Quantum Interferometry and Correlated Two-Electron Wave-Packet Observation in Helium
Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Meyer, Kristina; Laux, Martin; Zhang, Yizhu; Hagstotz, Steffen; Ding, Thomas; Heck, Robert; Pfeifer, Thomas
2012-01-01
The concerted motion of two or more bound electrons governs atomic and molecular non-equilibrium processes and chemical reactions. It is thus a long-standing scientific dream to measure the dynamics of two bound correlated electrons in the quantum regime. Quantum wave packets were previously observed for single-active electrons on their natural attosecond timescales. However, at least two active electrons and a nucleus are required to address the quantum three-body problem. This situation is realized in the helium atom, but direct time-resolved observation of two-electron wave-packet motion remained an unaccomplished challenge. Here, we measure a 1.2-femtosecond quantum beating among low-lying doubly-excited states in helium to evidence a correlated two-electron wave packet. Our experimental method combines attosecond transient-absorption spectroscopy at unprecedented high spectral resolution (20 meV near 60 eV) with an intensity-tuneable visible laser field to couple the quantum states from the perturbative ...
Robinett, R W
2004-01-01
The numerical prediction, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of the phenomenon of wave packet revivals in quantum systems has flourished over the last decade and a half. Quantum revivals are characterized by initially localized quantum states which have a short-term, quasi-classical time evolution, which then can spread significantly over several orbits, only to reform later in the form of a quantum revival in which the spreading reverses itself, the wave packet relocalizes, and the semi-classical periodicity is once again evident. Relocalization of the initial wave packet into a number of smaller copies of the initial packet (`minipackets' or `clones') is also possible, giving rise to fractional revivals. Systems exhibiting such behavior are a fundamental realization of time-dependent interference phenomena for bound states with quantized energies in quantum mechanics and are therefore of wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. We review the theoretical machinery of quantum w...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinett, R.W
2004-03-01
The numerical prediction, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of the phenomenon of wave packet revivals in quantum systems has flourished over the last decade and a half. Quantum revivals are characterized by initially localized quantum states which have a short-term, quasi-classical time evolution, which then can spread significantly over several orbits, only to reform later in the form of a quantum revival in which the spreading reverses itself, the wave packet relocalizes, and the semi-classical periodicity is once again evident. Relocalization of the initial wave packet into a number of smaller copies of the initial packet ('minipackets' or 'clones') is also possible, giving rise to fractional revivals. Systems exhibiting such behavior are a fundamental realization of time-dependent interference phenomena for bound states with quantized energies in quantum mechanics and are therefore of wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. We review the theoretical machinery of quantum wave packet construction leading to the existence of revivals and fractional revivals, in systems with one (or more) quantum number(s), as well as discussing how information on the classical period and revival time is encoded in the energy eigenvalue spectrum. We discuss a number of one-dimensional model systems which exhibit revival behavior, including the infinite well, the quantum bouncer, and others, as well as several two-dimensional integrable quantum billiard systems. Finally, we briefly review the experimental evidence for wave packet revivals in atomic, molecular, and other systems, and related revival phenomena in condensed matter and optical systems.
Robinett, R. W.
2004-03-01
The numerical prediction, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of the phenomenon of wave packet revivals in quantum systems has flourished over the last decade and a half. Quantum revivals are characterized by initially localized quantum states which have a short-term, quasi-classical time evolution, which then can spread significantly over several orbits, only to reform later in the form of a quantum revival in which the spreading reverses itself, the wave packet relocalizes, and the semi-classical periodicity is once again evident. Relocalization of the initial wave packet into a number of smaller copies of the initial packet (‘minipackets’ or ‘clones’) is also possible, giving rise to fractional revivals. Systems exhibiting such behavior are a fundamental realization of time-dependent interference phenomena for bound states with quantized energies in quantum mechanics and are therefore of wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. We review the theoretical machinery of quantum wave packet construction leading to the existence of revivals and fractional revivals, in systems with one (or more) quantum number(s), as well as discussing how information on the classical period and revival time is encoded in the energy eigenvalue spectrum. We discuss a number of one-dimensional model systems which exhibit revival behavior, including the infinite well, the quantum bouncer, and others, as well as several two-dimensional integrable quantum billiard systems. Finally, we briefly review the experimental evidence for wave packet revivals in atomic, molecular, and other systems, and related revival phenomena in condensed matter and optical systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sacks, R.A.; Robinson, J.E.
1980-02-15
The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is integrated numerically to obtain the time evolution of an initially Gaussian packet in the presence of Eckart, truncated quadratic, and untruncated quadratic potentials. Potential and packet parameters are chosen with hydrogen interstitials in transition metals in mind and are varied over significant ranges. Use of the smooth, bounded Eckart potential eliminates the pronounced structure and the anomalous spreading reported previously for other potentials. An interesting transient feature of the scattered packet is found and discussed in terms of the Wigner time delay. Packet transmission coefficients are discussed, and a quasiclassical approximation is found to agree closely with the exact results.
Dynamics of quantum wave packets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gosnell, T.R.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Clement, T.S.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop ultrafast laser techniques for the creation and measurement of quantum vibrational wave packets in gas phase diatomic molecules. Moreover, the authors sought to manipulate the constitution of these wave packets in terms of harmonic-oscillator basis wavefunctions by manipulating the time-dependent amplitude and phase of the incident ultrashort laser pulse. They specifically investigated gaseous diatomic potassium (K{sub 2}), and discovered variations in the shape of the wave packets as a result of changing the linear chirp in the ultrashort preparation pulse. In particular, they found evidence for wave-packet compression for a specific degree of chirp. Important ancillary results include development of new techniques for denoising and deconvolution of femtosecond time traces and techniques for diagnosing the phase and amplitude of the electric field of femtosecond laser pulses.
Heisenberg's wave packet reconsidered
Grabbe, J. Orlin
2005-01-01
This note shows that Heisenberg's choice for a wave function in his original paper on the uncertainty principle is simply a renormalized characteristic function of a stable distribution with certain restrictions on the parameters. Relaxing Heisenberg's restrictions leads to a more general formulation of the uncertainty principle. This reformulation shows quantum uncertainty can exist at a macroscopic level. These modifications also give rise to a new form of Schrodinger's wave equation as the...
Causal evolution of wave packets
Eckstein, Michał
2016-01-01
Drawing from the optimal transport theory adapted to the relativistic setting we formulate the principle of a causal flow of probability and apply it in the wave packet formalism. We demonstrate that whereas the Dirac system is causal, the relativistic-Schr\\"odinger Hamiltonian impels a superluminal evolution of probabilities. We quantify the causality breakdown in the latter system and argue that, in contrast to the popular viewpoint, it is not related to the localisation properties of the states.
Segregation of helicity in inertial wave packets
Ranjan, A.
2017-03-01
Inertial waves are known to exist in the Earth's rapidly rotating outer core and could be important for the dynamo generation. It is well known that a monochromatic inertial plane wave traveling parallel to the rotation axis (along positive z ) has negative helicity while the wave traveling antiparallel (negative z ) has positive helicity. Such a helicity segregation, north and south of the equator, is necessary for the α2-dynamo model based on inertial waves [Davidson, Geophys. J. Int. 198, 1832 (2014), 10.1093/gji/ggu220] to work. The core is likely to contain a myriad of inertial waves of different wave numbers and frequencies. In this study, we investigate whether this characteristic of helicity segregation also holds for an inertial wave packet comprising waves with the same sign of Cg ,z, the z component of group velocity. We first derive the polarization relations for inertial waves and subsequently derive the resultant helicity in wave packets forming as a result of superposition of two or more waves. We find that the helicity segregation does hold for an inertial wave packet unless the wave numbers of the constituent waves are widely separated. In the latter case, regions of opposite color helicity do appear, but the mean helicity retains the expected sign. An illustration of this observation is provided by (a) calculating the resultant helicity for a wave packet formed by superposition of four upward-propagating inertial waves with different wave vectors and (b) conducting the direct numerical simulation of a Gaussian eddy under rapid rotation. Last, the possible effects of other forces such as the viscous dissipation, the Lorentz force, buoyancy stratification, and nonlinearity on helicity are investigated and discussed. The helical structure of the wave packet is likely to remain unaffected by dissipation or the magnetic field, but can be modified by the presence of linearly stable stratification and nonlinearity.
Fictitious time wave packet dynamics: I. Nondispersive wave packets in the quantum Coulomb problem
Fabčič, T; Wunner, G
2009-01-01
Nondispersive wave packets in a fictitious time variable are calculated analytically for the field-free hydrogen atom. As is well known by means of the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation the Coulomb problem can be converted into that of a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator, subject to a constraint. This regularization makes use of a fictitious time variable, but arbitrary Gaussian wave packets in that time variable in general violate that constraint. The set of "restricted Gaussian wave packets" consistent with the constraint is constructed and shown to provide a complete basis for the expansion of states in the original three-dimensional coordinate space. Using that expansion arbitrary localized Gaussian wave packets of the hydrogen atom can be propagated analytically, and exhibit a nondispersive periodic behavior as functions of the fictitious time. Restricted wave packets with and without well defined angular momentum quantum n umbers are constructed. They will be used as trial functions in time-depende...
Squeezed Wave Packets in Quantum Cosmology
Pedram, Pouria
2010-11-01
We use an appropriate initial condition for constructing squeezed wave packets in the context of Wheeler-DeWitt equation with complete classical description. This choice of initial condition does not alter the classical paths and only affect the quantum mechanical picture. To demonstrate the method, we consider an empty 4+1-dimensional Kaluza-Klein quantum cosmology in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that these wave packets do not disperse and sharply peak on the classical trajectories in the whole configuration space. So, the probability of finding the corresponding physical quantities approaches zero everywhere except on the classical paths.
Wave packet dynamics and factorization of numbers
Mack, H; Haug, F; Straub, F S; Freyberger, M; Schleich, W P; Mack, Holger; Bienert, Marc; Haug, Florian; Straub, Frank S.; Freyberger, Matthias; Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2002-01-01
We connect three phenomena of wave packet dynamics: Talbot images, revivals of a particle in a box and fractional revivals. The physical origin of these effects is deeply rooted in phase factors which are quadratic in the quantum number. We show that the characteristic structures in the time evolution of these systems allow us to factorize large integers.
Relativistic suppression of wave packet spreading.
Su, Q; Smetanko, B; Grobe, R
1998-03-30
We investigate numerically the solution of Dirac equation and analytically the Klein-Gordon equation and discuss the relativistic motion of an electron wave packet in the presence of an intense static electric field. In contrast to the predictions of the (non-relativistic) Schroedinger theory, the spreading rate in the field's polarization direction as well as in the transverse directions is reduced.
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
Teleportation of Nonclassical Wave Packets of light
Lee, Noriyuki; Takeno, Yuishi; Takeda, Shuntaro; Webb, James; Huntington, Elanor; Furusawa, Akira
2012-01-01
We report on the experimental quantum teleportation of strongly nonclassical wave packets of light. To perform this full quantum operation while preserving and retrieving the fragile non-classicality of the input state, we have developed a broadband, zero-dispersion teleportation apparatus that works in conjunction with time-resolved state preparation equipment. Our approach brings within experimental reach a whole new set of hybrid protocols involving discrete- and continuous-variable techniques in quantum information processing for optical sciences.
Spectral Modulation by Rotational Wave Packets
Baertschy, Mark; Hartinger, Klaus
2005-05-01
Periodic rephasing of molecular rotational wave packets can create rapid fluctuations in the optical properties of a molecular gas which can be used to manipulate the temporal phase and spectral content of ultrashort light pulses. We have demonstrated spectral control of a time-delayed ultrafast probe pulse propagating through the rotational wave packet prepared by a pump laser pulse. The spectrum of the probe pulse can be either broadened or compressed, depending on the relative sign of the temporal phase modulation and the initial chirp of the probe pulse. Adjustment of the spectral phase at the output of the interaction region allows controlled temporal pulse streching^1 and compression^2. The degree to which the spectrum of an ultrafast pulse can be modified depends on the strength and shape of the rotational wavepacket. We are studying the optimization of the rotational wave packet excitation with complex, shaped pump laser pulses for the purpose of optimizing probe pulse spectra modulation. ^1 Klaus Hartinger and Randy A. Bartels, Opt. Lett., submitted (2005). ^2 R.A. Bartels, T.C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn , Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 013903 (2002). This work was supported by the NSF.
Massachusetts Bay - Internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery at 1:350,000 scale in Massachusetts Bay. Internal waves are nonsinusoidal waves that...
Scattering of wave packets with phases
Karlovets, Dmitry
2016-01-01
A general problem of $2\\rightarrow N_f$ scattering is addressed with all the states being wave packets with arbitrary phases. Depending on these phases, one deals with coherent states in $(3+1)$ D, vortex particles with orbital angular momentum, the Airy beams, and their generalizations. A method is developed in which a number of events represents a functional of the Wigner functions of such states. Using width of a packet $\\sigma_p/\\langle p\\rangle$ as a small parameter, the Wigner functions, the number of events, and a cross section are represented as power series in this parameter, the first non-vanishing corrections to their plane-wave expressions are derived, and generalizations for beams are made. Although in this regime the Wigner functions turn out to be everywhere positive, the cross section develops new specifically quantum features, inaccessible in the plane-wave approximation. Among them is dependence on an impact parameter between the beams, on phases of the incoming states, and on a phase of the...
Scattering of wave packets with phases
Karlovets, Dmitry V.
2017-03-01
A general problem of 2 → N f scattering is addressed with all the states being wave packets with arbitrary phases. Depending on these phases, one deals with coherent states in (3 + 1) D, vortex particles with orbital angular momentum, the Airy beams, and their generalizations. A method is developed in which a number of events represents a functional of the Wigner functions of such states. Using width of a packet σ p /p> as a small parameter, the Wigner functions, the number of events, and a cross section are represented as power series in this parameter, the first non-vanishing corrections to their plane-wave expressions are derived, and generalizations for beams are made. Although in this regime the Wigner functions turn out to be everywhere positive, the cross section develops new specifically quantum features, inaccessible in the plane-wave approximation. Among them is dependence on an impact parameter between the beams, on phases of the incoming states, and on a phase of the scattering amplitude. A model-independent analysis of these effects is made. Two ways of measuring how a Coulomb phase and a hadronic one change with a transferred momentum t are discussed.
Spreading of Ultrarelativistic Wave Packet and Redshift
Lev, Felix M
2012-01-01
The red shift of light coming to the Earth from distant objects is usually explained as a consequence of the fact that the Universe is expanding. Such an explanation implies that photons emitted by distant objects travel in the interstellar medium practically without interaction with interstellar matter and hence they can survive their long journey to the Earth. We analyze this assumption by considering wave-packet spreading for an ultrarelativistic particle. We derive a formula which shows that spreading in the direction perpendicular to the particle momentum is very important and cannot be neglected. The implications of the results are discussed.
Square-integrability of multivariate metaplectic wave-packet representations
Ghaani Farashahi, Arash
2017-03-01
This paper presents a systematic study for harmonic analysis of metaplectic wave-packet representations on the Hilbert function space {{L}2}≤ft({{{R}}d}\\right) . The abstract notions of symplectic wave-packet groups and metaplectic wave-packet representations will be introduced. We then present an admissibility condition on closed subgroups of the real symplectic group \\text{Sp}≤ft({{{R}}d}\\right) , which guarantees the square-integrability of the associated metaplectic wave-packet representation on {{L}2}≤ft({{{R}}d}\\right) .
Controlling the spreading of wave packets of a dissociating molecule
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2007-01-01
in the Franck-Condon region whereas, as well known, the positively chirped pulses focus the wave packet in the asymptotic region. For the negatively chirped pulses, we show that the time corresponding to the minimum in the width of the wave packet can be predicted by an analytical formula. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V...
Equations of motion for a relativistic wave packet
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
L Kocis
2012-05-01
The time derivative of the position of a relativistic wave packet is evaluated. It is found that it is equal to the mean value of the momentum of the wave packet divided by the mass of the particle. The equation derived represents a relativistic version of the second Ehrenfest theorem.
Rotating Gaussian wave packets in weak external potentials
Goussev, Arseni
2017-07-01
We address the time evolution of two- and three-dimensional nonrelativistic Gaussian wave packets in the presence of a weak external potential of arbitrary functional form. The focus of our study is the phenomenon of rotation of a Gaussian wave packet around its center of mass, as quantified by mean angular momentum computed relative to the wave-packet center. Using a semiclassical approximation of the eikonal type, we derive an explicit formula for a time-dependent change of mean angular momentum of a wave packet induced by its interaction with a weak external potential. As an example, we apply our analytical approach to the scenario of a two-dimensional quantum particle crossing a tilted ridge potential barrier. In particular, we demonstrate that the initial orientation of the particle wave packet determines the sense of its rotation, and report a good agreement between analytical and numerical results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Skjaeraasen, O. [ProsTek, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway)
2011-07-15
Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed {nu}{sub e}/c increases and as the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub e} of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on {nu}{sub e}/c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of T{sub i}/T{sub e}. The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of {nu}{sub e}/c. For {nu}{sub e}/c < or approx. 0.17, strong turbulence is approximately electrostatic and wave packets have very similar structure to purely electrostatic wave packets. For {nu}{sub e}/c > or approx. 0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all {nu}{sub e}/c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as {nu}{sub e}/c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.
Analysis of circular wave packets generated by pulsed electric fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, S., E-mail: shuhei@concord.itp.tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Reinhold, C.O. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6372 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Burgdoerfer, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wyker, B.; Ye, S.; Dunning, F.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)
2012-05-15
We demonstrate that circular wave packets in high Rydberg states generated by a pulsed electric field applied to extreme Stark states are characterized by a position-dependent energy gradient that leads to a correlation between the principal quantum number n and the spatial coordinate. This correlation is rather insensitive to the initial state and can be seen even in an incoherent mix of states such as is generated experimentally allowing information to be placed into, and extracted from, such wave packets. We show that detailed information on the spatial distribution of a circular wave packet can be extracted by analyzing the complex phase of its expansion coefficients.
Neutrino Oscillations in Intermediate States.II -- Wave Packets
Asahara, A; Shimomura, T; Yabuki, T
2004-01-01
We analyze oscillations of intermediate neutrinos in terms of scattering of particles described by Gaussian wave packets. We study a scalar model as in the previous paper (I) but in realistic situations, where two particles of the initial state and final state are wave packets and neutrinos are in the intermediate state. The oscillation of the intermediate neutrino is found from the time evolution of the total transition probability between the initial state and final state. The effect of a finite lifetime and a finite relaxation time $\\tau$ are also studied. We find that the oscillation pattern depends on the magnitude of wave packet sizes of particles in the initial state and final state and the lifetime of the initial particle. For $\\Delta m^2=10^{-2}$ eV$^2$, the oscillation probability deviates from the standard formula, if the wave packet sizes are around $10^{-13}$ m for 0.4 MeV neutrino.
Resonance-Assisted Decay of Nondispersive Wave Packets
Wimberger, S.; Schlagheck, P.; Eltschka, C.; Buchleitner, A.
2006-01-01
We present a quantitative semiclassical theory for the decay of nondispersive electronic wave packets in driven, ionizing Rydberg systems. Statistically robust quantities are extracted combining resonance assisted tunneling with subsequent transport across chaotic phase space and a final ionization step.
Wave packet dynamics of potassium dimers attached to helium nanodroplets
Claas, P.; Droppelmann, G.; Schulz, C. P.; Mudrich, M.; Stienkemeier, F.
2006-01-01
The dynamics of vibrational wave packets excited in K$_2$ dimers attached to superfluid helium nanodroplets is investigated by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The employed resonant three-photon-ionization scheme is studied in a wide wavelength range and different pathways leading to K$^+_2$-formation are identified. While the wave packet dynamics of the electronic ground state is not influenced by the helium environment, perturbations of the electronically excited states are obs...
Electronic Wave Packet in a Quantized Electromagnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程太旺; 薛艳丽; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 傅盘铭
2002-01-01
We study a non-stationary electronic wave packet in a quantized electromagnetic field. Generally, the electron and field become entangled as the electronic wave packet evolves. Here we find that, when the initial photon state is a coherent one, the wavefunction of the system can be factorized if we neglect the transferred photon number. In this case, the quantized-field calculation is equivalent to the semi-classical calculation.
On wave-packet dynamics in a decaying quadratic potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
1997-01-01
We consider the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for a quadratic potential with an exponentially decaying force constant. General analytical solutions are presented and we highlight in particular, the signatures of classical mechanics in the wave packet dynamics.......We consider the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for a quadratic potential with an exponentially decaying force constant. General analytical solutions are presented and we highlight in particular, the signatures of classical mechanics in the wave packet dynamics....
Wave analysis of the evolution of a single wave packet in supersonic boundary layer
Yermolaev, Yury G.; Yatskikh, Aleksey A.; Kosinov, Alexander D.; Semionov, Nickolay V.
2016-10-01
The evolution of the artificial wave packet in laminar flat-plate boundary layer was experimentally studied by hot-wire measurements at M=2. The localized disturbances were generated by pulse glow discharge. The wave analysis of evolution of wave packet was provided. It was found, that the most unstable waves are oblique, that consistent with results of linear theory.
Climatology of extratropical atmospheric wave packets in the northern hemisphere
Grazzini, Federico
2010-01-01
Planetary and synoptic scale wave-packets represents one important component of the atmospheric large-scale circulation. These dissipative structures are able to rapidly transport eddy kinetic energy, generated locally (e.g. by baroclinic conversion), downstream along the upper tropospheric flow. The transported energy, moving faster than individual weather systems, will affect the development of the next meteorological system on the leading edge of the wave packet, creating a chain of connections between systems that can be far apart in time and space, with important implications on predictability. In this work we present a different and novel approach to investigate atmospheric variability, based on the objective recognition of planetary and synoptic wave packets. We have developed an objective tracking algorithm which allows to extract relevant statistical properties of the wave trains as a function of their dominant wavelength. We have applied the algorithm to the daily analysis (every 12h) from 1958-2009...
Electron acceleration by Landau resonance with whistler mode wave packets
Gurnett, D. A.; Reinleitner, L. A.
1983-01-01
Recent observations of electrostatic waves associated with whistler mode chorus emissions provide evidence that electrons are being trapped by Landau resonance interactions with the chorus. In this paper, the trapping, acceleration and escape of electrons in Landau resonance with a whistler mode wave packet are discussed. It is shown that acceleration can occur by both inhomogeneous and dispersive effects. The maximum energy gained is controlled by the points where trapping and escape occur. Large energy changes are possible if the frequency of the wave packet or the magnetic field strength increase between the trapping and escape points. Various trapping and escape mechanisms are discussed.
Particle-like wave packets in complex scattering systems
Gérardin, Benoît; Ambichl, Philipp; Prada, Claire; Rotter, Stefan; Aubry, Alexandre
2016-01-01
A wave packet undergoes a strong spatial and temporal dispersion while propagating through a complex medium. This wave scattering is often seen as a nightmare in wave physics whether it be for focusing, imaging or communication purposes. Controlling wave propagation through complex systems is thus of fundamental interest in many areas, ranging from optics or acoustics to medical imaging or telecommunications. Here, we study the propagation of elastic waves in a cavity and a disordered waveguide by means of laser interferometry. We demonstrate how the direct experimental access to the information stored in the scattering matrix of these systems allows us to selectively excite scattering states and wave packets that travel along individual classical trajectories. Due to their limited dispersion, these particle-like scattering states will be crucially relevant for all applications involving selective wave focusing and efficient information transfer through complex media.
The Spatiotemporal Evolution of Wave Packets under Chaotic Condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Fang; LI Jun-Qing; LUO Yi-Xiao; XU Gong-Ou; ZUO Wei
2001-01-01
Using the minimum uncertainty state of quantum integrable system H0 as initial state,the spatiotemporal evolution of the wave packet under the action of perturbed Hamiltonian is studied causally as in classical mechanics. Due to the existence of the avoided energy level crossing in the spectrum there exist nonlinear resonances between somepairs of neighboring components of the wave packet,the deterministic dynamical evolution becomes very complicated and appears to be chaotic.It is proposed to use expectation values for the whole set of basic dynamical variables and the corresponding spreading widths to describe the topological features concisely such that the quantum chaotic motion can be studied in contrast with the quantum regular motion and well characterized with the asymptotic behaviors.It has been demonstrated with numerical results that such a wave packet has indeed quantum behaviors of ergodicity asin corresponding classical case.
Wave packet propagation across barriers by semiclassical initial value methods
Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.
2015-07-01
Semiclassical initial value representation (IVR) formulas for the propagator have difficulty describing tunneling through barriers. A key reason is that these formulas do not automatically reduce, in the classical limit, to the version of the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller (VVG) propagator required to treat barrier tunneling, which involves trajectories that have complex initial conditions and that follow paths in complex time. In this work, a simple IVR expression, that has the correct tunneling form in the classical limit, is derived for the propagator in the case of one-dimensional barrier transmission. Similarly, an IVR formula, that reduces to the Generalized Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics (GGWPD) expression [D. Huber, E. J. Heller, and R. Littlejohn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2003 (1988)] in the classical limit, is derived for the transmitted wave packet. Uniform semiclassical versions of the IVR formulas are presented and simplified expressions in terms of real trajectories and WKB penetration factors are described. Numerical tests show that the uniform IVR treatment gives good results for wave packet transmission through the Eckart and Gaussian barriers in all cases examined. In contrast, even when applied with the proper complex trajectories, the VVG and GGWPD treatments are inaccurate when the mean energy of the wave packet is near the classical transmission threshold. The IVR expressions for the propagator and wave packet are cast as contour integrals in the complex space of initial conditions and these are generalized to potentially allow treatment of a larger variety of systems. A steepest descent analysis of the contour integral formula for the wave packet in the present cases confirms its relationship to the GGWPD method, verifies its semiclassical validity, and explains results of numerical calculations.
Analysis of Circular Wave Packets Generated by Pulsed Electric Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Reinhold, Carlos O [ORNL; Burgdorfer, J. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Wyker, B. [Rice University; Ye, S. [Rice University; Dunning, F. B. [Rice University
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that circular wave packets in high Rydberg states generated using a pulsed electric field applied to extreme Stark states are characterized by a position-dependent energy gradient that leads to a correlation between the principal quantum number n and the spatial coordinate. This correlation is rather insensitive to the initial state and can be seen even in an incoherent mix of states such as is generated experimentally allowing information to be placed into, and extracted from, such wavepackets. We show that detailed information on the spatial distribution of a circular wave packet can be extracted by analyzing the complex phase of its expansion coefficient.
Wave packet dynamics under effect of a pulsed electric field
da Silva, A. R. C. B.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Dias, W. S.
2016-06-01
We studied the dynamics of an electron in a crystalline one-dimensional model under effect of a time-dependent Gaussian field. The time evolution of an initially Gaussian wave packet it was obtained through the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Our analysis consists of computing the electronic centroid as well as the mean square displacement. We observe that the electrical pulse is able to promote a special kind of displacement along the chain. We demonstrated a direct relation between the group velocity of the wave packet and the applied electrical pulses. We compare those numerical calculations with a semi-classical approach.
Wave packets and initial conditions in quantum cosmology
Gousheh, S S
2000-01-01
We discuss the construction of wave packets resulting from the solutions of a class of Wheeler-DeWitt equations in Robertson-Walker type cosmologies. We present an ansatz for the initial conditions which leads to a unique determination of the expansion coefficients in the construction of the wave packets with probability distributions which, in an interesting contrast to some of the earlier works, agree well with all possible classical paths. The possible relationship between these initial conditions and signature transition in the context of classical cosmology is also discussed.
Symmetry and conservation laws in semiclassical wave packet dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohsawa, Tomoki, E-mail: tomoki@utdallas.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)
2015-03-15
We formulate symmetries in semiclassical Gaussian wave packet dynamics and find the corresponding conserved quantities, particularly the semiclassical angular momentum, via Noether’s theorem. We consider two slightly different formulations of Gaussian wave packet dynamics; one is based on earlier works of Heller and Hagedorn and the other based on the symplectic-geometric approach by Lubich and others. In either case, we reveal the symplectic and Hamiltonian nature of the dynamics and formulate natural symmetry group actions in the setting to derive the corresponding conserved quantities (momentum maps). The semiclassical angular momentum inherits the essential properties of the classical angular momentum as well as naturally corresponds to the quantum picture.
Short-time Chebyshev wave packet method for molecular photoionization
Sun, Zhaopeng; Zheng, Yujun
2016-08-01
In this letter we present the extended usage of short-time Chebyshev wave packet method in the laser induced molecular photoionization dynamics. In our extension, the polynomial expansion of the exponential in the time evolution operator, the Hamiltonian operator can act on the wave packet directly which neatly avoids the matrix diagonalization. This propagation scheme is of obvious advantages when the dynamical system has large Hamiltonian matrix. Computational simulations are performed for the calculation of photoelectronic distributions from intense short pulse ionization of K2 and NaI which represent the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) model and Non-BO one, respectively.
Propagation of gravity wave packet near critical level
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUE Xianchang; YI Fan
2005-01-01
A couple of two-dimensional linear and fully nonlinear numerical models for compressible atmosphere are used to numerically study the propagation of the gravity wave packet into a mean wind shear. For a linear propagation wave packet, the critical level interactions are in good agreement with the linear critical level theory. The dynamically and convectively unstable regions are formed due to the critical level interaction of a finite-amplitude wave packet, but they would not break. The free exchange of potential energy with kinetic energy in the background atmosphere at rest ceases after entering the mean wind shear. However, it still goes on in the nonlinear propagation. It is shown that the nonlinear effects modify the mean flow markedly, reduce the momentum and energy propagation velocity and drop the elevation of the critical level.The gravity wave packet becomes unstable and breaks down into smaller scales in some regions. It expends much more kinetic energy than potential energy in the early phase of the breakdown. This means that the wave breakdown sets up due to the action of the shear instability rather than a convective one.
Stochastic Acceleration of Ions Driven by Pc1 Wave Packets
Khazanov, G. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.
2015-01-01
The stochastic motion of protons and He(sup +) ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10(exp -4) nT sq/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data.
Massachusetts Bay - Internal Wave Packets Digitized from SAR Imagery and Intersected with Bathymetry
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery and intersected with bathymetry for Massachusetts Bay. The internal wave packets were...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery and intersected with tidal zones for Massachusetts Bay. The internal wave packets were...
Weisskopf-Wigner model for wave packet excitation
Paloviita, A; Stenholm, S; Paloviita, Asta; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Stenholm, Stig
1997-01-01
We consider a laser induced molecular excitation process as a decay of a single energy state into a continuum. The analytic results based on Weisskopf-Wigner approach and perturbation calculations are compared with numerical wave packet results. We find that the decay model describes the excitation process well within the expected parameter region.
Chirp dependence of wave packet motion in oxazine 1.
Malkmus, Stephan; Dürr, Regina; Sobotta, Constanze; Pulvermacher, Horst; Zinth, Wolfgang; Braun, Markus
2005-11-24
The motion of vibrational wave packets in the system oxazine 1 in methanol is investigated by spectrally resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The spectral properties of the probe pulse from 600 to 700 nm were chosen to cover the overlap region where ground-state bleach and stimulated emission signals are detected. The spectral phase of the pump pulse was manipulated by a liquid crystal display based pulse-shaping setup. Chirped excitation pulses of negative and positive chirp can be used to excite vibrational modes predominantly in the ground or excited state, respectively. To distinguish the observed wave packets in oxazine 1 moving in the ground or excited state, spectrally resolved transient absorption experiments are performed for various values of the linear chirp of the pump pulses. The amplitudes of the wave packet motion show an asymmetric behavior with an optimum signal for a negative chirp of -0.75 +/- 0.2 fs/nm, which indicates that predominantly ground-state wave packets are observed.
Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J Banerji
2001-02-01
We have compared the non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states of various symmetry groups and found that certain generic features of non-linear evolution are present in each case. Thus the initial coherent structures are quickly destroyed but are followed by Schrödinger cat formation and revival. We also report important differences in their evolution.
Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-Vortex 3D wave packets: Emission of vortex light waves
Driben, Rodislav
2014-01-01
The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Due to the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and non-zero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse, especially those having small width.
Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-vortex 3D wave packets: emission of vortex light waves.
Driben, Rodislav; Meier, Torsten
2014-10-01
The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Because of the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and nonzero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse.
Inversion of an Atomic Wave Packet in a Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic Wave
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Gao-Jian
2001-01-01
We study behavior of an atomic wave packet in a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave, and particularly calculate the atomic inversion of the wave packet. A general method of calculation is presented. The results are interesting. For example, if the wave packet is very narrow or/and the interaction is very strong, no matter the atom is initially in its ground state or excited state, the atomic inversion approaches zero as time approaches infinity. If the atom is initially in its ground state and excited state with the probability 1/2 respectively, and if the momentum density is an even function, then the atomic inversion equals zero at any time.``
Nonlinear Evolution of Alfvenic Wave Packets
Buti, B.; Jayanti, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1998-01-01
Alfven waves are a ubiquitous feature of the solar wind. One approach to studying the evolution of such waves has been to study exact solutions to approximate evolution equations. Here we compare soliton solutions of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger evolution equation (DNLS) to solutions of the compressible MHD equations.
Semiclassical wave-packets emerging from interaction with an environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Recchia, Carla, E-mail: carla.recchia@libero.it [D.I.S.I.M., Università di L’Aquila, Via Vetoio - Loc. Coppito - 67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Teta, Alessandro, E-mail: teta@mat.uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, “Sapienza” Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2014-01-15
We study the quantum evolution in dimension three of a system composed by a test particle interacting with an environment made of N harmonic oscillators. At time zero the test particle is described by a spherical wave, i.e., a highly correlated continuous superposition of states with well localized position and momentum, and the oscillators are in the ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the positions of the oscillators are not collinear with the center of the spherical wave. Under suitable assumptions on the physical parameters characterizing the model, we give an asymptotic expression of the solution of the Schrödinger equation of the system with an explicit control of the error. The result shows that the approximate expression of the wave function is the sum of two terms, orthogonal in L{sup 2}(R{sup 3(N+1)}) and describing rather different situations. In the first one, all the oscillators remain in their ground state and the test particle is described by the free evolution of a slightly deformed spherical wave. The second one consists of a sum of N terms where in each term there is only one excited oscillator and the test particle is correspondingly described by the free evolution of a wave packet, well concentrated in position and momentum. Moreover, the wave packet emerges from the excited oscillator with an average momentum parallel to the line joining the oscillator with the center of the initial spherical wave. Such wave packet represents a semiclassical state for the test particle, propagating along the corresponding classical trajectory. The main result of our analysis is to show how such a semiclassical state can be produced, starting from the original spherical wave, as a result of the interaction with the environment.
Energy and Information Transfer Via Coherent Exciton Wave Packets
Zang, Xiaoning
Electronic excitons are bound electron-hole states that are generated when light interacts with matter. Such excitations typically entangle with phonons and rapidly decohere; the resulting electronic state dynamics become diffusive as a result. However, if the exciton-phonon coupling can be reduced, it may be possible to construct excitonic wave packets that offer a means of efficiently transmitting information and energy. This thesis is a combined theory/computation investigation to design condensed matter systems which support the requisite coherent transport. Under the idealizing assumption that exciton-phonon entanglement could be completely suppressed, the majority of this thesis focuses on the creation and manipulation of exciton wave packets in quasi-one-dimensional systems. While each site could be a silicon quantum dot, the actual implementation focused on organic molecular assemblies for the sake of computational simplicity, ease of experimental implementation, potential for coherent transport, and promise because of reduced structural uncertainty. A laser design was derived to create exciton wave packets with tunable shape and speed. Quantum interference was then exploited to manipulate these packets to block, pass, and even dissociate excitons based on their energies. These developments allow exciton packets to be considered within the arena of quantum information science. The concept of controllable excitonic wave packets was subsequently extended to consider molecular designs that allow photons with orbital angular momentum to be absorbed to create excitons with a quasi-angular momentum of their own. It was shown that a well-defined measure of topological charge is conserved in such light-matter interactions. Significantly, it was also discovered that such molecules allow photon angular momenta to be combined and later emitted. This amounts to a new way of up/down converting photonic angular momentum without relying on nonlinear optical materials. The
Wave packet dynamics in the optimal superadiabatic approximation
Betz, Volker; Manthe, Uwe
2016-01-01
We explain the concept of superadiabatic approximations and show how in the context of the Born- Oppenheimer approximation they lead to an explicit formula that can be used to predict transitions at avoided crossings. Based on this formula, we present a simple method for computing wave packet dynamics across avoided crossings. Only knowledge of the adiabatic electronic energy levels near the avoided crossing is required for the computation. In particular, this means that no diabatization procedure is necessary, the adiabatic energy levels can be computed on the fly, and they only need to be computed to higher accuracy when an avoided crossing is detected. We test the quality of our method on the paradigmatic example of photo-dissociation of NaI, finding very good agreement with results of exact wave packet calculations.
Inclusion of quantum fluctuations in wave packet dynamics
Ohnishi, A
1996-01-01
We discuss a method by which quantum fluctuations can be included in microscopic transport models based on wave packets that are not energy eigenstates. By including the next-to-leading order term in the cumulant expansion of the statistical weight, which corresponds to the wave packets having Poisson energy distributions, we obtain a much improved global description of the quantum statistical properties of the many-body system. In the case of atomic nuclei, exemplified by 12C and 40Ca, the standard liquid-drop results are reproduced at low temperatures and a phase transformation to a fragment gas occurs as the temperature is raised. The treatment can be extended to dynamical scenarios by means of a Langevin force emulating the transitions between the wave packets. The general form of the associated transport coefficients is derived and it is shown that the appropriate microcanonical equilibrium distribution is achieved in the course of the time evolution. Finally, invoking Fermi's golden rule, we derive spec...
Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Supriya Chatterjee; Amitava Choudhuri; Aparna Saha; B Talukdar
2010-09-01
An expression for the transition probability or form factor in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse was constructed. In applicative contexts, our expression was found to be more useful than the corresponding result given by Landau and Lifshitz. Using the new expression for the form factor, the motion of a localized quantum wave packet was studied with particular emphasis on its revival and super-revival properties. Closed form analytical expressions were derived for expectation values of the position and momentum operators that characterized the widths of the position and momentum distributions. Transient phase-space localization of the wave packet produced by the application of a single impulsive kick was explicitly demonstrated. The undulation of the uncertainty product as a function of time was studied in order to visualize how the motion of the wave packet in its classical trajectory spreads throughout the orbit and the system becomes nonclassical. The process, however, repeats itself such that the atom undergoes a free evolution from a classical, to a nonclassical, and back to a classical state.
Rydberg Wave Packets and Half-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses
Raman, Chandra S.
1998-05-01
This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work ( R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 70, 1993. had shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work I investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques I am able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate, and to observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial ( C. Raman, C. Conover, C. Sukenik, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg wavepackets by sub-picosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 76, 1996.and angular ( C. Raman, T. Weinacht, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Stark wavepackets viewed with half cycle pulses.'' Phys. Rev. A), vol. 55, No. 6, 1997. coordinates. This is the first time a wavepacket technique has been used to view electron motion everywhere on its trajectory, and not just at the nucleus. This is the principal feature of half-cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in the data, and in the absence of a rigorous model I rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between
Maamache, Mustapha; Bouguerra, Yacine; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2016-06-01
A Gaussian wave packet of the inverted oscillator is investigated using the invariant operator method together with the unitary transformation method. A simple wave packet directly derived from the eigenstates of the invariant operator of the system corresponds to a plane wave that is fully delocalized. However, we can construct a weighted wave packet in terms of such plane waves, which corresponds to a Gaussian wave. This wave packet is associated with the generalized coherent state, which can be crucially utilized for investigating the classical limit of quantum wave mechanics. Various quantum properties of the system, such as fluctuations of the canonical variables, the uncertainty product, and the motion of the wave packet or quantum particle, are analyzed by means of this wave packet. We have confirmed that the time behavior of such a wave packet is very similar to the counterpart classical state. The wave packet runs away from the origin in the positive or negative direction in the 1D coordinate depending on the condition of the initial state. We have confirmed that this wave packet not only moves acceleratively but also spreads out during its propagation.
Theory of Square-Wave Voltammetry of Two-Electron Reduction with the Adsorption of Intermediate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milivoj Lovric
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Thermodynamically unstable intermediate of fast and reversible two-electron electrode reaction can be stabilized by the adsorption to the electrode surface. In square-wave voltammetry of this reaction mechanism, the split response may appear if the electrode surface is not completely covered by the adsorbed intermediate. The dependence of the difference between the net peak potentials of the prepeak and postpeak on the square-wave frequency is analyzed theoretically. This relationship can be used for the estimation of adsorption constant.
Test particle simulation study of whistler wave packets observed near Comet Giacobini-Zinner
Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear interactions of water group ions with large-amplitude whistler wave packets detected at the leading edge of steepened magnetosonic waves observed near Comet Giacobini-Zinner (GZ) are studied using test particle simulations of water-ion interactions with a model wave based on GZ data. Some of the water ions are found to be decelerated in the steepened portion of the magnetosonic wave to the resonance velocity with the whistler wave packets. Through resonance and related nonlinear interaction with the large-amplitude whistler waves, the water ions become trapped by the packet. An energy balance calculation demonstrates that the trapped ions lose their kinetic energy during the trapped motion in the packet. Thus, the nonlinear trapping motion in the wave structure leads to effective energy transfer from the water group ions to the whistler wave packets in the leading edge of the steepened MHD waves.
