patchiness, transport and mixing of passive scalars by this strong, turbulent current. Large eddies associated with meanders are observed in the ACC fronts, some of them remaining stationary for long periods. Two particular cases are examined using a satellite altimeter in combination with in situ observations, suggesting that cross-frontal eddy transport and strong meandering occur where the ACC flow intensifies along the sub-Antarctic Front (SAF and the Southern ACC Front (SACCF.
Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts
Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan
2013-12-01
The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.
Coastal Kelvin waves and dynamics of Gulf of Aden eddies
Valsala, Vinu K.; Rao, Rokkam R.
2016-10-01
The Gulf of Aden (GA) is a small semi-enclosed oceanic region between the Red Sea and the western Arabian Sea. The GA is characterised with westward propagating cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies throughout the year. The genesis and propagation of these eddies into the GA have been the focus of several studies which concluded that oceanic instabilities (both barotropic and baroclinic) as well as the Rossby waves from the Arabian Sea are the responsible mechanisms for the presence and maintenance of these eddies. Using a high-resolution (~11 km) reduced gravity hydrodynamic layered model with controlled lateral boundary conditions at the three sides of the GA here we show yet another factor, the coastally propagating Kelvin waves along the coastal Arabia (coasts of Oman and Yemen), is also critically important in setting up a favourable condition for the oceanic instabilities and sustenance of meso-scale eddies in the GA. These Kelvin waves at both seasonal and intra-seasonal time scales are found play an important role in the timing and amplitudes of eddies observed in the GA.
The eddy kinetic energy budget in the Red Sea
Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Yao, Fengchao; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Guo, Daquan; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2016-07-01
The budget of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Red Sea, including the sources, redistributions, and sink, is examined using a high'resolution eddy-resolving ocean circulation model. A pronounced seasonally varying EKE is identified, with its maximum intensity occurring in winter, and the strongest EKE is captured mainly in the central and northern basins within the upper 200 m. Eddies acquire kinetic energy from conversion of eddy available potential energy (EPE), from transfer of mean kinetic energy (MKE), and from direct generation due to time-varying (turbulent) wind stress, the first of which contributes predominantly to the majority of the EKE. The EPE-to-EKE conversion occurs almost in the entire basin, while the MKE-to-EKE transfer appears mainly along the shelf boundary of the basin (200 m isobath) where high horizontal shear interacts with topography. The EKE generated by the turbulent wind stress is relatively small and limited to the southern basin. All these processes are intensified during winter, when the rate of energy conversion is about 4-5 times larger than that in summer. The EKE is redistributed by the vertical and horizontal divergence of energy flux and the advection of the mean flow. As a main sink of EKE, dissipation processes is ubiquitously found in the basin. The seasonal variability of these energy conversion terms can explain the significant seasonality of eddy activities in the Red Sea.
Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.
Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil
2016-08-01
The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail.
Large eddy simulation of fuel injection and mixing process in a diesel engine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Zhou; Mao-Zhao Xie; Ming Jia; Jun-Rui Shi
2011-01-01
The large eddy simulation(LES) approach implemented in the KIVA-3V code and based on one-equation sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy model are employed for numerical computation of diesel sprays in a constant volume vessel and in a Caterpillar 3400 series diesel engine.Computational results are compared with those obtained by an RANS(RNG k-ε) model as well as with experimental data. The sensitivity of the LES results to mesh resolution is also discussed. The results show that LES generally provides flow and spray characteristics in better agreement with experimental data than RANS; and that small-scale random vortical structures of the in-cylinder turbulent spray field can be captured by LES. Furthermore,the penetrations of fuel droplets and vapors calculated by LES are larger than the RANS result,and the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and sub-grid turbulent viscosity provided by the LES model are evidently less than those calculated by the RANS model. Finally,it is found that the initial swirl significantly affects the spray penetration and the distribution of fuel vapor within the combustion chamber.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏英杰; 朱蒙生; 何钟怡
2004-01-01
Large eddy simulation cooperated with the second order full extension ETG (Euler-Taylor-Galerkin) finite element method was applied to simulate the flow around two square cylinders arranged side by side at a spacing ratio of 1.5. The second order full extension ETG finite element method was developed by Wang and He. By means of Taylor expansion of terms containing time derivative, time derivative is replaced by space derivative. The function of it is equal to introducing an artificial viscosity term. The streamlines of the flow at different moments were obtained. The time history of drag coefficient, lift coefficient and the streamwise velocity on the symmetrical points were presented. Furthermore, the symmetrical problem of the frequency spectrum of flow around two square cylinders arranged side by side were studied by using the spectral analysis technology. The data obtained at the initial stage are excluded in order to avoid the influence of initial condition on the results. The power spectrums of drag coefficient, lift coefficient, the streamwise velocity on the symmetrical points were analyzed respectively.The results show that although the time domain process of dynamic parameters is nonsymmetrical, the frequency domain process of them is symmetrical under the symmetrical boundary conditions.