Wave packet molecular dynamics simulations of warm dense hydrogen
Knaup, M; Toepffer, C; Zwicknagel, G
2003-01-01
Recent shock-wave experiments with deuterium in a regime where a plasma phase-transition has been predicted and their theoretical interpretation are the matter of a controversial discussion. In this paper, we apply 'wave packet molecular dynamics' (WPMD) simulations to investigate warm dense hydrogen. The WPMD method was originally used by Heller for a description of the scattering of composite particles such as simple atoms and molecules; later it was applied to Coulomb systems by Klakow et al. In the present version of our model the protons are treated as classical point-particles, whereas the electrons are represented by a completely anti-symmetrized Slater sum of periodic Gaussian wave packets. We present recent results for the equation of state of hydrogen at constant temperature T = 300 K and of deuterium at constant Hugoniot E - E sub 0 + 1/2(1/n - 1/n sub 0)(p + p sub 0) = 0, and compare them with the experiments and several theoretical approaches.
Riemann zeta function from wave-packet dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mack, R.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Moya-Cessa, H.
2010-01-01
is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and tau is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials...... index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann zeta wave-packet dynamics using cold atoms...
Wave packet dynamics of the matter wave field of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Sudheesh, C; Lakshmibala, S
2004-01-01
We show in the framework of a tractable model that revivals and fractional revivals of wave packets afford clear signatures of the extent of departure from coherence and from Poisson statistics of the matter wave field in a Bose-Einstein condensate, or of a suitably chosen initial state of the radiation field propagating in a Kerr-like medium.
Field structure of collapsing wave packets in 3D strong Langmuir turbulence
Newman, D. L.; Robinson, P. A.; Goldman, M. V.
1989-01-01
A simple model is constructed for the electric fields in the collapsing wave packets found in 3D simulations of driven and damped isotropic strong Langmuir turbulence. This model, based on a spherical-harmonic decomposition of the electrostatic potential, accounts for the distribution of wave-packet shapes observed in the simulations, particularly the predominance of oblate wave packets. In contrast with predictions for undamped and undriven subsonic collapse of scalar fields, oblate vector-field wave packets do not flatten during collapse but, instead, remain approximately self-similar and rigid.
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-01-01
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluid-like description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave (also known as whistler wave) propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of 3-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results: 1. Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. 2. EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and 2-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
Qualitative dynamics of wave packets in turbulent jets
Semeraro, Onofrio; Lusseyran, François; Pastur, Luc; Jordan, Peter
2017-09-01
We analyze the temporal dynamics associated with axisymmetric coherent structures in a turbulent jet. It has long been established that turbulent jets comprise large-scale coherent structures, now more commonly referred to as "wave packets" [Jordan and Colonius, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 45, 173 (2013), 10.1146/annurev-fluid-011212-140756]. These structures exhibit a marked spatiotemporal organization, despite turbulence, and we aim to characterize their temporal dynamics by means of nonlinear statistical tools. The analysis is based on data presented Breakey et al., in Proceedings of the 19th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, AIAA Paper 2013-2083 (AIAA, Reston, VA, 2013), where time series of the wave-packet signatures are extracted at different streamwise locations. The experiment runs at Ma=0.6 and Re=5.7 ×105 . A thorough analysis is performed. Statistical tools are used to estimate the embedding and correlation dimensions that characterize the dynamical system. Input-output transfer functions are designed as control-oriented models; and for this special case, consistent with other recent studies, we find that linear models can reproduce much of the convective input-ouput behavior. Finally, we show how surrogate models can partially reproduce the nonlinear dynamics.
Nonlinear single Compton scattering of an electron wave-packet
Angioi, A; Di Piazza, A
2016-01-01
In the presence of a sufficiently intense electromagnetic laser field, an electron can absorb on average a large number of photons from the laser and emit a high-energy one (nonlinear single Compton scattering). The case of nonlinear single Compton scattering by an electron with definite initial momentum has been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Here, we consider a more general initial state of the electron and use a wave-packet obtained as a superposition of Volkov wave functions. In particular, we investigate the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation at fixed observation direction and show that in typical experimental situations the sharply peaked structure of nonlinear single Compton scattering spectra of an electron with definite initial energy is almost completely washed out. Moreover, we show that at comparable uncertainties, the one in the momentum of the incoming electron has a larger impact on the photon spectra at a fixed observation direction than the one on the laser frequency, relate...
Information Geometry of Quantum Entangled Gaussian Wave-Packets
Kim, D -H; Cafaro, C; Mancini, S
2011-01-01
Describing and understanding the essence of quantum entanglement and its connection to dynamical chaos is of great scientific interest. In this work, using information geometric (IG) techniques, we investigate the effects of micro-correlations on the evolution of maximal probability paths on statistical manifolds induced by systems whose microscopic degrees of freedom are Gaussian distributed. We use the statistical manifolds associated with correlated and non-correlated Gaussians to model the scattering induced quantum entanglement of two spinless, structureless, non-relativistic particles, the latter represented by minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave-packets. Knowing that the degree of entanglement is quantified by the purity P of the system, we express the purity for s-wave scattering in terms of the micro-correlation coefficient r - a quantity that parameterizes the correlated microscopic degrees of freedom of the system; thus establishing a connection between entanglement and micro-correlations. Moreover, ...
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-05-13
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
The pump-probe coupling of matter wave packets to remote lattice states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sherson, Jacob F; Park, Sung Jong; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm;
2012-01-01
containing a Bose–Einstein condensate. The evolution of these wave packets is monitored in situ and their six-photon reflection at a band gap is observed. In direct analogy with pump–probe spectroscopy, a probe pulse allows for the resonant de-excitation of the wave packet into states localized around...
Simulation on the electronic wave packet cyclotron motion in a Weyl semimetal slab.
Yao, Haibo; Zhu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong
2017-04-20
We perform a numerical simulation on the time evolution of an electronic wave packet in a Weyl semimetal (WSM) slab driven by a magnetic field. We find that the evolution trajectory of the wave packet depends sensitively on its initial spin state. Only with initial spin state identical to that of the Fermi arc state at the surface it localized, does the wave packet evolution demonstrate the characteristic cyclotron orbit of WSM previously predicted from a semiclassical viewpoint. By analyzing the eigen-expansion of the electronic wave packet, we find the chiral Landau levels (LLs) of the WSM slab, as ingredients of the wave packet, to be responsible for establishing the characteristic WSM cyclotron orbit. In contrast, the nonchiral LLs contribute irregular oscillations to the wave packet evolution, going against the formation of a well-defined cyclotron orbit. In addition, the tilted magnetic field does not affect the motion of the electronic wave packet along the Fermi arcs in the momentum space. It does, however, alter the evolution trajectory of the electronic wave packet in real space and spin space. Finally, the energy disalignment of the Weyl nodes results in a 3D cyclotron orbit in real space.
Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Brinca, Armando L.; Thorne, Richard M.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi
1989-01-01
The physical characteristics of high-frequency wave packets detected at the steepened edge of magnetosonic waves near Comet Giacobini-Zinner are explored, based on an examination of over 45 well-defined events. The results suggest that the wave packets play an important role in the reorientation and reduction in field magnitude from the steepened magnetosonic waves to the upstream ambient field. The observed properties of the wave packets are shown to be consistent with anomalously Doppler-shifted right-hand polarized waves.
Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase transition point
Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke
2012-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase-transition point are analytically studied. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is derived for the envelope of these wave packets. A variety of novel phenomena known to exist in this envelope equation are shown to also exist in the full equation including wave blowup, periodic bound states and solitary wave solutions.
Flavor entanglement in neutrino oscillations in the wave packet description
Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2015-10-01
The wave packet approach to neutrino oscillations provides an enlightening description of quantum decoherence induced, during propagation, by localization effects. Within this approach, we show that a deeper insight into the dynamical aspects of particle mixing can be obtained if one investigates the behavior of quantum correlations associated to flavor oscillations. By identifying the neutrino three-flavor modes with (suitably defined) three-qubit modes, the exploitation of tools of quantum information theory for mixed states allows a detailed analysis of the dynamical behavior of flavor entanglement during free propagation. This provides further elements leading to a more complete understanding of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, and a basis for possible applicative implementations. The analysis is carried out by studying the distribution of the flavor entanglement; to this aim, we perform combined investigations of the behaviors of the two-flavor concurrence and of the logarithmic negativities associated with specific bipartitions of the three flavors.
Discrete Wave-Packet Representation in Nuclear Matter Calculations
Müther, H; Kukulin, V I; Pomerantsev, V N
2016-01-01
The Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the nucleon-nucleon $t$-matrix as well as the corresponding Bethe-Goldstone equation to determine the Brueckner reaction matrix in nuclear matter are reformulated in terms of the resolvents for the total two-nucleon Hamiltonians defined in free space and in medium correspondingly. This allows to find solutions at many energies simultaneously by using the respective Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization in the stationary wave packet basis. Among other important advantages, this approach simplifies greatly the whole computation procedures both for coupled-channel $t$-matrix and the Brueckner reaction matrix. Therefore this principally novel scheme is expected to be especially useful for self-consistent nuclear matter calculations because it allows to accelerate in a high degree single-particle potential iterations. Furthermore the method provides direct access to the properties of possible two-nucleon bound states in the nuclear medium. The comparison between reaction matrices f...
Recovery time in quantum dynamics of wave packets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strekalov, M. L., E-mail: strekalov@kinetics.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Voevodskii Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
A wave packet formed by a linear superposition of bound states with an arbitrary energy spectrum returns arbitrarily close to the initial state after a quite long time. A method in which quantum recovery times are calculated exactly is developed. In particular, an exact analytic expression is derived for the recovery time in the limiting case of a two-level system. In the general case, the reciprocal recovery time is proportional to the Gauss distribution that depends on two parameters (mean value and variance of the return probability). The dependence of the recovery time on the mean excitation level of the system is established. The recovery time is the longest for the maximal excitation level.
Time delay of wave packets during their tunnelling through a quantum diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, N A; Skalozub, V V [Dnipropetrovsk National University Oles Honchar (Ukraine)
2014-04-28
A modified saddle-point method is used to investigate the process of propagation of a wave packet through a quantum diode. A scattering matrix is constructed for the structure in question. The case of tunnelling of a packet with a Gaussian envelope through the diode is considered in detail. The time delay and the shape of the wave packet transmitted are calculated. The dependence of the delay time on the characteristics of the input packet and the internal characteristics of the quantum diode is studied. Possible applications of the results obtained are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Statistical behavior of Langmuir wave packets observed inside the electron foreshock of Saturn
Pisa, David; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, Willam S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan
2014-05-01
We present a statistical study of Langmuir wave packets in the Saturnian foreshock using Cassini Wideband Receiver electric field waveforms. We analyzed all foreshock crossings from 2004 to 2012 using an automatic method for the identification of Langmuir wave signatures. Observed waveforms exhibit a shape similar to Langmuir solitons or monochromatic wave packets with a slowly varying envelope. This is in agreement with a variety of previous observations of Langmuir waves in the terrestrial foreshock and associated with Type III radio bursts. We determined the peak amplitude for all wave packets, and found the distributions of amplitude appeared to follow a power law with P(E) ≈ E-2. We confirm that the most intense electron plasma waves are observed near the foreshock boundary. We estimated the energy density ratio to be about one order below previously reported values at Saturn. Finally, we discuss the properties of the Langmuir wave packets at different locations in the foreshock.
Coriolis-coupled wave packet dynamics of H + HLi reaction.
Padmanaban, R; Mahapatra, S
2006-05-11
We investigated the effect of Coriolis coupling (CC) on the initial state-selected dynamics of H+HLi reaction by a time-dependent wave packet (WP) approach. Exact quantum scattering calculations were obtained by a WP propagation method based on the Chebyshev polynomial scheme and ab initio potential energy surface of the reacting system. Partial wave contributions up to the total angular momentum J=30 were found to be necessary for the scattering of HLi in its vibrational and rotational ground state up to a collision energy approximately 0.75 eV. For each J value, the projection quantum number K was varied from 0 to min (J, K(max)), with K(max)=8 until J=20 and K(max)=4 for further higher J values. This is because further higher values of K do not have much effect on the dynamics and also because one wishes to maintain the large computational overhead for each calculation within the affordable limit. The initial state-selected integral reaction cross sections and thermal rate constants were calculated by summing up the contributions from all partial waves. These were compared with our previous results on the title system, obtained within the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting approximations, to demonstrate the impact of CC on the dynamics of this system.
Chan, Yat-Long; Tsui, Ka Ming; Wong, Chan Fai; Xu, Jianyi
2015-01-01
We derive the neutrino flavor transition probabilities with the neutrino treated as a wave packet. The decoherence and dispersion effects from the wave-packet treatment show up as damping and phase-shifting of the plane-wave neutrino oscillation patterns. If the energy uncertainty in the initial neutrino wave packet is larger than around 0.01 of the neutrino energy, the decoherence and dispersion effects would degrade the sensitivity of reactor neutrino experiments to mass hierarchy measurement to lower than 3 $\\sigma$ confidence level.
Wave packet approach to the Jayne-Cummings and Rabi models
Larson, J
2006-01-01
This paper numerically studies the Jaynes-Cummings model with and without the rotating wave approximation in a non-standard way. Expressing the models with field quadrature operators, instead of the typically used boson ladder operators, a wave packet propagation approach is applied. The obtained evolved wave packets are then used to calculate various quantities, such as, Rabi oscillations, squeezing and entanglement. Many of the phenomenon can be explained from the wave packet evolution, either in the adiabatic or diabatic frames. Different behaviours of the two models are discussed.
Propagation of General Wave Packets in Some Classical and Quantum Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Qiong-Gui
2006-01-01
In quantum mechanics the center of a wave packet is precisely defined as the center of probability. The center-of-probability velocity describes the entire motion of the wave packet. In classical physics there is no precise counterpart to the center-of-probability velocity of quantum mechanics, in spite of the fact that there exist in the literature at least eight different velocities for the electromagnetic wave. We propose a center-of-energy velocity to describe the entire motion of general wave packets in classical physical systems. It is a measurable quantity, and is well defined for both continuous and discrete systems. For electromagnetic wave packets it is a generalization of the velocity of energy transport. General wave packets in several classical systems are studied and the center-of-energy velocity is calculated and expressed in terms of the dispersion relation and the Fourier coefficients. These systems include string subject to an external force, monatomic chain and diatomic chain in one dimension, and classical Heisenberg model in one dimension. In most cases the center-of-energy velocity reduces to the group velocity for quasi-monochromatic wave packets. Thus it also appears to be the generalization of the group velocity. Wave packets of the relativistic Dirac equation are discussed briefly.
Stability and evolution of wave packets in strongly coupled degenerate plasmas
Misra, A P
2011-01-01
We study the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in a collisional plasma composed of strongly coupled ions and relativistically degenerate electrons. The equilibrium of ions is maintained by an effective temperature associated with their strong coupling, whereas that of electrons is provided by the relativistic degeneracy pressure. Using a multiple scale technique, a (3+1)-dimensional coupled set of nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equations with nonlocal nonlinearity is derived from a generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model. These coupled equations, which govern the dynamics of wave packets, are used to study the oblique modulational instability of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. We show that the wave packets, though stable to the parallel modulation, becomes unstable against oblique modulations. In contrast to the long-wavelength carrier modes, the wave packets with short-wavelengths are shown to be stable in the weakly relativistic case, whereas they can be stable...
Spreading of wave packets, Uncertainty Relations and the de Broglie Frequency
Caldas, H C G
1998-01-01
The spreading of quantum mechanical wave packets are studied in two cases. Firstly we look at the time behavior of the packet width of a free particle confined in the observable Universe. Secondly, by imposing the conservation of the time average of the packet width of a particle driven by a harmonic oscillator potential, we find a zero-point energy which frequency is the de Broglie frequency.
Einstein-de Broglie relations for wave packet: the acoustic world
Simaciu, Ion; Dumitrescu, Gheorghe; Georgeta, Nan
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the relations of Einstein-de Broglie type for the wave packets. We assume that the wave packet is a possible model of particle . When studying the behaviour of the wave packet for standing waves, in relation to an accelerated observer (i.e. Rindler observer), there can be demonstrated that the equivalent mass of the packet is the inertial mass. In our scenario, the waves and of the wave packets are depicted by the strain induced/produced in the medium. The properties of the waves, of the wave packet and, generally, of the perturbations in a material medium suggest the existence of an acoustic world. The acoustic world has mechanical and thermodynamical properties. The perturbations that are generated and propagated in the medium are correlated by means of acoustic waves with maximum speed. The observers of this world of disturbances (namely the acoustic world) have senses that are based on the perception of mechanical waves (disturbance of any kind) and apparatus for detecting and acqui...
Slow-light Airy wave packets and their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency
Hang, Chao
2014-01-01
We propose a scheme to generate (3+1)-dimensional slow-light Airy wave packets in a resonant $\\Lambda$-type three-level atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that in the absence of dispersion the Airy wave packets formed by a probe field consist of two Airy wave packets accelerated in transverse directions and a longitudinal Gaussian pulse with a constant propagating velocity lowered to $10^{-5}\\,c$ ($c$ is the light speed in vacuum). We also show that in the presence of dispersion it is possible to generate another type of slow-light Airy wave packets consisting of two Airy beams in transverse directions and an Airy wave packet in the longitudinal direction. In this case, the longitudinal velocity of the Airy wave packet can be further reduced during propagation. Additionally, we further show that the transverse accelerations (or bending) of the both types of slow-light Airy wave packets can be completely eliminated and the motional trajectories of them can be actively manipulated ...
Quantum wave packet dynamics with trajectories: reflections on a downhill ramp potential
Lopreore, Courtney L.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2000-07-01
The quantum trajectory method (QTM) for wave packet dynamics involves solving discretized hydrodynamic equations-of-motion in the Lagrangian picture (C. Lopreore, R.E. Wyatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 5190). In this Letter, results are presented which illustrate the dynamics of an initial Gaussian wave packet on a downhill ramp potential. Plots are shown for the time evolving probability density, as well as phase space plots and force diagrams. The mechanism, deduced from these plots, surprisingly shows some of the transmitted fluid elements of the wave packet making a U-turn before they head downhill on the ramp potential.
Annular wave packets at Dirac points and probability oscillation in graphene
Luo, Ji; Valencia, Daniel
2011-01-01
Wave packets in graphene whose central wave vector is at Dirac points are investigated by numerical calculations. Starting from an initial Gaussian function, these wave packets form into annular peaks that propagate to all directions like ripple-rings on water surface. At the beginning, electronic probability alternates between the central peak and the ripple-rings and transient oscillation occurs at the center. As time increases, the ripple-rings propagate at the fixed Fermi speed, and their widths remain unchanged. The axial symmetry of the energy dispersion leads to the circular symmetry of the wave packets. The fixed speed and widths, however, are attributed to the linearity of the energy dispersion. Interference between states that respectively belong to two branches of the energy dispersion leads to multiple ripple-rings and the probability-density oscillation. In a magnetic field, annular wave packets become confined and no longer propagate to infinity. If the initial Gaussian width differs greatly fro...
Discrete wave-packet representation in nuclear matter calculations
Müther, H.; Rubtsova, O. A.; Kukulin, V. I.; Pomerantsev, V. N.
2016-08-01
The Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the nucleon-nucleon t matrix as well as the corresponding Bethe-Goldstone equation to determine the Brueckner reaction matrix in nuclear matter are reformulated in terms of the resolvents for the total two-nucleon Hamiltonians defined in free space and in medium correspondingly. This allows one to find solutions at many energies simultaneously by using the respective Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization in the stationary wave-packet basis. Among other important advantages, this approach simplifies greatly the whole computation procedures both for the coupled-channel t matrix and the Brueckner reaction matrix. Therefore this principally novel scheme is expected to be especially useful for self-consistent nuclear matter calculations because it allows one to accelerate in a high degree single-particle potential iterations. Furthermore the method provides direct access to the properties of possible two-nucleon bound states in the nuclear medium. The comparison between reaction matrices found via the numerical solution of the Bethe-Goldstone integral equation and the straightforward Hamiltonian diagonalization shows a high accuracy of the method suggested. The proposed fully discrete approach opens a new way to an accurate treatment of two- and three-particle correlations in nuclear matter on the basis of the three-particle Bethe-Faddeev equation by an effective Hamiltonian diagonalization procedure.
Pulse-induced focusing of Rydberg wave packets
Arbó, D. G.; Reinhold, C. O.; Burgdörfer, J.; Pattanayak, A. K.; Stokely, C. L.; Zhao, W.; Lancaster, J. C.; Dunning, F. B.
2003-06-01
We demonstrate that strong transient phase-space localization can be achieved by the application of a single impulsive “kick” in the form of a short (600 ps) unidirectional electric-field pulse to a strongly polarized, quasi-one-dimensional Rydberg atom. The underlying classical dynamics is analyzed and it is shown that phase-space localization results from a focusing effect analogous to rainbow scattering. Moreover, it is shown that the essential features of the classical analysis remain valid in a quantum-mechanical treatment of the system in terms of its phase-space Husimi distribution. The degree of phase-space localization is characterized by the coarse-grained Renyi entropy. Transient phase-space localization is demonstrated experimentally using extreme redshifted m=0 potassium Stark states in the n=351 manifold and a short probe pulse. The experimental data are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The localized state provides an excellent starting point for further control and manipulation of the electron wave packet.
Trajectory description of the quantum–classical transition for wave packet interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw
2016-08-15
The quantum–classical transition for wave packet interference is investigated using a hydrodynamic description. A nonlinear quantum–classical transition equation is obtained by introducing a degree of quantumness ranging from zero to one into the classical time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This equation provides a continuous description for the transition process of physical systems from purely quantum to purely classical regimes. In this study, the transition trajectory formalism is developed to provide a hydrodynamic description for the quantum–classical transition. The flow momentum of transition trajectories is defined by the gradient of the action function in the transition wave function and these trajectories follow the main features of the evolving probability density. Then, the transition trajectory formalism is employed to analyze the quantum–classical transition of wave packet interference. For the collision-like wave packet interference where the propagation velocity is faster than the spreading speed of the wave packet, the interference process remains collision-like for all the degree of quantumness. However, the interference features demonstrated by transition trajectories gradually disappear when the degree of quantumness approaches zero. For the diffraction-like wave packet interference, the interference process changes continuously from a diffraction-like to collision-like case when the degree of quantumness gradually decreases. This study provides an insightful trajectory interpretation for the quantum–classical transition of wave packet interference.
Signatures of wave packet revival phenomena in the expectation values of observables
Sudheesh, C; Balakrishnan, V
2004-01-01
Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are striking quantum interference phenomena that can occur under suitable conditions in a system with a nonlinear spectrum. In the framework of a specific model (the propagation of an initially coherent wave packet in a Kerr-like medium), it is shown that distinctive signatures of these revivals and fractional revivals are displayed by the time evolution of the expectationWave packet revivals and fractional revivals are striking quantum interference phenomena that can occur under suitable conditions in a system with a nonlinear spectrum. In the framework of a specific model (the propagation of an initially coherent wave packet in a Kerr-like medium), it is shown that distinctive signatures of these revivals and fractional revivals are displayed by the time evolution of the expectation values of physical observables and their powers, i.e., by experimentally measurable quantities. Moreover, different fractional revivals can be selectively identified by examining appr...
On the classical limit of Bohmian mechanics for Hagedorn wave packets
Dürr, Detlef
2010-01-01
We consider the classical limit of quantum mechanics in terms of Bohmian trajectories. For wave packets as defined by Hagedorn we show that the Bohmian trajectories converge to Newtonian trajectories in probability.
Goos-Haenchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts for bounded wave packets of light
Ornigotti, Marco
2012-01-01
We present precise expressions of the spatial and angular Goos-Haenchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts experienced by a longitudinally and transversally limited beam of light (wave packet) upon reflection from a dielectric interface, as opposed to the well-known case of a monochromatic beam which is bounded in transverse directions but infinitely extended along the direction of propagation. This is done under the assumption that the detector time is longer than the temporal length of the wave packet (wave packet regime). Our results will be applied to the case of a Gaussian wave packet and show that, at the leading order in the Taylor expansion of reflected-field amplitudes, the results are the same of the monochromatic case.
Kelvin wave packets and flow acceleration - A comparison of modeling and observations
Coy, L.; Hitchman, M.
1984-01-01
Atmospheric Kelvin waves, as revealed by temperatures obtained from the recent Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment, commonly occur in packets. A simple two-dimensional gravity-wave model is used to study the upward propagation of these packets through different zonal mean wind profiles derived from the LIMS data. The observed prevalence of high frequency waves in the lower mesosphere and low frequency waves in the lower stratosphere can be exlained by dispersion of energy associated with the range of frequencies comprising a packet. Dominant wave frequencies at upper and lower levels are more distinctly separated if the packet propagates through a layer of westerly winds. Due to dispersion and shear effects, a packet of short temporal length at low levels will have a considerably extended impact on a layer of westerly winds at higher levels. Observed and modeled westerly accelerations resulting from packet absorption occur in the same layer, and are similar in magnitude and duration. These results support the theory that Kelvin waves are responsible for the westerly phase of the semiannual oscillation.
Karlovets, D V; Serbo, V G
2015-01-01
Laser photons carrying non-zero orbital angular momentum are known and exploited during the last twenty years. Recently it has been demonstrated experimentally that such (twisted) electrons can be produced and even focused to a subnanometer scale. Thus, twisted electrons emerge as a new tool in atomic physics. The state of a twisted electron can be considered as a specific wave packet of plane waves. In the present paper-I we consider elastic scattering of the wave packets of fast non-relativistic particles on a potential field. We obtain simple and convenient formulae for a number of events in such a scattering. The equations derived represent, in fact, generalization of the well-known Born approximation for the case when finite sizes and inhomogeneity of the initial packet should be taken into account. To illustrate the obtained results, we consider two simple models corresponding to scattering of a Gaussian wave packet on the Gaussian potential and on the hydrogen atom. The scattering of twisted electrons ...
Gaussian and Airy wave-packets of massive particles with orbital angular momentum
Karlovets, Dmitry V
2014-01-01
While wave-packet solutions for relativistic wave equations are oftentimes thought to be approximate (paraxial), we demonstrate that there is a family of such solutions, which are exact, by employing a null-plane (light-cone) variables formalism. A scalar Gaussian wave-packet in transverse plane is generalized so that it acquires a well-defined z-component of the orbital angular momentum (OAM), while may not acquire a typical "doughnut" spatial profile. Such quantum states and beams, in contrast to the Bessel ones, may have an azimuthal-angle-dependent probability density and finite quantum uncertainty of the OAM, which is determined by the packet's width. We construct a well-normalized Airy wave-packet, which can be interpreted as a one-particle state for relativistic massive boson, show that its center moves along the same quasi-classical straight path and, what is more important, spreads with time and distance exactly as a Gaussian wave-packet does, in accordance with the uncertainty principle. It is expla...
Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules.
Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan
2016-04-22
We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N_{2} reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.
Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules
Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan
2016-04-01
We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N2 reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.
Principle of stationary phase for propagating wave packets in the unidimensional scattering problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernardini, A.E. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Fisica, PO Box 676, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2008-08-15
We point out some incompatibilities which appear when one applies the stationary phase method for deriving phase times to obtain the spatial localization of wave packets scattered by a unidimensional potential barrier. We concentrate on the above barrier diffusion problem where the wave packet collision implies the possibility of multiple reflected and transmitted wave packets, which, depending on the boundary conditions, can overlap or stand in relative separation in space. We demonstrate that the indiscriminate use of the method for such a particular configuration leads to paradoxical results for which the correct interpretation, confirmed by analytical/numerical calculations, imposes the necessity of the appearance of multiple peaks as a consequence of multiple reflections by the barrier steps. (orig.)
Analysis of wave packet motion in frequency and time domain: oxazine 1.
Braun, Markus; Sobotta, Constanze; Dürr, Regina; Pulvermacher, Horst; Malkmus, Stephan
2006-08-17
Wave packet motion in the laser dye oxazine 1 in methanol is investigated by spectrally resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The spectral range of 600-690 nm was accessible by amplified broadband probe pulses covering the overlap region of ground-state bleach and stimulated emission signal. The influence of vibrational wave packets on the optical signal is analyzed in the frequency domain and the time domain. For the analysis in the frequency domain an algorithm is presented that accounts for interference effects of neighbored vibrational modes. By this method amplitude, phase and decay time of vibrational modes are retrieved as a function of probe wavelength and distortions due to neighbored modes are reduced. The analysis of the data in the time domain yields complementary information on the intensity, central wavelength, and spectral width of the optical bleach spectrum due to wave packet motion.
Resonance-Radiation Force Exerted by a Circularly Polarized Light on an Atomic Wave Packet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YE Yong-Hua; ZENG Gao-Jian; LI Jin-Hui
2006-01-01
We study the behaviour of an atomic wave packet in a circularly polarized light, and especially give the calculation of the radiative force exerted by the circularly polarized light on the atomic wave packet under the resonance condition. A general method of the calculation is presented and the result is interesting. For example, under the condition that the wave packet is very narrow or/and the interaction is very strong, no matter whether the atom is initially in its ground state or excited state, as time approaches to infinity, the resonance-radiation force exerted by the light on the atom approaches to zero. If the atom is initially in its ground state and excited state with the probability 1/2 respectively, and if the momentum density is a even function, then the resonance-radiation force exerted by the light on the atom is equal to zero.
Propagation of Gaussian wave packets in complex media and application to fracture characterization
Ding, Yinshuai; Zheng, Yingcai; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Howell, Michael; Hu, Hao; Zhang, Yu
2017-08-01
Knowledge of the subsurface fracture networks is critical in probing the tectonic stress states and flow of fluids in reservoirs containing fractures. We propose to characterize fractures using scattered seismic data, based on the theory of local plane-wave multiple scattering in a fractured medium. We construct a localized directional wave packet using point sources on the surface and propagate it toward the targeted subsurface fractures. The wave packet behaves as a local plane wave when interacting with the fractures. The interaction produces multiple scattering of the wave packet that eventually travels up to the surface receivers. The propagation direction and amplitude of the multiply scattered wave can be used to characterize fracture density, orientation and compliance. Two key aspects in this characterization process are the spatial localization and directionality of the wave packet. Here we first show the physical behaviour of a new localized wave, known as the Gaussian Wave Packet (GWP), by examining its analytical solution originally formulated for a homogenous medium. We then use a numerical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to study its propagation behaviour in heterogeneous media. We find that a GWP can still be localized and directional in space even over a large propagation distance in heterogeneous media. We then propose a method to decompose the recorded seismic wavefield into GWPs based on the reverse-time concept. This method enables us to create a virtually recorded seismic data using field shot gathers, as if the source were an incident GWP. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of using GWPs for fracture characterization using three numerical examples. For a medium containing fractures, we can reliably invert for the local parameters of multiple fracture sets. Differing from conventional seismic imaging such as migration methods, our fracture characterization method is less sensitive to errors in the background velocity model
Efremov, MA; Petropavlovsky, SV; Fedorov, MV; Schleich, WP; Yakovlev, VP
2005-01-01
The formation of two-dimensional nonspreading atomic wave packets produced in the interaction of a beam of two-level atoms with two standing light waves polarised in the same plane is considered. The mechanism providing a dispersionless particle dynamics is the balance of two processes: a rapid deca
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU; Shaoping(吴少平); YI; Fan(易帆)
2002-01-01
By using FICE scheme, a numerical simulation of nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packet in three-dimension compressible atmosphere is presented. The whole nonlinear propagation process of the gravity wave packet is shown; the basic characteristics of nonlinear propagation and the influence of the ambient winds on the propagation are analyzed. The results show that FICE scheme can be extended in three-dimension by which the calculation is steady and kept for a long time; the increase of wave amplitude is faster than the exponential increase according to the linear gravity theory; nonlinear propagation makes the horizontal perturbation velocity increase greatly which can lead to enhancement of the local ambient winds; the propagation path and the propagation velocity of energy are different from the results expected by the linear gravity waves theory, the nonlinearity causes the change in propagation characteristics of gravity wave; the ambient winds alter the propagation path and group velocity of gravity wave.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Maninder Kaur; Bindiya Arora; Mahmood Mian
2016-01-01
We examine the dynamical evolution of wave packets in a cubical billiard where three quantum numbers (, , ) determine its energy spectrum and consequently its dynamical behaviour. We have constructed the wave packet in the cubical billiard and have observed its time evolution for various closed orbits. The closed orbits are possible for certain specific values of quantum numbers (, , ) and initial momenta (, , ). We observe that a cubical billiard exhibits degenerate energy levels and the path lengths of the closed orbits for these degenerate energy levels are identical. In spite of the identical path lengths, the shapes of the closed orbits for degenerate levels are different and depend upon angles and which we term as the sweep and the elevation angles, respectively. These degenerate levels owe their origin to the symmetries prevailing in the cubical billiard and these levels disappear completely or partially for a parallelepiped billiard as the symmetry breaks due to commensurate or incommensurate ratio of sides.
Strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+: Nuclear wave packet analysis
Tóth, A.; Borbély, S.; Halász, G. J.; Vibók, Á.
2017-09-01
Theoretical ab initio investigation of strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+ molecule in the multiphoton regime is reported. The dynamics is initiated by ultrashort laser pulses for fixed molecular axis orientations. Nuclear wave packet calculations are performed to provide the joint energy spectra (JES): ionization-dissociation probability density via electron (Ee) and nuclear (En) kinetic energy. Analyzing the time-dependent nuclear wave packet densities we have successfully identified the exact path followed by the D2+ target for each multiphoton peak.
Initial Dynamics of The Norrish Type I Reaction in Acetone: Probing Wave Packet Motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brogaard, Rasmus Y.; Sølling, Theis I.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard
2011-01-01
agreement with the experimental signals. We can explain the ultrafast decay of the experimental signals in the following manner: the wave packet simply travels, mainly along the deplanarization coordinate, out of the detection window of the ionizing probe. This window is so narrow that subsequent revival...... of the signal due to the coherent deplanarization vibration is not observed, meaning that from the point of view of the experiment the wave packets travels directly to the S1 minimum. This result stresses the importance of pursuing a closer link to the experimental signal when using molecular dynamics...
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Malomed, Boris A.; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-09-01
We consider the transfer of lattice wave packets through a tilted discrete breather (TDB) in opposite directions in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model with asymmetric defects, which may be realized as a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a deep optical lattice, or as optical beams in a waveguide array. A unidirectional transport mode is found, in which the incident wave packets, whose energy belongs to a certain interval between full reflection and full passage regions, pass the TDB only in one direction, while in the absence of the TDB, the same lattice admits bidirectional propagation. The operation of this mode is accurately explained by an analytical consideration of the respective energy barriers. The results suggest that the TDB may emulate the unidirectional propagation of atomic and optical beams in various settings. In the case of the passage of the incident wave packet, the scattering TDB typically shifts by one lattice unit in the direction from which the wave packet arrives, which is an example of the tractor-beam effect, provided by the same system, in addition to the rectification of incident waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giesbertz, Klaas J. H. [Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Robert van [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, Jyväskylä (Finland)
2014-05-14
Electron correlations in molecules can be divided in short range dynamical correlations, long range Van der Waals type interactions, and near degeneracy static correlations. In this work, we analyze for a one-dimensional model of a two-electron system how these three types of correlations can be incorporated in a simple wave function of restricted functional form consisting of an orbital product multiplied by a single correlation function f (r{sub 12}) depending on the interelectronic distance r{sub 12}. Since the three types of correlations mentioned lead to different signatures in terms of the natural orbital (NO) amplitudes in two-electron systems, we make an analysis of the wave function in terms of the NO amplitudes for a model system of a diatomic molecule. In our numerical implementation, we fully optimize the orbitals and the correlation function on a spatial grid without restrictions on their functional form. Due to this particular form of the wave function, we can prove that none of the amplitudes vanishes and moreover that it displays a distinct sign pattern and a series of avoided crossings as a function of the bond distance in agreement with the exact solution. This shows that the wave function ansatz correctly incorporates the long range Van der Waals interactions. We further show that the approximate wave function gives an excellent binding curve and is able to describe static correlations. We show that in order to do this the correlation function f (r{sub 12}) needs to diverge for large r{sub 12} at large internuclear distances while for shorter bond distances it increases as a function of r{sub 12} to a maximum value after which it decays exponentially. We further give a physical interpretation of this behavior.
Program for quantum wave-packet dynamics with time-dependent potentials
Dion, C M; Rahali, G
2014-01-01
We present a program to simulate the dynamics of a wave packet interacting with a time-dependent potential. The time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation is solved on a one-, two-, or three-dimensional spatial grid using the split operator method. The program can be compiled for execution either on a single processor or on a distributed-memory parallel computer.
Frame properties of wave packet systes in L^2 (R^d)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Rahimi, Asghar
2008-01-01
Extending work by Hernandez, Labate and Weiss, we present a sufficent condition for a generalized shift-invariant system to be a Bessel sequence or even a frame forL(2)(R-d). In particular, this leads to a sufficient condition for a wave packet system to form a frame. On the other hand, we show...
Monte Carlo Wave Packet Theory of Dissociative Double Ionization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
Nuclear dynamics in strong-field double ionization processes is predicted using a stochastic Monte Carlo wave packet technique. Using input from electronic structure calculations and strong-field electron dynamics the description allows for field-dressed dynamics within a given molecule as well...
Quantum Chaos and Exponential Growth of Spreading Width of a Wave Packet in Chaotic Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The quantum correspondence of one particular signature of classical chaos———the exponential instability f motion can be characterized by the initial exponential growth rate of the spreading width of the propagating quantum wave packet.In a former study~[1] a one to one correspondence has been found between the initial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)
2013-07-15
We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.
Recollision dynamics of electron wave packets in high-order harmonic generation
Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.
2009-11-01
We numerically investigate the dynamics of recollision of an electron in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) for an H atom and a molecular ion H2+ using a short (ten optical cycles), and intense (I0≥1014W/cm2) , z -polarized linear laser pulse with wavelength 800 nm by accurately solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. A time-frequency analysis obtained via Gabor transforms is employed to identify electron recollision and recombination times responsible for the generation of harmonics. We find that the HHG spectra are mainly attributed to the recollision of an inner electron wave packet with the parent ion in agreement with the classical recollision model. A time delay of the electron recollision occurs between wave packets in inner and outer regions, near to and far from the parent ion, due to different phase of the acceleration (as well as dipole velocity) of the electron. Inner wave packets at recollision contain mainly short and long trajectories whereas outer wave packets contain only single trajectories. Lower-order harmonics are generated mainly by single recollisions near field extrema, i.e., in strong electric fields whereas higher-order harmonics are generated by double trajectories with different intensities. In the case of H2+ at a critical nuclear distance for charge resonance enhanced ionization, we also find that HHG mainly comes from contributions of the inner electron wave packet, but with more complex recollision trajectories due to the presence of more than one Coulomb center. Triple recollision trajectories are shown to occur generally for the latter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, Yat-Long; Chu, M.C.; Xu, Jianyi [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics, Shatin (China); Tsui, Ka Ming [University of Tokyo, RCCN, ICRR, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Wong, Chan Fai [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)
2016-06-15
We derive the neutrino flavor transition probabilities with the neutrino treated as a wave packet. The decoherence and dispersion effects from the wave-packet treatment show up as damping and phase-shifting of the plane-wave neutrino oscillation patterns. If the energy uncertainty in the initial neutrino wave packet is larger than around 0.01 of the neutrino energy, the decoherence and dispersion effects would degrade the sensitivity of reactor neutrino experiments to mass hierarchy measurement to lower than 3 σ confidence level. (orig.)
A preliminary study on sea wave packet equations on slowly varying topography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱首贤; 丁平兴; 孔亚珍; 沙文钰
2001-01-01
There is a common hypothesis for the presently popular mild-slope equations that wave particle motion is irrotational. In this paper, an attempt is made to abandon the irrotational assumption and to set up new sea wave packet equations on slowly varying topography by use of the WKBJ method. To simplify the deduction, the two-dimensional shallow water equations are used to describe the sea wave particle motion in the very shallow nearshore area. The established equations can give some characteristics of wave propagation near shore.
Frequencies of wave packets of whistler-mode chorus inside its source region: a case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Santolik
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Whistler-mode chorus is a structured wave emission observed in the Earth's magnetosphere in a frequency range from a few hundreds of Hz to several kHz. We investigate wave packets of chorus using high-resolution measurements recorded by the WBD instrument on board the four Cluster spacecraft. A night-side chorus event observed during geomagnetically disturbed conditions is analyzed. We identify lower and upper frequencies for a large number of individual chorus wave packets inside the chorus source region. We investigate how these observations are related to the central position of the chorus source which has been previously estimated from the Poynting flux measurements. We observe typical frequency bandwidths of chorus of approximately 10% of the local electron cyclotron frequency. Observed time scales are around 0.1 s for the individual wave packets. Our results indicate a lower occurrence probability for lower frequencies in the vicinity of the central position of the source compared to measurements recorded closer to the outer boundaries of the source. This is in agreement with recent research based on the backward wave oscillator theory.