Packing and viscosity of concentrated polydisperse coal-water slurries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veytsman, B.; Morrison, J.; Scaroni, A.; Painter, P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Inst.
1998-09-01
The viscosity of polydisperse slurries close to the packing limit is discussed. It is shown that the divergence of the viscosity at the close packing limit causes the dependence of the slurry viscosity on loading to be universal. Ways of increasing the maximal loading of polydisperse slurries are described. A new theory of packing of powders based on a generalization of the Furnas telescopic tube method is proposed. Unlike the original Furnas model, this theory allows the calculation of the maximal packing for powders with an arbitrary size distribution of particles. The application of the theory to the problem of reducing the viscosity of coal-water slurries is discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs.
Laboratory Procedures in Thermal Expansion and Viscosity of Liquids
Dawson, Paul Dow
1974-01-01
Describes the laboratory procedures for the measurement of thermal expansion and viscosity of liquids. These experiments require inexpensive equipment and are suitable for secondary school physical science classes. (JR)
Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rutherford, W.M.
1988-07-01
A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.
Viscosity Measurements and Correlation of the Squalane + CO2 Mixture
Tomida, D.; Kumagai, A.; Yokoyama, C.
2007-02-01
Experimental results for the viscosity of squalane + CO2 mixtures are reported. The viscosities were measured using a rolling ball viscometer. The experimental temperatures were 293.15, 313.15, 333.15, and 353.15 K, and pressures were 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 MPa. The CO2 mole fraction of the mixtures varied from 0 to 0.417. The experimental uncertainties in viscosity were estimated to be within ±3.0%. The viscosity of the mixtures decreased with an increase in the CO2 mole fraction. The experimental data were compared with predictions from the Grunberg-Nissan and McAllister equations, which correlated the experimental data with maximum deviations of 10 and 8.7%, respectively.
Mechanism of sulfide effect on viscosity of HPAM polymer solution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
康万利; 周阳; 王志伟; 孟令伟; 刘述忍; 白宝君
2008-01-01
The effect of sulfide on HPAM solution viscosity was studied using BROOKFIELD DV-II viscometer,and the interaction mechanism was discussed.The HPAM solution viscosity was investigated through fully reducing sulfide by the addition of hydrogen peroxide oxidation,and the mechanism of increasing polymer viscosity was investigated.The experimental results also show that there is a critical concentration of 15 mg/L.Below it,the loss rate of HPAM solution viscosity increases more rapidly,but becomes slowly above the critical concentration.A theoretical guidance for oilfields to prepare polymer solution using sewage-water by eliminating sulfide,and it is also importance to prepare polymer solution using sewage-water and save fresh water.
Absolute viscosity measured using instrumented parallel plate system
Broyles, H. H.
1967-01-01
An automatic system measures the true average shear viscosity of liquids and viscoelastic materials, using the parallel plate method and automatically displays the results on a graphic record. This eliminates apparatus setup and extensive calculations.
An accurate empirical correlation for predicting natural gas viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ehsan Sanjari; Ebrahim Nemati Lay; Mohammad Peymani
2011-01-01
Natural gas viscosity is an important parameter in many gas and petroleum engineering calculations.This study presents a new empirical model for quickly calculating the natural gas viscosity.The model was derived from 4089 experimental viscosity data with varieties ranging from 0.01to 21,and 1 to 3 of pseudo reduced pressure and temperature,respectively.The accuracy of this new empirical correlation has been compared with commonly used empirical models,including Lee et al.,Heidaryan et al.,Carr et al.,and Adel Elsharkawy correlations.The comparison indicates that this new empirical model can predict viscosity of natural gas with average absolute relative deviation percentage AARD (％) of 2.173.