Abdilghanie, Ammar M.; Diamessis, Peter J.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of internal gravity wave (IGW) dynamics typically rely on wave velocity and density fields which are either generated through forcing terms in the governing equations or are explicitly introduced as initial conditions. Both approaches are based on the associated solution to the inviscid linear internal wave equations and, thus, assume weak-amplitude, space-filling waves. Using spectral multidomain-based numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and focusing on the forcing-driven approach, this study examines the generation and subsequent evolution of large-amplitude IGW packets which are strongly localized in the vertical in a linearly stratified fluid. When the vertical envelope of the forcing terms varies relatively rapid when compared to the vertical wavelength, the associated large vertical gradients in the Reynolds stress field drive a nonpropagating negative horizontal mean flow component in the source region. The highly nonlinear interaction of this mean current with the propagating IGW packet leads to amplification of the wave, a significant distortion of its rear flank, and a substantial decay of its amplitude. Scaling arguments show that the mean flow is enhanced with a stronger degree of localization of the forcing, larger degree of hydrostaticity, and increasing wave packet steepness. Horizontal localization results in a pronounced reduction in mean flow strength mainly on account of the reduced vertical gradient of the wave Reynolds stress. Finally, two techniques are proposed toward the efficient containment of the mean flow at minimal computational cost. The findings of this study are of particular value in overcoming challenges in the design of robust computational process studies of IGW packet (or continuously forced wave train) interactions with a sloping boundary, critical layer, or caustic, where large wave amplitudes are required for any instabilities to develop. In addition, the detailed
Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.
2012-01-01
The four wave interaction process, known as the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is considered as one of the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing the electron beams associated with solar type III radio bursts. It has been reported that (1) an intense localized Langmuir wave packet associated with a type III burst contains the spectral characteristics of the OTSI: (a) a resonant peak at the local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe), (b) a Stokes peak at a frequency slightly lower than f(sub pe), (c) anti-Stokes peak at a frequency slightly higher than f(sub pe), and (d) a low frequency enhancement below a few hundred Hz, (2) the frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI, and (3) the peak intensity of the wave packet is well above the thresholds for the OTSI as well as spatial collapse of envelope solitons. Here, for the first time, applying the trispectral analysis on this wave packet, we show that the tricoherence, which measures the degree of coherent four-wave coupling amongst the observed spectral components exhibits a peak. This provides an additional evidence for the OTSI and related spatial collapse of Langmuir envelope solitons in type III burst sources.
Kaur, Maninder; Main, M
2015-01-01
We examine the dynamical evolution of wave packets in a cubical billiard where three quantum numbers ($n_x,n_y,n_z$) determine its energy spectrum and consequently its dynamical behavior. We have constructed the wave packet in the cubical billiard and have observed its time evolution for various closed orbits. The closed orbits are possible for certain specific values of quantum numbers ($n_x,n_y,n_z$) and initial momenta ($k_x,k_y,k_z$). We observe that a cubical billiard exhibits degenerate energy levels and the path lengths of the closed orbits for these degenerate energy levels are identical. In spite of the identical path lengths, the shapes of the closed orbits for degenerate levels are different and depend upon angles $\\theta$ and $\\phi$ which we term as the sweep and the elevation angle respectively. These degenerate levels owe their origin to the symmetries prevailing in the cubical billiard and degenerate levels disappear completely or partially for a parallelepiped billiard as the symmetry breaks d...
Modulated Wave Packets in DNA and Impact of Viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Conrad Bertrand Tabi; Alidou Mohamadou; Timoleon Crepin Kofan(e)
2009-01-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of a DNA molecular system at physiological temperature in a viscous media by using the Peyrard-Bishop model.The nonlinear dynamics of the above system is shown to be governed by the discrete complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.In the non-viscous limit,the equation reduces to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation.Modulational instability criteria are derived for both the cases.On the basis of these criteria,numerical simulations are made,which confirm the analytical predictions.The planar wave solution used as the initial condition makes localized oscillations of base pairs and causes energy localization.The results also show that the viscosity of the solvent in the surrounding damps out the amplitude of wave patterns.
Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert
2017-01-01
The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation......, into the light-induced spin-state trapping dynamics of the prototypical [Fe(bpy)3]2+ compound by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at sub-30-femtosecond resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The electronic decay from the initial optically excited electronic state towards the high spin state...... is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic...
Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud K
2011-01-01
The excitation of the degenerate $E_1$ carbonyl stretching vibrations in dimanganese decacarbonyl is shown to trigger wave packet circulation in the subspace of these two modes. On the time scale of about 5 picoseconds intramolecular anharmonic couplings do not cause appreciable disturbance, even under conditions where the two $E_1$ modes are excited by up to about two vibrational quanta each. The compactness of the circulating wave packet is shown to depend strongly on the excitation conditions such as pulse duration and field strength. Numerical results for the solution of the seven-dimensional vibrational Schr\\"odinger equation are obtained for a density functional theory based potential energy surface and using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method.
Monte Carlo wave packet approach to dissociative multiple ionization in diatomic molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
A detailed description of the Monte Carlo wave packet technique applied to dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules in short intense laser pulses is presented. The Monte Carlo wave packet technique relies on the Born-Oppenheimer separation of electronic and nuclear dynamics...... and provides a consistent theoretical framework for treating simultaneously both ionization and dissociation. By simulating the detection of continuum electrons and collapsing the system onto either the neutral, singly ionized or doubly ionized states in every time step the nuclear dynamics can be solved....... The computational effort is restricted and the model is applicable to any molecular system where electronic Born-Oppenheimer curves, dipole moment functions, and ionization rates as a function of nuclear coordinates can be determined....
Space-time evolution of Gaussian wave packets through superlattices containing left-handed layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereyra, P; Romero-Serrano, M [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico DF (Mexico); Robledo-Martinez, A, E-mail: ppereyra@correo.azc.uam.m, E-mail: a.robledo@mailaps.or [Departamento de EnergIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2009-05-01
We study the space-time evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic wave packets moving through (L/R){sup n} superlattices, containing alternating layers of left and right-handed materials. We show that the time spent by the wave packet moving through arbitrary (L/R){sup n} superlattices are well described by the phase time. We show that in the particular case where the thicknesses d{sub L,R} and indices n{sub l,r} of the layers satisfy the condition d{sub L}|n{sub L}| = d{sub R}n{sub R}, the usual band structure becomes a sequence of isolated and equidistant peaks with negative phase times.
High frequency wave packets for the Schr\\"odinger equation and its numerical approximations
Marica, Aurora-Mihaela
2010-01-01
We build Gaussian wave packets for the linear Schr\\"odinger equation and its finite difference space semi-discretization and illustrate the lack of uniform dispersive properties of the numerical solutions as established in Ignat, Zuazua, Numerical dispersive schemes for the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, SIAM. J. Numer. Anal., 47(2) (2009), 1366-1390. It is by now well known that bigrid algorithms provide filtering mechanisms allowing to recover the uniformity of the dispersive properties as the mesh size goes to zero. We analyze and illustrate numerically how these high frequency wave packets split and propagate under these bigrid filtering mechanisms, depending on how the fine grid/coarse grid filtering is implemented.
System-level physics of autonomous nanorobots for hard chemistry and wave packet engineering
Santoli, Salvatore
1994-08-01
The operation of the prospective autonomous molecular robots that would represent the most advanced achievement of the molecular manufacturing conception is examined at various levels of physical description: the thermodynamic, the hydrodynamic, and the kinetic (Boltzmann) level down to local nonequilibrium thermodynamical and/or mechanical conditions possibly arising in work in some circumstances. The concept of wave packet engineering is suggested as a special technique in the exploitation of molecular robots possibilities, which are generally characterized as 'hard chemistry'.
Expansion of a wave-packet in lattices with disorder and nonlinearity
Naether, Uta; Martinez, Alejandro J; Sützer, Simon; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Molina, Mario I; Vicencio, Rodrigo A; Szameit, Alexander
2012-01-01
We show, theoretically and experimentally, the counterintuitive result that an increase of disorder can result in an enhanced spreading of an initially localized excitation. Moreover, we find that adding a focusing nonlinearity facilitates the expansion of the wave-packet even further by increasing its effective size. We find a clear transition between between the regions of enhanced spreading (weak disorder) and localization (strong localization) described by a "diffusion peak".
Quantum control of electron wave packets in bound molecules by trains of half-cycle pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Persson, Emil; Pichler, Markus; Wachter, Georg; Hisch, Thomas; Burgdoerfer, Joachim; Graefe, Stefanie [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Jakubetz, Werner [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstr. 38, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
2011-10-15
We investigate protocols for transient localization of electrons in homodiatomic molecules, as well as permanent localization via population inversion in polar molecules. By examining three different model systems with one electronic and one nuclear degree of freedom, we identify mechanisms leading to control over the localization of the electronic wave packets. We show that electronic states dressed by the quasi-dc component of the train of half-cycle pulses steer the combined electronic and nuclear motion toward the targeted state.
Massachusetts Bay - Internal Wave Packets Extracted from SAR Imagery Binned in 1x1 minute grid cells
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets extracted from SAR imagery that were binned in 1x1 minute latitude/longitude polygon grid cells. Statistics were...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery and intersected with a bathymetrically derived slope surface for Massachusetts Bay. The...
Wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional linear and nonlinear generalized Fibonacci lattices.
Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing; Gong, Jiangbin; Li, Baowen
2011-05-01
The spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional linear and nonlinear generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices is studied numerically. The GF lattices can be classified into two classes depending on whether or not the lattice possesses the Pisot-Vijayaraghavan property. For linear GF lattices of the first class, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time. For linear GF lattices of the second class, in the regime of a weak on-site potential, wave packet spreading is close to ballistic diffusion, whereas in the regime of a strong on-site potential, it displays stairlike growth in both the second moment and the participation number. Nonlinear GF lattices are then investigated in parallel. For the first class of nonlinear GF lattices, the second moment of the wave packet still grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow simultaneously. For the second class of nonlinear GF lattices, an analogous phenomenon is observed for the weak on-site potential only. For a strong on-site potential that leads to an enhanced nonlinear self-trapping effect, neither the second moment nor the participation number grows with time. The results can be useful in guiding experiments on the expansion of noninteracting or interacting cold atoms in quasiperiodic optical lattices.
Multi-resolution schemes for time scaled propagation of wave packets
Frapiccini, Ana Laura; Mota-Furtado, Francisca; O'Mahony, Patrick F; Piraux, Bernard
2014-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the time scaled coordinate approach and its implementation for solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation describing the interaction of atoms or molecules with radiation pulses. We investigate and discuss the performance of multi-resolution schemes for the treatment of the squeezing around the origin of the bound part of the scaled wave packet. When the wave packet is expressed in terms of B-splines, we consider two different types of breakpoint sequences: an exponential sequence with a constant density and an initially uniform sequence with a density of points around the origin that increases with time. These two multi-resolution schemes are tested in the case of a one-dimensional gaussian potential and for atomic hydrogen. In the latter case, we also use Sturmian functions to describe the scaled wave packet and discuss a multi-resolution scheme which consists in working in a sturmian basis characterized by a set of non-linear parameters. Regarding the continuum part ...
Initial dynamics of the Norrish Type I reaction in acetone: probing wave packet motion.
Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Sølling, Theis I; Møller, Klaus B
2011-02-10
The Norrish Type I reaction in the S(1) (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels toward the S(1) minimum in less than 30 fs and stays there for more than 100 picoseconds [Chem. Phys. Lett.2008, 461, 193]. In this work we present simulated TRMS and TRPES signals based on ab initio multiple spawning simulations of the dynamics during the first 200 fs after excitation, getting quite good agreement with the experimental signals. We can explain the ultrafast decay of the experimental signals in the following manner: the wave packet simply travels, mainly along the deplanarization coordinate, out of the detection window of the ionizing probe. This window is so narrow that subsequent revival of the signal due to the coherent deplanarization vibration is not observed, meaning that from the point of view of the experiment the wave packets travels directly to the S(1) minimum. This result stresses the importance of pursuing a closer link to the experimental signal when using molecular dynamics simulations in interpreting experimental results.
Wave Packet Dynamics in the Infinite Square Well with the Wigner Quasi-probability Distribution
Belloni, Mario; Doncheski, Michael; Robinett, Richard
2004-05-01
Over the past few years a number of authors have been interested in the time evolution and revivals of Gaussian wave packets in one-dimensional infinite wells and in two-dimensional infinite wells of various geometries. In all of these circumstances, the wave function is guaranteed to revive at a time related to the inverse of the system's ground state energy, if not sooner. To better visualize these revivals we have calculated the time-dependent Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum, P_W(x; p), for Gaussian wave packet solutions of this system. The Wigner quasi-probability distribution clearly demonstrates the short-term semi-classical time dependence, as well as longer-term revival behavior and the structure during the collapsed state. This tool also provides an excellent way of demonstrating the patterns of highly-correlated Schrödinger-cat-like `mini-packets' which appear at fractional multiples of the exact revival time. This research is supported in part by a Research Corporation Cottrell College Science Award (CC5470) and the National Science Foundation under contracts DUE-0126439 and DUE-9950702.
Asymmetric acoustic propagation of wave packets via the self-demodulation effect
Devaux, Thibaut; Richoux, Olivier; Pagneux, Vincent
2015-01-01
This article presents the experimental characterization of nonreciprocal elastic wave transmission in a single-mode elastic waveguide. This asymmetric system is obtained by coupling a selection layer with a conversion layer: the selection component is provided by a phononic crystal, while the conversion is achieved by a nonlinear self-demodulation effect in a 3D unconsolidated granular medium. A quantitative experimental study of this acoustic rectifier indicates a high rectifying ratio, up to $10^6$, with wide band (10 kHz) and an audible effect. Moreover, this system allows for wave-packet rectification and extends the future applications of asymmetric systems.
Quantum optimal control of wave packet dynamics under the influence of dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Nakagami, Kazuyuki; Zhu, Wusheng; Rabitz, Herschel
2003-02-01
Optimal control within the density matrix formalism is applied to the production of desired non-equilibrium distributions in condensed phases. The time evolution of a molecular system modeled by a displaced harmonic oscillator is assumed to be described by the Markoffian master equation with phenomenological relaxation parameters. The physical objectives of concern are the creation of a specified vibronic state, population inversion and wave packet shaping. The effects of an initial thermal distribution and dissipation on these targets are examined. In order to transfer a large amount of population (i.e., the strong-field regime) to a target wave packet in an electronic excited state, it is shown that creating a shaped packet in the ground state is often required to achieve high yield. This control pathway cannot be taken into account within the weak-field approximation, and is especially important when the target state includes vibrational states that are weakly accessible from the initial state or that have preferential indirect excitation paths from the initial state. Although relaxation effects usually reduce the control efficiency, under certain conditions, the bath-induced dynamics can help to create an objective state.
Determining the wavelength of Langmuir wave packets at the Earth's bow shock
Krasnoselskikh, V V; Bale, S D; 10.5194/angeo-29-613-2011
2011-01-01
The propagation of Langmuir waves in plasmas is known to be sensitive to density fluctuations. Such fluctuations may lead to the coexistence of wave pairs that have almost opposite wave-numbers in the vicinity of their reflection points. Using high frequency electric field measurements from the WIND satellite, we determine for the first time the wavelength of intense Langmuir wave packets that are generated upstream of the Earth's electron foreshock by energetic electron beams. Surprisingly, the wavelength is found to be 2 to 3 times larger than the value expected from standard theory. These values are consistent with the presence of strong inhomogeneities in the solar wind plasma rather than with the effect of weak beam instabilities.
Transport of time-varying plasma currents by whistler wave packets
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Rousculp, C.
1992-01-01
The relationship between pulsed currents and electromagnetic waves is examined in a regime characterized by electron MHD. Pulsed currents are generated by (1) collection/emission of charged particles by/from biased electrodes and (2) induction of currents by time-varying and moving magnetic fields. Pulsed currents are observed to propagate at the speed of whistler wave packets. Their field structure forms ropelike configurations which are electromagnetically force-free. Moving sources induce 'eddy' currents which excite waves and form Cerenkov-like whistler 'wings'. The radiation patterns of moving magnetic antennas and electrodynamic tethers are investigated. Nonlinear effects of large-amplitude, antenna-launched whistler pulses are observed. These involve a new modulational instability in which a channel of high conductivity which permits the wave/currents to penetrate deeply into a collisional plasma is formed.
Nonlinear saturation of wave packets excited by low-energy electron horseshoe distributions.
Krafft, C; Volokitin, A
2013-05-01
Horseshoe distributions are shell-like particle distributions that can arise in space and laboratory plasmas when particle beams propagate into increasing magnetic fields. The present paper studies the stability and the dynamics of wave packets interacting resonantly with electrons presenting low-energy horseshoe or shell-type velocity distributions in a magnetized plasma. The linear instability growth rates are determined as a function of the ratio of the plasma to the cyclotron frequencies, of the velocity and the opening angle of the horseshoe, and of the relative thickness of the shell. The nonlinear stage of the instability is investigated numerically using a symplectic code based on a three-dimensional Hamiltonian model. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the system is mainly governed by wave-particle interactions at Landau and normal cyclotron resonances and that the high-order normal cyclotron resonances play an essential role. Specific features of the dynamics of particles interacting simultaneously with two or more waves at resonances of different natures and orders are discussed, showing that such complex processes determine the main characteristics of the wave spectrum's evolution. Simulations with wave packets presenting quasicontinuous spectra provide a full picture of the relaxation of the horseshoe distribution, revealing two main phases of the evolution: an initial stage of wave energy growth, characterized by a fast filling of the shell, and a second phase of slow damping of the wave energy, accompanied by final adjustments of the electron distribution. The influence of the density inhomogeneity along the horseshoe on the wave-particle dynamics is also discussed.
Wu, Yue-Chao; Zhao, Bin; Lee, Soo-Y.
2016-02-01
Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) on the Stokes side arises from a third order polarization, P(3)(t), which is given by an overlap of a first order wave packet, |" separators=" Ψ2 ( 1 ) ( p u , t ) > , prepared by a narrow band (ps) Raman pump pulse, Epu(t), on the upper electronic e2 potential energy surface (PES), with a second order wave packet, resembles the zeroth order wave packet |" separators=" Ψ1 ( 0 ) ( t ) > on the lower PES spatially, but with a force on |" separators=" Ψ2 ( 1 ) ( p u , t ) > along the coordinates of the reporter modes due to displacements in the equilibrium position, so that . The observable FSRS Raman gain is related to the imaginary part of P(3)(ω). The imaginary and real parts of P(3)(ω) are related by the Kramers-Kronig relation. Hence, from the FSRS Raman gain, we can obtain the complex P(3)(ω), whose Fourier transform then gives us the complex P(3)(t) to analyze for ω ¯ j ( t ) . We apply the theory, first, to a two-dimensional model system with one conformational mode of low frequency and one reporter vibrational mode of higher frequency with good results, and then we apply it to the time-resolved FSRS spectra of the cis-trans isomerization of retinal in rhodopsin [P. Kukura et al., Science 310, 1006 (2005)]. We obtain the vibrational frequency up-shift time constants for the C12-H wagging mode at 216 fs and for the C10-H wagging mode at 161 fs which are larger than for the C11-H wagging mode at 127 fs, i.e., the C11-H wagging mode arrives at its final frequency while the C12-H and C10-H wagging modes are still up-shifting to their final values, agreeing with the findings of Yan et al. [Biochemistry 43, 10867 (2004)].
Wave-packet rectification in nonlinear electronic systems: A tunable Aharonov-Bohm diode
Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen
2014-01-01
Rectification of electron wave-packets propagating along a quasi-one dimensional chain is commonly achieved via the simultaneous action of nonlinearity and longitudinal asymmetry, both confined to a limited portion of the chain termed wave diode. However, it is conceivable that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatial asymmetry perpendicular to the direction of propagation suffices to ensure rectification. This is the case of a nonlinear ring-shaped lattice with different upper and lower halves (diode), which is attached to two elastic chains (leads). The resulting device is mirror symmetric with respect to the ring vertical axis, but mirror asymmetric with respect to the chain direction. Wave propagation along the two diode paths can be modeled for simplicity by a discrete Schr\\"odinger equation with cubic nonlinearities. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, thanks to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, such a diode can be operated by tuning the magnetic flux across the ring.
Quantum dynamics of electronic transitions with Gauss-Hermite wave packets.
Borrelli, Raffaele; Peluso, Andrea
2016-03-21
A new methodology based on the superposition of time-dependent Gauss-Hermite wave packets is developed to describe the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave function parameters are obtained by employing the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is applied to study the quantum dynamical behaviour of model systems with two interacting electronic states characterized by a relatively large reorganization energy and a range of energy biases. The favourable scaling properties make it a promising tool for the study of the dynamics of chemico-physical processes in molecular systems.
The phase delay and its complex time: From stationary states up to wave packets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grossel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.grossel@univ-reims.fr
2013-03-15
Complex time is often invoked about tunneling effect where the classical phase delay is completed with a crucial filter effect. Usually the complex times are obtained by considering the flux-flux correlation function, but this can be obtained by a very simple approach using the search of the maximum of the generalized complex phase function, including the amplitude of the wave function. Various aspects of the phase delay are presented in the case of wave packets impinging on simple or resonant quantum barriers. Formal links with the classical mechanics give birth to quasi-trajectories of the quantum particle, totally compatible with the quantum mechanics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stationary phase method is extended in including the variations of the spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex phase delay leads to a complex trajectory inside and out-side the barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of quasi-trajectories are given in case of different quantum barriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase delays are specified for resonant tunneling or above-barrier wave-packets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coherence between the quasi-trajectories and quantum mechanics is shown.
Wave-Packet Collapse Based on Weak Repeatability or Covariant Condition
Wu, Zhao-Qi; Zhu, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Jian-Hui
2016-02-01
The conflict between the dynamics postulate (unitary evolution) and the measurement postulate (wave-packet collapse) of quantum mechanics has been reconciled by Zurek from an information transfer perspective [Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 052110], and has further been extended to a more general scenario [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 052111]. In this paper, we reconsider Zurek's new derivation by using weak repeatability postulate or covariant condition instead of repeatability postulate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11461045, 11326099, 11361042, 11265010, and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province of China under Grant Nos. 20142BAB211016, 20132BAB201001, 20132BAB212009
Evolution of spin-dependent atomic wave packets in a harmonic potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Ling-Hua; Liu Min; Kong Ling-Bo; Chen Ai-Xi; Zhan Ming-Sheng
2005-01-01
We have investigated theoretically the evolution of spin-dependent atomic wave packets in a harmonic magnetic trapping potential. For a Bose-condensed gas, which undergoes a Mott insulator transition and a spin-dependent transport, the atomic wavefunction can be described by an entangled single-atom state. Due to the confinement of the -harmonic potential, the density distributions exhibit periodic decay and revival, which is different from the case of free expansion after switching off the combined harmonic and optical lattice potential.
Irreversible Behaviour and Collapse of Wave Packets in a Quantum System with Point Interactions
Guarneri, Italo
2011-01-01
A system of a particle and a harmonic oscillator, which have pure point spectrum if uncoupled, is known to acquire absolutely continuous spectrum when the particle and the oscillator are coupled by a sufficiently strong point interaction. Here the simple dynamical mechanism underlying this phenomenon is exposed. The energy of the oscillator is proven to exponentially diverge in time, while the spatial probability distribution of the particle collapses into a delta function in the interaction point. On account of this result, a generalized model with many oscillators which interact with the particle at different points is argued to provide a formal model for approximate measurement of position, and collapse of wave packets.
Irreversible behaviour and collapse of wave packets in a quantum system with point interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guarneri, Italo [Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Universita dell' Insubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)
2011-12-02
A system of a particle and a harmonic oscillator, which have pure point spectra if uncoupled, is known to acquire an absolutely continuous spectrum when they are coupled by a sufficiently strong point interaction. Here, the dynamical mechanism underlying this spectral phenomenon is exposed. The energy of the oscillator is proven to exponentially diverge in time, while the spatial probability distribution of the particle collapses into a {delta}-function at the interaction point. On account of this result, a generalized model with many oscillators which interact with the particle at different points is argued to provide a formal model for the approximate measurement of position and collapse of wave packets. (paper)
Wave packet evolution approach to ionization of hydrogen molecular ion by fast electrons
Serov, V V; Joulakian, B B; Vinitsky, S I; Serov, Vladislav V.; Derbov, Vladimir L.; Joulakian, Boghos B.; Vinitsky, Sergue I.
2000-01-01
The multiply differential cross section of the ionization of hydrogen molecular ion by fast electron impact is calculated by a direct approach, which involves the reduction of the initial 6D Schr\\"{o}dinger equation to a 3D evolution problem followed by the modeling of the wave packet dynamics. This approach avoids the use of stationary Coulomb two-centre functions of the continuous spectrum of the ejected electron which demands cumbersome calculations. The results obtained, after verification of the procedure in the case atomic hydrogen, reveal interesting mechanisms in the case of small scattering angles.
Wave packet dynamics in energy space, random matrix theory, and the quantum-classical correspondence
Cohen; Izrailev; Kottos
2000-03-06
We apply random-matrix-theory (RMT) to the analysis of evolution of wave packets in energy space. We study the crossover from ballistic behavior to saturation, the possibility of having an intermediate diffusive behavior, and the feasibility of strong localization effect. Both theoretical considerations and numerical results are presented. Using quantal-classical correspondence considerations we question the validity of the emerging dynamical picture. In particular, we claim that the appearance of the intermediate diffusive behavior is possibly an artifact of the RMT strategy.
Application of Wavelet Packet De-noising in Time-Frequency Analysis of the Local Wave Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hong-kun; MA Xiao-jiang; WANG Zhen; ZHU Hong
2003-01-01
The local wave method is a very good time-frequency method for nonstationary vibration signal analysis. But the interfering noise has a big influence on the accuracy of time-frequency analysis. The wavelet packet de-noising method can eliminate the interference of noise and improve the signal-noise-ratio. This paper uses the local wave method to decompose the de-noising signal and perform a time-frequency analysis. We can get better characteristics. Finally, an example of wavelet packet de-noising and a local wave time-frequency spectrum application of diesel engine surface vibration signal is put forward.
Aharonovich, Igal
2016-01-01
We present a simple method to expedite simulation of quantum wave-packet dynamics by more than a factor of $2$ with the Strang split-operator propagation. Dynamics of quantum wave-packets are often evaluated using the the \\emph{Strang} split-step propagation, where the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian $\\hat{T}$ and the potential part $\\hat{V}$ are piecewise integrated according to $e^{- i \\hat{H} \\delta t} \\approx e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2} e^{- i \\hat{T}\\delta t} e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2}$, which is accurate to second order in the propagation time $\\delta t$. In molecular quantum dynamics, the potential propagation occurs over multiple coupled potential surfaces and requires matrix exponentiation for each position in space and time which is computationally demanding. Our method employs further splitting of the potential matrix $\\hat{V}$ into a diagonal space dependent part $\\hat{V}_{D}(R)$ and an off-diagonal time-dependent coupling-field $\\hat{V}_{OD}(t)$, which then requires only a single matrix exponentia...
Time-dependent quantum wave packet dynamics to study charge transfer in heavy particle collisions
Zhang, Song Bin; Wu, Yong; Wang, Jian Guo
2016-12-01
The method of time-dependent quantum wave packet dynamics has been successfully extended to study the charge transfer/exchange process in low energy two-body heavy particle collisions. The collision process is described by coupled-channel equations with diabatic potentials and (radial and rotational) couplings. The time-dependent coupled equations are propagated with the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method and the modulo squares of S-matrix is extracted from the wave packet by the flux operator with complex absorbing potential (FCAP) method. The calculations of the charge transfer process 12Σ+ H-(1s2) +Li(1 s22 s ) →22Σ+ /32 Σ+ /12 Π H(1 s ) +Li-(1s 22 s 2 l ) (l =s ,p ) at the incident energy of about [0.3, 1.3] eV are illustrated as an example. It shows that the calculated reaction probabilities by the present FCAP reproduce that of quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling very well, including the peak structures contributed by the resonances. Since time-dependent external interactions can be directly included in the present FCAP calculations, the successful implementation of FCAP provides us a powerful potential tool to study the quantum control of heavy particle collisions by lasers in the near future.
Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching
Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Hartsock, Robert; van Driel, Tim B.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, James M.; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Pace, Elisabetta; Matar, Samir F.; Nielsen, Martin M.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Collet, Eric; Cammarata, Marco
2017-05-01
The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, into the light-induced spin-state trapping dynamics of the prototypical [Fe(bpy)3]2+ compound by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at sub-30-femtosecond resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The electronic decay from the initial optically excited electronic state towards the high spin state is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic coupling before a slower vibrational energy dissipation to the solution environment. These findings illustrate how modern time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy can provide key information to unravel dynamic details of photo-functional molecules.
Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji
2012-02-01
Organic materials form crystals by relatively weak Van der Waals attraction between molecules, and thus differ fundamentally from covalently bonded semiconductors. Carriers in the organic semiconductors induce the drastic lattice deformation, which is called as polaron state. The polaron effect on the transport is a serious problem. Exactly what conduction mechanism applies to organic semiconductors has not been established. Therefore, we have investigated the transport properties using the Time-Dependent Wave-Packet Diffusion (TD-WPD) method [1]. To consider the polaron effect on the transport, in the methodology, we combine the wave-packet dynamics based on the quantum mechanics theory with the molecular dynamics. As the results, we can describe the electron motion modified by (electron-phonon mediated) time-dependent structural change. We investigate the transport property from an atomistic viewpoint and evaluate the mobility of organic semiconductors. We clarify the temperature dependence of mobility from the thermal activated behavior to the power law behavior. I will talk about these results in my presentation. [1] H. Ishii, N. Kobayashi, K. Hirose, Phys. Rev. B, 82 085435 (2010).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, Ba Phi [Central University of Construction, Tuy Hoa (Viet Nam); Kim, Ki Hong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-02-15
We study numerically the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices with both local and nonlocal nonlinearities. Using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation generalized by including a nonlocal nonlinear term, we calculate four different physical quantities as a function of time, which are the return probability to the initial excitation site, the participation number, the root-mean-square displacement from the excitation site and the spatial probability distribution. We investigate the influence of the nonlocal nonlinearity on the delocalization to self-trapping transition induced by the local nonlinearity. In the non-self-trapping region, we find that the nonlocal nonlinearity compresses the soliton width and slows down the spreading of the wave packet. In the vicinity of the delocalization to self-trapping transition point and inside the self-trapping region, we find that a new kind of self-trapping phenomenon, which we call partial self-trapping, takes place when the nonlocal nonlinearity is sufficiently strong.
Zagoya, C; Ronto, M; Shalashilin, D V; Faria, C Figueira de Morisson
2014-01-01
We assess the suitability of quantum and semiclassical initial value representations, exemplified by the coupled coherent states (CCS) method and the Herman Kluk (HK) propagator, respectively, for modeling the dynamics of an electronic wave packet in a strong laser field, if this wave packet is initially bound. Using Wigner quasiprobability distributions and ensembles of classical trajectories, we identify signatures of over-the-barrier and tunnel ionization in phase space for static and time-dependent fields and the relevant sets of phase-space trajectories in order to model such features. Overall, we find good agreement with the full solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (TDSE) for Wigner distributions constructed with both initial-value representations. Our results indicate that the HK propagator does not fully account for tunneling and over-the-barrier reflections. However, it is able to partly reproduce features associated with the wave packet crossing classically forbidden regions, altho...
Quantum black hole wave packet: Average area entropy and temperature dependent width
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aharon Davidson
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the average mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's area entropy is formulated using the 〈mass2〉 average, leaving the 〈mass〉 average to set the Hawking temperature. The width function peaks at the Planck scale for an elementary (zero entropy, zero free energy micro black hole of finite rms size, and decreases Doppler-like towards the classical limit.
Real-time electron dynamics simulation of two-electron transfer reactions induced by nuclear motion
Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Yamashita, Koichi
2012-04-01
Real-time electron dynamics of two-electron transfer reactions induced by nuclear motion is calculated by three methods: the numerically exact propagation method, the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) method and the Ehrenfest method. We find that, as long as the nuclei move as localized wave packets, the TDH and Ehrenfest methods can reproduce the exact electron dynamics of a simple charge transfer reaction model containing two electrons qualitatively well, even when nonadiabatic transitions between adiabatic states occur. In particular, both methods can reproduce the cases where a complete two-electron transfer reaction occurs and those where it does not occur.
Influence of orbital symmetry on diffraction imaging with rescattering electron wave packets
Pullen, M G; Le, A -T; Baudisch, M; Sclafani, M; Pires, H; Schröter, C D; Ullrich, J; Moshammer, R; Pfeifer, T; Lin, C D; Biegert, J
2016-01-01
The ability to directly follow and time resolve the rearrangement of the nuclei within molecules is a frontier of science that requires atomic spatial and few-femtosecond temporal resolutions. While laser induced electron diffraction can meet these requirements, it was recently concluded that molecules with particular orbital symmetries (such as {\\pi}g) cannot be imaged using purely backscattering electron wave packets without molecular alignment. Here, we demonstrate, in direct contradiction to these findings, that the orientation and shape of molecular orbitals presents no impediment for retrieving molecular structure with adequate sampling of the momentum transfer space. We overcome previous issues by showcasing retrieval of the structure of randomly oriented O2 and C2H2 molecules, with {\\pi}g and {\\pi}u symmetries, respectively, and where their ionisation probabilities do not maximise along their molecular axes. While this removes a serious bottleneck for laser induced diffraction imaging, we find unexpec...
Tunneling wave packets of atoms from intense elliptically polarized fields in natural geometry
Han, Meng; Li, Min; Liu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yunquan
2017-02-01
We study strong-field tunneling of atoms in intense elliptically polarized laser fields in natural tunneling geometry. We obtain the temporal- and spatial-dependent tunneling ionization rates, the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions, and the position distributions of the tunnel exit in parabolic coordinates. The tunneling electron wave packets at the tunnel exit are three dimensionally characterized for both momentum and spatial distributions. The conjunction between the tunneling point and the classical propagation of the widely used semiclassical model are naturally connected. We further calculate the ellipticity-dependent photoelectron momentum distributions on the detector, which are validated by comparison with the exact results through numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The theory clarifies crucial questions about strong-field tunneling ionization, which has important implications for the attoclock with elliptical or circular fields, photoelectron holography, molecular orbital imaging, etc.
Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement
Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2015-10-01
Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit.
Vibrational wave packet induced oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectra. I. Experiments
Nemeth, Alexandra; Mancal, Tomas; Lukes, Vladimir; Hauer, Juergen; Kauffmann, Harald F; Sperling, Jaroslaw
2010-01-01
This is the first in a series of two papers investigating the effect of electron-phonon coupling in two-dimensional Fourier transformed electronic spectroscopy. We present a series of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear spectroscopic techniques for studying a dye molecule in solution. Ultrafast laser pulse excitation of an electronic transition coupled to vibrational modes induces a propagating vibrational wave packet that manifests itself in oscillating signal intensities and line-shapes. For the two-dimensional electronic spectra we can attribute the observed modulations to periodic enhancement and decrement of the relative amplitudes of rephasing and non-rephasing contributions to the total response. Different metrics of the two-dimensional signals are shown to relate to the frequency-frequency correlation function which provides the connection between experimentally accessible observations and the underlying microscopic molecular dynamics. A detailed theory of the time-dependent two-dimensional spectral li...
Electronic excitation by short x-ray pulses: from quantum beats to wave packet revivals
Rivière, P.; Iqbal, S.; Rost, J. M.
2014-06-01
We propose a simple way to determine the periodicities of wave packets (WPs) in quantum systems directly from the energy differences of the states involved. The resulting classical periods and revival times are more accurate than those obtained with the traditional expansion of the energies about the central quantum number \\overline{n}, especially when \\overline{n} is low. The latter type of WP motion occurs upon excitation of highly charged ions with short XUV or x-ray pulses. Moreover, we formulate the WP dynamics in such a form that it directly reveals the origin of phase shifts in the maxima of the autocorrelation function, a phenomenon most prominent in the low \\overline{n} WP dynamics.
Rapid propagation of a Bloch wave packet excited by a femtosecond ultraviolet pulse
Krasovskii, E. E.; Friedrich, C.; Schattke, W.; Echenique, P. M.
2016-11-01
Attosecond streaking spectroscopy of solids provides direct observation of the dynamics of electron excitation and transport through the surface. We demonstrate the crucial role of the exciting field in electron propagation and establish that the lattice scattering of the outgoing electron during the optical pumping leads to the wave packet moving faster than with the group velocity and faster than the free electron. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a model of laser-assisted photoemission, with inelastic scattering treated as electron absorption and alternatively by means of random collisions. For a weak lattice scattering, the phenomenological result that the photoelectron moves with the group velocity d E /d ℏ k and traverses on average the distance equal to the mean-free path is proved to hold even at very short traveling times. This offers a novel interpretation of the delay time in streaking experiment and sheds new light on tunneling in optoelectronic devices.
Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement.
Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2015-10-26
Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit.
The Liouville equation for flavour evolution of neutrinos and neutrino wave packets
Hansen, Rasmus Sloth Lundkvist
2016-01-01
We consider several aspects related to the form, derivation and applications of the Liouville equation (LE) for flavour evolution of neutrinos. To take into account the quantum nature of neutrinos we derive the evolution equation for the matrix of densities using wave packets instead of Wigner functions. The obtained equation differs from the standard LE by an additional term which is proportional to the difference of group velocities. We show that this term describes loss of the propagation coherence in the system. In absence of inelastic collisions, the LE can be reduced to a single derivative equation over a trajectory coordinate. Additional time and spacial dependence may steam from initial (production) conditions. The transition from single neutrino evolution to the evolution of a neutrino gas is considered.
Stienkemeier, Frank
2017-06-01
Time-resolved coherent spectroscopy has opened many new directions to study ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. While most applications have been achieved in the condensed phase, we are focusing on dilute gas phase samples, in particular, on doped helium droplet beams. Isolation in such droplets at millikelvin temperatures provides unique opportunities to synthesize well-defined complexes, to prepare specific ro-vibronic states, and study their dynamics. To account for the small densities in our samples, we apply a phase modulation technique in order to reach enough sensitivity and a high spectral resolution in electronic wave packet interferometry experiments. The combination with mass-resolved ion detection enabled us e.g. to characterize vibrational structures of excimer molecules. By extending this technique we have observed collective resonances in samples of very low density (10^8 cm^{-3}). With a variant of this method, we are currently elaborating the implementation of nonlinear all-XUV spectroscopy.
Wave-packet analysis of strong-field ionization of sodium in the quasistatic regime*
Bunjac, Andrej; Popović, Duška B.; Simonović, Nenad S.
2016-05-01
Strong field ionization of the sodium atom in the tunnelling and over-the-barrier regimes is studied by examining the valence electron wave-packet dynamics in the static electric field. The lowest state energy and the ionization rate determined by this method for different strengths of the applied field agree well with the results obtained using other methods. The initial period of the nonstationary decay after switching the field on is analyzed and discussed. It is demonstrated that, if the Keldysh parameter is significantly lower than one (quasistatic regime), the probability of ionization by a laser pulse can be obtained from the static rates. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vubangsi, M.; Tchoffo, M.; Fai, L. C. [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structures Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 417 Dschang (Cameroon); Pisma’k, Yu. M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The problem of a particle with position and time-dependent effective mass in a one-dimensional infinite square well is treated by means of a quantum canonical formalism. The dynamics of a launched wave packet of the system reveals a peculiar revival pattern that is discussed. .
Schmidt, Burkhard; Lorenz, Ulf
2017-04-01
WavePacket is an open-source program package for the numerical simulation of quantum-mechanical dynamics. It can be used to solve time-independent or time-dependent linear Schrödinger and Liouville-von Neumann-equations in one or more dimensions. Also coupled equations can be treated, which allows to simulate molecular quantum dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Optionally accounting for the interaction with external electric fields within the semiclassical dipole approximation, WavePacket can be used to simulate experiments involving tailored light pulses in photo-induced physics or chemistry. The graphical capabilities allow visualization of quantum dynamics 'on the fly', including Wigner phase space representations. Being easy to use and highly versatile, WavePacket is well suited for the teaching of quantum mechanics as well as for research projects in atomic, molecular and optical physics or in physical or theoretical chemistry. The present Part I deals with the description of closed quantum systems in terms of Schrödinger equations. The emphasis is on discrete variable representations for spatial discretization as well as various techniques for temporal discretization. The upcoming Part II will focus on open quantum systems and dimension reduction; it also describes the codes for optimal control of quantum dynamics. The present work introduces the MATLAB version of WavePacket 5.2.1 which is hosted at the Sourceforge platform, where extensive Wiki-documentation as well as worked-out demonstration examples can be found.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI JunQing; LIU Fang; XING YongZhong; ZUO Wei
2002-01-01
The quantum correspondence of the very peculiar phenomenon of classical chaos-the exponential instability of motion can be characterized by the initially exponential growth rate of the total uncertainty measurement of the propagating quantum wave packet. Our calculation indicates that quantitatively the growth rate is approximately twice the classical maximum Lyapunov exponent of the system.