Viscosity of aluminum under shock-loading conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Xiao-Juan; Liu Fu-Sheng; Zhang Ming-Jian; Sun Yan-Yun
2011-01-01
A reliable data treatment method is critical for viscosity measurements using the disturbance amplitude damping method of shock waves. In this paper the finite difference method is used to obtain the numerical solutions for the disturbance amplitude damping behaviour of the sinusoidal shock front in a flyer-impact experiment. The disturbance amplitude damping curves are used to depict the numerical solutions of viscous flow. By fitting the experimental data to the numerical solutions of different viscosities, we find that the effective shear viscosity coefficients of shocked aluminum at pressures of 42, 78 and 101 GPa are (1500±100) Pa. s, (2800±100) Pa. s and (3500±100) Pa. s respectively. It is clear that the shear viscosity of aluminum increases with an increase in shock pressure, so aluminum does not melt below a shock pressure of 101 GPa. This conclusion is consistent with the sound velocity measurement.
Peristalsis of nonconstant viscosity Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles
Alvi, N.; Latif, T.; Hussain, Q.; Asghar, S.
Mixed convective peristaltic activity of variable viscosity nanofluids is addressed. Unlike the conventional consideration of constant viscosity; the viscosity is taken as temperature dependent. Constitutive relations for linear viscoelastic Jeffrey fluid are employed and uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction. For nanofluids, the formulation is completed in presence of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, viscous dissipation and Joule heating. Consideration of temperature dependence of viscosity is not a choice but the realistic requirement of the wall temperature and the heat generated due to the viscous dissipation. Well established large wavelength and small Reynolds number approximations are invoked. Non-linear coupled system is analytically solved for the convergent series solutions identifying the interval of convergence explicitly. A comparative study between analytical and numerical solution is made for certainty. Influence of the parameters undertaken for the description of the problem is pointed out and its physics explained.
Modeling effective viscosity reduction behaviour of solid suspensions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei En-Bo; Ji Yan-Ju; Zhang Jun
2012-01-01
Under a simple shearing flow,the effective viscosity of solid suspensions can be reduced by controlling the inclusion particle size or the number of inclusion particles in a unit volume.Based on the Stokes equation,the transformation field method is used to model the reduction behaviour of effective viscosity of solid suspensions theoretically by enlarging the particle size at a given high concentration of particles.With a lot of samples of random cubic particles in a unit cell,our statistical results show that at the same higher concentration,the effective viscosity of solid suspensions can be reduced by increasing the particle size or reducing the number of inclusion particles in a unit volume.This work discloses the viscosity reduction mechanism of increasing particle size,which is observed experimentally.
The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; Wijk, de, R.A; Westerterp-Plantenga, M; Graaf, de, C
2008-01-01
.... Objective: To investigate the effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake in real-life setting and to investigate whether a difference in ad libitum intake is related to eating rate and/or eating effort. Design...
A comparative study of regenerated bamboo, cotton and viscose ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... from natural bamboo fibres in a regeneration process by which bamboo pulp is ... plant in a process similar to that used to manufacture viscose rayon fibres.
Compressibilities and viscosities of reference, vegetable, and synthetic gear lubricants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Lugo, Luis; Fernández, Josefa
2014-01-01
.06%. Dowson and Higginson and Zhu and Wen equations of state do not predict well the isothermal compressibilities, with AAD % being around 45% for both equations. Moreover, the viscosities were measured in the temperature range from 278.15 to 373.15 K at atmospheric pressure for these oils, and the viscosity...... index was also determined. New formulated oils present the highest viscosity indexes and the lowest viscosity data at low temperatures; therefore, they become the most suitable for machinery cold start. © 2014 American Chemical Society.......Nowadays, one of the primary choices of base oils for environmentally aware lubricants is vegetable oils. This is due to their good natural biodegradability and very low toxicity in combination with very good lubricity characteristics. The development of new vegetable-based lubricants requires...
Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)
1977-04-01
A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)
Event Detection and Visualization of Ocean Eddies based on SSH and Velocity Field
Matsuoka, Daisuke; Araki, Fumiaki; Inoue, Yumi; Sasaki, Hideharu
2016-04-01
Numerical studies of ocean eddies have been progressed using high-resolution ocean general circulation models. In order to understand ocean eddies from simulation results with large amount of information volume, it is necessary to visualize not only distribution of eddies of each time step, but also events or phenomena of eddies. However, previous methods cannot precisely detect eddies, especially, during the events such as eddies' amalgamation, bifurcation. In the present study, we propose a new approach of eddy's detection, tracking and event visualization based on sea surface height (SSH) and velocity field. The proposed method detects eddies region as well as streams and currents region, and classifies detected eddies into several types. By tracking the time-varying change of classified eddies, it is possible to detect not only eddies event such as amalgamation and bifurcation but also the interaction between eddy and ocean current. As a result of visualizing detected eddies and events, we succeeded in creating the movie which enables us to intuitively understand the region of interest.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Hsin Cheng
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The sea level anomaly data derived from satellite altimetry are analyzed to investigate statistical characteristics of mesoscale eddies in the North Pacific. Eddies are detected by a free-threshold eddy identification algorithm. The results show that the distributions of size, amplitude, propagation speed, and eddy kinetic energy of eddy follow the Rayleigh distribution. The most active regions of eddies are the Kuroshio Extension region, the Subtropical Counter Current zone, and the Northeastern Tropical Pacific region. By contrast, eddies are seldom observed around the center of the eastern part of the North Pacific Subarctic Gyre. The propagation speed and kinetic energy of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are almost the same, but anticyclonic eddies possess greater lifespans, sizes, and amplitudes than those of cyclonic eddies. Most eddies in the North Pacific propagate westward except in the Oyashio region. Around the northeastern tropical Pacific and the California currents, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies propagate westward with slightly equatorward (197° average azimuth relative to east and poleward (165° deflection, respectively. This implies that the background current may play an important role in formation of the eddy pathway patterns.
Seismic Constraints on the Mantle Viscosity Structure beneath Antarctica
Wiens, Douglas; Heeszel, David; Aster, Richard; Nyblade, Andrew; Wilson, Terry
2015-04-01
Lateral variations in upper mantle viscosity structure can have first order effects on glacial isostatic adjustment. These variations are expected to be particularly large for the Antarctic continent because of the stark geological contrast between ancient cratonic and recent tectonically active terrains in East and West Antarctica, respectively. A large misfit between observed and predicted GPS rates for West Antarctica probably results in part from the use of a laterally uniform viscosity structure. Although not linked by a simple relationship, mantle seismic velocities can provide important constraints on mantle viscosity structure, as they are both largely controlled by temperature and water content. Recent higher resolution seismic models for the Antarctic mantle, derived from data acquired by new seismic stations deployed in the AGAP/GAMSEIS and ANET/POLENET projects, offer the opportunity to use the seismic velocity structure to place new constraints on the viscosity of the Antarctic upper mantle. We use an Antarctic shear wave velocity model derived from array analysis of Rayleigh wave phase velocities [Heeszel et al, in prep] and examine a variety of methodologies for relating seismic, thermal and rheological parameters to compute a suite of viscosity models for the Antarctic mantle. A wide variety of viscosity structures can be derived using various assumptions, but they share several robust common elements. There is a viscosity contrast of at least two orders of magnitude between East and West Antarctica at depths of 80-250 km, reflecting the boundary between cold cratonic lithosphere in East Antarctica and warm upper mantle in West Antarctica. The region beneath the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mtns and extending to the Pensacola Mtns. shows intermediate viscosity between the extremes of East and West Antarctica. There are also significant variations between different parts of West Antarctica, with the lowest viscosity occurring beneath the Marie Byrd Land (MBL
Entropy production, viscosity bounds and bumpy black holes
Hartnoll, Sean; Ramirez, David; Santos, Jorge
2016-01-01
The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, $\\eta/s$, is computed in various holographic geometries that break translation invariance (but are isotropic). The shear viscosity does not have a hydrodynamic interpretation in such backgrounds, but does quantify the rate of entropy production due to a strain. Fluctuations of the metric components $\\delta g_{xy}$ are massive about these backgrounds, leading to $\\eta/s < 1/(4\\pi)$ at all finite temperatures (even in Einstein gravity). As the te...