Dynamical properties of a particle in a wave packet: Scaling invariance and boundary crisis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Diego F.M., E-mail: diegofregolente@gmail.com [CAMTP, Center For Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Robnik, Marko, E-mail: robnik@uni-mb.si [CAMTP, Center For Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao, UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515-Bela Vista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)
2011-10-15
Highlights: > Acceleration of particles in a wave packet. > The location of the first invariant spanning curve which borders the chaotic sea. > Scaling to characterise the transition from integrability to non-integrability. > The property of area preservation is broken and attractors emerge. > After a tiny increase of the dissipation the system experience a boundary crisis. - Abstract: Some dynamical properties present in a problem concerning the acceleration of particles in a wave packet are studied. The dynamics of the model is described in terms of a two-dimensional area preserving map. We show that the phase space is mixed in the sense that there are regular and chaotic regions coexisting. We use a connection with the standard map in order to find the position of the first invariant spanning curve which borders the chaotic sea. We find that the position of the first invariant spanning curve increases as a power of the control parameter with the exponent 2/3. The standard deviation of the kinetic energy of an ensemble of initial conditions obeys a power law as a function of time, and saturates after some crossover. Scaling formalism is used in order to characterise the chaotic region close to the transition from integrability to nonintegrability and a relationship between the power law exponents is derived. The formalism can be applied in many different systems with mixed phase space. Then, dissipation is introduced into the model and therefore the property of area preservation is broken, and consequently attractors are observed. We show that after a small change of the dissipation, the chaotic attractor as well as its basin of attraction are destroyed, thus leading the system to experience a boundary crisis. The transient after the crisis follows a power law with exponent -2.
Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri
2007-09-28
For the first time Feshbach-type resonances important in recombination reactions are characterized using the semiclassical wave packet method. This approximation allows us to determine the energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of the resonances and also to observe a very interesting correlation between them. Most important is that this approach permits description of a quantum delta-zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions and reproduces the anomalous rates of ozone formation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balakin, A. A., E-mail: balakin.alexey@yandex.ru; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A., E-mail: sk.sa1981@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
The self-action of two-dimensional and three-dimensional Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides is considered using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The features of the self-action of such wave fields are related to their initial strong spatial inhomogeneity. The numerical simulation shows that for the field amplitude exceeding a critical value, the development of an instability typical of a medium with the cubic nonlinearity is observed. Various regimes are studied: the self-channeling of a wave beam in one light guide at powers not strongly exceeding a critical value, the formation of the “kaleidoscopic” picture of a wave packet during the propagation of higher-power radiation along a stratified medium, the formation of light bullets during competition between self-focusing and modulation instabilities in the case of three-dimensional wave packets, etc. In the problem of laser pulse shortening, the situation is considered when the wave-field stratification in the transverse direction dominates. This process is accompanied by the self-compression of laser pulses in well enough separated light guides. The efficiency of conversion of the initial Bessel field distribution to two flying parallel light bullets is about 50%.
Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation.
Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri
2007-10-21
We applied the semiclassical initial value representation method to calculate energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of scattering resonances in a two-dimensional potential for O+O2 collision. Such scattering states represent the metastable O3* species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation. Autocorrelation functions for scattering states were computed and then analyzed using the Prony method, which permits one to extract accurate energies and widths of the resonances. We found that the results of the semiclassical wave packet propagation agree well with fully quantum results. The focus was on the 16O16O18O isotopomer and the anomalous isotope effect associated with formation of this molecule, either through the 16O16O+18O or the 16O+16O18O channels. An interesting correlation between the local vibration mode character of the metastable states and their lifetimes was observed and explained. New insight is obtained into the mechanism by which the long-lived resonances in the delta zero-point energy part of spectrum produce the anomalously large isotope effect.
Afraimovich, E. L.; Edemsky, I. K.; Voeykov, S. V.; Yasukevich, Y. V.; Zhivetiev, I. V.
2009-04-01
The great variety of solar terminator (ST) -linked phenomena in the atmosphere gave rise to a num¬ber of studies on the analysis of ionosphere parameter variations obtained by different ionosphere sounding methods. Main part of experimental data was obtained using methods for analyzing the spectrum of ionosphere parameter variations in separate local points. To identify ST-generated wave disturbances it is necessary to measure the dynamic and spectral characteristics of the wave disturbances and to compare it with spatial-temporal characteristics of ST. Using TEC measurements from the dense network of GPS sites GEONET (Japan), we have obtained the first GPS-TEC image of the space structure of medium-scale traveling wave packets (MS TWP) excited by the solar terminator. We use two known forms of the 2D GPS-TEC image for our presentation of the space structure of ST-generated MS TWP: 1) - the diagram "distance-time"; 2) - the 2D-space distribution of the values of filtered TEC series dI (λ, φ, t) on the latitude φ and longitude λ for each 30-sec TEC counts. We found that the time period and wave-length of ST-generated wave packets are about 10-20 min and 200-300 km, respectively. Dynamic images analysis of dI (λ, φ, t) gives precise estimation of velocity and azimuth of TWP wave front propagation. We use the method of determining velocity of traveling ionosphere disturbances (SADM-GPS), which take into account the relative moving of subionosphere points. We found that the velocity of the TWP phase front, traveling along GEONET sites, varies in accordance with the velocity of the ST line displacement. The space image of MS TWP manifests itself in pronounced anisotropy and high coherence over a long distance of about 2000 km. The TWP wave front extends along the ST line with the angular shift of about 20°. The hypothesis on the connection between the TWP generation and the solar terminator can be tested in the terminator local time (TLT) system: d
Afraimovich, E.; Lesyuta, O.; Lipko, Yu.; Perevalova, N.; Voyeikov, S.; Vodyannikov, V.; Yakovets, A.; Jacobi, Ch.
This report discusses the experimental research results on the morphology and physi- cal origin of total electron content (TEC) pulsations as measured using the data from the global GPS network. Periodic electron density oscillations of the type of wave packets were investigated previously in terms of the hypothesis of their association with geomagnetic field (GP) pulsations. The greater part of evidence of the association between GP ad periodic electron density oscillations in the ionosphere was obtained by recording the frequency Doppler shift if the ionosphere-reflected radio signal and TEC variations measured using signals from geostationary satellites. However, many years of investigations have not yet provided thorough insight into the mechanisms ac- counting for the linkage between GP and ionospheric variations. One reason for that is the difficulty associated with obtaining statistically significant sets of experimental data. The use of the international ground-based network of two-frequency receivers of the navigation GPS system which comprised no less than 900 site as of August 2001 and is currently placing the data on the Internet, opens up a new era of a global, con- tinuous and fully computerized monitoring of ionospheric disturbances of a different class. This report presents a global morphology of TEC pulsations for 50 days with a different level of geomagnetic activity and the number of stations of the global GPS network from 100 to 300. A total number of the "receiver - GPS satellites" radio paths used in the analysis is about 500,000. Quasi-periodic TEC variations in the range of periods from 10 to 20 min are investigated, which is dictated by the fact that the data from the global GPS network are placed on the Internet with a standard temporal res- olution of 30 s. Most often, the observed TEC pulsations represent wave packets with a duration on the order of 1 hour. It was found that such TEC pulsations are a rela- tively rare event and are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
Theoretical calculations on dissociative double ionization of H2 and D2 in short intense laser pulses using the Monte Carlo wave packet technique are presented for several different field intensities, wavelengths, and pulse durations. We find convincing agreement between theory and experimental...... results for the kinetic energy release spectra of the nuclei. Besides the correctly predicted spectra the Monte Carlo wave packet method offers insight into the nuclear dynamics during the pulse and makes it possible to address the origin of different structures observed in the spectra. Three......-photon resonances in the singly ionized molecule and charge-resonance-enhanced ionization are shown to be the main processes responsible for the observed nuclear energy distributions....
Xie, Xinhua; Kartashov, Daniil; Zhang, Li; Baltuška, Andrius; Kitzler, Markus
2016-01-01
We report on the observation of subcycle interferences of electron wave packets released during the strong field ionization of H$_2$ with cycle-shaped two-color laser fields. With a reaction microscope, channel-resolved photoelectron momentum distribution are obtained for different final products originating from single ionization of H$_2$. Our results show that the subcycle interference structures of electron wave packet are very sensitive to the cycle-shape of the two-color laser field. The reason is that the ionization time within an optical cycle is determined by the cycle-shape of the laser field. The subcycle interference structures can be further used to get the subcycle dynamics of molecules during strong field interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahapatra, Susanta; Ritschel, Thomas
2003-04-15
We report theoretical investigations on the second photoelectron band of chlorine dioxide molecule by ab initio quantum dynamical methods. This band exhibits a highly complex structure and represents a composite portrait of five excited energetically close-lying electronic states of ClO{sub 2}{sup +}. Much of this complexity is likely to be arising due to strong vibronic interactions among these electronic states - which we address and examine herein. The near equilibrium MRCI potential energy surfaces (PESs) of these five cationic states reported by Peterson and Werner [J. Chem. Phys. 99 (1993) 302] for the C{sub 2v} configuration, are extended for the C{sub s} geometry assuming a harmonic vibration along the asymmetric stretching mode. The strength of the vibronic coupling parameters of the Hamiltonian are calculated by ab initio CASSCF-MRCI method and conical intersections of the PESs are established. The diabatic Hamiltonian matrix is constructed within a linear vibronic coupling scheme and the resulting PESs are employed in the nuclear dynamical simulations, carried out with the aid of a time-dependent wave packet approach. Companion calculations are performed for transitions to the uncoupled electronic states in order to reveal explicitly the impact of the nonadiabatic coupling on the photoelectron dynamics. The theoretical findings are in good accord with the experimental observations. The femtosecond nonradiative decay dynamics of ClO{sub 2}{sup +} excited electronic states mediated by conical intersections is also examined and discussed.
Trojan Wave Packets in the Quantum Cavity within the Extended Jaynes-Cummings Model
Kalinski, Matt
2016-05-01
Some time ago we have developed the theory of the Trojan Wave Packets (TWP) in the classical strong Circularly Polarized electromagnetic field in terms of the Mathieu generating functions. We have discovered that by the proper partitioning of the Coulomb spectrum i.e. by considering the deviation from the circularity and the vertical tilt of the undressed states as the new quantum numbers we can reduce the problem to the problem of several non-interacting quantum pendula for the Stark-Zeeman field dressed states. The TWP in the infinite physical space however turned out to be weakly unstable due to the spontaneous emission. Here we develop the theory in which the TWP is truly eternal when the electromagnetic interactions are considered quantum and the field is confined by the perfect quantum cavity boundary conditions. First we extend the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model from the two to the infinite number of levels interacting with the one or two perfectly resonant quantum modes of the electromagnetic field. Similarly the model of JC and our previous pendular model the dressed electron-field eigenstates are constructed within the weakly interacting manifolds. Superpositions of those states are possible with the quantum electron density moving on the circular trajectories.
Wächtler, Maria; Guthmuller, Julien; Kupfer, Stephan; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Popp, Jürgen; Rau, Sven; Cerullo, Giulio; Dietzek, Benjamin
2015-05-18
The hydrogen-evolving photocatalyst [(tbbpy)2 Ru(tpphz)Pd(Cl)2 ](2+) (tbbpy=4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, tpphz=tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine) shows excitation-wavelength-dependent catalytic activity, which has been correlated to the localization of the initial excitation within the coordination sphere. In this contribution the excitation-wavelength dependence of the early excited-state relaxation and the occurrence of vibrational coherences are investigated by sub-20 fs transient absorption spectroscopy and DFT/TDDFT calculations. The comparison with the mononuclear precursor [(tbbpy)2 Ru(tpphz)](2+) highlights the influence of the catalytic center on these ultrafast processes. Only in the presence of the second metal center, does the excitation of a (1) MLCT state localized on the central part of the tpphz bridge lead to coherent wave-packet motion in the excited state. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kroh, Tim; Ahlrichs, Andreas; Sprenger, Benjamin; Benson, Oliver
2017-09-01
Future quantum networks require a hybrid platform of dissimilar quantum systems. Within the platform, joint quantum states have to be mediated either by single photons, photon pairs or entangled photon pairs. The photon wavelength has to lie within the telecommunication band to enable long-distance fibre transmission. In addition, the temporal shape of the photons needs to be tailored to efficiently match the involved quantum systems. Altogether, this requires the efficient coherent wavelength-conversion of arbitrarily shaped single-photon wave packets. Here, we demonstrate the heralded temporal filtering of single photons as well as the synchronisation of state manipulation and detection as key elements in a typical experiment, besides of delaying a photon in a long fibre. All three are realised by utilising commercial telecommunication fibre-optical components which will permit the transition of quantum networks from the lab to real-world applications. The combination of these renders a temporally filtering single-photon storage in a fast switchable fibre loop possible.
Zauleck, Julius P P; Thallmair, Sebastian; Loipersberger, Matthias; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2016-12-13
The curse of dimensionality still remains as the central challenge of molecular quantum dynamical calculations. Either compromises on the accuracy of the potential landscape have to be made or methods must be used that reduce the dimensionality of the configuration space of molecular systems to a low dimensional one. For dynamic approaches such as grid-based wave packet dynamics that are confined to a small number of degrees of freedom this dimensionality reduction can become a major part of the overall problem. A common strategy to reduce the configuration space is by selection of a set of internal coordinates using chemical intuition. We devised two methods that increase the degree of automation of the dimensionality reduction as well as replace chemical intuition by more quantifiable criteria. Both methods reduce the dimensionality linearly and use the intrinsic reaction coordinate as guidance. The first one solely relies on the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC), whereas the second one uses semiclassical trajectories to identify the important degrees of freedom.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sindona, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)]. E-mail: sindona@fis.unical.it; Riccardi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Maletta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Rudi, S.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Falcone, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)
2007-05-15
Secondary emission of Ag{sup -} and Au{sup -} particles, following the sputtering of clean Ag(1 0 0) and Au(1 0 0) targets, respectively, is studied with a Crank-Nicholson wave-packet propagation method. A one-electron pseudo-potential is used to describe the plane metal surface, with a projected band gap, the ejected ion, whose charge state is investigated, and its nearest-neighbor substrate ion, put in motion by the collision cascade generated by the primary ion beam. Time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved backwards in time to determine the evolution of the affinity orbital of the negative particles from an instant when they are unperturbed, at distances of the order of {approx}10{sup 2} a.u. from the surface, to the instant of ejection. The probability that a band electron will be eventually detected in affinity state of the ejected particle is, thus, calculated and compared with the result of another method based on the spectral decomposition of the one-electron Hamiltonian.
Characterization of a quantum phase transition in Dirac systems by means of the wave-packet dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Romera
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We study the signatures of phase transitions in the time evolution of wave-packets by analyzing two simple model systems: a graphene quantum dot model in a magnetic field and a Dirac oscillator in a magnetic field. We have characterized the phase transitions using the autocorrelation function. Our work also reveals that the description in terms of Shannon entropy of the autocorrelation function is a clear phase transition indicator.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets extracted from SAR imagery that were binned in 30x30 second latitude/longitude polygon grid cells. Statistics were...
Prodhan, Suryoday
2016-01-01
Singlet fission is a potential pathway for significant enhancement of efficiency in organic solar cells. In this article, we have studied singlet fission in a pair of polyene molecules employing exact many-body wave packet dynamics. The individual molecules are treated within Hubbard and Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models and the interaction between them involves transfer terms, intersite electron repulsions and site charge-bond charge repulsion terms. Initial wave packet is constructed from excited singlet state of one molecule and ground state of the other. Time development of this wave packet under the influence of intermolecular interactions is followed within the Schr\\"{o}dinger picture by an efficient predictor-corrector scheme. In unsubstituted Hubbard and PPP chains, $2{}^1A$ excited singlet state leads to significant fission yield while the $1{}^1B$ state gives negligible fission yield. On substitution by donor-acceptor groups of moderate strength, singlet state derived from $1{}^1B$ state also gives si...
Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S.
2017-08-01
Singlet fission (SF) is a potential pathway for significant enhancement of efficiency in organic solar cells (OSC). In this paper, we study singlet fission in a pair of polyene molecules in two different stacking arrangements employing exact many-body wave packet dynamics. In the noninteracting model, the SF yield is absent. The individual molecules are treated within Hubbard and Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models and the interaction between them involves transfer terms, intersite electron repulsions, and site-charge-bond-charge repulsion terms. Initial wave packet is constructed from excited singlet state of one molecule and ground state of the other. Time development of this wave packet under the influence of intermolecular interactions is followed within the Schrödinger picture by an efficient predictor-corrector scheme. In unsubstituted Hubbard and PPP chains, 2 1A excited singlet state leads to significant SF yield while the 1 1B state gives negligible fission yield. On substitution by donor-acceptor groups of moderate strength, the lowest excited state will have sufficient 2 1A character and hence results in significant SF yield. Because of rapid internal conversion, the nature of the lowest excited singlet will determine the SF contribution to OSC efficiency. Furthermore, we find the fission yield depends considerably on the stacking arrangement of the polyene molecules.
Wasilewski, W; Wasilewski, Wojciech
2005-01-01
We analyze quantum entanglement of Stokes light and atomic electronic polarization excited during single-pass, linear-regime, stimulated Raman scattering in terms of optical wave-packet modes and atomic-ensemble spatial modes. The output of this process is confirmed to be decomposable into multiple discrete, bosonic mode pairs, each pair undergoing independent evolution into a two-mode squeezed state. For this we extend the Bloch-Messiah reduction theorem, previously known for discrete linear systems (S. L. Braunstein, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, 055801 (2005)). We present typical mode functions in the case of one-dimensional scattering in an atomic vapor. We find that in the absence of dispersion, one mode pair dominates the process, leading to a simple interpretation of entanglement in this continuous-variable system. However, many mode pairs are excited in the presence of dispersion-induced temporal walkoff of the Stokes, as witnessed by the photon-count statistics. We also consider the readout of the stored at...
Misra, A P
2010-01-01
We consider the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in an ultra-relativistic (UR) degenerate dense electron-ion plasma, whose dynamics is governed by the nonlocal two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger-like equations. The coupled set of equations are then used to study the modulational instability (MI) of a uniform wave train to an infinitesimal perturbation of multi-dimensional form. The condition for the MI is obtained, and it is shown that the nondimensional parameter, $\\beta\\propto\\lambda_C n_0^{1/3}$ (where $\\lambda_C$ is the reduced Compton wavelength and $n_0$ is the particle number density), associated with the UR pressure of degenerate electrons, shifts the stable (unstable) regions at $n_{0}\\sim10^{30}$ cm$^{-3}$ to unstable (stable) ones at higher densities, i.e. $n_{0}\\gtrsim7\\times10^{33}$. It is also found that higher the values of $n_{0}$, the lower is the growth rate of MI with cut-offs at lower wave numbers of modulation. Furthermore, the dynamical evolution of the wave packet...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Bin [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Sun, Zhigang, E-mail: zsun@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Guo, Hua, E-mail: zsun@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2014-06-21
A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D{sub 2} reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.
Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua
2014-06-01
A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D2 reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.
Iihama, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Sugihara, A.; Kamimaki, A.; Ando, Y.; Mizukami, S.
2016-07-01
Coherent spin-wave generation by focused ultrashort laser pulse irradiation was investigated for a permalloy thin film at micrometer scale using an all-optical space- and time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope. The spin-wave packet propagating perpendicular to the magnetization direction was clearly observed; however, that propagating parallel to the magnetization direction was not observed. The propagation length, group velocity, center frequency, and packet width of the observed spin-wave packet were evaluated and quantitatively explained in terms of the propagation of a magnetostatic spin wave driven by the ultrafast change of an out-of-plane demagnetization field induced by the focused-pulse laser.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, S.K.
1994-03-01
Vibrational predissociation of XI{sub 2} and X{sub 2}I{sub 2} van der Waals complexes, with X = He and Ne, is studied with wave packets. Three-dimensional calculations are carried out on the three-atom systems. Suitable X{center_dot}{center_dot}I potential interactions are determined, and product distributions are predicted. Reduced dimension models of X{sub 2}I{sub 2}(v{prime}) {yields} 2X + I{sub 2}(v < v{prime}) are investigated. Comparison is made with available experimental results. Mechanistic issues, including the role of intramolecular vibrational relaxation resonances, are addressed.
Time-dependent wave packet approach to the pulse delay effect upon RbI photoelectron spectrum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chunhua; MENG Qingtian; ZHANG Qinggang
2006-01-01
The time-resolved photoelectron spectrum (TRPES) of Rbl molecule is simulated using the time-dependent wave-packet method. Both the normal three-photon ionization process and auto-ionization process are involved in the simulation. The calculated results show that the change of delay time will influence the shape of the photoelectron spectrum (PES), and the influence is substantially due to the existence of the crossing between excited states and the strong laser field which will change the position of relevant curves.
Kreisbeck, C.; Kramer, T.; Molina, R. A.
2017-04-01
We have performed time-dependent wave packet simulations of realistic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) devices with a quantum dot embedded in one of the arms of the interferometer. The AB ring can function as a measurement device for the intrinsic transmission phase through the quantum dot, however, care has to be taken in analyzing the influence of scattering processes in the junctions of the interferometer arms. We consider a harmonic quantum dot and show how the Darwin–Fock spectrum emerges as a unique pattern in the interference fringes of the AB oscillations.
Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J. Robert
2006-01-01
We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wave length, while being small compared to the size of the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanz, A.S., E-mail: asanz@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martínez-Casado, R. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Peñate-Rodríguez, H.C.; Rojas-Lorenzo, G. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza, La Habana 10600 (Cuba); Miret-Artés, S. [Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2014-08-15
Classical viscid media are quite common in our everyday life. However, we are not used to find such media in quantum mechanics, and much less to analyze their effects on the dynamics of quantum systems. In this regard, the Caldirola–Kanai time-dependent Hamiltonian constitutes an appealing model, accounting for friction without including environmental fluctuations (as it happens, for example, with quantum Brownian motion). Here, a Bohmian analysis of the associated friction dynamics is provided in order to understand how a hypothetical, purely quantum viscid medium would act on a wave packet from a (quantum) hydrodynamic viewpoint. To this purpose, a series of paradigmatic contexts have been chosen, such as the free particle, the motion under the action of a linear potential, the harmonic oscillator, or the superposition of two coherent wave packets. Apart from their analyticity, these examples illustrate interesting emerging behaviors, such as localization by “quantum freezing” or a particular type of quantum–classical correspondence. The reliability of the results analytically determined has been checked by means of numerical simulations, which has served to investigate other problems lacking of such analyticity (e.g., the coherent superpositions). - Highlights: • A dissipative Bohmian approach is developed within the Caldirola–Kanai model. • Some simple yet physically insightful systems are then studied analytically. • Dissipation leads to spatial localization in free-force regimes. • Under the action of linear forces, dissipation leads to uniform motion. • In harmonic potentials, the system decays unavoidable to the well minimum.
Malakar, Y.; Kaderiya, B.; Zohrabi, M.; Pearson, W. L.; Ziaee, F.; Kananka Raju, P.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.
2016-05-01
Light-driven vibrational wave packets play an important role in molecular imaging and coherent control applications. Here we present the results of a pump-probe experiment characterizing laser-induced vibrational wave packets in both, neutral and ionic states of CH3 I (iodomethane), one of the prototypical polyatomic systems. Measuring yields and kinetic energies of all ionic fragments as a function of the time delay between two 25 fs, 800 nm pump and probe pulses, we map vibrational motion of the molecule, and identify the states involved by channel-resolved Fourier spectroscopy. In the Coulomb explosion channels we observe features with ~ 130 fs periodicity resulting from C-I symmetric stretch (ν3 mode) of the electronically excited cationic state. However the Fourier transform of the low-energy I+ ion yield produced by the dissociative ionization of CH3 I reveals the signatures of the same vibrational mode in the ground electronic states of both, neutral and cation, reflected in 65-70 fs oscillations. We observe the degeneration of the oscillatory structures from the cationic states within ~ 2 ps and discuss most likely reasons for this behavior. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. DOE. K. R. P. and W. L. P. supported by NSF Award No. IIA-143049.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. L. Fern
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.
Chen, Cao; Chu, Xinzhao
2017-09-01
Waves in the atmosphere and ocean are inherently intermittent, with amplitudes, frequencies, or wavelengths varying in time and space. Most waves exhibit wave packet-like properties, propagate at oblique angles, and are often observed in two-dimensional (2-D) datasets. These features make the wavelet transforms, especially the 2-D wavelet approach, more appealing than the traditional windowed Fourier analysis, because the former allows adaptive time-frequency window width (i.e., automatically narrowing window size at high frequencies and widening at low frequencies), while the latter uses a fixed envelope function. This study establishes the mathematical formalism of modified 1-D and 2-D Morlet wavelet transforms, ensuring that the power of the wavelet transform in the frequency/wavenumber domain is equivalent to the mean power of its counterpart in the time/space domain. Consequently, the modified wavelet transforms eliminate the bias against high-frequency/small-scale waves in the conventional wavelet methods and many existing codes. Based on the modified 2-D Morlet wavelet transform, we put forward a wave recognition methodology that automatically identifies and extracts 2-D quasi-monochromatic wave packets and then derives their wave properties including wave periods, wavelengths, phase speeds, and time/space spans. A step-by-step demonstration of this methodology is given on analyzing the lidar data taken during 28-30 June 2014 at McMurdo, Antarctica. The newly developed wave recognition methodology is then applied to two more lidar observations in May and July 2014, to analyze the recently discovered persistent gravity waves in Antarctica. The decomposed inertia-gravity wave characteristics are consistent with the conclusion in Chen et al. (2016a) that the 3-10 h waves are persistent and dominant, and exhibit lifetimes of multiple days. They have vertical wavelengths of 20-30 km, vertical phase speeds of 0.5-2 m/s, and horizontal wavelengths up to several
Konkin, D. A.; Litvinov, R. V.; Parfenova, E. S.; Rakhim, R. A. A.; Stukach, O. V.
2016-11-01
We consider the frequency dependence of propagation constants (phase dispersion) and of the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic field (shape dispersion) of guided optical TE modes in a thin left-handed film. It is shown that the spatiotemporal transformation of narrow-band intramode wave packets with the spectrum adjacent to the frequency of the zero group velocity is caused by the dispersion of both types. The propagation velocity of the power carried by such wave packets is significantly lower than the group velocity of light in a bulk left-handed metamaterial.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquetand, P.; Materny, A.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2004-01-01
We regard the rovibrational wave packet dynamics of NaI in a static electric field after femtosecond excitation to its first electronically excited state. The following quasibound nuclear wave packet motion is accompanied by a bonding situation changing from covalent to ionic. At times when...... the charge separation is present, i.e., when the bond-length is large, a strong dipole moment exists and rotational excitation takes place. Upon bond contraction, the then covalently bound molecule does not experience the external field. This scenario repeats itself periodically. Thus, the vibrational...
Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Tsun
2016-04-01
Seismic records collected from earthquake with large magnitude and far distance may contain long period seismic waves which have small amplitude but with dominant period up to 10 sec. For a general situation, the long period seismic waves will not endanger the safety of the structural system or cause any uncomfortable for human activity. On the contrary, for those far distant earthquakes, this type of seismic waves may cause a glitch or, furthermore, breakdown to some important equipments/facilities (such as the high-precision facilities in high-tech Fab) and eventually damage the interests of company if the amplitude becomes significant. The previous study showed that the ground motion features such as time-variant dominant frequencies extracted using moving window singular spectrum analysis (MWSSA) and amplitude characteristics of long-period waves identified from slope change of ground motion Arias Intensity can efficiently indicate the damage severity to the high-precision facilities. However, embedding a large hankel matrix to extract long period seismic waves make the MWSSA become a time-consumed process. In this study, the seismic ground motion data collected from broadband seismometer network located in Taiwan were used (with epicenter distance over 1000 km). To monitor the significant long-period waves, the low frequency components of these seismic ground motion data are extracted using wavelet packet transform (WPT) to obtain wavelet coefficients and the wavelet entropy of coefficients are used to identify the amplitude characteristics of long-period waves. The proposed method is a timesaving process compared to MWSSA and can be easily implemented for real-time detection. Comparison and discussion on this method among these different seismic events and the damage severity to the high-precision facilities in high-tech Fab is made.
Schlesinger, Martin; Stienkemeier, Frank; Strunz, Walter T
2009-01-01
Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy has been used to study vibrational dynamics of potassium dimers attached to superfluid helium nanodroplets. Comparing the measured data with theoretical results based on dissipative quantum dynamics we propose that the most important effect of the helium environment is a general damping of the vibrational dynamics as a result of the interaction between dimer and collective degrees of freedom of the helium droplet. The calculations allow us to explain crucial experimental findings that are unobserved in gas-phase measurements. Remarkably, best agreement with experiment is found for a model where we neglect damping once a wave packet moves below a critical velocity. In this way the results provide first direct evidence for the Landau critical velocity in superfluid nanodroplets.
Singh, D; Papini, G; Mobed, Nader; Papini, Giorgio; Singh, Dinesh
2006-01-01
We present the possibility that Dirac and Majorana neutrino wave packets can be distinguished when subject to spin-gravity interaction while propagating through vacuum described by the Lense-Thirring metric. By adopting the techniques of gravitational phase and time-independent perturbation theory following the Brillouin-Wigner method, we generate spin-gravity matrix elements from a perturbation Hamiltonian and show that this distinction is easily reflected in well-defined gravitational corrections to the neutrino oscillation length for a two-flavour system. Explicit examples are presented using the Sun and SN1987A as the gravitational sources for the Lense-Thirring metric. This approach offers the possibility to determine the absolute neutrino masses by this method and identify a theoretical upper bound for the absolute neutrino mass difference, where the distinctions between the Dirac and Majorana cases are evident. We discuss the relevance of this analysis to the upcoming attempts to measure the properties...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Shao-Hao; WANG Feng; LI Jia-Ming
2004-01-01
Introducing a theoretical method to treat time-dependent wave-packet dynamics for atom collisions, we calculate the cross sections of proton impact excitation (2s - 2p) with a Li atom by directly numerically integrating the time-dependent Schrodinger equation on a three-dimensional Cartesian mesh. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental measurements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segura, J.; Fernandez de Cordoba, P.
1993-01-01
We solve the Schrodinger equation in order to study the time evolution of a wave packet in different situations of physical interest. This work illustrates, with pedagogical aim, some quantum phenomena which shock our classical conception of the universe: propagation in classically forbidden regions, energy quantization. (Author)
Nonlinear propagation of a wave packet in a hard-walled circular duct
Nayfeh, A. H.
1975-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to derive a nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the temporal and spatial modulation of the amplitudes and the phases of waves propagating in a hard-walled circular duct. This equation is used to show that monochromatic waves are stable and to determine the amplitude dependance of the cutoff frequencies.
Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.
1989-01-01
The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.
Kukulin, V I
2002-01-01
The construction of the basic operators of the theory of scattering on the mass surface and beyond in the terms of the stationary wave packages, limited in the space or Eigen differentials, is described. The finite-dimensional approximations for the Green function and T-matrix are obtained for the first time on the basis of the simple single diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. It is shown that the developed approach leads to the convenient finite-dimensional presentation of the scattering operators in the basis of the wave functions of the harmonic oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diaz-Torres Alexis
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recent progress in a quantitative study of the 12C+12C sub-Coulomb fusion is reported. It is carried out using full-dimensional, time-dependent wave-packet dynamics, a quantum reaction model that has not been much exploited in nuclear physics, unlike in chemical physics. The low-energy collision is described in the rotating center-of-mass frame within a nuclear molecular picture. A collective Hamiltonian drives the time propagation of the wave-packet through the collective potential-energy landscape that is calculated with a realistic two-center shell model. Among other preliminary results, the theoretical sub-Coulomb fusion resonances for 12C+12C seem to correspond well with observations. The method appears to be useful for expanding the cross-section predictions towards stellar energies.
Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank
2015-01-01
Phase-modulated wave-packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave-packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited $5\\Pi_{3/2}$ and the high-lying electronic states $2^2\\Pi$, $4^2\\Delta$, $6^2\\Sigma$ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments.
ACCURATE TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE PACKET STUDY OF THE H{sup +}+LiH REACTION AT EARLY UNIVERSE CONDITIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aslan, E.; Bulut, N. [Department of Physics, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Castillo, J. F.; Banares, L.; Aoiz, F. J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Unidad Asociada CSIC), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Roncero, O., E-mail: jfernand@quim.ucm.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, C/Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)
2012-11-01
The dynamics and kinetics of the H{sup +} + LiH reaction have been studied using a quantum reactive time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) coupled-channel quantum mechanical method on an ab initio potential energy surface at conditions of the early universe. The total reaction probabilities for the H{sup +} + LiH(v = 0, j = 0) {yields} H{sup +} {sub 2} + Li process have been calculated from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV up to 1 eV for total angular momenta J from 0 to 110. Using a Langevin model, integral cross sections have been calculated in that range of collision energies and extrapolated for energies below 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV. The calculated rate constants are found to be nearly independent of temperature in the 10-1000 K interval with a value of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, which is in good agreement with estimates used in evolutionary models of the early universe lithium chemistry.
Entropy production and wave packet dynamics in the Fock space of closed chaotic many-body systems
Flambaum, V V
2001-01-01
Highly excited many-particle states in quantum systems such as nuclei, atoms, quantum dots, spin systems, quantum computers etc., can be considered as ``chaotic'' superpositions of mean-field basis states (Slater determinants, products of spin or qubit states). This is due to a very high level density of many-body states that are easily mixed by a residual interaction between particles (quasi-particles). For such systems, we have derived simple analytical expressions for the time dependence of energy width of wave packets, as well as for the entropy, number of principal basis components and inverse participation ratio, and tested them in numerical experiments. It is shown that the energy width $\\Delta (t)$ increases linearly and very quickly saturates. The entropy of a system increases quadratically, $S(t) \\sim t^2$ at small times, and after, can grow linearly, $S(t) \\sim t$, before the saturation. Correspondingly, the number of principal components determined by the entropy, $N_{pc} \\sim exp{(S(t))}$, or by ...
Toyota, Koudai
2016-10-01
The method of the envelope Hamiltonian [K. Toyota, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, New J. Phys. 17, 073005 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/7/073005] is applied to further study a detachment dynamics of a model negative ion in one dimension in the high-frequency regime. This method is based on the Floquet approach, but the time dependency of an envelope function is explicitly kept for arbitrary pulse durations. Therefore, it is capable of describing not only a photon absorption or emission, but also a nonadiabatic transition which is induced by the time-varying envelope of the pulse. It was shown that the envelope Hamiltonian accurately retrieves the results obtained by the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and the underlying physics were well understood by the adiabatic approximation based on the envelope Hamiltonian. In this paper, we explore two more aspects of the detachment dynamics, which were not considered in our previous work. First, we determine the features of both a spatial and temporal interference of photoelectron wave packets in a photon-absorption process. We conclude that both of the interference mechanisms are universal in ionization dynamics in the high-frequency regime. Second, we extract a pulse duration which maximizes a yield of the nonadiabatic transition as a function of a pulse duration. It is shown that it becomes maximum when the pulse duration is comparable to a time scale of an electron.
Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J R
2006-07-01
We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wavelength, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.
Yuan, T.; Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.; Cai, X.; Pautet, P.-D.; Fish, C.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.; Wickwar, V.; Mitchell, N. J.
2016-01-01
Gravity wave packets excited by a source of finite duration and size possess a broad frequency and wave number spectrum and thus span a range of temporal and spatial scales. Observing at a single location relatively close to the source, the wave components with higher frequency and larger vertical wavelength dominate at earlier times and at higher altitudes, while the lower frequency components, with shorter vertical wavelength, dominate during the latter part of the propagation. Utilizing observations from the Na lidar at Utah State University and the nearby Mesospheric Temperature Mapper at Bear Lake Observatory (41.9°N, 111.4°W), we investigate a unique case of vertical dispersion for a spectrally broad gravity wave packet in the mesopause region over Logan, Utah (41.7°N, 111.8°W), that occurred on 2 September 2011, to study the waves' evolution as it propagates upward. The lidar-observed temperature perturbation was dominated by close to a 1 h modulation at 100 km during the early hours but gradually evolved into a 1.5 h modulation during the second half of the night. The vertical wavelength also decreased simultaneously, while the vertical group and phase velocities of the packet apparently slowed, as it was approaching a critical level during the second half of the night. A two-dimensional numerical model is used to simulate the observed gravity wave processes, finding that the location of the lidar relative to the source can strongly influence which portion of the spectrum can be observed at a particular location relative to a source.
Study on the time-dependent wave packet of IBr molecule%IBr分子含时波包的理论探究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵起; 刘瑞琼; 刘玉芳
2011-01-01
The simulation of time-resolved photoelectron spectra for Ibr molecule is studied mainly. The time-dependent quantum wave packet method is employed to calculate and analyze the photoelectron spectra of different delay times. The common characteristic of bimodal system and the phenomenon of more peaks are interpreted in reason using the theory of wave-packet and light-induced potentials. The reason why the peak decreases monotonically as the increases of delay-time is that the wave packet on the potential energy surface of A3 Ⅱ1 for dissociation make the oscillating of wave packet on the A3 Ⅱ1 curve to decrease. By analyzing the results further, we can conclude that the propagation of wave-packet is a decreasing process of energy. In addition, the competition between different ionization channels in the process of transition also have a certain impact on the energy spectrum.%本文主要对IBr分子的飞秒含时光电子能谱进行了模拟计算.运用含时量子波包方法,对不同延迟时间的光电子能谱进行模拟计算与理论分析.应用波包和光诱导势理论,对光电子能谱共同的两峰系特征及多峰现象给予合理解释.光电子能谱的峰值随延迟时间的增加而递减现象,是由于波包在A3Ⅱ1势能面上因分子解离发散,使整个波包在势能曲线上的振荡递减造成的.研究表明:波包的传播是一个能量减弱的过程；跃迁过程中不同电离通道之间的竞争,也对能谱存在一定的影响.
Ruetzel, Stefan; Diekmann, Meike; Nuernberger, Patrick; Walter, Christof; Engels, Bernd; Brixner, Tobias
2014-06-01
Upon ultraviolet excitation, photochromic spiropyran compounds can be converted by a ring-opening reaction into merocyanine molecules, which in turn can form several isomers differing by cis and trans configurations in the methine bridge. Whereas the spiropyran-merocyanine conversion reaction of the nitro-substituted indolinobenzopyran 6-nitro-1',3',3'-trimethylspiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-indoline] (6-nitro BIPS) has been studied extensively in theory and experiments, little is known about photoisomerization among the merocyanine isomers. In this article, we employ femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with variable excitation wavelengths to investigate the excited-state dynamics of the merocyanine in acetonitrile at room temperature, where exclusively the trans-trans-cis (TTC) and trans-trans-trans (TTT) isomers contribute. No photochemical ring-closure pathways exist for the two isomers. Instead, we found that (18±4)% of excited TTC isomers undergo an ultrafast excited-state cis→trans photoisomerization to TTT within 200 fs, while the excited-state lifetime of TTC molecules that do not isomerize is 35 ps. No photoisomerization was detected for the TTT isomer, which relaxes to the ground state with a lifetime of roughly 160 ps. Moreover, signal oscillations at 170 cm-1 and 360 cm-1 were observed, which can be ascribed to excited-state wave-packet dynamics occurring in the course of the TTC→TTT isomerization. The results of high-level time-dependent density functional theory in conjunction with polarizable continuum models are presented in the subsequent article [C. Walter, S. Ruetzel, M. Diekmann, P. Nuernberger, T. Brixner, and B. Engels, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224311 (2014)].
Ono, Junichi; Ando, Koji
2012-11-01
A semiquantal (SQ) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation has been developed using multi-dimensional thawed gaussian wave packets (WPs), and applied to an analysis of hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics in liquid water. A set of Hamilton's equations of motion in an extended phase space, which includes variance-covariance matrix elements as auxiliary coordinates representing anisotropic delocalization of the WPs, is derived from the time-dependent variational principle. The present theory allows us to perform real-time and real-space SQMD simulations and analyze nuclear quantum effects on dynamics in large molecular systems in terms of anisotropic fluctuations of the WPs. Introducing the Liouville operator formalism in the extended phase space, we have also developed an explicit symplectic algorithm for the numerical integration, which can provide greater stability in the long-time SQMD simulations. The application of the present theory to H-bond dynamics in liquid water is carried out under a single-particle approximation in which the variance-covariance matrix and the corresponding canonically conjugate matrix are reduced to block-diagonal structures by neglecting the interparticle correlations. As a result, it is found that the anisotropy of the WPs is indispensable for reproducing the disordered H-bond network compared to the classical counterpart with the use of the potential model providing competing quantum effects between intra- and intermolecular zero-point fluctuations. In addition, the significant WP delocalization along the out-of-plane direction of the jumping hydrogen atom associated with the concerted breaking and forming of H-bonds has been detected in the H-bond exchange mechanism. The relevance of the dynamical WP broadening to the relaxation of H-bond number fluctuations has also been discussed. The present SQ method provides the novel framework for investigating nuclear quantum dynamics in the many
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jakob, B.
2006-10-10
In this work the wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) is presented and applied to dense hydrogen. In the WPMD method the electrons are described by a slater determinant of periodic Gaussian wave packets. Each single particle wave function can parametrised through 8 coordinates which can be interpreted as the position and momentum, the width and its conjugate momentum. The equation of motion for these coordinates can be derived from a time depended variational principle. Properties of the equilibrium can be ascertained by a Monte Carlo simulation. With the now completely implemented antisymmetrisation the simulation yields a fundamental different behavior for dense hydrogen compare to earlier simplified models. The results show a phase transition to metallic hydrogen with a higher density than in the molecular phase. This behavior has e.g. a large implication to the physics of giant planets. This work describes the used model and explains in particular the calculation of the energy and forces. The periodicity of the wave function leads to a description in the Fourier space. The antisymmetrisation is done by Matrix operations. Moreover the numerical implementation is described in detail to allow the further development of the code. The results provided in this work show the equation of state in the temperature range 300K - 50000K an density 10{sup 23}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -3}, according a pressure 1 GPa-1000 GPa. In a phase diagram the phase transition to metallic hydrogen can be red off. The electrical conductivity of both phases is destined. (orig.)
Bohmian trajectories of Airy packets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nassar, Antonio B., E-mail: anassar@hw.com [Science Department, Harvard-Westlake School, 3700 Coldwater Canyon, Studio City, 91604 (United States); Department of Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Extension Program, 10995 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Miret-Artés, Salvador [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2014-09-15
The discovery of Berry and Balazs in 1979 that the free-particle Schrödinger equation allows a non-dispersive and accelerating Airy-packet solution has taken the folklore of quantum mechanics by surprise. Over the years, this intriguing class of wave packets has sparked enormous theoretical and experimental activities in related areas of optics and atom physics. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, we present new features of Airy wave packet solutions to Schrödinger equation with time-dependent quadratic potentials. In particular, we provide some insights to the problem by calculating the corresponding Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that by using general space–time transformations, these trajectories can display a unique variety of cases depending upon the initial position of the individual particle in the Airy wave packet. Further, we report here a myriad of nontrivial Bohmian trajectories associated to the Airy wave packet. These new features are worth introducing to the subject’s theoretical folklore in light of the fact that the evolution of a quantum mechanical Airy wave packet governed by the Schrödinger equation is analogous to the propagation of a finite energy Airy beam satisfying the paraxial equation. Numerous experimental configurations of optics and atom physics have shown that the dynamics of Airy beams depends significantly on initial parameters and configurations of the experimental set-up.
Tan, Rui Shan; Yan, Wei; Lin, Shi Ying
2017-01-01
A computational study for the title reaction is carried out employing recent ab initio potential energy surface. J = 0 reaction probability is obtained using both quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) and wave packet methods. The total and state resolved integral as well as differential cross sections are also obtained by means of QCT method. Dynamics of the title reaction shows qualitative similarity with its isotopic counterpart, the H + CaCl reaction, but quantitatively, reactivity is significantly enhanced in the title reaction. In addition, the effect of initial rotational state excitation on H + CaCl reaction is investigated.
Doncheski, M. A.; Robinett, R. W.
2001-10-01
We discuss the time development of Gaussian wave packet solutions of the "quantum bouncer" (a quantum mechanical particle subject to a uniform downward force, above an impermeable flat surface). We focus on the evaluation and visualization of the expectation values and uncertainties of position and momentum variables during a single quasi-classical period as well as during the long-term collapsed phase and several revivals. This approach complements existing analytic and numerical analyses of this system, as well as being useful for comparison with similar results for the harmonic oscillator and infinite well cases.
Doncheski, M A
2001-01-01
We discuss the time development of Gaussian wave packet solutions of the quantum bouncer' (a quantum mechanical particle subject to a uniform downward force, above an impermeable flat surface). We focus on the evaluation and visualization of the expectation values and uncertainties of position and momentum variables during a single quasi-classical period as well as during the long term collapsed phase and several revivals. This approach complements existing analytic and numerical analyses of this system, as well as being useful for comparison with similar results for the harmonic oscillator and infinite well cases.
Effect of Coulomb interaction on multi-electronwave packet dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiokawa, T. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Takada, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 102-0073, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Konabe, S.; Hatsugai, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8571, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Muraguchi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Endoh, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan and Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Shiraishi, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8571, Japan and Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8577, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan)
2013-12-04
We have investigated the effect of Coulomb interaction on electron transport in a one-dimensional nanoscale structure using a multi-electron wave packet approach. To study the time evolution, we numerically solve the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation, finding that the electron wave packet dynamics strongly depends on the Coulomb interaction strength. When the Coulomb interaction is large, each electron wave packet moves separately in the presence of an electric field. With weak Coulomb interaction, however, the electron wave packets overlap, forming and moving as one collective wave packet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)
2014-09-21
A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH{sup +} (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈召杭; 王德华; 程绍昊
2015-01-01
Using the combination of the time-dependent perturbation theory and the closed-orbit theory, we put forward a calculation formula for the autocorrelation function of H ion in a gradient electric field, and then calculate and analyze the autocorrelation function of the system. Especially, we discuss the effect of laser pulse width, electric field strength and the electric field gradient on the autocorrelation function of H ion in a gradient electric field. It is demonstrated that when the laser pulse width is very narrow, far less than the period of the detached electron, the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon is significant. A series of sharp reviving peaks appear in the autocorrelation function, which are caused by the interference between the returning electron wave packets travelling along the closed orbit and the outgoing electron wave packets. However, with the increase of laser pulse width, the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon becomes weakened. When the difference between the pulse width and the period of the closed orbit is not very large, the reviving peaks in the autocorrelation function become widely spread gradually and the oscillatory structures get flattened. This correspondence will vanish finally due to the interference between the adjacent peaks. In addition, our study also suggests that the background electric field strength and the electric field gradient in the gradient electric field can also have significant effects on the autocorrelation function. With the increase of background electric field strength and electric field gradient, the period of the detached electron’s closed orbit gets shorter, the number of the revival peaks in the autocorrelation function is increased gradually, and the quantum wave packet revival phenomenon will be enhanced. Therefore, we can control the autocorrelation function of the hydrogen negative ion by changing the laser pulse width and the external electric field strength. Our results will provide some
Multipath packet switch using packet bundling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berger, Michael Stubert
2002-01-01
The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...
Two-electron photoionization of endohedral atoms
Amusia, M Ya; Mandelzweig, V B
2006-01-01
Using $He@C_{60}$ as an example, we demonstrate that static potential of the fullerene core essentially alters the cross section of the two-electron ionization differential in one-electron energy $d\\sigma ^{++}(\\omega )/d\\epsilon $. We found that at high photon energy prominent oscillations appear in it due to reflection of the second, slow electron wave on the $% C_{60}$ shell, which "dies out" at relatively high $\\epsilon $ values, of about 2$\\div $3 two-electron ionization potentials. The results were presented for ratios $R_{C_{60}}(\\omega ,\\epsilon)\\equiv d\\sigma ^{++}(\\omega ,\\epsilon)/d\\sigma ^{a++}(\\omega,\\epsilon)$, where $d\\sigma ^{a++}(\\omega,\\epsilon)/d\\epsilon$ is the two-electron differential photoionization cross section. We have calculated the ratio $R_{i,ful}= \\sigma_{i} ^{++}(\\omega)/\\sigma_{i}^{a++}(\\omega)$, that accounts for reflection of both photoelectrons by the $C_{60}$ shell. We have calculated also the value of two-electron photoionization cross section $\\sigma ^{++}(\\omega)$ and fo...
Biggs, Jason D
2009-01-01
The preceding paper describes a strategy for externally influencing the course of short-time electronic excitation transfer (EET) in molecular dimers and observing the process by nonlinear wave-packet interferometry (nl-WPI). Within a sample of isotropically oriented dimers having a specified internal geometry, a vibrational mode internal to the acceptor chromophore can be preferentially driven by electronically nonresonant impulsive stimulated Raman (or resonant infrared) excitation with a short polarized control pulse. A subsequent electronically resonant polarized pump then preferentially excites the donor, and EET ensues. Here we test both the control strategy and its spectroscopic investigation-with some sacrifice of amplitude-level detail-by calculating the pump-probe difference signal. That signal is the limiting case of the control-influenced nl-WPI signal in which the two pulses in the pump pulse-pair coincide, as do the two pulses in the probe pulse-pair. We present calculated pump-probe difference ...
Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.
Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N
2015-06-18
The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高洁; 房丽敏; 李华刚; 麦志杰
2012-01-01
Dispersion relation of 1-D photonic crystal is deduced by the method of transfer matrix, with coordinate transformation of arbitrary Fourier exponent of electromagnetic wave packet which is obliquely incident. By analyzing the dispersion relation, it is easy to find the difference between the first band gap under obliquely incident wave packet and that of plane wave, respectively. Meanwhile, the former gap is located in the latter one, for the former one is narrower than the latter one in width. Characteristic of band gap is obtained under obliquely incident wave packet, by comparing the first band gap structure with that of plane wave considering edge position and width of the gap. The condition of approximately substituting plane wave for wave packet to calculate band gap is analyzed, according to related factors such as different incident angle of central wave vector and angle spectrum of wave packet. The results demonstrate that the first band gap structure is closely related to incident angle of central wave vector and angle spectrum of wave packet. With smaller incident angle, the first band gap structure caused by wave packet would become closer to that of plane wave; and with smaller angle spectrum of wave packet, the width and position of the first band gap is closer to those of plane wave.%对波包的任意傅里叶分量进行坐标变换后,利用转移矩阵法推导出波包斜入射情形下一维光子晶体的色散关系表达式,利用色散关系曲线分析得出波包斜入射的第一带隙结构,与以往平面波的第一带隙结构不同,波包的带隙宽度小于平面波的带隙宽度,并且在位置上前者带隙包含在后者内部.比较了一维光子晶体分别在波包入射与平面波入射情形下带隙位置和宽度,分析了波包中心入射角的变化以及波包的角分布范围的变化对带隙结构的影响,得到了一维光子晶体对波包斜入射的带隙结构的基本特征,确定了计算波包带
Extensible packet processing architecture
Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.
2013-08-20
A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.
Extensible packet processing architecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.
2013-08-20
A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.
Optical packet switching without packet alignment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian
1998-01-01
Operation without packet alignment of an all-optical packet switch is proposed and predicted feasible through a detailed traffic analysis. Packet alignment units are eliminated resulting in a simple switch architecture while optimal traffic performance is maintained through the flexibility provided...
van Harrevelt, Rob; van Hemert, Marc C.
2000-04-01
A complete three-dimensional quantum mechanical description of the photodissociation of water in the B˜ band, starting from its rotational ground state, is presented. In order to include B˜-X˜ vibronic coupling and the B˜-Ã Renner-Teller coupling, diabatic electronic states have been constructed from adiabatic electronic states and matrix elements of the electronic angular momentum operators, following the procedure developed by A. J. Dobbyn and P. J. Knowles [Mol. Phys. 91, 1107 (1997)], using the ab initio results discussed in the preceding paper. The dynamics is studied using wave packet methods, and the evolution of the time-dependent wave function is discussed in detail. Results for the H2O and D2O absorption spectra, OH(A)/OH(X) and OD(A)/OD(X) branching ratios, and rovibrational distributions of the OH and OD fragments are presented and compared with available experimental data. The present theoretical results agree at least qualitatively with the experiments. The calculations show that the absorption spectrum and the product state distributions are strongly influenced by long-lived resonances on the adiabatic B˜ state. It is also shown that molecular rotation plays an important role in the photofragmentation process, due to both the Renner-Teller B˜-X˜ mixing, and the strong effect of out-of-plane molecular rotations (K>0) on the dynamics at near linear HOH and HHO geometries.
Juanes-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Althorpe, Stuart C
2005-05-22
We report quantum wave-packet calculations on the H+H(2) reaction, aimed at resolving the controversy over whether geometric phase (GP) effects can be observed in this reaction. Two sets of calculations are reported of the state-to-state reaction probabilities, and integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). One set includes the GP using the vector potential approach of Mead and Truhlar; the other set neglects the phase. We obtain unequivocal agreement with recent results of Kendrick [J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6739 (2003)], predicting GP effects in the state-to-state reaction probabilities, which cancel exactly on summing the partial waves to yield the ICS. Our results therefore contradict those of Kuppermann and Wu [Chem. Phys. Lett. 349 537 (2001)], which predicted pronounced GP effects in the cross sections. We also agree with Kendrick in predicting that there are no significant GP effects in the full DCS at energies below 1.8 eV, and in the partial (0
两种扩展Harper模型的波包动力学%Wave packet dynamics of two extended Harper models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张振俊; 于淼; 巩龙龚; 童培庆
2011-01-01
We study the wave packet dynamics of two extended Harper models by using the second moment M2（t）and probability distribution Wn（t） numerically. The dynamical behaviors of two extended Harper models in all phases, on all phase boundary lines, and at the bicritical points are studied. For the first extended Harper model, we find that the wave packet is of ballistic diffusion in two metal phases, localized in the insulator phase, and of anomalous diffusion on the phase boundary lines and at the bicritical point. We also find the dynamical behavior on the boundary line of the metal-metal phase transition is the same as that on the metal-insulator phase transition. The spreading at the bicritical point is different from that on the phase boundary lines. For the second extended Harper model, we find that the wave packet is of ballistic diffusion in the metal phase, localized in the insulator phase, and of anomalous diffusion in the critical phase, on the phase boundary lines, and at the bicritical point. We also find the dynamical behavior on the boundary line of the critical-metal phase transition is similar to that at the bicritical point and the critical-insulator phase transition, but different from that of the metal-insulator phase transition.%本文通过二次矩M2（t）和概率分布Wn（t）数值地研究了两种扩展Harper模型的波包动力学,得到了这两种模型中各个相、各条临界线以及三相点的波包扩散情况.对于第一种扩展Harper模型,发现两个金属相中波包是弹道扩散的,在绝缘体相中波包不扩散,而在三相点以及各条临界线上波包是反常扩散的.同时,发现金属相—金属相转变的临界线上的波包动力学行为与金属相—绝缘体相转变的临界线上的相同,但三相点的动力学行为与各临界线上的不同;对于第二种扩展Harper模型,发现金属相中波包是弹道扩散的,在绝缘体相中波包不扩散,而在临界相、三相点、
Ghosh, Sandip; Sahoo, Tapas; Adhikari, Satrajit; Sharma, Rahul; Varandas, António J C
2015-12-17
We implement a coupled three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent wave packet formalism for the 4D reactive scattering problem in hyperspherical coordinates on the accurate double many body expansion (DMBE) potential energy surface (PES) for the ground and first two singlet states (1(1)A', 2(1)A', and 3(1)A') to account for nonadiabatic processes in the D(+) + H2 reaction for both zero and nonzero values of the total angular momentum (J). As the long-range interactions in D(+) + H2 contribute significantly due to nonadiabatic effects, the convergence profiles of reaction probabilities for the reactive noncharge transfer (RNCT), nonreactive charge transfer (NRCT), and reactive charge transfer (RCT) processes are shown for different collisional energies with respect to the helicity (K) and total angular momentum (J) quantum numbers. The total and state-to-state cross sections are presented as a function of the collision energy for the initial rovibrational state v = 0, j = 0 of the diatom, and the calculated cross sections compared with other theoretical and experimental results.
Demekhin, Philipp V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S
2013-01-01
The time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the hydrogen atom and its interaction with coherent intense high-frequency short laser pulses is solved numerically exactly by employing the code implemented for the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method. Thereby, the wavefunction is followed in space and time for times longer than the pulse duration. Results are explicitly shown for 3 and 10 fs pulses. Particular attention is paid to identifying the effect of dynamic interference of photoelectrons emitted with the same kinetic energy at different times during the rising and falling sides of the pulse predicted in [\\emph{Ph.V. Demekhin and L.S. Cederbaum}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{108}, 253001 (2012)]. In order to be able to see the dynamic interference pattern in the computed electron spectra, the photoelectron wave packet has to be propagated over long distances. Clearly, complex absorption potentials often employed to compute spectra of emitted particles cannot be used to detect dy...
Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Lerch, Eliza-Beth W; Wen, Patrick; Leone, Stephen R
2007-09-28
A two-color (3+1(')) pump-probe scheme is employed to investigate Rydberg wave packet dynamics in carbon disulfide (CS(2) (*)). The state superpositions are created within the 4f and 5p Rydberg manifolds by three photons of the 400 nm pump pulse, and their temporal evolution is monitored with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an 800 nm ionizing probe pulse. The coherent behavior of the non-stationary superpositions are observed through wavepacket revivals upon ionization to either the upper (12) or lower (32) spin-orbit components of CS(2) (+). The results show clearly that the composition of the wavepacket can be efficiently controlled by the power density of the excitation pulse over a range from 500 GWcm(2) to 10 TWcm(2). The results are consistent with the anticipated ac-Stark shift for 400 nm light and demonstrate an effective method for population control in molecular systems. Moreover, it is shown that Rydberg wavepackets can be formed in CS(2) with excitation power densities up to 10 TWcm(2) without significant fragmentation. The exponential 1e population decay (T(1)) of specific excited Rydberg states are recovered by analysis of the coherent part of the signal. The dissociation lifetimes of these states are typically 1.5 ps. However, a region exhibiting a more rapid decay ( approximately 800 fs) is observed for states residing in the energy range of 74 450-74 550 cm(-1), suggestive of an enhanced surface crossing in this region.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Farzana Sharmin; Samir Saha; S S Bhattacharyya
2013-06-01
We have theoretically investigated the high harmonic generation (HHG) spectra of H$_{2}^{+}$ and HD+ using a time-dependent wave packet approach for the nuclear motion with pulsed lasers of peak intensities (0) of 3.5 × 1014 and 4.5 × 1014 W/cm2, wavelengths (L) of 800 and 1064 nm, and pulse durations () of 40 and 50 fs, for initial vibrational levels 0 = 0 and 1. We have argued that for these conditions the harmonic generation due to the transitions in the electronic continuum by tunnelling or multiphoton ionization will not be important. Thus, the characteristic features of HHG spectra in our model arise only due to the nuclear motions on the two lowest field-coupled electronic states between which both interelectronic and intraelectronic (due to intrinsic dipole moments, for HD+) radiative transitions can take place. For HD+, the effect of nonadiabatic (NA) interaction between the two lowest Born–Oppenheimer (BO) electronic states has been taken into account and comparison has been made with the HHG spectra of HD+ obtained in the BO approximation. Even harmonics and a second plateau in the HHG spectra of HD+ with the NA interaction and hyper-Raman lines in the spectra of both H$_{2}^{+}$ and HD+ for 0 = 1 have been observed for higher value of 0 or L. Our calculations indicate reasonable efficiencies of harmonic generation even without involving the electronic continuum.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Raman Kumar Singh; Manabendra Sarma; Ankit Jain; Satrajit Adhikari; Manoj K Mishra
2007-09-01
Results from application of a new implementation of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach to the calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant e-CO scattering are presented to examine its applicability in the treatment of e-molecule resonances. The results show that the SCF level local complex potential (LCP) in conjunction with the TDWP approach can reproduce experimental features quite satisfactorily.
Wu, Hui; Duan, Zhi-Xin; Yin, Shu-Hui; Zhao, Guang-Jiu
2016-09-01
The quantum dynamics calculations of the H + HS (v = 0, j = 0) reaction on the 3A' and 3A″ potential energy surfaces (PESs) are performed using the reactant coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method. State-averaged and state-resolved results for both channels of the title reaction are presented in the 0.02-1.0 eV collision energy range and compared with those carried out with quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method. Total integral cross sections (ICSs) for both channels are in excellent agreement with previous quantum mechanical (QM)-Coriolis coupling results while poorly agree with the QCT ICSs of the exchange channel, particularly near the threshold energy region. The product rotational distributions show that for the abstraction channel, the agreement between our QM and the QCT results improves with increasing collision energy. For the exchange channel, our calculations predict colder rotational distributions as compared to those obtained by QCT calculations. Although the QM total differential cross sections (DCSs) are in qualitatively good agreement with the QCT results, the two sets of the state-to-state DCSs with several peaks exhibit great divergences. The origin of the divergences are traced by analyzing the QM DCS for the H + HS (v = 0, j = 0) → H2 (v' = 0, j' = 0) + S reaction on the 3A″ PES at Ec = 1.0 eV. It is discovered that several groups of J partial waves are involved in the reaction and the shape of the DCS is greatly altered by quantum interferences between them.
Non-Hermitian wave packet approximation for coupled two-level systems in weak and intense fields
Puthumpally-joseph, Raiju; Charron, Eric
2016-01-01
We introduce an accurate non-Hermitian Schr\\"odinger-type approximation of Bloch optical equations for two-level systems. This approximation provides a complete description of the excitation, relaxation and decoherence dynamics in both weak and strong laser fields. In this approach, it is sufficient to propagate the wave function of the quantum system instead of the density matrix, providing that relaxation and dephasing are taken into account via automatically-adjusted time-dependent gain and decay rates. The developed formalism is applied to the problem of scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a thin layer comprised of interacting two-level emitters.
Bliokh, Konstantin Yu; Bliokh, Yury P
2006-02-24
We present a solution to the problem of reflection and refraction of a polarized Gaussian beam on the interface between two transparent media. The transverse shifts of the beams' centers of gravity are calculated. They always satisfy the total angular momentum conservation law for beams, but, in general, do not satisfy the conservation laws for individual photons as a consequence of the lack of the "which path" information in a two-channel wave scattering. The field structure for the reflected and refracted beams is analyzed. In the scattering of a linearly polarized beam, photons of opposite helicities are accumulated at the opposite edges of the beam: this is the spin Hall effect for photons, which can be registered in the cross-polarized component of the scattered beam.
Henri, Pierre; Briand, Carine; Mangeney, André; 10.1029/2009JA014969
2013-01-01
Recent observation of large amplitude Langmuir waveforms during a Type III event in the solar wind have been interpreted as the signature of the electrostatic decay of beam-driven Langmuir waves. This mechanism is thought to be a first step to explain the generation of solar Type III radio emission. The threshold for this parametric instability in typical solar wind condition is investigated here by means of 1D-1V Vlasov-Poisson simulations. We show that the amplitude of the observed Langmuir beat-like waveforms is of the order of the effective threshold computed from the full kinetic simulations. The expected level of associated ion acoustic density fluctuations have also been computed for comparison with observations.
Fraternale, Federico
2013-01-01
The present thesis deals with the non-modal linear analysis of 3D perturbations in wall flows. In the first part,a solution to the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire IVP, in the form of orthogonal functions expansion, is researched. The Galerkin method is successfully implemented to numerically compute approximate solutions for bounded flows. The Chandrasekhar functions revealed to ensure a fifth order of accuracy. The focus of the subsequent analysis is on the transient behavior of the perturbation frequency and phase velocity. The results confirm recent observations about a jump in the temporal evolution of the frequency of the wall-normal velocity signal, considered as the end of an Early Transient. After this jump, the wave frequency for Plane Couette flow experiences a periodic modulation about the asymptotic value, which is motivated and investigated in detail. A new result is the presence of a second frequency jump for the wall-normal vorticity. This fact, together with the possibility for different values of t...
Rivero Santamaría, Alejandro; Dayou, Fabrice; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Monnerville, Maurice
2017-02-15
The dynamics of the Si((3)P) + OH(X(2)Π) → SiO(X(1)Σ(+)) + H((2)S) reaction is investigated by means of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach using an ab initio potential energy surface recently developed by Dayou et al. ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 204305 ) for the ground X(2)A' electronic state. Total reaction probabilities have been calculated for the first 15 rotational states j = 0-14 of OH(v=0,j) at a total angular momentum J = 0 up to a collision energy of 1 eV. Integral cross sections and state-selected rate constants for the temperature range 10-500 K were obtained within the J-shifting approximation. The reaction probabilities display highly oscillatory structures indicating the contribution of long-lived quasibound states supported by the deep SiOH/HSiO wells. The cross sections behave with collision energies as expected for a barrierless reaction and are slightly sensitive to the initial rotational excitation of OH. The thermal rate constants show a marked temperature dependence below 200 K with a maximum value around 15 K. The TDWP results globally agree with the results of earlier quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out by Rivero-Santamaria et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014 , 610-611 , 335 - 340 ) with the same potential energy surface. In particular, the thermal rate constants display a similar temperature dependence, with TDWP values smaller than the QCT ones over the whole temperature range.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Xiang-Jun; Ma Jian-Xin; Zhang Qi; Deng Chao-Gong; Wang Kui-Ru; Yu Chong-Xiu; Liu Bo
2009-01-01
This paper introduces the mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave mixing in a commercially available semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with a length of about 1.5 mm to optical label switching network based on combined frequency shift keying (FSK)-intensiy modulation (IM)/optical label-packet modulation to overcome the dispersion limitation of fiber.The 155 Mb/s-10 Gb/s combined FSK/IM signal is experimentally transmitted over a 100 km standard single mode fiber.10-10 and 10-9 BER (bit error ratio),or even better,is achieved for the FSK label and IM packet,respectively.The -19 dB power conversion efficiency is obtained for -1 nm wavelength detuning.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mouret, L
2002-11-01
The thesis concerns the development and implementation of numerical methods for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We first considered the case of electron-hydrogen scattering. The originality of our method is the use of a non-uniform radial grid defined by a Schwarz interpolation based on a Coulomb reference function. This grid allows many hydrogen bound states and associated matrix elements of various operators to be reproduced to machine accuracy. The wave function is propagated in time using a Split-Operator method. The efficiency of our method allows the wave function to be propagated out to large distances for all partial waves. We obtain excitation and ionization cross sections in excellent agreement with the best experimental and theoretical data. We subsequently adapted the method and the program package to study reactive atom-dihydrogen scattering. The wave packet is described using product Jacobi coordinates on a regular grid of radial coordinates combined with a basis of Legendre polynomials for the angular part (partial wave S). The wave function is analysed using a time-to-energy Fourier transform, which provides results over the energy range covered by the initial wave packet in one calculation. The method was first tested on the quasi-direct (F,H2) reaction and then applied to the indirect (C(1D),H2)reaction. The state-to-state reaction probabilities are in good agreement with those obtained by a time-independent approach. In particular, the strongly resonant structure of the (C(1D),H2) reaction probabilities is well reproduced. (author)
Wave Packets can Factorize Numbers
Mack, H; Haug, F; Freyberger, M; Schleich, W P; Mack, Holger; Bienert, Marc; Haug, Florian; Freyberger, Matthias; Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2002-01-01
We draw attention to various aspects of number theory emerging in the time evolution of elementary quantum systems with quadratic phases. Such model systems can be realized in actual experiments. Our analysis paves the way to a new, promising and effective method to factorize numbers.
Packet Tracer network simulator
Jesin, A
2014-01-01
A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.
Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2007-01-01
The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
关大任; 赵显; 邓从豪; John Z.H.Zhang
1997-01-01
Three-dimensional quantum mechanical calculations for vibrational predissociation of HeI2(B) van der Waals molecules are presented using the time-dependent wave packet technique within the golden rule approxima tion.The total and partial decay widths,lifetimes,rates and their dependence on initial vibrational states were obtained for HeI2 at low initial vibrational excited levels.Our calculations show that the calculated tota decay widths,lifetimes and rates agree well with those extrapolated from experimental data available The predicted total decay widths as a function of initial vibrational states exhibit highly nonlinear behavior.The very short propagation time (less.than 1 ps) required in the golden rule wave packet calculation is determined by the duration time of the final state inter-action between the fragments on the vibrationally deexcited adiabatic potential surface.The final state interaction between the fragments is shown to play an important role in determining the final rotational distri
Optical packet switched networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Bukhave
1999-01-01
Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... between the electrical switched layer and the WDM transport layer. Analytical models are implemented to determine the signal quality ghrough the switch blocks in terms of power penalty and to assess the traffic performance of different switch block architectures. Further, a computer simulation model...... is used to investigate the influence on the traffic performance of asynchronous operation of the switch blocks. The signal quality investigation illustrates some of the component requirements in respect to gain saturation in SOA gates and crosstalk in order to obtain high cascadability of the switch...
Waveform and packet structure of lion roars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Baumjohann
Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5^{°}.
Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence
Yao, Cui-Xia; Zhang, Pei-Yu
2014-07-10
The dynamics of the Ne + D2(+) (v0 = 0-2, j0 = 0) → NeD(+) + D reaction has been investigated in detail by using an accurate time-dependent wave-packet method on the ground 1(2)A' potential energy surface. Comparisons between the Coriolis coupling results and the centrifugal-sudden ones reveal that Coriolis coupling effect can influence reaction dynamics of the NeD2(+) system. Integral cross sections have been evaluated for the Ne + D2(+) reaction and its isotopic variant Ne + H2(+), and a considerable intermolecular isotopic effect has been found. Also obvious is the great enhancement of the reactivity due to the reagent vibrational excitation. Besides, a comparison with previous theoretical results is also presented and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Liang, Dongyue [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Pei-Yu, E-mail: pyzhang@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)
2015-05-12
Highlights: • The reaction probabilities, characteristic ICS and DCS are presented. • The features of ICS and DCS are explained. • Different mechanisms relevant to several sets of J partial waves lead to the maxima in the DCS in the collision process. - Abstract: The state-to-state quantum dynamics of the abstraction channel of S({sup 3}P) + H{sub 2}(v = 0, j = 0) reaction is studied on the potential energy surface (PES) constructed by Lv et al. (2012), utilizing the product Jacobi coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method. Reaction probabilities and total integral cross section (ICS) agree well with previous results (Lv et al., 2012) for collision energies ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 eV. Results show that total differential cross sections (DCSs) for small collision energies have backward structures, whereas those for large collision energies are sideways peaked. Although the summed-over-all-final-state DCS for single collision energy is smoothly varied, the DCS of the product HS of a selected final state shows strong oscillations. For the selected final state, the opacity function derived by reaction probability multiplied by (2J + 1), shows that different mechanisms relevant to several sets of J partial waves lead to the maxima in the differential cross section in the collision process.
Optical Packet Switching Demostrator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert
2002-01-01
In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...
Bader, Ahmed
2014-05-22
A multihop network transmits a packet including a RACH area and a hop number. The RACH area includes a list of subcarriers. A source node in the network dynamically determines the size of the RACH area. A node in the network performs an open-loop transmit power control.
Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…
Packet transport network in metro
Huang, Feng; Yi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Hanzheng; Gong, Ping
2008-11-01
IP packet based services such as high speed internet, IP voice and IP video will be widely deployed in telecom network, which make transport network evolution to packet transport network. Characteristics of transport network and requirements of packet transport network are analyzed, T-MPLS/MPLS-TP based PTN technology is given and it will be used in metro (access, aggregation and core) network.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuang-jiang Lv; Pei-yu Zhang; Guo-zhong He
2012-01-01
A new potential energy surface is presented for the triplet state 3A' of the chemical reaction S(3P)+H2 from a set of accurate ab initio data.The single point energies are computed using highly correlated complete active space self-consistent-field and multi-reference configuration interaction wave functions with a basis set of aug-cc-pV5Z.We have fitted the full set of energy values using many-body expansion method with an Aguado-Paniagua function.Based on the new potential energy surface,we carry out the time-dependent wave packet scattering calculations over the collision energy range of 0.8-2.2 eV.Both the centrifugalsudden approximation and Coriolis Coupling cross sections are obtained.In addition,the total reaction probabilities are calculated for the reactant H2 initially in the vibrational states v=0-3 (j=0).It is found that initial vibrational excitation enhances the title reaction.
Wu, Hui; Liang, Dongyue; Zhang, Pei-Yu
2015-05-01
The state-to-state quantum dynamics of the abstraction channel of S(3P) + H2(v = 0, j = 0) reaction is studied on the potential energy surface (PES) constructed by Lv et al. (2012), utilizing the product Jacobi coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method. Reaction probabilities and total integral cross section (ICS) agree well with previous results (Lv et al., 2012) for collision energies ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 eV. Results show that total differential cross sections (DCSs) for small collision energies have backward structures, whereas those for large collision energies are sideways peaked. Although the summed-over-all-final-state DCS for single collision energy is smoothly varied, the DCS of the product HS of a selected final state shows strong oscillations. For the selected final state, the opacity function derived by reaction probability multiplied by (2J + 1), shows that different mechanisms relevant to several sets of J partial waves lead to the maxima in the differential cross section in the collision process.
Double ionization of two-electron systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ancarani, L U; Cappello, C Dal [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 57078 Metz (France); Gasaneo, G, E-mail: ancarani@univ-metz.f [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, 8000 BahIa Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2010-02-01
We address various issues related to the double ionization by electron impact of two-electron systems. The emphasis will be put on the theoretical description of high incident energy (e,3e) processes, for which the first Born approximation should be suitable. In the case of helium, absolute experimental data for fivefold differential cross sections are available in coplanar geometry. We will review and discuss the divergencies existing between the results obtained with different theoretical models, and those appearing when compared to the experiments in particular with respect to the absolute scale. We will then discuss some results obtained in a recently proposed out of plane geometry.
Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony
2005-02-01
We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.
Packet combining based on cross-packet coding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN DengSheng; XIAO Ming; LI ShaoQian
2013-01-01
We propose a packet combining scheme of using cross-packet coding. With the coding scheme, one redundant packet can be used to ensure the error-correction of multiple source packets. Thus, the proposed scheme can increase the code rate. Moreover, the proposed coding scheme has also advantages of decoding complexity, reducing undetectable errors （by the proposed low-complexity decoder） and flexibility （applicable to channels with and without feedback）. Theoretical analysis under the proposed low-complexity decoding algorithm is given to maximize the code rate by optimizing the number of source packets. Finally, we give numerical results to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed scheme in terms of code rates compared to the traditional packet combining without coding or ARQ （automatic repeat-request） techniques.
Estimating TCP Packet Loss Ratio from Sampled ACK Packets
Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Shimonishi, Hideyuki; Murase, Tutomu
The advent of various quality-sensitive applications has greatly changed the requirements for IP network management and made the monitoring of individual traffic flows more important. Since the processing costs of per-flow quality monitoring are high, especially in high-speed backbone links, packet sampling techniques have been attracting considerable attention. Existing sampling techniques, such as those used in Sampled NetFlow and sFlow, however, focus on the monitoring of traffic volume, and there has been little discussion of the monitoring of such quality indexes as packet loss ratio. In this paper we propose a method for estimating, from sampled packets, packet loss ratios in individual TCP sessions. It detects packet loss events by monitoring duplicate ACK events raised by each TCP receiver. Because sampling reveals only a portion of the actual packet loss, the actual packet loss ratio is estimated statistically. Simulation results show that the proposed method can estimate the TCP packet loss ratio accurately from a 10% sampling of packets.
Lu, Ruifeng; Wang, Yunhui; Deng, Kaiming
2013-07-30
The quantum mechanics (QM) and quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations have been carried out for the title reaction with the ground minimal allowed rotational state of CH (j = 1) on the 1 (1)A' potential energy surface. For the reaction probability at total angular momentum J = 0, a similar trend of the QM and QCT calculations is observed, and the QM results are larger than the latter almost in the whole considered energy range (0.1-1.5 eV). The QCT integral cross sections are larger than the QM results with centrifugal sudden approximation, while smaller than those from QM method including Coriolis coupling for collision energies bigger than 0.25 eV. The quantum wave-packet computations show that the Coriolis coupling effects get more and more pronounced with increasing of J. In addition to the scalar properties, the stereodynamical properties, such as the average rotational alignment factor , the angular distributions P(θr ), P(ϕr ), P(θr ,ϕr ), and the polarization-dependent generalized differential cross sections have been explored in detail by QCT approach.
Yuan, Jiuchuang; Cheng, Dahai; Sun, Zhigang; Chen, Maodu
2014-11-01
The time-dependent quantum wave packet (TDWP) and quasiclassical trajectory calculations (QCT) are carried out for the Au(2S) + H2(X1∑+g) → AuH(X1∑+g) + H(2S) reaction on a global potential energy surface. The reaction probabilities at a series of J values, integral cross sections (ICSs) and differential cross sections of the title reaction are calculated by the TDWP method. For reaction probabilities, there are a mass of sharp oscillations at low collision energy, which can be attributed to resonances supported by the potential well. Due to the endothermicity of the title reaction, the total ICS shows a threshold about 1.53 eV. In order to further investigate the reactive mechanism, the lifetime of complex is calculated by QCT method. At the low collision energy, most intermediate complexes are long lived, which implies that the reaction is governed by indirect reactive mechanism. With the collision energy increasing, the direct reactive mechanism occupies the dominant position. Due to the change of the reactive mechanism, the angular distribution shifts toward the forward direction with collision energy increasing. The isotopic variant, Au + D2→AuD + D reaction, is also calculated by TDWP method. The calculated reaction probabilities and ICSs show that the isotope effect reduces the reactivity.
Technology Corner: Internet Packet Sniffers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nick Flor
2011-03-01
Full Text Available A packet sniffer is a piece of software that allows a person to eavesdrop on computer communications over the internet.Â A packet sniffer can be used as a diagnostic tool by network administrators or as a spying tool by hackers who can use it to steal passwords and other private information from computer users.Â Whether you are a network administrator or information assurance specialist, it helps to have a detailed understanding of how packet sniffers work. Â And one of the best ways to acquire such an understanding is to build and modify an actual packet sniffer.
Toyota, Koudai
2016-01-01
The method of the envelope Hamiltonian [K. Toyota, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, New J. Phys. {\\bf 17}, 073005~(2015)] is applied to further study a detachment dynamics of a model negative ion in one-dimension in high-frequency regime. This method is based on the Floquet approach, but the time-dependency of an envelope function is explicitly kept for arbitrary pulse durations. Therefore, it is capable of describing not only a photo absorption/emission but also a non-adiabatic transition which is induced by the time-varying envelope of the pulse. It was shown that the envelope Hamiltonian accurately retrieves the results obtained by the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation, and underlying physics were well understood by the adiabatic approximation based on the envelope Hamiltonian. In this paper, we further explore two more aspects of the detachment dynamics, which were not done in our previous work. First, we find out features of both a {\\it spatial} and {\\it temporal} interference of photo electron wave pack...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H., E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)
2014-10-14
Seven-dimensional time-dependent wave packet calculations have been carried out for the title reaction to obtain reaction probabilities and cross sections for CHD{sub 3} in J{sub 0} = 1, 2 rotationally excited initial states with k{sub 0} = 0 − J{sub 0} (the projection of CHD{sub 3} rotational angular momentum on its C{sub 3} axis). Under the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation, the initial states with the projection of the total angular momentum on the body fixed axis (K{sub 0}) equal to k{sub 0} are found to be much more reactive, indicating strong dependence of reactivity on the orientation of the reagent CHD{sub 3} with respect to the relative velocity between the reagents H and CHD{sub 3}. However, at the coupled-channel (CC) level this dependence becomes much weak although in general the K{sub 0} specified cross sections for the K{sub 0} = k{sub 0} initial states remain primary to the overall cross sections, implying the Coriolis coupling is important to the dynamics of the reaction. The calculated CS and CC integral cross sections obtained after K{sub 0} averaging for the J{sub 0} = 1, 2 initial states with all different k{sub 0} are essentially identical to the corresponding CS and CC results for the J{sub 0} = 0 initial state, meaning that the initial rotational excitation of CHD{sub 3} up to J{sub 0} = 2, regardless of its initial k{sub 0}, does not have any effect on the total cross sections for the title reaction, and the errors introduced by the CS approximation on integral cross sections for the rotationally excited J{sub 0} = 1, 2 initial states are the same as those for the J{sub 0} = 0 initial state.
Quantum Frequency Conversion of Single-Photon States by Three and Four-Wave Mixing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raymer, Michael G.; Reddy, Dileep V.; Andersen, Lasse Mejling
2013-01-01
Three- or four-wave mixing can convert a single-photon wave packet to a new frequency. By tailoring the shapes of the pump(s), one can achieve add/drop functionality for different temporally orthogonal wave packets.......Three- or four-wave mixing can convert a single-photon wave packet to a new frequency. By tailoring the shapes of the pump(s), one can achieve add/drop functionality for different temporally orthogonal wave packets....
Investigating Dependences in Packet-queues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Weihua(曹卫华); Girigi Deogratias; Wu Min
2004-01-01
Many packet communication networks carry several classes of traffic,each with its own service characteristics. The packet arrival processes from each source are also often bursty (highly variable),which can contribute to long packet delay. Ssociated dependence among successive service times and between service times and inter arrival times also can be for packet queues involving variable packet lengths. These dependence effects are demonstrated analytically by considering a multi class single server queue with batch Poisson arrival process.
Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, A. V.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.