Cytokine modulation of human blood viscosity from vivax malaria patients.
Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Siqueira, Renan; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Braga, Érika Martins; Honório-França, Adenilda Cristina; França, Eduardo Luzía
2016-06-01
Malaria is a major infectious disease in several countries and is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. In vivax malaria patients, inflammatory processes occur, as well as changes in cytokines and blood flow. The present study analyzed the cytokine modulation of blood viscosity from patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). Blood samples were collected from 42 non-infected individuals (control group) and 37 individuals infected with P. vivax. The IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, TGF-β and IL-17 cytokine concentrations in the serum were assessed, and the blood rheological properties were determined. The analysis of blood viscosity for shear rates revealed that the blood viscosity of the infected patients was significantly greater than that of the non-infected individuals. The viscosity of the blood was greater in the infected individuals than in the non-infected subjects. The serum from individuals with P. vivax infections exhibited higher IFN-γ and IL-17 concentrations and lower TGF-β levels. Incubation of the blood from infected individuals with IL-17 or IL-17 associated with IFN-γ reduced the viscosity to rates equivalent to the blood from non-infected individuals. Independently of cytokine modulation, no correlation was found between the parasitemia and blood viscosity of the infected patients. These data suggest that the alterations of blood viscosity are relevant as an auxiliary tool for the clinical diagnosis of disease. In malaria, erythrocytes are more sensitive to osmotic shock, and the reduction of viscosity by IL-17 may be related to a possible immunomodulator agent during infection.
Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric binary ionic mixtures
Bastea, S
2005-01-01
We present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric binary ionic mixture (BIM). We compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. For the case of viscosity we propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion we discuss some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.
Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for a fluidized bed model
Sarra, S A
2003-01-01
A Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method and operator splitting are used to solve a hyperbolic system of conservation laws with a source term modeling a fluidized bed. The fluidized bed displays a slugging behavior which corresponds to shocks in the solution. A modified Gegenbauer postprocessing procedure is used to obtain a solution which is free of oscillations caused by the Gibbs-Wilbraham phenomenon in the spectral viscosity solution. Conservation is maintained by working with unphysical negative particle concentrations.
Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method
Nazarov, Murtazo
2013-02-01
We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Intrinsic ambiguity in second order viscosity parameters in relativistic hydrodynamics
Nakayama, Yu
2012-01-01
We show that relativistic hydrodynamics in Minkowski space-time has intrinsic ambiguity in second order viscosity parameters in the Landau-Lifshitz frame. This stems from the possibility of improvements of energy-momentum tensor. There exist at least two viscosity parameters which can be removed by using this ambiguity in scale invariant hydrodynamics in (1+3) dimension, and seemingly non-conformal hydrodynamic theories can be hiddenly conformal invariant.
Fatty acids, membrane viscosity, serotonin and ischemic heart disease
Cocchi Massimo; Tonello Lucio; Lercker Giovanni
2010-01-01
Abstract Novel markers for ischemic heart disease are under investigation by the scientific community at international level. This work focuses on a specific platelet membrane fatty acid condition of viscosity which is linked to molecular aspects such as serotonin and G proteins, factors involved in vascular biology. A suggestive hypothesis is considered about the possibility to use platelet membrane viscosity, in relation to serotonin or, indirectly, the fatty acid profile, as indicator of i...
Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)
Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B.; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B.
2015-01-01
Abstract Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt‐sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time‐Temperature‐Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization “nose” for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear‐thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity. PMID:27656114
Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador).
Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B
2015-03-01
Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt-sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization "nose" for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear-thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity.
The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benincasa, Paolo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada) and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada)]. E-mail: abuchel@perimeterinstitute.ca; Naryshkin, Roman [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, Prosp. Glushkova 6, Kiev 03022 (Ukraine)
2007-02-08
We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.
Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric plasma mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastea, S
2004-09-07
The authors present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric two-component plasma (TCP). They compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. for the case of viscosity they propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion they point out some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.