1995-01-01
It has been recently recognized that in bulk semiconductors the displacement current caused by ultrafast optical generation of ''polarized pairs'' in the applied de field is an important mechanism of charge transport in addition to the usual transport current. In quantum-well systems, this polari......It has been recently recognized that in bulk semiconductors the displacement current caused by ultrafast optical generation of ''polarized pairs'' in the applied de field is an important mechanism of charge transport in addition to the usual transport current. In quantum-well systems......, this polarized pair creation is thought to be the only source of photocurrent at the early stages of photoexcitation since the bulk like transport current is inhibited by the barriers. In this work we perform a full quantum-mechanical analysis of ultrafast optical excitation in a de-biased quantum well. We take...... larger than the well width (for long pulses and/or narrow wells), we recover the polarized pairs behavior of the photocurrent. For shorter pulses, when the coherence length becomes comparable to the well width, the photocurrent exhibits quantum beats. Finally, for very short pulses (around 10 fs) we find...
NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION WITH GENERAL WAVE PACKETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L. Borup; M. Nielsen
2005-01-01
We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a complete characterization of the approximation spaces is derived.
Nonlinear approximation with general wave packets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten
2005-01-01
We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a complete...... characterization of the approximation spaces is derived....
Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation
Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.
2015-02-01
The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.
Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation.
Bağcı, A; Hoggan, P E
2015-02-01
The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.
More Than 10 Gbps Photonic Packet-Switched Networks Using WDM-Based Packet Compression
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hiroaki Harai; Naoya Wada
2003-01-01
We propose photonic packet-switched networks in which more than 10Gbps optical packets are transferred. WDM- based packet compression at edge nodes plays an important role in resolving interface gap between core and metro.
Some remarks on the two-electron atom
Apostol, M
1996-01-01
New, approximate, two-electron wavefunctions are introduced for the two-electron atoms (cations), which account remarkably well for the ground-state energies and the lowest-excxited states (where available). A new scheme of electronic configurations is also proposed for the multi-electron atoms.
A Tale of Two Electrons: Correlation at High Density
Loos, Pierre-François
2010-01-01
We review our recent progress in the determination of the high-density correlation energy $\\Ec$ in two-electron systems. Several two-electron systems are considered, such as the well known helium-like ions (helium), and the Hooke's law atom (hookium). We also present results regarding two electrons on the surface of a sphere (spherium), and two electrons trapped in a spherical box (ballium). We also show that, in the large-dimension limit, the high-density correlation energy of two opposite-spin electrons interacting {\\em via} a Coulomb potential is given by $\\Ec \\sim -1/(8D^2)$ for any radial external potential $V(r)$, where $D$ is the dimensionality of the space. This result explains the similarity of $\\Ec$ in the previous two-electron systems for $D=3$.
Natural occupation numbers in two-electron quantum rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tognetti, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.tognetti@univ-rouen.fr [Normandy Univ., COBRA UMR 6014 & FR 3038, Université de Rouen, INSA Rouen, CNRS, 1 rue Tesniére, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan, Cedex (France); Loos, Pierre-François [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)
2016-02-07
Natural orbitals (NOs) are central constituents for evaluating correlation energies through efficient approximations. Here, we report the closed-form expression of the NOs of two-electron quantum rings, which are prototypical finite-extension systems and new starting points for the development of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory. We also show that the natural occupation numbers for these two-electron paradigms are in general non-vanishing and follow the same power law decay as atomic and molecular two-electron systems.
Natural occupation numbers in two-electron quantum rings
Tognetti, Vincent; Loos, Pierre-François
2016-02-01
Natural orbitals (NOs) are central constituents for evaluating correlation energies through efficient approximations. Here, we report the closed-form expression of the NOs of two-electron quantum rings, which are prototypical finite-extension systems and new starting points for the development of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory. We also show that the natural occupation numbers for these two-electron paradigms are in general non-vanishing and follow the same power law decay as atomic and molecular two-electron systems.
Natural occupation numbers in two-electron quantum rings.
Tognetti, Vincent; Loos, Pierre-François
2016-02-07
Natural orbitals (NOs) are central constituents for evaluating correlation energies through efficient approximations. Here, we report the closed-form expression of the NOs of two-electron quantum rings, which are prototypical finite-extension systems and new starting points for the development of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory. We also show that the natural occupation numbers for these two-electron paradigms are in general non-vanishing and follow the same power law decay as atomic and molecular two-electron systems.
On the Beebe-Linderberg two-electron integral approximation
Røeggen, I.; Wisløff-Nilssen, E.
1986-12-01
The Beebe-Linderberg two-electron integral approximation, which is generated by a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integral matrix ([μν|λσ]), is slightly modified. On the basis of test calculations, two key questions concerning this approximation are discussed: The numerical rank of the two-electron integral matrix and the relationship between the integral threshold and electronic properties. The numerical results presented in this work suggest that the modified Beebe-Linderberg approximation might be considered as an alternative to effective core potential methods.
Key Technologies for Optical Packet Switching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Akira; Okada
2003-01-01
The paper describes our recent progress on key technologies and components for realizing optical packet switching, including an out-of-band optical label switching technique, an optical packet synchronizer and a burst-mode optical receiver.
Key Technologies for Optical Packet Switching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Akira Okada
2003-01-01
The paper describes our recent progress on key technologies and components for realizing optical packet switching,including an out-of-band optical label switching technique, an optical packet synchronizer and a burst-mode optical receiver.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
敖敏思; 胡友健; 赵斌; 叶险峰; 丁开华
2012-01-01
With the development of high-rate GPS receivers, precise orbit and processing technology of GPS data, it is possible to observe the high frequency, transient dynamic displacement by GPS. However, it remains a problem as how to mitigate the error such as multipath errors, and random noise aliasing in geophysical signals so as to extract seismic signals, which in turn limits the high-rate GPS and its geophysical applications. In this paper, an approach based on wavelet packets decomposition (WPD) is presented to extract seismic signals through mitigating the multipath error and random noise of dynamic displacement series from high-rate GPS. With the 1 Hz observation data from 19 stations in Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) during the Mexico M7. 2 earthquake in 2010, the ground displacement is calculated. Meanwhile, the approach based on WPD is introduced for seismic signal extraction and spectrum analysis. As is shown in results, the approach is accurate and effective in seismic signal extraction to reflect the characteristics of seismic wave propagations and it enjoys an advantage that it does not necessarily involve multiple-day observation.%随着高采样率GPS接收机的出现、高精度的定轨以及数据处理技术的发展,利用GPS观测高频率、瞬态的地震波信号成为可能.但如何消除混叠在地震波信号中的多路径、随机噪声等误差,有效地提取地震波信号,仍然是制约高采样率GPS及其地球物理应用的重要因素.提出一种基于小波包分解的方法,对动态位移序列中的多路径误差进行消除,同时去除高频率随机噪声,提取地震波信号.通过结合SCIGN的19个GPS测站的1Hz采样GPS观测数据,对2010年墨西哥M7.2地震的地震波引起的地表动态位移进行解算,采用小波包分解有效地提取地震波信号并对其进行谱分析.结果表明,该方法提取的地震波信号能较好地反映出地震波的传播及其特性,具有无
Orthogonal Matrix-Valued Wavelet Packets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qingjiang Chen; Cuiling Wang; Zhengxing Cheng
2007-01-01
In this paper,we introduce matrix-valued multiresolution analysis and matrixvalued wavelet packets. A procedure for the construction of the orthogonal matrix-valued wavelet packets is presented. The properties of the matrix-valued wavelet packets are investigated. In particular,a new orthonormal basis of L2(R,Cs×s) is obtained from the matrix-valued wavelet packets.
Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…
Majorana solutions to the two-electron problem
Esposito, S
2012-01-01
A review of the known different methods and results devised to study the two-electron atom problem, appeared in the early years of quantum mechanics, is given, with particular reference to the calculations of the ground state energy of helium. This is supplemented by several, unpublished results obtained around the same years by Ettore Majorana, which results did not convey in his published papers on the argument, and thus remained unknown until now. Particularly interesting, even for current research in atomic and nuclear physics, is a general variant of the variational method, developed by Majorana in order to take directly into account, already in the trial wavefunction, the action of the full Hamiltonian operator of a given quantum system. Moreover, notable calculations specialized to the study of the two-electron problem show the introduction of the remarkable concept of an effective nuclear charge different for the two electrons (thus generalizing previous known results), and an application of the pertu...
A compact terahertz free-electron laser with two gratings driven by two electron-beams
Liu, Weihao; Lu, Yalin; Wang, Lin; Jia, Qika
2017-02-01
We proposed and investigated a novel terahertz free-electron laser, which is based on two gratings driven by two electron-beams. Two gratings are symmetrically arranged to form an open-cavity. Two electron-beams generate special Smith-Purcell radiations, respectively, from two gratings. When radiation interferes constructively, operation modes of the open-cavity are excited and then amplified by beam-wave interactions. By means of particle-in-cell simulations, we have shown that, with compact equipments and available electron-beams, this scheme can generate radiation with power and efficiency being higher than those of majority radiation sources in the vicinity region of 1 THz. It can promisingly be developed as a high-power, high-efficiency, and compact terahertz source for practice.
Two-electron quantum ring in short pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Poonam Silotia; Rakesh Kumar Meena; Vinod Prasad
2015-01-01
The response of two-electron quantum ring system to the short laser pulses of different shapes in the presence of external static electric field is studied. The variation of transition probabilities of the two-electron quatum ring from ground state to excited states with a number of parameters is shown and explained. The energy levels and wavefunctions of the system in the presence of static electric field are found by solving the time-independent Schr ¨odinger equation numerically by finite difference method. The shape of the pulse plays a dominant role on the dynamics.
Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Sharma; N Camus; B Fischer; M Kremer; A Rudenko; B Bergues; M Kuebel; N G Johnson; M F Kling; T Pfeifer; J Ullrich; R Moshammer
2014-01-01
In this work we explored strong field-induced decay of doubly excited transient Coulomb complex Ar** → Ar2++2. We measured the correlated two-electron emission as a function of carrier envelop phase (CEP) of 6 fs pulses in the non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) of argon. Classical model calculations suggest that the intermediate doubly excited Coulomb complex loses memory of its formation dynamics. We estimated the ionization time difference between the two electrons from NSDI of argon and it is 200 ± 100 as (N Camus et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 073003 (2012)).
Intrusion Detection Systems Based On Packet Sniffing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ushus Maria Joseph
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present era of networks, security of network systems is becoming increasingly important, as more and more sensitive information is being stored and manipulated online. The paper entitled ’Packet Sniffing’ is a IDS where it monitors packets on the network wire and attempts to the discovery of hacker/cracker who is attempting to break into system. Packet Sniffing also finds the contents and tracks the data packet in the network system. This sniffing is being performed by comparing the captured packet with the intruder details stored in the database .If the packet is found to be an intruder it is then forwarded to the firewall with the respective message for blocking. The Emotional Ants module contains the sender and receiver .The sender will inform all the other Ants running in other machines about the detection of intruder through his pheromone (Messages. The receiver in Ants will listen for the messages from other Ants
Packet Queueing Delay in Resilient Packet Ring Network Nodes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史国炜; 方红波; 曲建岭; 曾烈光
2004-01-01
The packet queueing delay is one of the most important performance measures of a data network and is also a significant factor to be considered in the scheduling buffer design for a network node.This paper presents a traffic queueing model for resilient packet ring (RPR) networks and a method for quantitatively analyzing queueing delays in RPR nodes.The method was used to calculate the average queueing delays of different priority traffic for different transit queue modes.The simulations show that,in the transmit direction,lower priority traffic is delayed more than higher priority traffic,and that Class-A traffic is delayed more in a single-queue ring than in a dual-queue ring.In the transit direction,the secondary transit buffer in the dual-queue ring contributes more to the traffic delay than the primary transit buffer in the single-queue ring,which in turn causes more delay than the primary transit buffer in the dual-queue ring.
t-SURFF: Fully Differential Two-Electron Photo-Emission Spectra
Scrinzi, Armin
2012-01-01
The time dependent surface flux (t-SURFF) method is extended to single and double ionization of two electron systems. Fully differential double emission spectra by strong pulses at extreme UV and infrared wave length are calculated using simulation volumes that only accommodate the effective range of the atomic binding potential and the quiver radius of free electrons in the external field. For a model system we find pronounced dependence of shake-up and non-sequential double ionization on phase and duration of the laser pulse. Extension to fully three-dimensional calculations is discussed.
Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons
Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Trail, John R; Burke, Kieron; Needs, Richard J; Ullrich, Carsten A
2014-01-01
A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange (SEHX), is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components, the virial theorem for both exchange and correlation, and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.
Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Yang, Zeng-hui; Ullrich, Carsten A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Trail, John R.; Needs, Richard J. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2014-05-14
A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two-electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange, is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.
CMS: Simulated Higgs to two jets and two electrons
1997-01-01
This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the CMS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. Here a Higgs boson is produced which decays into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. The lines represent the possible paths of particles produced by the proton-proton collision in the detector while the energy these particles deposit is shown in blue.
Quantum Transport in Solids: Two-Electron Processes.
1995-06-01
The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum transport in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two electron processes in quantum transport . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum
Dissipative two-electron transfer: A numerical renormalization group study
Tornow, Sabine; Bulla, Ralf; Anders, Frithjof B.; Nitzan, Abraham
2008-07-01
We investigate nonequilibrium two-electron transfer in a model redox system represented by a two-site extended Hubbard model and embedded in a dissipative environment. The influence of the electron-electron interactions and the coupling to a dissipative bosonic bath on the electron transfer is studied in different temperature regimes. At high temperatures, Marcus transfer rates are evaluated, and at low temperatures, we calculate equilibrium and nonequilibrium population probabilities of the donor and acceptor with the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group approach. We obtain the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system prepared in an initial state of two electrons at the donor site and identify conditions under which the electron transfer involves one concerted two-electron step or two sequential single-electron steps. The rates of the sequential transfer depend nonmonotonically on the difference between the intersite and on-site Coulomb interaction, which become renormalized in the presence of the bosonic bath. If this difference is much larger than the hopping matrix element, the temperature as well as the reorganization energy, simultaneous transfer of both electrons between donor and acceptor can be observed.
Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.
Stark, Pamela
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…
Effective Packet-level FEC Software Coding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper introduces an effective software-based FEC redundant packets generating algorithm. The algorithm is based on Reed-Solomon coding over Galois Field. By operating on words of packets and performing polynomial multiplication via lookup tables, software coding efficiency is achieved to satisfy the needs of most of computer network applications. The approach to generate lookup tables is detailed.
Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.
Hime, Kirsten
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…
Method and Apparatus for Processing UDP Data Packets
Murphy, Brandon M. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
A method and apparatus for processing a plurality of data packets. A data packet is received. A determination is made as to whether a portion of the data packet follows a selected digital recorder standard protocol based on a header of the data packet. Raw data in the data packet is converted into human-readable information in response to a determination that the portion of the data packet follows the selected digital recorder standard protocol.
DPDK-based Improvement of Packet Forwarding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bi Hao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Reel-time processing of packets occupies a significant position in the field of computer network security. With theexplosive growth of the backbone link rate,which is consistent with Gilder's law, many bottlenecks of server performance leave the real-time data stream unprocessed.Thus, we proposedto take use of DPDK(Data Plan Development Kit framework to achieve an intelligent NIC packet forwarding system. During this research, we deeply analysis the forwarding process of packet in DPDK and improve its DMA mode.According to the results of experiment, the system greatly enhanced the performance of packet forwarding,and the throughput of forwarding 64-byet or random-length packets by 20Gbit NIC reaches13.3Gbps and 18.7Gbps(dual ports forwarding.
Dynamics of two-electron excitations in helium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caldwell, C.D.; Menzel, A.; Frigo, S.P. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
Excitation of both electrons in helium offers a unique window for studying electron correlation at the most basic level in an atom in which these two electrons and the nucleus form a three-body system. The authors utilized the first light available at the U-8 undulator-SGM monochromator beamline to investigate the dynamic parameters, partial cross sections, differential cross sections, and photoelectron angular distribution parameters ({beta}), with a high resolving power for the photon beam and at the highly differential level afforded by the use of their electron spectrometer. In parallel, they carried out detailed calculations of the relevant properties by a theoretical approach that is based on the hyperspherical close-coupling method. Partial photoionization cross sections {sigma}{sub n}, and photoelectron angular distributions {beta}{sub n} were measured for all possible final ionic states He{sup +}(n) in the region of the double excitations N(K,T){sup A} up to the N=5 threshold. At a photon energy bandpass of 12 meV below the thresholds N=3, 4, and 5, this level of differentiation offers the most critical assessment of the dynamics of the two-electron excitations to date. The experimental data were seen to be very well described by the most advanced theoretical calculations.
Packet Guide to Routing and Switching
Hartpence, Bruce
2011-01-01
Go beyond layer 2 broadcast domains with this in-depth tour of advanced link and internetwork layer protocols, and learn how they enable you to expand to larger topologies. An ideal follow-up to Packet Guide to Core Network Protocols, this concise guide dissects several of these protocols to explain their structure and operation. This isn't a book on packet theory. Author Bruce Hartpence built topologies in a lab as he wrote this guide, and each chapter includes several packet captures. You'll learn about protocol classification, static vs. dynamic topologies, and reasons for installing a pa
Fossgård, Eirik; Ruud, Kenneth
2006-02-01
We describe the implementation of a parallel, in-core, integral-direct Hartree-Fock and density functional theory code for the efficient calculation of Hartree-Fock wave functions and density functional theory. The algorithm is based on a parallel master-slave algorithm, and the two-electron integrals calculated by a slave are stored in available local memory. To ensure the greatest computational savings, the master node keeps track of all integral batches stored on the different slaves. The code can reuse undifferentiated two-electron integrals both in the wave function optimization and in the evaluation of second-, third-, and fourth-order molecular properties. Superlinear scaling is achieved in a series of test examples, with speedups of up to 55 achieved for calculations run on medium-sized molecules on 16 processors with respect to the time used on a single processor.
Magnetic alteration of entanglement in two-electron quantum dots
Simonovic, N S
2015-01-01
Quantum entanglement is analyzed thoroughly in the case of the ground and lowest states of two-electron axially symmetric quantum dots under a perpendicular magnetic field. The individual-particle and the center-of-mass representations are used to study the entanglement variation at the transition from interacting to noninteracting particle regimes. The mechanism of symmetry breaking due to the interaction, that results in the states with symmetries related to the later representation only, being entangled even at the vanishing interaction, is discussed. The analytical expression for the entanglement measure based on the linear entropy is derived in the limit of noninteracting electrons. It reproduces remarkably well the numerical results for the lowest states with the magnetic quantum number M>2 in the interacting regime. It is found that the entanglement of the ground state is a discontinuous function of the field strength. A method to estimate the entanglement of the ground state, characterized by the quan...
Frustrated double ionization in two-electron triatomic molecules
Chen, A.; Price, H.; Staudte, A.; Emmanouilidou, A.
2016-10-01
Using a semiclassical model, we investigate frustrated double ionization (FDI) in D3+ , a two-electron triatomic molecule, when driven by an intense, linearly polarized, near-infrared (800 nm) laser field. We compute the kinetic energy release of the nuclei and find a good agreement between experiment and our model. We explore the two pathways of FDI and show that, with increasing field strength, over-the-barrier ionization overtakes tunnel ionization as the underlying mechanism of FDI. Moreover, we compute the angular distribution of the ion fragments for FDI and identify a feature that can potentially be observed experimentally and is a signature of only one of the two pathways of FDI.
Frustrated double ionization in two-electron triatomic molecules
Chen, A; Staudte, A; Emmanouilidou, A
2016-01-01
Using a semi-classical model, we investigate frustrated double ionization (FDI) in $\\mathrm{D_3^+}$, a two-electron triatomic molecule, when driven by an intense, linearly polarized, near-infrared (800 nm) laser field. We do so using a semi-classical model. We find a good agreement between experiment and our model. We explore the two pathways of FDI and show that, with increasing field strength, over-the-barrier ionization overtakes tunnel ionization as the underlying mechanism of FDI. Moreover, we compute the angular distribution of the ion fragments for FDI and identify a feature that can be observed experimentally and that is a signature of only one of the two pathways of FDI.
Sparsely-Packetized Predictive Control by Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagahara, Masaaki; Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan
2012-01-01
We study packetized predictive control, known to be robust against packet dropouts in networked systems. To obtain sparse packets for rate-limited networks, we design control packets via an ℓ0 optimization, which can be eectively solved by orthogonal matching pursuit. Our formulation ensures asym...
Sparse Packetized Predictive Control for Networked Control over Erasure Channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagahara, Masaaki; Quevedo, Daniel E.; Østergaard, Jan
2014-01-01
We study feedback control over erasure channels with packet-dropouts. To achieve robustness with respect to packet-dropouts, the controller transmits data packets containing plant input predictions, which minimize a finite horizon cost function. To reduce the data size of packets, we propose to a...
Performance optimization for multicast packet authentication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
In secure multicast, one of the challenging problems is the authentication of multicast packets. This paper presents a novel scheme to address this problem, which combines ideas in both the hash tree schemes and the hash chain schemes. In this scheme, a group of packets is partitioned into equal-sized subgroups. Then a Merkle hash tree is built for each subgroup of packets, and the hash value of every root is appended to preceding packets to form hash chains. Its performance is analyzed and simulated using Biased Coin Toss loss model and 2-state Markov Chain loss model, respectively. Compared with the original hash chain schemes, results show that this scheme is much more efficient in term of communication overhead.
Fair Scheduling in Networks Through Packet Election
Jagabathula, Srikanth
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of designing a fair scheduling algorithm for discrete-time constrained queuing networks. Each queue has dedicated exogenous packet arrivals. There are constraints on which queues can be served simultaneously. This model effectively describes important special instances like network switches, interference in wireless networks, bandwidth sharing for congestion control and traffic scheduling in road roundabouts. Fair scheduling is required because it provides isolation to different traffic flows; isolation makes the system more robust and enables providing quality of service. Existing work on fairness for constrained networks concentrates on flow based fairness. As a main result, we describe a notion of packet based fairness by establishing an analogy with the ranked election problem: packets are voters, schedules are candidates and each packet ranks the schedules based on its priorities. We then obtain a scheduling algorithm that achieves the described notion of fairness by drawing upon ...
Multiwavelet Packets and Frame Packets of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biswaranjan Behera
2001-11-01
The orthonormal basis generated by a wavelet of $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ has poor frequency localization. To overcome this disadvantage Coifman, Meyer, and Wickerhauser constructed wavelet packets. We extend this concept to the higher dimensions where we consider arbitrary dilation matrices. The resulting basis of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ is called the multiwavelet packet basis. The concept of wavelet frame packet is also generalized to this setting. Further, we show how to construct various orthonormal bases of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ from the multiwavelet packets.
Packet Reordering Procedure with Ubiquous Communication Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giridhar Akula
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Satellite links are going to play a vital role in the deployment of ubiquous broad band systems. Non- Geostationary (NGEO satellite communication systems are more advantageous than terrestrial satellites. This paper presents an exchange of information on cooperation status among neiboring satellites. The new explicit load balancing scheme is used to avoid congestion and packet drops at the satellite. A TTL based algorithm is used for packet reordering.
Asymmetric Best Effort Service for Packet Networks
Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Hamdi, M; Blazevic, L.; P. Thiran
1998-01-01
We propose a system and method for providing a ``throughput versus delay'' differentiated service for IP packets. We distinguish two types of traffic: type A and type B. It is expected that type A traffic receives less throughput per flow than type B. On the other hand, type A packets experience considerably smaller delay. The method is intended to be implemented in Internet routers. No bandwidth or buffer reservation is assumed in this system. The service remains a Best Effort service, thus ...
Asymmetric Best Effort Service for Packet Networks
Blazevic, Ljubica; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Thiran, Patrick
1998-01-01
We propose a system and method for providing a ``throughput versus delay`` differentiated service for IP packets. We distinguish two types of traffic: type A and type B. It is expected that type A traffic receives less throughput per flow than type B. On the other hand, type A packets experience considerably smaller delay. The method is intended to be implemented in Internet routers. No bandwidth or buffer reservation is assumed in this system. The service remains a Best Effort service, thus...
Protocol Software for a Packet Voice Terminal
1983-11-16
III satellite. The PVTs with their attached telephone instrument serve as the interface with the voice user. The PVTs prepare speech for transmission...through a packet network by digitizing the speech, preparing speech data packets, and sending speech data messages. The PVT handles the speech coming...TOTALKin. Thes Foori alControle wilno trani speech message s unlTreessin ithas note rcenie s speehdfr ao sufficentpo toefl erAcofitt cdng atei t pfres
Quantum entanglement for two electrons in the excited states of helium-like systems
Lin, Yen-Chang
2013-01-01
The quantum entanglement for the two electrons in the excited states of the helium-like atom/ions is investigated using the two-electron wave functions constructed by the B-spline basis. As a measure of the spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement, the von Neumann entropy and linear entropy of the reduced density matrix are calculated for the 1s2s 1,3S excited states for systems with some selected Z values from Z=2 to Z=100. Results for the helium atom are compared with other available calculations. We have also investigated the entropies for these excited states when the nucleus charge is reduced from Z=2 to Z=1. At such a critical charge, all the singly-excited states of this system become unbound, and the linear entropies and the von Neumann entropies for the excited states are approaching 1/2 and 1, respectively, the limits for the entropies when one electron is bound to the nucleus, and the other being free.
The Absence of Stokes Drift in Waves
Chafin, Clifford
2015-01-01
Stokes drift has been as central to the history of wave theory as it has been distressingly absent from experiment. Neither wave tanks nor experiments in open bodies detect this without nearly canceling "eulerian flows." Acoustic waves have an analogous problem that is particularly problematic in the vorticity production at the edges of beams. Here we demonstrate that the explanation for this arises from subtle end-of-packet and wavetrain gradient effects such as microbreaking events and wave-flow decomposition subtleties required to conserve mass and momentum and avoid fictitious external forces. These losses occur at both ends of packets and can produce a significant nonviscous energy loss for translating and spreading surface wave packets and wavetrains. In contrast, monochromatic sound wave packets will be shown to asymmetrically distort to conserve momentum. This provides an interesting analogy to how such internal forces arise for gradients of electromagnetic wavetrains in media. Such examples show that...
Detecting the BAO using Discrete Wavelet Packets
Garcia, Noel Anthony; Wu, Yunyun; Kadowaki, Kevin; Pando, Jesus
2017-01-01
We use wavelet packets to investigate the clustering of matter on galactic scales in search of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We do so in two ways. We develop a wavelet packet approach to measure the power spectrum and apply this method to the CMASS galaxy catalogue from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We compare the resulting power spectrum to published BOSS results by measuring a parameter β that compares our wavelet detected oscillations to the results from the SDSS collaboration. We find that β=1 indicating that our wavelet packet methods are detecting the BAO at a similar level as traditional Fourier techniques. We then use wavelet packets to decompose, denoise, and then reconstruct the galaxy density field. Using this denoised field, we compute the standard two-point correlation function. We are able to successfully detect the BAO at r ≈ 105 h-1 Mpc in line with previous SDSS results. We conclude that wavelet packets do reproduce the results of the key clustering statistics computed by other means. The wavelet packets show distinct advantages in suppressing high frequency noise and in keeping information localized.
Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barker, Steven Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-10-01
Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.
Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan
2015-02-01
Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s2, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.
Electronic structure of two-electron quantum dot with parabolic potential
Yakar, Yusuf; Çakır, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan
2015-01-01
In this study, we investigate the parabolic potential effects on the ground and excited energy states of two-electron quantum dot with impurity inside an infinite spherical confining potential well. The wave function and energy eigenvalues were calculated using a modified variational optimization procedure based mainly on quantum genetic algorithm and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method. The results show that the parabolic potential and impurity charge have a strong effect on the energy states and ionization energies. It is worth pointing out that as impurity charge increases, the ionization energy rises, but the ionization dot radius decreases. On the other hand, as parabolic potential increases, the ionization energy decreases, but the ionization dot radius increases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey)
2015-02-01
Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.
Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur
2013-06-25
Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two-electron
Controlling autoionization in strontium two-electron-excited states
Fields, Robert; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim
2016-05-01
One challenge in engineering long-lived two-electron-excited states, i.e., so-called planetary atoms, is autoionization. Autoionization, however, can be suppressed if the outermost electron is placed in a high- n, n ~ 300 - 600 , high- L state because such states have only a very small overlap with the inner electron, even when this is also excited to a state of relatively high n and hence of relatively long lifetime. Here the L-dependence of the autoionization rate for high- n strontium Rydberg atoms is examined during excitation of the core ion 5 s 2S1 / 2 - 5 p 2P3 / 2 transition. Measurements in which the angular momentum of the Rydberg electron is controlled using a pulsed electric field show that the autoionization rate decreases rapidly with increasing L and becomes very small for values larger than ~ 20 . The data are analyzed with the aid of calculations undertaken using complex scaling. Research supported by the NSF and Robert A. Welch Foundation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fjelde, Tina; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Kloch, Allan;
1999-01-01
We show that complex packet synchronisation may be avoided in optical packetswitched networks. Detailed traffic analysis demonstrates that packet lossratios of 1e-10 are feasible under bursty traffic conditions for a highcapacity network consisting of asynchronously operated add-drop switch...
Surface Shear, Persistent Wave Groups and Rogue Waves
Chafin, Clifford
2014-01-01
We investigate the interaction of waves with surface flows by considering the full set of conserved quantities, subtle but important surface elevations induced by wave packets and by directly considering the necessary forces to prevent packet spreading in the deep water limit. Narrow surface shear flows are shown to exert strong localizing and stabilizing forces on wavepackets to maintain their strength and amplify their intensity even in the linear regime. Necessary criticisms of some earlier notions of stress and angular momentum of waves are included and we argue that nonlinearity enters the system in a way that makes the formation of rogue waves nonperturbative. Quantitative bounds on the surface shear flow necessary to stabilize packets of any wave amplitude are given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...
A Packet Routing Model for Computer Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Osunade
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The quest for reliable data transmission in today’s computer networks and internetworks forms the basis for which routing schemes need be improved upon. The persistent increase in the size of internetwork leads to a dwindling performance of the present routing algorithms which are meant to provide optimal path for forwarding packets from one network to the other. A mathematical and analytical routing model framework is proposed to address the routing needs to a substantial extent. The model provides schemes typical of packet sources, queuing system within a buffer, links and bandwidth allocation and time-based bandwidth generator in routing chunks of packets to their destinations. Principal to the choice of link are such design considerations as least-congested link in a set of links, normalized throughput, mean delay and mean waiting time and the priority of packets in a set of prioritized packets. These performance metrics were targeted and the resultant outcome is a fair, load-balanced network.
Fair packet scheduling in Wireless Mesh Networks
Nawab, Faisal
2014-02-01
In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. TMAC extends CSMA/CA by scheduling data packets based on their age. Prior to transmitting a data packet, a transmitter broadcasts a request control message appended with a timestamp to a selected list of neighbors. It can proceed with the transmission only if it receives a sufficient number of grant control messages from these neighbors. A grant message indicates that the associated data packet has the lowest timestamp of all the packets pending transmission at the local transmit queue. We demonstrate that a loose ordering of timestamps among neighboring nodes is sufficient for enforcing local fairness, subsequently leading to flow rate fairness in a multi-hop WMN. We show that TMAC can be implemented using the control frames in IEEE 802.11, and thus can be easily integrated in existing 802.11-based WMNs. Our simulation results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining over 90% of maximum link capacity across a large number of topologies.
An overview of packet-switching communications
Heggestad, H. M.
1984-04-01
A brief introduction is provided to an alternative computer-based technique for connecting a source to a destination, one which is not an evolutionary improvement in circuit switching but a radical departure from traditional techniques, namely packet switching. It is noted that this mechanism is becoming firmly established as a method for communicating digital data. Advances are also being made rapidly in the transmission of voice by this means, and packet switching may in fact be ideal for some future systems in which voice and data are fully integrated. The distinguishing feature of a packet-switched system is that a computer organizes outgoing digital information into segments which make their way independently to the receiving stations. Here, other computers reassemble them into replicas of the original message. One of the objectives conveniently achieved by packet systems is robustness with respect to blockage on particular links in the network. It is pointed out that two significant limitations affect the design and use of packet-switched systems; one is the need for substantial computer processing and bit manipulation at the network nodes, the other is accumulation of delay for real-time traffic.
Two Novel Structures of Optical Packet Switching Nodes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Hongxi; XU Anshi; WU Deming
2001-01-01
All-optical packet switching networkis currently one of the research hotspots of all-opticalcommunication networks and optical packet switchingnodes are the key technique of optical packet switch-ing network. In this paper, two novel structures ofoptical packet switching nodes are put forward, and the switching capacity of the node and the packet con-tention resolution are analyzed. These two switchingarchitectures can realize wavelength routing switchingfunction and broadcast-and-select switching functionrespectively. They are simple but efficient for realizingoptical packet switching network.
Adiabatic potential energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules: Two-electron R-matrix approach
Tarana, Michal
2016-01-01
We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. Only diatomic molecules are considered. The method is based on a two-electron \\rmath approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is put into a test by its application to a study of Rydberg states of the hydrogen molecule for internuclear distances $R$ from 20 to 400 bohrs and energies corresponding to $n$ from 3 to 22. The results are compared with previous quantum chemical calculations (lower quantum numbers $n$) and computations based on contact potential models (higher quantum numbers $n$).
Efficient Packet Forwarding in Mesh Network
Kanrar, Soumen
2012-01-01
Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a multi hop low cost, with easy maintenance robust network providing reliable service coverage. WMNs consist of mesh routers and mesh clients. In this architecture, while static mesh routers form the wireless backbone, mesh clients access the network through mesh routers as well as directly meshing with each other. Different from traditional wireless networks, WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured. In other words, the nodes in the mesh network automatically establish and maintain network connectivity. Over the years researchers have worked, to reduce the redundancy in broadcasting packet in the mesh network in the wireless domain for providing reliable service coverage, the source node deserves to broadcast or flood the control packets. The redundant control packet consumes the bandwidth of the wireless medium and significantly reduces the average throughput and consequently reduces the overall system performance. In this paper I study the optimization problem in...
ETHERNET PACKET PROCESSOR FOR SOC APPLICATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raja Jitendra Nayaka
2012-07-01
Full Text Available As the demand for Internet expands significantly in numbers of users, servers, IP addresses, switches and routers, the IP based network architecture must evolve and change. The design of domain specific processors that require high performance, low power and high degree of programmability is the bottleneck in many processor based applications. This paper describes the design of ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoC which performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetization classification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance. Our design has been configured for use with multiple projects ttargeted to a commercial configurable logic device the system is designed to support 10/100/1000 links with a speed advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulated the required functions in FPGA.
Voice communications over packet radio networks
Seah, M. M.
1985-03-01
The use of packet virtual circuit technique for voice communications in military radio networks was investigated. The work was concerned with various aspects of networking which include network modeling, communications techniques, traffic analysis and network control. An attempt has been made to develop a simple yet efficient time slot assignment algorithm . This was analyzed under a variety of slot depths and networks topologies using computer simulation. The Erlang' B results were used to provide more insight into the channel characteristics of the packet radio networks. The capabilities of implementing TDMA/CDMA hybrid schemes in the system were scrutinized. A method to estimate the transmission capacity of the inter-node links was found. We demonstrate its effectiveness in controlling local congestion by computer simulation. Graphical results were presented to highlight the behavior of the proposed packet radio networks. We concluded that an appropriate link weight function would provide efficient and reliable network services.
Packet Filtering using IP Tables in Linux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhisham Sharma
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Firewalls are core elements in network security. However, managing firewall rules, especially for enterprise networks, has become complex and error-prone. Firewall filtering rules have to be carefully written and organized in order to correctly implement the security policy. In addition, inserting or modifying a filtering rule requires thorough analysis of the relationship between the rules in order to determine the proper order. In this paper work has been done on creating the virtual network environment using Microsoft virtual PC(SP1 and Capturing and analyzing of network packets using the most popular open source network protocol analyzer Wireshark and on the basis of analyzing the packet work has been done on writing the script to block/allow the network traffic using IPtables and after blocking traffic further capturing and analyzing of packets using Wireshark.
Dynamic Packet Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Kesselheim, Thomas
2012-01-01
We consider protocols that serve communication requests arising over time in a wireless network that is subject to interference. Unlike previous approaches, we take the geometry of the network and power control into account, both allowing to increase the network's performance significantly. We introduce a stochastic and an adversarial model to bound the packet injection. Although taken as the primary motivation, this approach is not only suitable for models based on the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). It also covers virtually all other common interference models, for example the multiple-access channel, the radio-network model, the protocol model, and distance-2 matching. Packet-routing networks allowing each edge or each node to transmit or receive one packet at a time can be modeled as well. Starting from algorithms for the respective scheduling problem with static transmission requests, we build distributed stable protocols. This is more involved than in previous, similar approaches because...
Maintaining Packet Order in Reservation-Based Shared-Memory Optical Packet Switch
Wang, Xiaoliang; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu
Shared-Memory Optical Packet (SMOP) switch architecture is very promising for significantly reducing the amount of required optical memory, which is typically constructed from fiber delay lines (FDLs). The current reservation-based scheduling algorithms for SMOP switches can effectively utilize the FDLs and achieve a low packet loss rate by simply reserving the departure time for each arrival packet. It is notable, however, that such a simple scheduling scheme may introduce a significant packet out of order problem. In this paper, we first identify the two main sources of packet out of order problem in the current reservation-based SMOP switches. We then show that by introducing a “last-timestamp” variable and modifying the corresponding FDLs arrangement as well as the scheduling process in the current reservation-based SMOP switches, it is possible to keep packets in-sequence while still maintaining a similar delay and packet loss performance as the previous design. Finally, we further extend our work to support the variable-length burst switching.
Sturmian bases for two-electron systems in hyperspherical coordinates
Abdouraman, A.; Frapiccini, A. L.; Hamido, A.; Mota-Furtado, F.; O'Mahony, P. F.; Mitnik, D.; Gasaneo, G.; Piraux, B.
2016-12-01
We give a detailed account of an ab initio spectral approach for the calculation of energy spectra of two active electron atoms in a system of hyperspherical coordinates. In this system of coordinates, the Hamiltonian has the same structure as the one of atomic hydrogen with the Coulomb potential expressed in terms of a hyperradius and the nuclear charge replaced by an angle dependent effective charge. The simplest spectral approach consists in expanding the hyperangular wave function in a basis of hyperspherical harmonics. This expansion however, is known to be very slowly converging. Instead, we introduce new hyperangular Sturmian functions. These functions do not have an analytical expression but they treat the first term of the multipole expansion of the electron-electron interaction potential, namely the radial electron correlation, exactly. The properties of these new functions are discussed in detail. For the basis functions of the hyperradius, several choices are possible. In the present case, we use Coulomb-Sturmian functions of half integer angular momentum. We show that, in the case of H-, the accuracy of the energy and the width of the resonance states obtained through a single diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, is comparable to the values given by state-of-the-art methods while using a much smaller basis set. In addition, we show that precise values of the electric-dipole oscillator strengths for {{S}}\\to {{P}} transitions in helium are obtained thereby confirming the accuracy of the bound state wave functions generated with the present method.
Wavelet and wavelet packet compression of electrocardiograms.
Hilton, M L
1997-05-01
Wavelets and wavelet packets have recently emerged as powerful tools for signal compression. Wavelet and wavelet packet-based compression algorithms based on embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding are developed for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, and eight different wavelets are evaluated for their ability to compress Holter ECG data. Pilot data from a blind evaluation of compressed ECG's by cardiologists suggest that the clinically useful information present in original ECG signals is preserved by 8:1 compression, and in most cases 16:1 compressed ECG's are clinically useful.
ON CONVERGENCE OF WAVELET PACKET EXPANSIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Morten Nielsen
2002-01-01
It is well known that the-Walsh-Fourier expansion of a function from the block space ([0, 1 ) ), 1 ＜q≤∞, converges pointwise a.e. We prove that the same result is true for the expansion of a function from in certain periodixed smooth periodic non-stationary wavelet packets bases based on the Haar filters. We also consider wavelet packets based on the Shannon filters and show that the expansion of Lp-functions, 1＜p＜∞, converges in norm and pointwise almost everywhere.
Karumbu, Premkumar; Leith, Douglas J
2011-01-01
We define a class of multi--hop erasure networks that approximates a wireless multi--hop network. The network carries unicast flows for multiple users, and each information packet within a flow is required to be decoded at the flow destination within a specified delay deadline. The allocation of coding rates amongst flows/users is constrained by network capacity. We propose a proportional fair transmission scheme that maximises the sum utility of flow throughputs. This is achieved by {\\em jointly optimising the packet coding rates and the allocation of bits of coded packets across transmission slots.}
Sturmian bases for two-electron systems in hyperspherical coordinates
Abdouraman, A; Hamido, A; Mota-Furtado, F; O'Mahony, P F; Mitnik, D; Gasaneo, G; Piraux, B
2016-01-01
We give a detailed account of an $\\it{ab}$ $\\it{initio}$ spectral approach for the calculation of energy spectra of two active electron atoms in a system of hyperspherical coordinates. In this system of coordinates, the Hamiltonian has the same structure as the one of atomic hydrogen with the Coulomb potential expressed in terms of a hyperradius and the nuclear charge replaced by an angle dependent effective charge. The simplest spectral approach consists in expanding the hyperangular wave function in a basis of hyperspherical harmonics. This expansion however, is known to be very slowly converging. Instead, we introduce new hyperangular sturmian functions. These functions do not have an analytical expression but they treat the first term of the multipole expansion of the electron-electron interaction potential, namely the radial electron correlation, exactly. The properties of these new functions are discussed in detail. For the basis functions of the hyperradius, several choices are possible. In the present...