Investigation on a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography
He, Min; Zhang, Laibin; Zheng, Wenpei; Feng, Yijing
2016-09-01
In this paper, a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography (PECT) is presented. The use of the inducer can help avoid the problem of blocking the infrared (IR) camera's view in eddy current thermography technique. The inducer can also provide even heating of the test specimen. This paper is concerned with the temperature distribution law around the crack on a specimen when utilizing the new inducer. Firstly, relative mathematical models are provided. In the following section, eddy current distribution and temperature distribution around the crack are studied using the numerical simulation method. The best separation distance between the inducer and the specimen is also determined. Then, results of temperature distribution around the crack stimulated by the inducer are gained by experiments. Effect of current value on temperature rise is studied as well in the experiments. Based on temperature data, temperature features of the crack are discussed.
Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing
García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto
2011-01-01
Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754
Investigation on a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min He
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography (PECT is presented. The use of the inducer can help avoid the problem of blocking the infrared (IR camera’s view in eddy current thermography technique. The inducer can also provide even heating of the test specimen. This paper is concerned with the temperature distribution law around the crack on a specimen when utilizing the new inducer. Firstly, relative mathematical models are provided. In the following section, eddy current distribution and temperature distribution around the crack are studied using the numerical simulation method. The best separation distance between the inducer and the specimen is also determined. Then, results of temperature distribution around the crack stimulated by the inducer are gained by experiments. Effect of current value on temperature rise is studied as well in the experiments. Based on temperature data, temperature features of the crack are discussed.
A Synoptic Snapshot of the East Cape Eddy (ECE)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Wei; LIU Qinyu
2005-01-01
A synoptic snapshot in this study is made for the East Cape Eddy (ECE) based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) P14C Hydrographic Section and Shipboard ADCP velocity vector data collected in September 1992.The ECE is an anticyclonic eddy, barotropically structured and centered at 33.64°S and 176.21°E, with warm and salinouscored subsurface water. The radius of the eddy is of the order O (110 km) and the maximum circumferential velocity is O(40cms-1); as a result, the relative vorticity is estimated to be O (7 × 10-6s-1). Due to the existence of the ECE, the mixed layer north of New Zealand becomes deeper, reaching a depth of 300 m in the austral winter. The ECE plays an important role in the formation and distribution of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) over a considerable area in the South Pacific.
Strong eddy compensation for the Gulf Stream heat transport
Saenko, Oleg A.
2015-12-01
Using a high-resolution ocean model forced with high-resolution atmospheric fields, a 5 year mean heat budget of the upper ocean in the Gulf Stream (GS) region is analyzed. The heat brought to the region with the mean flows along the GS path is 2-3 times larger than the heat loss to the atmosphere, with the difference being balanced by a strong cooling effect due to lateral eddy heat fluxes. However, over a broad area off the Grand Banks, the eddies warm the uppermost ocean layers, partly compensating for the loss of heat to the atmosphere. The upward eddy heat flux, which brings heat from the deeper ocean to the upper layers, is 30-80% of the surface heat loss.
Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernesto Vázquez-Sánchez
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.
Exact temporal eddy current compensation in magnetic resonance imaging systems.
Morich, M A; Lampman, D A; Dannels, W R; Goldie, F D
1988-01-01
A step-response method has been developed to extract the properties (amplitudes and decay time constants) of intrinsic-eddy-current-sourced magnetic fields generated in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging systems when pulsed field gradients are applied. Exact compensation for the eddy-current effect is achieved through a polynomial rooting procedure and matrix inversion once the 2 N properties of the N-term decay process are known. The output of the inversion procedure yields the required characteristics of the filter for spectrum magnitude and phase equalization. The method is described for the general case along with experimental results for one-, two-, and three-term inversions. The method's usefulness is demonstrated for the usually difficult case of long-term (200-1000-ms) eddy-current compensation. Field-gradient spectral flatness measurements over 30 mHz-100 Hz are given to validate the method.