Physical Investigation of Directional Wave Focusing and Breaking Waves in Wave Basin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Shu-xue; Keyyong HONG
2005-01-01
An experimental scheme for the generation of directional focusing waves in a wave basin is established in this paper. The effects of the directional range, frequency width and center frequency on the wave focusing are studied. The distribution of maximum amplitude and the evolution of time series and spectra during wave packet propagation and the variation of water surface parameters are extensively investigated. The results reveal that the characteristics of focusing waves are significantly influenced by wave directionality and that the breaking criteria for directional waves are distinctly different from those for unidirectional waves.
Packet models revisited: tandem and priority systems
Mandjes, M.R.H.
2004-01-01
We examine two extensions of traditional single-node packet-scale queueing models: tandem networks and (strict) priority systems. Two generic input processes are considered: periodic and Poisson arrivals. For the two-node tandem, an exact expression is derived for the joint distribution of the total
Packet models revisited: tandem and priority systems
M.R.H. Mandjes
2004-01-01
Abstract : We examine two extensions of traditional single-node packet-scale queueing models: tandem networks and (strict) priority systems. Two generic input processes are considered: periodic and Poisson arrivals. For the two-node tandem, an exact expression is derived for the joint distribution o
Humane Education Teachers' Packet (Preschool & Kindergarten).
Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy
Designed to sensitize preschoolers and kindergartners to the responsibilities involved in caring for living things, this teacher's packet provides a variety of student worksheets and activity suggestions. Teaching plans are provided for a total of nine lessons, which can be easily integrated into other learning areas such as numbers, colors,…
Satcom access in the Evolved Packet Core
Cano Soveri, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.
2011-01-01
Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is consid
Satcom access in the evolved packet core
Cano, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.
2012-01-01
Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is consid
Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.
Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.
This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…
Multiple descriptions for packetized predictive control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Jan; Quevedo, Daniel
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose to use multiple descriptions (MDs) to achieve a high degree of robustness towards random packet delays and erasures in networked control systems. In particular, we consider the scenario, where a data-rate limited channel is located between the controller and the plant...
Cashier/Checker Learning Activity Packets (LAPs).
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…
Peninsula Humane Society Teacher's Packet. Secondary Level.
Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.
Activities in this teacher's packet are designed to familiarize secondary school students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons grouped under social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities focus on pet overpopulation, expressions of social responses in…
Peninsula Humane Society Teacher's Packet. Secondary Level.
Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.
Activities in this teacher's packet are designed to familiarize secondary school students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons grouped under social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities focus on pet overpopulation, expressions of social responses in…
Enhancement of Non-Air Conducted Speech Based on Wavelet-Packet Adaptive Threshold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xijing Jing
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study developed a new kind of speech detecting method by using millimeter wave. Because of the advantage of the millimeter wave, this speech detecting method has great potential application and may provide some exciting possibility for wide applications. However, the MMW conduct speech is in less intelligible and poor audibility since it is corrupted by additive combined noise. This paper, therefore, also developed an algorithm of wavelet packet threshold by using hard threshold and soft threshold for removing noise based on the good capability of wavelet packet for analyzing time-frequency signal. Comparing to traditional speech enhancement algorithm, the results from both simulation and listening evaluation suggest that the proposed algorithm takes on a better performance on noise removing while the distortion of MMW radar speech remains acceptable, the enhanced speech also sounds more pleasant to human listeners, resulting in improved results over classical speech enhancement algorithms.
On the Effects of Heterogeneous Packet Lengths on Network Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Compta, Pol Torres; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani
2014-01-01
Random linear network coding (RLNC) has been shown to provide increased throughput, security and robustness for the transmission of data through the network. Most of the analysis and the demonstrators have focused on the study of data packets with the same size (number of bytes). This constitutes...... a best case scenario as coded packets will incur little overhead to handle such packets. However, packet lengths are quite heterogeneous in real networks, which can cause a high overhead or, alternatively, a high delay in the transmission of data packets. As we show, this can have a severe effect...
Transporting live video over high packet loss networks
Werdin, Dave
2013-05-01
Transport of live video requires a robust backbone as live video decoders are subject to dropouts and buffer starvation. A short duration packet loss will many times cause a decoder to go black for many seconds as it reacquires the stream and clock. IP networks due to their connectionless approach and support for variable length packets, inherently display packet delivery variability. These characteristics most typically include packet loss, packet delay variation, and packets being delivered out of order. Deep Packet Recovery (DPR) techniques provide correction to IP network induced errors and issues. DPR can provide a much broader and stronger protection than traditional Forward Error Correction techniques enabling transport of live video across severely impaired networks.
Network Packet Length Covert Channel Based on Empirical Distribution Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihua Zhang
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Network packet length covert channel modulates secret message bits onto the packet lengths to transmit secret messages. In this paper, a novel network packet length covert channel is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on the empirical distribution function of packet length series of legitimate traffic. Different from the existing schemes, the lengths of packets which are generated by the covert sender follow the distribution of normal traffic more closely in our scheme. To validate the security of the proposed scheme, the state-of-the-art packet length covert channel detection algorithm is adopted. The experimental results show that the packet length covert channel provides a significant performance improvement in detection resistance meanings
Role of two-electron processes in the excitation-ionization of lithium atoms by fast ion impact
Kirchner, T; Gulyás, L
2015-01-01
We study excitation and ionization in the 1.5 MeV/amu O$^{8+}$-Li collision system, which was the subject of a recent reaction-microscope-type experiment [Fischer \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{109}, 113202 (2012)]. Starting from an independent-electron model based on determinantal wave functions and using single-electron basis generator method and continuum distorted-wave with eikonal initial-state calculations we show that pure single ionization of a lithium $K$-shell electron is too weak a process to explain the measured single differential cross section. Rather, our analysis suggests that two-electron excitation-ionization processes occur and have to be taken into account when comparing with the data. Good agreement is obtained only if we replace the independent-electron calculation by an independent-event model for one of the excitation-ionization processes and also take a shake-off process into account.
Stochastic generation of continuous wave spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trulsen, J.; Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans
1983-01-01
Wave packets of electromagnetic or Langmuir waves trapped in a well between oscillating reflectors are considered. An equation for the temporal evolution of the probability distribution for the carrier wave number is derived, and solved analytically in terms of moments in the limits of long...
Node design in optical packet switched networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nord, Martin
2006-01-01
The thesis discusses motivation, realisation and performance of the Optical Packet Switching (OPS) network paradigm. The work includes proposals for designs and methods to efficiently use both the wavelength- and time domain for contention resolution in asynchronous operation. The project has also...... adapting network performance to the different acceptable packet loss rate levels of supported applications, while improving overall bandwidth efficiency. The project has evaluated QoS differentiation methods and proposed schemes with improved efficiency, which also include jitter sensitivity as a Qo...... proposed parallel designs to overcome scalability constraints and to support migration scenarios. Furthermore, it has proposed and demonstrated optical input processing schemes for hybrids networks to simultaneously support OPS and Optical Circuit Switching. Quality of Service (QoS) differentiation enables...
Congestion Control Algorithm for Resilient Packet Ring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔红伟; 葛宁; 阮方; 冯重熙
2003-01-01
A congestion control algorithm is proposed for resilient packet ring (RPR) in this paper. In thisalgorithm, nonlinear explicit rate feedback control is used to ensure fast convergence and smooth equilibriumbehavior. The algorithm combines explicit rate control with a deficit round robin (DRR) scheduler, which notonly ensures fairness, but also avoids the implementation difficulties of explicit rate control algorithms. Thealgorithm has good features of fairness, fast convergence, smooth equilibrium, Iow queue depth, and easyimplementation. It is insensitive to the loss of congestion control packets and can adapt to a wide range of linkrates and network scales. It has solved the unbalanced traffic problem of spatial reuse protocol (SRP). Thealgorithm can be implemented on the multi-access control layer of RPR nodes to ensure fair and efficient accessof the best-effort traffic.
SURVEY OF PACKET DROPPING ATTACK IN MANET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.Janani
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is an application of wireless network with self-configuring mobile nodes. MANET does not require any fixed infrastructure. Its development never has any threshold range. Nodes in MANET can communicate with each other if and only if all the nodes are in the same range. This wide distribution of nodes makes MANET vulnerable to various attacks, packet dropping attack or black hole attack is one of the possible attack. It is very hard to detect and prevent. To prevent from packet dropping attack, detection of misbehavior links and selfish nodes plays a vital role in MANETs. In this paper, a omprehensive investigation on detection of misbehavior links and malicious nodes is carried out.
Recurrence properties of quantum observables in wave packet dynamics
Sudheesh, C; Balakrishnan, V
2009-01-01
We investigate the recurrence properties of the time series of quantum mechanical expectation values, in terms of two representative models for a single-mode radiation field interacting with a nonlinear medium. From recurrence-time distributions, return maps and recurrence plots, we conclude that the dynamics of appropriate observables pertaining to the field can vary from quasiperiodicity to hyperbolicity, depending on the extent of the nonlinearity and of the departure from coherence of the initial state of the field. We establish that, in a simple bipartite model in which the field is effectively an open quantum system, a decaying exponential recurrence-time distribution, characteristic of a hyperbolic dynamical system, is associated with chaotic temporal evolution as characterized by a positive Liapunov exponent.
Quantum electrodynamics of one-photon wave packets
Stobińska, M; Leuchs, G
2010-01-01
In this contribution we investigate quantum electrodynamical many-mode aspects by exploring the simplest possible situation in this context, namely the interaction of a single atom, modeled by a simple two-level system, with many-mode one-photon quantum states of the electromagnetic field. In particular, we concentrate on the question how the engineering of electromagnetic field modes influences the atom-field interaction. An interesting problem in this context is the engineering of ideal one-photon multi-mode quantum states which may excite a single atom perfectly [M. Stobi\\'nska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, EPL {\\bf 86}, 14007 (2009)]. For purposes of quantum information processing such one-photon multi-mode states are particularly well suited for transmitting quantum information and for storing it in a material memory again.
Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices
Hennig, H.; Neff, T.; Fleischmann, R.
2016-03-01
We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.
Momentum mapping of continuum electron wave packet interference
Yang, Weifeng; Lin, Cheng; Xu, Jingwen; Sheng, Zhihao; Song, Xiaohong; Hu, Shilin; Chen, Jing
2016-01-01
We analyze the two-dimensional photoelectrons momentum distribution of Ar atom ionized by midinfrared laser pulses and mainly concentrate on the energy range below 2Up. By using a generalized quantum trajectory Monte Carlo (GQTMC) simulation and comparing with the numerical solution of time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE), we show that in the deep tunneling regime, the rescattered electron trajectories plays unimportant role and the interplay between the intracycle and inter-cycle results in a ring-like interference pattern. The ring-like interference pattern will mask the holographic interference structure in the low longitudinal momentum region. When the nonadiabatic tunneling contributes significantly to ionization, i.e., the Keldysh parameter 1, the contribution of the rescattered electron trajectories become large, thus holographic interference pattern can be clearly observed. Our results help paving the way for gaining physical insight into ultrafast electron dynamic process with attosecond tempor...
Quantum teleportation of nonclassical wave packets: An effective multimode theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benichi, Hugo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
2011-07-15
We develop a simple and efficient theoretical model to understand the quantum properties of broadband continuous variable quantum teleportation. We show that, if stated properly, the problem of multimode teleportation can be simplified to teleportation of a single effective mode that describes the input state temporal characteristic. Using that model, we show how the finite bandwidth of squeezing and external noise in the classical channel affect the output teleported quantum field. We choose an approach that is especially relevant for the case of non-Gaussian nonclassical quantum states and we finally back-test our model with recent experimental results.
Ship-Shore Packet Switched Communications System.
1986-06-01
a fatal flaw for sea service communications. This instability is described in several texts [ Stallings , 85; Tanenbaum, 81]. 68 b. Token Systems Again... decompressor in the data path. otherwise, the decompression algorithm would compound errors and make different instances of errored packets different lengths...Further detail may be found in several sources including listed references [ Stallings , 85]. DoD’s seminal ARPANET work predated the ISO model and evolved a
Voice Communications Over Packet Radio Networks.
1985-03-01
standpoint, the major difference between telephone networks and packet radio networks concerns the availabilty of time slots over each frame. The...mentioning that simulations require large amounts of detailed knowledge about the structure of the system and about patterns of usage . Simulation is...proposed time slot algorithm adopts. Moreover, the proposed time slot scheme may give more uniform usage of time slots in each time frame. In addition
On Limits of Embedded Systems in Network Packet Processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ondrej Vondrous
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a measurement of single-hop one way packet delay on embedded systems used for networking. The single-hop one way packet delay is essential parameter when we need to process packets with strict delivery time constrains. Comparison of different approaches to single-hop one way packet delay measurements is presented in this work along with discussion about strong and weak points in specific measurement approach. The impact of different types of system load and number of CPU cores are also covered by presented results. The presented results of measurement single-hop one way packet delay in embedded Linux system show that for the specific system configuration the packet processing delay depends (in different ways on system load and network stack load.
Advanced Radio Resource Management for Multi Antenna Packet Radio Systems
Stanislav Nonchev; Mikko Valkama
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose fairness-oriented packet scheduling (PS) schemes with power-efficientcontrol mechanism for future packet radio systems. In general, the radio resource managementfunctionality plays an important role in new OFDMA based networks. The control of the networkresource division among the users is performed by packet scheduling functionality based on maximizingcell coverage and capacity satisfying, and certain quality of service requirements. Moreover, multiantennatransmit-r...
Loss Analysis of the Software-based Packet Capturing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamas Skopko
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Gigabit per second and higher bandwidths imply greater challenge to perform lossless packet capturing on generic PC architectures. This is because of software based capture solutions, which did not improve as fast as network bandwidth and they still heavily rely on the OS's packet processing mechanism. There are hardware and operating system factors that primarily affect capture performance. This paper summarizes these parameters and shows how to predict packet loss ratio during the capture process.
Compressed Domain Packet Loss Concealment of Sinusoidally Coded Speech
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Andersen, Søren Vang
2003-01-01
We consider the problem of packet loss concealment for voice over IP (VoIP). The speech signal is compressed at the transmitter using a sinusoidal coding scheme working at 8 kbit/s. At the receiver, packet loss concealment is carried out working directly on the quantized sinusoidal parameters......, based on time-scaling of the packets surrounding the missing ones. Subjective listening tests show promising results indicating the potential of sinusoidal speech coding for VoIP....
Packet Selection and Scheduling for Multipath Video Streaming
Jurca, Dan; Frossard, Pascal
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of choosing the best streaming policy for distortion optimal multipath video delivery, under delay constraints. The streaming policy consists in a joint selection of the video packets to be transmitted, as well as their sending time, and the transmission path. A simple streaming model is introduced, which takes into account the video packet importance, and the dependencies among packets, and allows to compute the quality perceived by the receiver, as a functio...
Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks
Tobagi, Fouad A.
1990-01-01
Background information on networking and switching is provided, and the various architectures that have been considered for fast packet switches are described. The focus is solely on switches designed to be implemented electronically. A set of definitions and a brief description of the functionality required of fast packet switches are given. Three basic types of packet switches are identified: the shared-memory, shared-medium, and space-division types. Each of these is described, and examples are given.
Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed.
Furukawa, Hideaki; Harai, Hiroaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Shinada, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Wataru; Wada, Naoya
2011-12-12
We developed novel integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node equipment. Compared with our previous equipment, a polarization-independent 4 × 4 semiconductor optical amplifier switch subsystem, gain-controlled optical amplifiers, and one 100 Gbps optical packet transponder and seven 10 Gbps optical path transponders with 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) client-interfaces were newly installed in the present system. The switch and amplifiers can provide more stable operation without equipment adjustments for the frequent polarization-rotations and dynamic packet-rate changes of optical packets. We constructed an optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed consisting of two switch nodes for accelerating network development, and we demonstrated 66 km fiber transmission and switching operation of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10GbE frames. Error-free (frame error rate < 1×10(-4)) operation was achieved with optical packets of various packet lengths and packet rates, and stable operation of the network testbed was confirmed. In addition, 4K uncompressed video streaming over OPS links was successfully demonstrated.
On Steganography in Lost Audio Packets
Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof
2011-01-01
The paper presents a new hidden data insertion procedure based on estimated probability of the remaining time of the call for steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets steganography). LACK provides hidden communication for real-time services like Voice over IP. The analytical results presented in this paper concern the influence of LACK's hidden data insertion procedures on the method's impact on quality of voice transmission and its resistance to steganalysis. The proposed hidden data insertion procedure is also compared to previous steganogram insertion approach based on estimated remaining average call duration.
Quantization of wavelet packet audio coding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tan Jianguo; Zhang Wenjun; Liu Peilin
2006-01-01
The method of quantization noise control of audio coding in the wavelet domain is proposed. Using the inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), it converts the masking threshold coming from MPEG psycho-acoustic model in the frequency domain to the signal in the time domain; the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT) is performed; the energy in each subband is regarded as the maximum allowed quantization noise energy. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can attain the nearly transparent audio quality below 64kbps for the most testing audio signals.
Packet scheduling for OFDMA based relay networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The combination of relay networks with orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) has been proposed as a promising solution for the next generation wireless system. Considering different traffic classes and user quality of service (QoS), three efficient scheduling algorithms are introduced in such networks. The round-robin (RR) algorithm in relay networks serves as a performance benchmark. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms achieve significant improvement on system throughput and decrease system packet loss rate, compared with the RR and absence of relaying system (traditional network). Furthermore, comparisons have been carried out among the three proposed algorithms.
Tarana, Michal; Čurík, Roman
2016-05-01
We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. The method is based on a two-electron R-matrix approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via a multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is applied to a study of Rydberg states of Rb2 for internuclear separations R from 40 to 320 bohrs and energies corresponding to n from 7 to 30. We report bound states associated with the low-lying 3Po resonance and with the virtual state of the rubidium atom that turn into ion-pair-like bound states in the Coulomb potential of the atomic Rydberg core. The results are compared with previous calculations based on single-electron models employing a zero-range contact-potential and short-range modele potential. Czech Science Foundation (Project No. P208/14-15989P).
Two-electron reduction of ethylene carbonate: a quantum chemistry re-examination of mechanisms
Leung, Kevin
2013-01-01
Passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films arising from electrolyte decomposition on low-voltage lithium ion battery anode surfaces are critical for battery operations. We review the recent theoretical literature on electrolyte decomposition and emphasize the modeling work on two-electron reduction of ethylene carbonate (EC, a key battery organic solvent). One of the two-electron pathways, which releases CO gas, is re-examined using simple quantum chemistry calculations. Excess electrons are shown to preferentially attack EC in the order (broken EC^-) > (intact EC^-) > EC. This confirms the viability of two electron processes and emphasizes that they need to be considered when interpreting SEI experiments. An estimate of the crossover between one- and two-electron regimes under a homogeneous reaction zone approximation is proposed.
Vacuum polarization screening corrections to the ground state energy of two-electron ions
Artemiev, A N; Yerokhin, V A
1997-01-01
Vacuum polarization screening corrections to the ground state energy of two-electron ions are calculated in the range $Z=20-100$. The calculations are carried out for a finite nucleus charge distribution.
Serov, Vladislav V; Sergeeva, Tatiana A; Vinitsky, Sergue I
2012-01-01
A review of some recently developed methods of calculating multiple differential cross-sections of photoionization and electron impactionization of atoms and molecules having two active electrons is presented. The methods imply original approaches to calculating three-particle Coulomb wave functions. The external complex scaling method and the formalism of the Schroedinger equation with a source in the right-hand side are considered. Efficiency of the time-dependent approaches to the scattering problem, such as the paraxial approximation and the time-dependent scaling, is demonstrated. An original numerical method elaborated by the authors for solving the 6D Schroedinger equation for an atom with two active electrons, based on the Chang-Fano transformation and the discrete variable representation, is formulated. Basing on numerical simulations, the threshold behavior of angular distributions of two-electron photoionization of the negative hydrogen ion and helium atom, and multiple differential cross-sections ...
All-optical devices for ultrafast packet switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorren, H.J.S.; HerreraDorren, J.; Raz, O.;
2007-01-01
We discuss integrated devices for all-optical packet switching. We focus on monolithically integrated all-optical flip-flops, ultra-fast semiconductor based wavelength converters and explain the operation principles. Finally, a 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching experiment over 110 km of field...
Comparison of Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) Tools for Traffic Classification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bujlow, Tomasz; Carela-Español, Valentín; Barlet-Ros, Pere
a dataset, which can be used to test all the traffic classifiers. In order to do that, we used our system to collect the complete packets from the network interfaces. The packets are grouped into flows, and each flow is collected together with the process name taken from Windows / Linux sockets, so...
Continuing Development of California State Packet Radio Project.
Brownrigg, Edwin
1992-01-01
Provides background on the California State Library Packet Radio project, which will use packet radios to deploy a wireless, high-speed, wide-area network of 600 nodes, including 100 libraries, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Project goals and objectives, plan of operation, equipment, and evaluation plans are summarized. (MES)
On Generalized Carleson Operators of Periodic Wavelet Packet Expansions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shyam Lal
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Three new theorems based on the generalized Carleson operators for the periodic Walsh-type wavelet packets have been established. An application of these theorems as convergence a.e. for the periodic Walsh-type wavelet packet expansion of block function with the help of summation by arithmetic means has been studied.
The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.
Runge, Lillian
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…
Detecting Black Holes in Packet-Radio Networks (SRNTN-56)
1989-01-01
Black holes can occur in packet-switched networks that use distance- vector route calculation algorithms such as tier routing. This section briefly...reviews tier routing and defines new terms relevant to black holes . Packet radios use tier routing, a variation on distance-vector routing, to maintain
Sculpture of Indonesia. [Teacher's Packet for a Teacher Workshop.
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.
This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the sculpture found in Indonesia. The packet contains: (1) a slide list with descriptions listing time period and dimensions of each piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the setting of Indonesia, the Central Javanese Period and the Eastern Javanese Period; (3) descriptions of how to…
Packet Delay Variation Analysis of the CQ Switch
I. Radusinović; I. Maljević; M. Radonjić
2012-01-01
Packet delay variation analysis for a 32x32 crosspoint queued switch under uniform and IBP arrival traffic is presented in this paper. Different buffer sizes and several scheduling algorithms are observed: longest queue first, round robin, exhaustive round robin and frame based round robin matching. Results show that the least packet delay variation, among observed algorithms, causes round robin algorithm.
Packet Delay Variation Analysis of the CQ Switch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Radusinović
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Packet delay variation analysis for a 32x32 crosspoint queued switch under uniform and IBP arrival traffic is presented in this paper. Different buffer sizes and several scheduling algorithms are observed: longest queue first, round robin, exhaustive round robin and frame based round robin matching. Results show that the least packet delay variation, among observed algorithms, causes round robin algorithm.
Learning packets in nursing education: reviving the past.
Xu, Yin; Martin, Madeleine; Gribbins, Ashley
2010-05-01
Learning packets gained popularity in nursing education in the 1960's. Recently, they have been cited as strategies for distance learning. The aim of this project was to integrate Topic Focused Learning Packets as a complementary teaching strategy for presentation of new content to large classes of undergraduate nursing students. In addition to reducing in-class content presentation time, goals included: fostering critical thinking, actively engaging the student, and providing opportunities for team-based interaction. Rationale, design process and packets will be described. The learning packet was viewed positively by the students and faculty. Among 134 students, 119 strongly agreed or agreed that the learning packet was effective in increasing their understanding of the content and achieving the course objectives. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Packet Classification using Support Vector Machines with String Kernels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarthak Munshi
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Since the inception of internet many methods have been devised to keep untrusted and malicious packets away from a user’s system . The traffic / packet classification can be used as an important tool to detect intrusion in the system. Using Machine Learning as an efficient statistical based approach for classifying packets is a novel method in practice today . This paper emphasizes upon using an advanced string kernel method within a support vector machine to classify packets .There exists a paper related to a similar problem using Machine Learning [2]. But the researches mentioned in their paper are not up-to date and doesn’t account for modern day string kernels that are much more efficient . My work extends their research by introducing different approaches to classify encrypted / unencrypted traffic / packets .
REDUCING BURST PACKET LOSS THROUGH ROUTE-FREE FORWARDING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Hailong; Guo Yunfei; Cheng Dongnian; Zhang Jianwei
2010-01-01
It is well known that today's inter-domain routing protocol,Border Gateway Protocol (BGP),converges slowly during network failures. Due to the distribution nature of Internet routing decisions and the rate-limiting timer Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI) of BGP,unavoidable convergence latency is introduced in reaction to network changes. During the period of convergence temporarily routing table inconsistencies cause short-term routing blackholes and loops which result in widespread temporary burst packet loss. In this paper,we present ROute-Free Forwarding (ROFF) - a novel technique for packet delivering continuously during periods of convergence. With slightly modifications on IP packet header and BGP,route loops and blackholes can be avoided. Our preliminary evaluation demonstrates that ROFF succeeds in reducing the number of Autonomous Systems (ASes) which experience burst packet loss and the duration of packet loss.
Poisson Packet Traffic Generation Based on Empirical Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrej Kos
2003-10-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for generating equivalent Poisson packet traffic based on empirical traffic data is presented in this paper. Two steps are required in order to produce equivalent Poisson packet traffic. Real traffic trace is analyzed in the first step. In the second step, a new equivalent synthetic Poisson traffic is generated in such a way that the first order statistical parameters remain unchanged. New packet inter-arrival time series are produced in a random manner using negative exponential probability distribution with a known mean. New packet size series are also produced in a random manner. However, due to specified minimum and maximum packet sizes, a truncated exponential probability distribution is applied.
Packet throughput performance of multiservice, multirate OCDMA in elastic networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raddo, Thiago R.; Sanches, Anderson L.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2016-01-01
of both multirate techniques is proposed. The proposed formalism can be successfully applied for performance evaluation of any arbitrary number of user classes in the system as well as for both 1-D and 2-D codes. The bit error rate (BER) and packet correct probability expressions are derived considering......In this paper, the packet throughput performance of multiservice, multirate optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks is addressed based on two distinct multirate techniques, namely multilength code and multicode. A new analytical formalism to evaluate the packet throughput performance...... the multiple-access interference (MAI) as binomially distributed. The packet throughput expression, by its turn, is derived considering a Poisson distribution for the composite packet arrivals. Numerical results show that the multicode technique is a good candidate for future multiservice, multirate OCDMA...
Scheduling Issues in ECOFRAME Optical Packet Switched Ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Gravey
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In the metropolitan area, traditional SONET/SDH circuit switched rings are likely to be replaced with optical packet/burst switching technologies. In this paper we consider a slotted WDM optical packet ring operating without resource reservation mechanisms. In such rings, optical packets in transit have priority over traffic to be inserted by the node. Packets to be inserted are thus queued according to their destination, in order to avoid headof-line blocking. We focus on scheduling policies and compare several MaxWeight scheduling policies, including Oldest Packet First (OPF which emulates FIFO queueing while avoiding head-of-line blocking. We show that there is a trade-off between implementation complexity and fairness, and identify the Largest Virtual Waiting Time First (LVWTF scheduling policy as presenting both a low complexity and a good fairness performance.
Performance analysis of a scalable optical packet switching architecture
Wu, Ho-Ting; Tuan, Chia-Wei
2010-10-01
We carry out the analysis of a scalable switching architecture for all-optical packet switching networks. The underlying switch is based on a 2×2 two-stage multibuffer switched delay-line-based optical switching node. By incorporating an additional bypass line and employing a novel switch control strategy, the optical packet switching node can effectively resolve packet contentions, thus reducing the packet deflection probability substantially. In this work, we develop an exact queueing model from a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) to evaluate the system performance under bursty, nonbursty, symmetric, and asymmetric traffic conditions. The accurate deflection probability and mean packet delay are obtained from this analytical model. Furthermore, we derive an approximate analysis to calculate the lower bound of deflection probability without the heavy computational complexities incurred by the exact analytical model. Simulation results are performed to confirm the validity of our analytic models.
Image coding based on energy-sorted wavelet packets
Kong, Lin-Wen; Lay, Kuen-Tsair
1995-04-01
The discrete wavelet transform performs multiresolution analysis, which effectively decomposes a digital image into components with different degrees of details. In practice, it is usually implemented in the form of filter banks. If the filter banks are cascaded and both the low-pass and the high-pass components are further decomposed, a wavelet packet is obtained. The coefficients of the wavelet packet effectively represent subimages in different resolution levels. In the energy-sorted wavelet- packet decomposition, all subimages in the packet are then sorted according to their energies. The most important subimages, as measured by the energy, are preserved and coded. By investigating the histogram of each subimage, it is found that the pixel values are well modelled by the Laplacian distribution. Therefore, the Laplacian quantization is applied to quantized the subimages. Experimental results show that the image coding scheme based on wavelet packets achieves high compression ratio while preserving satisfactory image quality.
Advanced Radio Resource Management for Multi Antenna Packet Radio Systems
Nonchev, Stanislav; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2201
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose fairness-oriented packet scheduling (PS) schemes with power-efficient control mechanism for future packet radio systems. In general, the radio resource management functionality plays an important role in new OFDMA based networks. The control of the network resource division among the users is performed by packet scheduling functionality based on maximizing cell coverage and capacity satisfying, and certain quality of service requirements. Moreover, multiantenna transmit-receive schemes provide additional flexibility to packet scheduler functionality. In order to mitigate inter-cell and co-channel interference problems in OFDMA cellular networks soft frequency reuse with different power masks patterns is used. Stemming from the earlier enhanced proportional fair scheduler studies for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems, we extend the development of efficient packet scheduling algorithms by adding transmit power considerations in the ove...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Swetha,
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Back pressure-based adaptive routing algorithms where each packet is routed along a possibly different pathhave been extensively studied in the literature. However, suchalgorithms typically result in poor delay performance and involvehigh implementation complexity. In this paper, we develop anew adaptive routing algorithm built upon the widely-studiedback-pressure algorithm. We decouple the routing and schedulingcomponents of the algorithm by designing a probabilistic routingtable which is used to route packets to per-destination queues.The scheduling decisions in the case of wireless networks aremade using counters called shadow queues. The results arealso extended to the case of networks which employ simpleforms of network coding. In that case, our algorithm provides alow-complexity solution to optimally exploit the routing-codingtrade-off.
One Packet Suffices - Highly Efficient Packetized Network Coding With Finite Memory
Haeupler, Bernhard
2011-01-01
Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) has emerged as a powerful tool for robust high-throughput multicast. Projection analysis - a recently introduced technique - shows that the distributed packetized RLNC protocol achieves (order) optimal and perfectly pipelined information dissemination in many settings. In the original approach to RNLC intermediate nodes code together all available information. This requires intermediate nodes to keep considerable data available for coding. Moreover, it results in a coding complexity that grows linearly with the size of this data. While this has been identified as a problem, approaches that combine queuing theory and network coding have heretofore not provided a succinct representation of the memory needs of network coding at intermediates nodes. This paper shows the surprising result that, in all settings with a continuous stream of data, network coding continues to perform optimally even if only one packet per node is kept in active memory and used for computations. This l...
Dynamic Homeostasis in Packet Switching Networks
Oka, Mizuki; Ikegami, Takashi
2014-01-01
In this study, we investigate the adaptation and robustness of a packet switching network (PSN), the fundamental architecture of the Internet. We claim that the adaptation introduced by a transmission control protocol (TCP) congestion control mechanism is interpretable as the self-organization of multiple attractors and stability to switch from one attractor to another. To discuss this argument quantitatively, we study the adaptation of the Internet by simulating a PSN using ns-2. Our hypothesis is that the robustness and fragility of the Internet can be attributed to the inherent dynamics of the PSN feedback mechanism called the congestion window size, or \\textit{cwnd}. By varying the data input into the PSN system, we investigate the possible self-organization of attractors in cwnd temporal dynamics and discuss the adaptability and robustness of PSNs. The present study provides an example of Ashby's Law of Requisite Variety in action.
Differential AR algorithm for packet delay prediction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Different delay prediction algorithms have been applied in multimedia communication, among which linear prediction is attractive because of its low complexity. AR (auto regressive) algorithm is a traditional one with low computation cost, while NLMS (normalize least mean square) algorithm is more precise. In this paper, referring to ARIMA (auto regression integrated with moving averages) model, a differential AR algorithm (DIAR) is proposed based on the analyses of both AR and NLMS algorithms. The prediction precision of the new algorithm is about 5-10 db higher than that of the AR algorithm without increasing the computation complexity.Compared with NLMS algorithm, its precision slightly improves by 0.1 db on average, but the algorithm complexity reduces more than 90%. Our simulation and tests also demonstrate that this method improves the performance of the average end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio significantly.
Modeling the dynamics of intense internal waves on the shelf
Talipova, T. G.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Kurkin, A. A.; Kurkina, O. E.
2014-11-01
The transformation of the internal wave packet during its propagation over the shelf of Portugal was studied in the international experiment EU MAST II MORENA in 1994. This paper presents the results of modeling of the dynamics of this packet under hydrological conditions along the pathway of its propagation. The modeling was performed on the basis of the generalized Gardner-Ostrovskii equation, including inhomogeneous hydrological conditions, rotation of the Earth, and dissipation in the bottom boundary layer. We also discuss the results of the comparison of the observed and simulated forms and phases of individual waves in a packet at reference points.
Talone, P.; Trigila, S.
1985-07-01
Multipoint topology networks based on a single statistically distributed radiocommunication channel are considered, referring only to restricted area networks with line of sight type links. The architecture and protocols of such networks are reviewed. The problems related to the interconnection of such networks with large public packet switching communication networks are examined. Several hypothesis are studied concluding that mainly in the case of emergencies or catastrophic events these networks are an extremely useful resource.
Low-loss optical packet synchronization architecture
Franzen, Andre; Hunter, David K.; Andonovic, Ivan
1998-10-01
A novel synchronization architecture is presented for packet based optical networks, exhibiting low insertion loss and reduced crosstalk, taking advantage of the characteristics of AWG (arrayed waveguide grating) filters. Thus far, only logarithmic delay lines have been investigated rigorously, the generic structures either based on 2 X 2 switches or on a 1-to-m splitter combined with semiconductor optical amplifier gates. The first scheme introduces not only high loss but also crosstalk, producing a high amount of interferometric noise. The latter has a lot of splitting loss to accommodate but overall, fewer stages are necessary to achieve the same delay as more than two paths per stage can be set up. In this paper, AWGs in combination with wavelength converters replace the splitter/SOA-gate geometry minimizing the optical loss, ensuring that higher levels of optical power remain to traverse the adjacent switching matrix. This novel set-up ensures that only low levels of amplification are needed minimizing concomitant noise accumulation. An incoming cell or data stream will be converted to a distinct wavelength determined by an evaluation circuit in the electronic domain. The chosen wavelength maps the input to a length of fiber which in turn represents the necessary delay, effectively executing path length (and hence time alignment) equalization of different incoming packets. Once the wavelength conversion is executed the cell is fed into an AWG, governed by a `hardwired' translation-table (input/output), ensuring cells propagate to the correct output. Finer delays are realized by cascading the principle stage.
Throughput and delay performance analysis of packet aggregation scheme for PRMA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk; Fitzek, F.H.P.
2007-01-01
Packet reservation multiple access (PRMA) protocol is an implicit reservation MAC protocol. It is initially designed for voice packets in the cellular networks [2, 3] but it is currently also used for data packets in OFDM based fixed wireless access networks [8, 9]. When it is applied for data...... packets, the system throughput depends on the size of packets and the number of consecutive packets. From the statistics of existent wireless data networks using PRMA protocol, it shows that the system throughput is quite low because of the inconsecutive small packets. In order to improve the throughput......, packet aggregation scheme is considered to be applied in PRMA. Before designing packet aggregation algorithm, it is worth investigating the effect of packet aggregation scheme on the performance of throughput and delay. In this paper we develop a generic Markov chain model for PRMA with packet...
Throughput and Delay Performance Analysis of Packet Aggregation Scheme for PRMA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk; Fitzek, Frank H.P.
2008-01-01
Packet reservation multiple access (PRMA) protocol is an implicit reservation MAC protocol. It is initially designed for voice packets in the cellular networks, but it is currently also used for data packets in OFDM based fixed wireless access networks. When it is applied for data packets......, the system throughput depends on the size of packets and the number of consecutive packets. From the statistics of existent wireless data networks using PRMA protocol, it shows that the system throughput is quite low because of the inconsecutive small packets. In order to improve the throughput, packet...... aggregation scheme is considered to be applied in PRMA. Before designing packet aggregation algorithm, it is worth investigating the effect of packet aggregation scheme on the performance of throughput and delay. In this paper we develop a generic Markov chain model for PRMA with packet aggregation. Based...
A novel lost packets recovery scheme based on visual secret sharing
Lu, Kun; Shan, Hong; Li, Zhi; Niu, Zhao
2017-08-01
In this paper, a novel lost packets recovery scheme which encrypts the effective parts of an original packet into two shadow packets based on (2, 2)-threshold XOR-based visual Secret Sharing (VSS) is proposed. The two shadow packets used as watermarks would be embedded into two normal data packets with digital watermarking embedding technology and then sent from one sensor node to another. Each shadow packet would reveal no information of the original packet, which can improve the security of original packet delivery greatly. The two shadow packets which can be extracted from the received two normal data packets delivered from a sensor node can recover the original packet lossless based on XOR-based VSS. The Performance analysis present that the proposed scheme provides essential services as long as possible in the presence of selective forwarding attack. The proposed scheme would not increase the amount of additional traffic, namely, lower energy consumption, which is suitable for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).
Novel Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm Based on Wavelet Packet Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Xiaofei; Xu Dazhuan
2005-01-01
An analysis of the received signal of array antennas shows that the received signal has multi-resolution characteristics, and hence the wavelet packet theory can be used to detect the signal. By emplying wavelet packet theory to adaptive beamforming, a wavelet packet transform-based adaptive beamforming algorithm (WP-ABF) is proposed . This WP-ABF algorithm uses wavelet packet transform as the preprocessing, and the wavelet packet transformed signal uses least mean square algorithm to implement the adaptive beamforming. White noise can be wiped off under wavelet packet transform according to the different characteristics of signal and white under the wavelet packet transform. Theoretical analysis and simulations demonstrate that the proposed WP-ABF algorithm converges faster than the conventional adaptive beamforming algorithm and the wavelet transform-based beamforming algorithm. Simulation results also reveal that the convergence of the algorithm relates closely to the wavelet base and series; that is, the algorithm convergence gets better with the increasing of series, and for the same series of wavelet base the convergence gets better with the increasing of regularity.
ATLAS proton-proton event containing two electrons and two muons
ATLAS Collaboration
2011-01-01
An event with two identified muons and two identified electrons from a proton- proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: one Z decays to two muons, the other to two electrons. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal. The two muons are picked out as red tracks penetrating right through the detector. The two electrons are picked out as green tracks in the central, inner detector, matching narrow green clusters of energy in the barrel part of the calorimeters. The inset at the bottom right shows a map of the energy seen in the detector: the two big yellow spikes correspond to the two electrons.
Study of two-electron jumps in relaxation of Coulomb glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergli, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern (Norway); Somoza, A.M.; Ortuno, M. [Departamento de Fisica - CIOyN, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)
2009-12-15
A long-standing debate in the theory of hopping insulators concerns the role of multi-electron transitions in the dynamics of the system. The natural assumption is that as temperature is lowered, two-electron transitions will play an increasingly important role since they provide a way of tunneling through additional energy barriers which would be energetically unfavorable as successive one-electron transitions. This was disputed in[1], but later it was seen in[2]. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear and deserves further attention. One point where the two approaches diverged was in the selection and weighting of the two-electron transitions relative to one-electron transitions. We present calculations of the transition rates to second order in the tunneling matrix element, which will be used in improved numerical studies. We compare results for only one-electron jumps with results including also two-electron jumps. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Role of Interactions in Electronic Structure of a Two-Electron Quantum Dot Molecule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Qing-Rui; XU Ying-Qiang; ZHANG Shi-Yong; NIU Zhi-Chuan
2004-01-01
@@ We have studied a two-electron quantum dot molecule in a magnetic field. The electron interaction is treated accurately by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix. We calculate two lowest energy levels of the two-electron quantum dot molecule in a magnetic field. Our results show that the electron interactions are significant, as they can change the total spin of the two-electron ground state of the system by adjusting the magnetic field between S = 0 and S = 1. The energy difference △E between the lowest S = 0 and S = 1 states is shown as a function of the axial magnetic field. We found that the energy difference between the lowest S = 0 and S = 1 states in the strong-B S = 0 state varies linearly. Our results provide a possible realization for a qubit to be fabricated by current growth techniques.
The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave
Best, R. W. B.
1999-01-01
In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite
Evidence for Langmuir wave collapse in the interplanetary plasma
Kellogg, Paul J.; Goetz, K.; Howard, R. L.; Monson, S. J.