Eddy current pulsed thermography for fatigue evaluation of gear
Tian, Gui Yun; Yin, Aijun; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Jishan; Shaw, Brian
2014-02-01
The pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique generates responses over a wide range of frequencies, containing more spectral coverage than traditional eddy current inspection. Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT), a newly developed non-destructive testing (NDT) technique, has advantages such as rapid inspection of a large area within a short time, high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and stand-off measurement distance. This paper investigates ECPT for the evaluation of gear fatigue tests. The paper proposes a statistical method based on single channel blind source separation to extract details of gear fatigue. The discussion of transient thermal distribution and patterns of fatigue contact surfaces as well as the non-contact surfaces have been reported. In addition, the measurement for gears with different cycles of fatigue tests by ECPTand the comparison results between ECPT with magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) have been evaluated. The comparison shows the competitive capability of ECPT in fatigue evaluation.
Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.
García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto
2011-01-01
Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.
Stray Capacitances of an Air-Cored Eddy Current Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Jia
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Stray capacitance of an air-cored eddy current sensor is one of the most crucial issues for successful development of an eddy current based residual stress assessment technology at frequency above 50 MHz. A two dimensional finite element model and an equivalent lumped capacitance network have been developed to accurately quantify overall stray capacitances of an air-cored eddy current sensor with specimen being tested. A baseline model was used to evaluate sensor design parameters, including the effects of pitch distance, trace width, trace thickness, number of turns, inner diameter, substrate thickness, lift-off distance, and dielectric constant of shim on the stray capacitances of the sensor. The results clearly indicate that an appropriate sensor design parameters could reduce the stray capacitance and improve the sensor performance. This research opens up a new design space to minimize stray capacitance effect and improve the sensor sensitivity and its lift-off uncertainty at elevated high frequencies.
Eddies reduce denitrification and compress habitats in the Arabian Sea
Lachkar, Zouhair; Smith, Shafer; Lévy, Marina; Pauluis, Olivier
2016-09-01
The combination of high biological production and weak oceanic ventilation in regions, such as the northern Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific and Atlantic, cause large-scale oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that profoundly affect marine habitats and alter key biogeochemical cycles. Here we investigate the effects of eddies on the Arabian Sea OMZ—the world's thickest—using a suite of regional model simulations with increasing horizontal resolution. We find that isopycnal eddy transport of oxygen to the OMZ region limits the extent of suboxia so reducing denitrification, increasing the supply of nitrate to the surface, and thereby enhancing biological production. That same enhanced production generates more organic matter in the water column, amplifying oxygen consumption below the euphotic zone, thus increasing the extent of hypoxia. Eddy-driven ventilation likely plays a similar role in other low-oxygen regions and thus may be crucial in shaping marine habitats and modulating the large-scale marine nitrogen cycle.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.
Temperature Dependence Viscosity and Density of Different Biodiesel Blends
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojtěch Kumbár
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to assess the effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME concentration in diesel fuel on its viscosity and density behaviour. The density and dynamic viscosity were observed at various mixing ratios of RME and diesel fuel. All measurements were performed at constant temperature of 40 °C. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and a blend of both (B30, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Temperature range in the experiment was −10 °C to 80 °C. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and reference data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 3rd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.796, −0.948, and −0.974 between measured and calculated values were found. Temperature dependence of density was modeled using a 2nd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.994, −0.979, and −0.976 between measured and calculated values were acquired. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.
Effect of Solvation Film on the Viscosity of Colloidal Dispersions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Chang-Sheng; GU Qing-Bao; SONG Shao-Xian
2005-01-01
Viscosity is one of the most important properties of colloids in mixing, transportation, stabilization, energy consumption, and so on. According to Einstein's viscosity equation, the viscosity of a colloidal dispersion increases with the increase of particle concentration. And the equation can be applicable to all micro-particle dispersions, because the effect of solvation films coated on particles can be neglectable in that case. But with the decrease of particle size to nano-scale, the formation of solvation films on nano-particles can greatly affect the viscosity of a dispersion, and Einstein's equation may not be applicable to this case. In this work, one kind of micro-size silica particle and two kinds of nano-size silica particles were used to investigate the effect of solvation films on dispersion viscosity, dispersed in water and ethyl alcohol solvents, respectively. The results of theoretical calculation and experimental investigation show that the increase of viscosity is contributed from solvation films by more than 95 percent for nano-particle dispersions, while less than 10 percent for micro-particle dispersions.