1992-01-01
With the Fast Envelope Sampler part of the URAP experiment on Ulysses, there is observed much rapidly varying structure in plasma waves in the solar wind. Extremely narrow (1 ms) structures observed together with electrostatic Langmuir waves, as well as some broader Langmuir wave packets are discussed.
Lost Audio Packets Steganography: The First Practical Evaluation
Mazurczyk, Wojciech
2011-01-01
This paper presents first experimental results for an IP telephony-based steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets steganography). This method utilizes the fact that in typical multimedia communication protocols like RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol), excessively delayed packets are not used for the reconstruction of transmitted data at the receiver, i.e. these packets are considered useless and discarded. The results presented in this paper were obtained basing on a functional LACK prototype and show the method's impact on the quality of voice transmission. Achievable steganographic bandwidth for the different IP telephony codecs is also calculated.
Architectures of electro-optical packet switched networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berger, Michael Stubert
2004-01-01
and examines possible architectures for future high capacity networks with high capacity nodes. It is assumed that optics will play a key role in this scenario, and in this respect, the European IST research project DAVID aimed at proposing viable architectures for optical packet switching, exploiting the best......, Constraint Based Routing is examined, and the effect from taking the link load into account is evaluated. It is believed that electrical packet switching will satisfy demands in the coming years, and this work covers several aspects hereof. A new load balancing scheme for multipath packet switches...
SDRAM-based packet buffer model for high speed switches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert
2011-01-01
This article investigates the how the performance of SDRAM based packet buffering systems for high performance switches can be simulated using OPNET. In order to include the access pattern dependent performance of SDRAM modules in simulations, a custom SDRAM model is implemented in OPNET Modeller...... based on the specifications of a real-life DDR3-SDRAM chip. Based on this model the performance of different schemes for optimizing the performance of such a packet buffer can be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to find efficient schemes for memory mapping of the packet queues and I/O traffic...
IP Lookup as a Critical Functionality of Packet Processors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. G. Čiča
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Packet processing represents the most significant part of a router’s data plane and has a large impact on router’s scalability. Packet processing consists of many functions and some of them can become critical for the future router’s scalability. In this paper, the IP lookup as one of the most critical packet processing functions is analyzed to determine its impact on the Internet router’s scalability. Also, in this paper we propose a new modification of our previously proposed IP lookup algorithm BPFL.
A channel distortion model for video over lossy packet networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Jian-xin; GAO Zhen-ming; ZHANG Zhi-chao
2006-01-01
Error-resilient video communication over lossy packet networks is often designed and operated based on models for the effect of losses on the reconstructed video quality. This paper analyzes the channel distortion for video over lossy packet networks and proposes a new model that, compared to previous models, more accurately estimates the expected mean-squared error distortion for different packet loss patterns by accounting for inter-frame error propagation and the correlation between error frames. The accuracy of the proposed model is validated with JVT/H.264 encoded standard test sequences and previous frame concealment, where the proposed model provides an obvious accuracy gain over previous models.
FIFO Queueing Policies for Packets with Heterogeneous Processing
Kogan, Kirill; Nikolenko, Sergey I; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Tugaryov, Denis
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of managing a bounded size First-In-First-Out (FIFO) queue buffer, where each incoming unit-sized packet requires several rounds of processing before it can be transmitted out. Our objective is to maximize the total number of successfully transmitted packets. We consider both push-out (when the policy is permitted to drop already admitted packets) and non-push-out cases. In particular, we provide analytical guarantees for the throughput performance of our algorithms. We further conduct a comprehensive simulation study which experimentally validates the predicted theoretical behaviour.
Research on performance of multicasting in optical packet switched networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Liu; Yuefeng Ji; Lin Bai; Hongxiang Wang; Yongmei Sun
2009-01-01
@@ Different multicasting schemes in optical packet switched networks are discussed, including the parallel mode, serial mode, and hybrid mode multicasting schemes.Simulated modeling technique is applied to compare the network-level performance of the three multicasting schemes.A conclusion can be drawn from the results that since the hybrid-mode multicasting scheme can increase the multicast success ratio and reduce the packet retransmission times compared with the other two schemes, it is the best choice for delivering multicasting sessions in the optical packet switched networks.
A wave-mechanical model of incoherent neutron scattering II. Role of the momentum transfer
Frauenfelder, Hans; Young, Robert D.; Fenimore, Paul W.
2015-01-01
We recently introduced a wave-mechanical model for quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) in proteins. We call the model ELM for "Energy Landscape Model". We postulate that the spectrum of the scattered neutrons consists of lines of natural width shifted from the center by fluctuations. ELM is based on two facts: Neutrons are wave packets; proteins have low-lying substates that form the free-energy landscape (FEL). Experiments suggest that the wave packets are a few hundred micrometers long....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜娟; 葛玮; 李少波; 李艳秋; 程晶玲; 曾山鹰
2015-01-01
Objective To observe clinical curative ef ect and nursing methods of ultrasoniccombined treatment of hand eczema of the packet. Methods A total of 2014 January 2014 December out-patient and 174 cases of patients in hospital and randomized divided into two groups, observation group only smear Fu Yan Ning ointment, control group Fu Yan Ning ointment daub applied immediately ultrasonic introduction for 10min. Results The ef ective rate of control group is bet er than the observation group, there was statistical y significant dif erence ( <0.05). Conclusion Ultrasonic combined treatment of handeczema packet.%目的观察超声波导入联合封包治疗手部湿疹的疗效及护理措施的疗效。方法选取2014年1月~12月我科门诊及住院部患者174例，随机对照分为两组，观察组仅涂抹扶炎宁软膏，对照组涂抹扶炎宁软膏，立即应用超声波导入治疗10min。结果对照组有效率优于观察组，统计学有显著性差异(<0.05)。结论超声波导入联合封包治疗手部湿疹疗效肯定。
IMPLEMENTATION OF LABVIEW BASED PACKET LOGGER FOR ZIGBEE NETWORK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. UDAYA KUMAR,
2010-08-01
Full Text Available ZigBee is a wireless technology being deployed for wireless sensor networks. Low data rate personal area network applications like smart home automation, greenhouse monitoring and healthcare use ZigBee, a high level communication protocol as a standard to acquire the data. The data from the sensor nodes are monitored and logged using packet sniffer. The available sniffers in the market need additional hardware with dedicated software which costs more. Also the packet sniffer has to be compatible with the sensor node hardware. In this paper, sniffing of packets at the base station is implemented using LabView. With Texas Instruments Z-Accel Modules, a tree topology is established and temperature is monitored, logged with time stamping and packet data analysis is presented.
Stabilization of Networked Control System with Packet-Dropout
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hooman Sanatizadeh
2014-10-01
Secondly, by above method an inverted pendulum which was controlled in a network with delays, is controlled in a network through packet-dropouts. simulation results show the effectiveness of the above method.
Group-normalized processing of complex wavelet packets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石卓尔; 保铮
1997-01-01
Linear phase is not possible for real valued FIR QMF, while linear phase FIR biorthogonal wavelet filter banks make the mean squared error of the constructed signal exceed that of the quantization error. W Lawton’ s method for complex valued wavelets construction is extended to generate the complex valued compactly supported wavelet packets that are symmetrical and unitary orthogonal; then well-defined wavelet packets are chosen by the analysis remarks on their time-frequency characteristics. Since the traditional wavelel packets transform coefficients do not exactly represent the strength of signal components, a modified adaptive wavelets transform, group-normalized wavelet packet transform (GNWPT), is presented and utilized for target extraction from formidable clutter or noises with the time-frequency masking technique. The extended definition of lp-norm entropy improves the performance cf GNWPT. Similar method can also be applied to image enhancement, clutter and noise suppression, optimal detection
[Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge livestock grazing lawsuit : Information packet
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Packet of information from the Colorado Cattlemen's Association concerning the 1992 lawsuit filed against the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. The suit was...
Value of Optical Bypass in Packet Ring Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
This paper firstly examines the value of optical bypass scheme in packet ring networks. An Integer Linear Program (ILP) formulation is presented and analytical results under different traffic patterns are given.
Some Results on the Wavelet Packet Decomposition of Nonstationary Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Touati Sami
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Wavelet/wavelet packet decomposition has become a very useful tool in describing nonstationary processes. Important examples of nonstationary processes encountered in practice are cyclostationary processes or almost-cyclostationary processes. In this paper, we study the statistical properties of the wavelet packet decomposition of a large class of nonstationary processes, including in particular cyclostationary and almost-cyclostationary processes. We first investigate in a general framework, the existence and some properties of the cumulants of wavelet packet coefficients. We then study more precisely the almost-cyclostationary case, and determine the asymptotic distributions of wavelet packet coefficients. Finally, we particularize some of our results in the cyclostationary case before providing some illustrative simulations.
About empty waves, their effect, and the quantum theory
Wechsler, Sofia
2010-01-01
When a quantum object -- a particle as we call it in a non-rigorous way -- is described by a multi-branched wave- function, with the corresponding wave-packets occupying separated regions of the time-space, a frequently asked question is whether the quantum object is actually contained in only one of these wave-packets. If the answer is positive, then the other wave-packets are called in literature empty waves. The wave-packet containing the object is called a full wave, and is the only one that would produce a recording in a detector. A question immediately arising is whether the empty waves may also have an observable effect. Different works were dedicated to the elucidation of this question. None of them proved that the hypothesis of full/empty waves is correct - it may be that the Nature is indeed non-deterministic and the quantum object is not confined to one region of the space-time. All the works that proved that the empty waves have an effect, in fact, proved that if there exist full and empty waves, ...
Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)
2015-11-15
For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.
Relaxation and Dephasing in a Two-Electron 13C Nanotube Double Quantum Dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Churchill, H O H; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Harlow, J W;
2009-01-01
We use charge sensing of Pauli blockade (including spin and isospin) in a two-electron 13C nanotube double quantum dot to measure relaxation and dephasing times. The relaxation time T1 first decreases with a parallel magnetic field and then goes through a minimum in a field of 1.4 T. We attribute...
Observation and spectroscopy of a two-electron Wigner molecule in an ultraclean carbon nanotube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecker, S.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Secchi, A.;
2013-01-01
Two electrons on a string form a simple model system where Coulomb interactions are expected to play an interesting role. In the presence of strong interactions, these electrons are predicted to form a Wigner molecule, separating to the ends of the string. This spatial structure is believed...
Calculation of differential cross section for dielectronic recombination with two-electron uranium
Lyashchenko, Konstantin N
2016-01-01
Calculation of the differential cross section for the dielectronic recombination with two-electron uranium within the framework of QED is presented. The polarization of the emitted photon is investigated. The contributions of the Breit interaction and the interference of the photon multipoles are studied.
Dimensionality effect on two-electron energy spectrum: A fractional-dimension-based formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correa, R.; Gutiérrez, W.; Mikhailov, I. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Fulla, M.R. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840, Medellín (Colombia); Marín, J.H., E-mail: jhmarin@unal.edu.co [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840, Medellín (Colombia)
2015-07-17
We analyze the spectrum of two-electron quantum dot with anisotropic parabolic confinement by using the fractional-dimension formulation which allows us to reduce the two-particle problem to two equations for independent particles in an effective space with variable dimension, ranging between two and three for ellipsoidal-shaped quantum dots and between one and two for elliptical-shaped quantum disks. The dependencies of energy levels on the heterostructure sizes for quantum dots, disks and wires are presented. - Highlights: • We report the two-electron eigenenergies in a quantum dot with anisotropic parabolic confinement. • Our model is versatile enough to consider changes in the dimension space from 3 to 2 and 2 to 1. • The two-electron structure is calculated in integer and fractional dimensional spaces. • The two-electron energy structure is sensitive to the quantum dot size and morphology changes. • The electron–electron Coulomb interaction is strongly dependent on the space dimensionality.
Analysis of Transmissions Scheduling with Packet Fragmentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nir Menakerman
2001-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate a scheduling problem in which packets, or datagrams, may be fragmented. While there are a few applications to scheduling with datagram fragmentation, our model of the problem is derived from a scheduling problem present in data over CATV networks. In the scheduling problem datagrams of variable lengths must be assigned (packed into fixed length time slots. One of the capabilities of the system is the ability to break a datagram into several fragments. When a datagram is fragmented, extra bits are added to the original datagram to enable the reassembly of all the fragments. We convert the scheduling problem into the problem of bin packing with item fragmentation, which we define in the following way: we are asked to pack a list of items into a minimum number of unit capacity bins. Each item may be fragmented in which case overhead units are added to the size of every fragment. The cost associated with fragmentation renders the problem NP-hard, therefore an approximation algorithm is needed. We define a version of the well-known Next-Fit algorithm, capable of fragmenting items, and investigate its performance. We present both worst case and average case results and compare them to the case where fragmentation is not allowed.
Packet QoS level classifier based on optical binary priority comparison.
Song, Seoksu; Nguyen, Vancanh; Park, Jinwoo
2010-07-19
Next generation High-Speed optical packet switching networks require components capable of classifying incoming packet into the appropriate priority queue according to the service class of the packet. For the first time, we proposed an all-optical packet QoS (Quality of Service) level classifier employing a sequential binary packet priority comparator, which is implemented using the SOA-based optical logic gates. The performance of the optical binary packet priority comparator was verified experimentally at 1 Gbit/s showing that the proposed scheme can operate higher data rates. These packet level classifier structures are attractive for all-optical network and applications.
Performance improvement for optical packet switch with shared buffers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Junjie Yang; Qingji Zeng; Jie Li; Tong Ye; Guolong Zhu
2005-01-01
@@ In this paper, an inner wavelength method is proposed to enlarge buffering capacity of shared fiber delay line buffers. In addition, an optical packet switch called extended shared buffer type optical packet switch(extended SB-OPS) is proposed to realize the inner wavelength method. In order to further improve performance of extended SB-OPS, a greedy algorithm based on inner wavelength method is introduced.The performance of extended SB-OPS is evaluated by simulation experiments.
IMPROVEMENT OF TCAM-BASED PACKET CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Zhen; Zhang Jun; Rui Liyang; Sun Jun
2008-01-01
The feature of Ternary Content Addressable Memories (TCAMs) makes them particularly attractive for IP address lookup and packet classification applications in a router system. However, the limitations of TCAMs impede their utilization. In this paper, the solutions for decreasing the power consumption and avoiding entry expansion in range matching are addressed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed techniques can make some big improvements on the performance of TCAMs in IP address lookup and packet classification.
Embedded wavelet packet transform technique for texture compression
Li, Jin; Cheng, Po-Yuen; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
1995-09-01
A highly efficient texture compression scheme is proposed in this research. With this scheme, energy compaction of texture images is first achieved by the wavelet packet transform, and an embedding approach is then adopted for the coding of the wavelet packet transform coefficients. By comparing the proposed algorithm with the JPEG standard, FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard and the EZW scheme with extensive experimental results, we observe a significant improvement in the rate-distortion performance and visual quality.
Bandwidth and Detection of Packet Length Covert Channels
2011-03-01
hidden or covert information. This contrasts with methods like steganography , which refers to hiding information in content [4]. In this thesis, we...series of packets. Nair then used a technique that has been applied in steganography of images to compare the normal packet length vector to a covert...Papadopoulos, and J. Neil, “Eliminating steganography in internet traffic with active wardens,” in Information Hiding, ser. Lecture Notes in
Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;
2007-01-01
An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing....... An example of a nearterm application is given, and a comparison of routing technologies is made regarding their cost and reliability aspects....
Dynamics of coupled light waves and electron-acoustic waves.
Shukla, P K; Stenflo, L; Hellberg, M
2002-08-01
The nonlinear interaction between coherent light waves and electron-acoustic waves in a two-electron plasma is considered. The interaction is governed by a pair of equations comprising a Schrödinger-like equation for the light wave envelope and a driven (by the light pressure) electron-acoustic wave equation. The newly derived nonlinear equations are used to study the formation and dynamics of envelope light wave solitons and light wave collapse. The implications of our investigation to space and laser-produced plasmas are pointed out.
DESIGN OF AN ARRAYED WAVEGUIDE GRATINGS BASED OPTICAL PACKET SWITCH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VAIBHAV SHUKLA
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Optical packet switching is considered as the future of data transfer technologyin combination with middle-aged electronics. The biggest challenge encountered in optical packet switching is the lack of optical buffers for storing the contending packets. Therefore, for the contention resolution of packets, a temporary storage in terms of fiber delay lines is used. This task is accomplished by an optical packet switch. In this paper, a design modification in the AWGR (Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router is presented for improving the switch performance. The power budget analysis of the switch is also presented to estimate the sufficient power level of the switch. The obtained results clearly reveal that the architecture presented in this paper can be operated in micro-watts in comparison to the earlier optical switch which operates in milli watts regime. Finally, simulation results are presented to obtain packet loss probability and average delay. Even at the higher load of 0.6, the switch presented in this paper provides a very low loss probability (10^6 and delay remain within 2 slots.
TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis
Shepard, Timothy J.
1991-01-01
Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.
Hybrid single-packet IP traceback with low storage and high accuracy.
Yang, Ming Hour
2014-01-01
Traceback schemes have been proposed to trace the sources of attacks that usually hide by spoofing their IP addresses. Among these methods, schemes using packet logging can achieve single-packet traceback. But packet logging demands high storage on routers and therefore makes IP traceback impractical. For lower storage requirement, packet logging and packet marking are fused to make hybrid single-packet IP traceback. Despite such attempts, their storage still increases with packet numbers. That is why RIHT bounds its storage with path numbers to guarantee low storage. RIHT uses IP header's ID and offset fields to mark packets, so it inevitably suffers from fragment and drop issues for its packet reassembly. Although the 16-bit hybrid IP traceback schemes, for example, MORE, can mitigate the fragment problem, their storage requirement grows up with packet numbers. To solve the storage and fragment problems in one shot, we propose a single-packet IP traceback scheme that only uses packets' ID field for marking. Our major contributions are as follows: (1) our fragmented packets with tracing marks can be reassembled; (2) our storage is not affected by packet numbers; (3) it is the first hybrid single-packet IP traceback scheme to achieve zero false positive and zero false negative rates.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wessing, Henrik; Lavigne, B.; Sørensen, Brian Michael;
2004-01-01
We report on the combined effects of control electronics and a SOA as to suppress packet to packet power fluctuations. Associated to a SOA-MZI based 3R regenerator, we demonstrate a power dynamic range of 9 dB.......We report on the combined effects of control electronics and a SOA as to suppress packet to packet power fluctuations. Associated to a SOA-MZI based 3R regenerator, we demonstrate a power dynamic range of 9 dB....
Highly accurate wavefunctions for two-electron systems using two parameteres
Chauhan, Rabeet Singh
2015-01-01
It is shown for two electron atoms that ground-state wavefunctions of the form $\\Psi(\\vec{r_{1}}, \\vec{r_{2}})=\\phi(\\vec{r_{1}})\\phi(\\vec{r_{2}})(\\cosh ar_{1}+\\cosh ar_{2})(1+0.5 r_{12}e^{-b r_{12}})$ where $\\vec{r_{1}}$ and $\\vec{r_{2}}$ are the coordinates of two electrons and $r_{12}=|\\vec{r_{1}}-\\vec{r_{2}}|$, can be made highly accurate by optimizing $a$, $b$ and $\\phi$. This is done by solving a variationally derived equation for $\\phi$ for a given $a$ and $b$ and finding $a$ and $b$ so that the expectation value of the Hamiltonian is minimum. For the set $\\{a, b, \\phi\\}$ the values for various quantities obtained from the above wavefunction are compared with those given by $204$-parameter wavefunction of Koga et al. and are found to be matching quite accurately(within ppm) with them.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
King, Paul W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lubner, Carolyn E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mulder, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Peng [Duke University; Yuly, Jonathon [Duke University; Peters, John W. [Washington State University; Beratan, David N. [Duke University
2017-09-06
How can proteins drive two electrons from a redox active donor onto two acceptors at very different potentials and distances? And how can this transaction be conducted without dissipating very much energy or violating the laws of thermodynamics? Nature appears to have addressed these challenges by coupling thermodynamically uphill and downhill electron transfer reactions, using two-electron donor cofactors that have very different potentials for the removal of the first and second electron. Although electron bifurcation is carried out with near perfection from the standpoint of energy conservation and electron delivery yields, it is a biological energy transduction paradigm that has only come into focus recently. This Account provides an exegesis of the biophysical principles that underpin electron bifurcation.
Coulomb barrier and exchange interaction in dynamical two-electron systems
Gregoire, Maxwell; Lougovski, Pavel; Batelaan, Herman
2012-06-01
Recent electron sources can produce pulses containing multiple electrons that are confined both laterally and longitudinally. Given that the highest reported degeneracy for continuous sources of free electrons is about 10-4, it would be interesting to know the degeneracy for these pulsed sources. We previously studied one-dimensional two-electron degeneracy [1], and we now study three-dimensional two-electron degeneracy as a function of time. Our primary goal is to use this project as a necessary step to studying three-dimensional n-electron degeneracy. Our second goal is to develop a theory that predicts the outcome of Hasselbach's experiment demonstrating the Hanbury Brown-Twiss Effect [2] for free electrons.[4pt] [1] Lougovski P, and Batelaan H, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023417 (2011).[0pt] [2] Kiesel H, Renz A, and Hasselbach F, Nature. 418, 392-4 (2002).
Fourier transform technique in variational treatment of two-electron parabolic quantum dot
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S.(S)akiro(g)lu; A.Yildiz; (U).Dogan; K.Akgüng(o)r; H.Epik; Y.Ergün; H.Sarl; I.S(o)kmen
2009-01-01
In this work,we propose an efficient method of reducing the computational effort of variational calculation with a Hylleraas-like trial wavefunction.The method consists of introducing integral transforms for the terms as r12k exp (-λr12)which provide the calculation of the expectation value of energy and the relevant matrix elements to be done analytically over single-electron coordinates instead of Hylleraas coordinates.We have used this method to calculate the ground state energy of a two-electron system in a spherical dot and a disk-like quantum dot separately.Under parabolic confinement potential and within effective mass approximation size and shape effects of quantum dots on the ground state energy of two electrons have been investigated.The calculation shows that our results even with a small number of basis states axe in good agreement with previous theoretical results.
The structure of approximate two electron wavefunctions in intense laser driven ionization dynamics
Sato, Takeshi
2014-01-01
The structure of approximate two electron wavefunction is deeply investigated, both theoretically and numerically, in the strong-field driven ionization dynamics. Theoretical analyses clarify that for two electron singlet systems, the previously proposed time-dependent extended Hartree-Fock (TD-EHF) method [Phys. Rev. A 51, 3999 (1995)] is equivalent to the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method with two occupied orbitals. The latter wavefunction is further transformed into the natural expansion form, enabling the direct propagation of the natural orbitals (NOs). These methods, as well as the conventional time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method, are numerically assessed for the description of ionization dynamics of one-dimensional helium atom model. This numerical analysis (i) explains the reason behind the well-known failure of TDHF method to describe tunneling ionization, (ii) demonstrates the interpretive power of the TD-EHF wavefunction both in the original nonorthogonal and the NO-based ...
Computation of energy states of hydrogenic quantum dot with two-electrons
Yakar, Y.; Özmen, A.; ćakır, B.
2016-03-01
In this study we have investigated the electronic structure of the hydrogenic quantum dot with two electrons inside an impenetrable potential surface. The energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions of the ground and excited states of spherical quantum dot have been calculated by using the Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method, and the energies are investigated as a function of dot radius. The results show that as dot radius increases, the energy of quantum dot decreases.
Quantum Size Effects on Two Electrons and Two Holes in Double-Layer Quantum Dots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Wen-Fang; ZHU Wu
2002-01-01
We propose a procedure to solve exactly the Schrodinger equation for a system of two electrons and two holes in a double-layer quantum dot by using the method of few-body physics. The features of the low-lying spectra have been deduced based on symmetry. The binding energies of the ground state are obtained as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio σ for a few values of the quantum dot size.
Two-Electron Energy Spectrum in a Parabolic Quantum Dot Under a Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Wen-Fang
2003-01-01
Two interacting electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential under the influence of a perpendicular homo-geneous magnetic field are considered. The energies of two-electron quantum dots with the electron-LO-phonon couplingas a function of magnetic field are calculated. Calculations are made by using the method of few-body physics withinthe effective-mass approximation. Our results show that the electron-LO-phonon coupling effect is very important insemiconductor quantum dots.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)
2013-07-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.
Constrained traffic regulation in variable-length packet networks
Karumanchi, Ashok; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Rao, Kalyan; Talabattula, Srinivas
2004-02-01
The availability of high bandwidth in optical networks coupled with the evolution of applications such as video on demand and telemedicine create a clear need for providing quality-of-service (QoS) guarantees in optical networks. Proliferation of the IP-over-WDM model in these networks requires the network to provide QoS guarantees for variable-length packets. In this context, we address the problem of constrained traffic regulation--traffic regulation with buffer and delay constraints--in variable-length packet networks. We use the filtering theory under max-plus (max, +) algebra to address this problem. For a constrained traffic-regulation problem with maximum tolerable delay and maximum buffer size, the traffic regulator that generates g-regular output traffic minimizing the number of discarded packets is a concatenation of the f clipper and the minimal g regulator. f is a function of g, maximum delay, and maximum buffer size. The f clipper is a bufferless device, which drops the packets as necessary so that its output is f regular. The minimal g regulator is a buffered device that delays packets as necessary so that its output is g regular. The g regulator is a linear shift-invariant filter with impulse response g, under the (max, +) algebra.
Flood Avoidance Mechanisms for Bridged Resilient Packet Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pisai Setthawong; Surat Tanterdtid
2008-01-01
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR), or the Standard IEEE 802.17, is a new IP-based network technology proposed to replace SONET/SDH in metropolitan area networks. RPR is well-adapted to handle multimedia traffic and is efficient.However, when RPR networks are bridged, inter-ring packets, or packets with the destination on a remote RPR network other than on the source network, are flooded on the source and the destination networks, and also on the path of the intermediate networks between the source and the destination networks. This decreases the available bandwidth for othertraffic in those networks and is inefficient. As a result, we propose two solutions based on topology discovery, global topologydiscovery (GTD) and enhanced topology discovery (ETD), that prevent the flooding of inter-ring packets. GTD enables the bridges to determine the next-hop bridge for each destination. ETD enables the source node to determine a default ringlet,so that packets reach the next-hop bridge without flooding the source network. The proposed solutions were analyzed and the overhead bandwidth and stabilization time were shown to be bounded. Simulations performed showed that the proposed solutions successfully avoid flooding and achieve optimal efficiency in the intermediate and destination networks, and in the source networks with one bridge.
SECURE SERVICE DISCOVERY BASED ON PROBE PACKET MECHANISM FOR MANETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Pariselvam
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In MANETs, Service discovery process is always considered to be crucial since they do not possess a centralized infrastructure for communication. Moreover, different services available through the network necessitate varying categories. Hence, a need arises for devising a secure probe based service discovery mechanism to reduce the complexity in providing the services to the network users. In this paper, we propose a Secure Service Discovery Based on Probe Packet Mechanism (SSDPPM for identifying the DoS attack in MANETs, which depicts a new approach for estimating the level of trust present in each and every routing path of a mobile ad hoc network by using probe packets. Probing based service discovery mechanisms mainly identifies a mobile node’s genuineness using a test packet called probe that travels the entire network for the sake of computing the degree of trust maintained between the mobile nodes and it’s attributed impact towards the network performance. The performance of SSDPPM is investigated through a wide range of network related parameters like packet delivery, throughput, Control overhead and total overhead using the version ns-2.26 network simulator. This mechanism SSDPPM, improves the performance of the network in an average by 23% and 19% in terms of packet delivery ratio and throughput than the existing service discovery mechanisms available in the literature.
"Keeping each patient safe": quality safety teaching/learning packets.
Benezo, Chris; Gaudy, Doris; White, T Michael
2004-12-01
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) McKeesport developed a tool, the UPMC McKeesport Quality Safety Teaching/Learning Packet, to provide physicians, nurses, and therapists with a common language to address complex safety issues. Teaching/learning packets were developed to "keep each patient safe": by calling for help early; from falls and confusion; and from hospital-acquired infections (http://McKeesport.upmc.com/KeepingPatientsSafe.htm). In July 2002, the concept of calling for help early became a requirement at UPMC McKeesport. The code team was to be called for any significant change in status and for traditional code arrests. In 2004, a teaching/learning packet addressed the concepts of fall risk and acute (delirium) and chronic (dementia) confusion. Strategies were implemented to reduce the rate of falls through risk screening and interventions for falls and delirium. In April 2004, a teaching/learning packet was introduced to reduce hospital-acquired infections, and professionals were positioned to better address isolation, hand hygiene, central-line-associated bacteremia, Clostridium difficile, and appropriate antibiotic usage. Three quality safety teaching/learning packets, which provided the professionals in the organization with the common language (culture) to advance patient safety, accomplished rapid change and were well accepted by staff and physicians.
Integrated optical buffers for packet-switched networks
Burmeister, Emily Frances
Routers form the backbone of the Internet, directing data to the right locations with huge throughput capacity of terabits/second) and very few errors (1 error allowed in 1012 bits). However, as the Internet continues to grow rapidly, so must the capacity of electronic routers, thereby also growing in footprint and power consumption. The energy bill alone has developers looking for an alternate solution. Today's routers can only operate with electrical signals although Internet data is transmitted optically. This requires the data to be converted from the optical domain to the electrical domain and back again. Optical routers have the potential of saving in power by omitting these conversions, but have been held back in part by the lack of a practical optical memory device. This work presents the first integrated optical buffer for next generation optical packet-switched networks. Buffering is required in a router to move packets of data in order to avoid collisions between packets heading to the same destination at the same time. The device presented here uses an InP-based two-by-two switch with a silica waveguide delay to form a recirculating buffer. Packet storage was shown with 98% packet recovery for 5 circulations. Autonomous contention resolution was demonstrated with two buffered channels to show that the technology is a realistic solution for creating multiple element buffers on multiple router ports. This thesis proposes and demonstrates the first integrated optical random access memory, thereby making a great stride toward high capacity optical routers.
Tamilselvan, G M
2010-01-01
As the explosive growth of the ISM band usage continues, there are many scenarios where different systems operate in the same place at the same time. One of growing concerns is the coexistence of heterogeneous wireless network systems. For the successful deployment of mission-critical systems such as wireless sensor networks, it is required to provide a solution for the coexistence. In this paper, we propose a new scheme using inter packet delay for the coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4 LRWPAN and IEEE 802.11b WLAN. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, measurement and simulation study are conducted using Qualnet 4.5 simulation software. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in performance improvement for coexistence network of IEEE 802.15.4 for various topologies.
High Performance Ethernet Packet Processor Core for Next Generation Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raja Jitendra Nayaka
2012-10-01
Full Text Available As the demand for high speed Internet significantly increasing to meet the requirement of large datatransfers, real-time communication and High Definition ( HD multimedia transfer over IP, the IP basednetwork products architecture must evolve and change. Application specific processors require highperformance, low power and high degree of programmability is the limitation in many general processorbased applications. This paper describes the design of Ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoCwhich performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetizationclassification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance making itmore suitable for Next Generation Networks (NGN. Ethernet packet processor design can be configuredfor use with multiple projects targeted to a FPGA device the system is designed to support 1/10/20/40/100Gigabit links with a speed and performance advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulatedthe required functions in FPGA.
Foreign Material in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Cocaine Packets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurten Turkel Kucukmetin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. The most common cause of death in ‘body packers', people transporting drugs by ingesting a packet into the gastrointestinal tract, is acute drug toxicity from a ruptured packet. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center. Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient.
Optimization and Assessment of Wavelet Packet Decompositions with Evolutionary Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schell Thomas
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In image compression, the wavelet transformation is a state-of-the-art component. Recently, wavelet packet decomposition has received quite an interest. A popular approach for wavelet packet decomposition is the near-best-basis algorithm using nonadditive cost functions. In contrast to additive cost functions, the wavelet packet decomposition of the near-best-basis algorithm is only suboptimal. We apply methods from the field of evolutionary computation (EC to test the quality of the near-best-basis results. We observe a phenomenon: the results of the near-best-basis algorithm are inferior in terms of cost-function optimization but are superior in terms of rate/distortion performance compared to EC methods.
DIESEL ENGINES' VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNATURE EXTRACTION BY WAVELET PACKET TECHNIQUE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹剑; 陈进; 邹军; 耿遵敏
2002-01-01
Multisource unstable impulsive excitations, time-varying transmission path, concentrated mode, dispersion and reverberation that are important characteristics of reciprocating machines such as diesel engines result in wide-band non-stationary vibroacoustic responses which influence the effective extraction of vibroacoustic signatures and become a key factor to limit diesel engines' vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a serial theoretical deduction on the unstable dynamic properties of diesel engines was made; the mechanism of non-stationary vibroacoustic responses was elucidated. Based upon that, the wavelet packet technique was introduced. The reason for the existence of frequency aliasing in the Paley series from wavelet packets' decomposition was analyzed, and the wavelet packet frequency-shifting algorithm was given. Experiments on 190 serial diesel engines verify the given method's significant validity in vibroacoustic signature extraction and reciprocating machines' vibration diagnosis.
New packet scheduling algorithm in wireless CDMA data networks
Wang, Yu; Gao, Zhuo; Li, Shaoqian; Li, Lemin
2002-08-01
The future 3G/4G wireless communication systems will provide internet access for mobile users. Packet scheduling algorithms are essential for QoS of diversified data traffics and efficient utilization of radio spectrum.This paper firstly presents a new packet scheduling algorithm DSTTF under the assumption of continuous transmission rates and scheduling intervals for CDMA data networks . Then considering the constraints of discrete transmission rates and fixed scheduling intervals imposed by the practical system, P-DSTTF, a modified version of DSTTF, is brought forward. Both scheduling algorithms take into consideration of channel condition, packet size and traffic delay bounds. The extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling algorithms are superior to some typical ones in current research. In addition, both static and dynamic wireless channel model of multi-level link capacity are established. These channel models sketch better the characterizations of wireless channel than two state Markov model widely adopted by the current literature.
Detection and Defense Against Packet Drop Attack in MANET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tariq Ahamad
2016-02-01
Full Text Available MANET is a temporary network for a specified work and with the enormous growth MANETs it is becoming important and simultaneously challenging to protect this network from attacks and other threats. Packet drop attack or gray hole attack is the easiest way to make a denial of service in these dynamic networks. In this attack the malicious node reflects itself as the shortest path and receives all the packets and drops the selected packets in order to give the user the service that that is not correct. It is a specific kind of attack and protects the network and user from detecting this malicious activity. In this article I have proposed an efficient for step technique that confirms that this attack can be detected and defended with least efforts and resource consumption.
Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul
1979-01-01
The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...... the wavepacket, (ii) the number of oscillations in the temporally observed packet is not identical with that in the spatially observed packet and (iii) continuously modulated waves exhibit recurrence of modulation. The experimental results agree with both a simple analysis based on the Schrodinger equation...
Fast Packet Classification Using Multi-Dimensional Encoding
Huang, Chi Jia; Chen, Chien
Internet routers need to classify incoming packets quickly into flows in order to support features such as Internet security, virtual private networks and Quality of Service (QoS). Packet classification uses information contained in the packet header, and a predefined rule table in the routers. Packet classification of multiple fields is generally a difficult problem. Hence, researchers have proposed various algorithms. This study proposes a multi-dimensional encoding method in which parameters such as the source IP address, destination IP address, source port, destination port and protocol type are placed in a multi-dimensional space. Similar to the previously best known algorithm, i.e., bitmap intersection, multi-dimensional encoding is based on the multi-dimensional range lookup approach, in which rules are divided into several multi-dimensional collision-free rule sets. These sets are then used to form the new coding vector to replace the bit vector of the bitmap intersection algorithm. The average memory storage of this encoding is Θ (L · N · log N) for each dimension, where L denotes the number of collision-free rule sets, and N represents the number of rules. The multi-dimensional encoding practically requires much less memory than bitmap intersection algorithm. Additionally, the computation needed for this encoding is as simple as bitmap intersection algorithm. The low memory requirement of the proposed scheme means that it not only decreases the cost of packet classification engine, but also increases the classification performance, since memory represents the performance bottleneck in the packet classification engine implementation using a network processor.
Observer-based H∞ control over packet dropping networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A new controller design problem of networked control systems with packet dropping is proposed. Depending on the place that the observer is put in the system, the network control systems with packet dropping are modeled as stochastic systems with the random variables satisfying the Bernoulli random binary distribution. The observer-based controller is designed to stabilize the networked system in the sense of mean square, and the prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level is achieved. The controller design problem is formulated as the feasibility of the convex optimization problem, which can be solved by a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Multicasting in a WDM-upgraded Resilient Packet Ring
Scheutzow, Michael; Seeling, Patrick; Maier, Martin; Reisslein, Martin
2007-05-01
The recently approved IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) network deteriorates under multicast traffic to legacy ring technologies that do not support spatial reuse. We extend our multicast approach with spatial reuse from a currently single-channel RPR to WDM-upgraded multichannel RPR networks, where each node can transmit packets on all wavelengths and receive on one wavelength, and analyze their multicast capacity. Our analysis provides a convenient method for evaluating the multicast and reception capacities of WDM-upgraded RPR networks for a wide range of uniform unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic scenarios.
An Improved Dynamic Probabilistic Packet Marking for IP Traceback
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiao Yan
2010-12-01
Full Text Available An improved dynamic probabilistic packet marking algorithm named IDPPM is presented, which not only can locate and attack a source rapidly and accurately, but also can reduce the marking overhead of routers near the attackers, which is its greatest contribution given by our technique. In contrast to previous work, the challenge of weakest node and weakest link is solved with the price of a little more numbers of packets to reconstruct the attack path. Theoretical analysis and NS2 simulation results in IPv4 and IPv6 testify that the approach is feasible and efficient respectively.
Frustrated double and single ionization in a two-electron triatomic molecule H$^+_3$
Chen, A; Price, H; Emmanouilidou, A
2016-01-01
Using a semi-classical model, we study the formation of highly excited neutral fragments during the fragmentation of $\\mathrm{H_3^+}$, a two-electron triatomic molecule, driven by an intense near-IR laser field. To do so, we first formulate a microcanonical distribution for arbitrary one-electron triatomic molecules. We then study frustrated double and single ionization in strongly-driven $\\mathrm{H_3^+}$ and compute the kinetic energy release of the nuclei for these two processes. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of frustrated ionization on the strength of the laser field as well as on the geometry of the initial molecular state.
Analytic derivatives for the Cholesky representation of the two-electron integrals.
Aquilante, Francesco; Lindh, Roland; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo
2008-07-21
We propose a formalism for calculating analytic derivatives of the electronic energy with respect to nuclear coordinates using Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals. The formalism is derived by exploiting the equivalence of Cholesky decomposition and density fitting when a suitable auxiliary basis set is used for expanding atomic orbital product densities in the latter. An implementation of gradients at the nonhybrid density functional theory level is presented, and sample calculations demonstrate that the errors in equilibrium geometries due to the Cholesky representation of the integrals can be controlled by adjusting the decomposition threshold.
Effect of Coulomb Interaction on Dynamical Localization in a Two-Electron Quantum-Dot Molecule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Li-Min; DUAN Su-Qing; ZHAO Xian-Geng; LIU Cheng-Shi
2004-01-01
The combined interaction of Coulomb interaction and ac fields with two electrons in a quantum dot molecule is studied respectively with numerical simulation, perturbation theory and the approximation of driven two-level model. The dynamical localization occurs with the ac field whose ratio of the amplitude to the angular frequency is a root of n-order Bessel functions, where n is determined by the Coulomb interaction energy. Such results are explained with either the driven two-level approximation or the degenerated three-level model and verified by the numerical simulations.
Dynamic Localization Condition of Two Electrons in a Strong dc-ac Biased Quantum Dot Molecule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Li-Min; DUAN Su-Qing; ZHAO Xian-Geng; LIU Cheng-Shi
2004-01-01
@@ We present a perturbation investigation of dynamic localization condition of two electrons in a strong dc-ac biased quantum dot molecule. By reducing the system to an Hubbard-type effective two-site model and by applying Floquet theory, we find that the dynamical localization phenomenon occurs under certain values of the large strength of the dc and ac field. This demonstrates the possibility of using appropriate dc-ac fields to manipulate dynamical localized states in mesoscopic devices, which is an essential component of practical schemes for quantum information processing. Our conclusion is instructive to the field of quantum function devices.
Two-electron Oxidation of a Twisted Non Anti-aromatic 40π Expanded Isophlorin
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
PRACHI GUPTA; SANTOSH P PANCHAL; VENKATARAMANARAO G ANAND
2016-11-01
Expanded isophlorins are typical examples for stable anti-aromatic systems. Paratropic ring current effects are observed in their NMR spectra mainly due to their planar conformation. Herein we report the synthesis of the first twisted 40π expanded isophlorin and also its two-electron oxidation to a 38π dication. It sustains the twisted conformation for the 4nπ and (4n+2)π electrons. Due to the non-planar conformation, they do not display ring current effects in their respective 1H NMR spectrum. NICS calculations reveal the non-(anti)aromatic features for the neutral 40π and the 38π dication species.