Numerical model for two-dimensional hydrodynamics and energy transport. [VECTRA code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trent, D.S.
1973-06-01
The theoretical basis and computational procedure of the VECTRA computer program are presented. VECTRA (Vorticity-Energy Code for TRansport Analysis) is designed for applying numerical simulation to a broad range of intake/discharge flows in conjunction with power plant hydrological evaluation. The code computational procedure is based on finite-difference approximation of the vorticity-stream function partial differential equations which govern steady flow momentum transport of two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous fluids in conjunction with the transport of heat and other constituents.
Simulation study of scalings in scrape-off layer plasma by two-dimensional transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, S.-I.; Ueda, Noriaki; Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan))
1990-07-01
Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma and divertor plasma in Tokamaks were numerically analyzed using a two-dimensional time-dependent transport code (UEDA code). Plasma transport in the SOL and the divertor region was studied for given particle and heat sources from the main plasma. A scaling study of the density, the temperature and their fall-off lengths was carried out for the JFT-2M Tokamak. The results show the inter-relations between the divertor plasma parameters and core plasma confinement. The operational conditions of the core necessary to guarantee the divertor performance are discussed. (author).
Parallel processing method for two-dimensional Sn transport code DOT3.5
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uematsu, Mikio [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)
1998-03-01
A parallel processing method for the two-dimensional Sn transport code DOT3.5 has been developed to achieve drastic reduction of computation time. In the proposed method, parallelization is made with angular domain decomposition and/or space domain decomposition. Calculational speedup for parallel processing by angular domain decomposition is achieved by minimizing frequency of communications between processing elements. As for parallel processing by space domain decomposition, two-step rescaling method consisting of segmentwise rescaling and the ordinary pointwise rescaling have been developed to accelerate convergence, which will otherwise be degraded because of discontinuity at the segment boundaries. The developed method was examined with a Sun workstation using the PVM message-passing library, and sufficient speedup was observed. (author)
Two-dimensional transport study of scrape off layer plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Nobuyuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Advanced Energy Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1999-09-01
Two-dimensional transport code is developed to analyzed the heat pulse propagation in the scrape-off layer plasma. The classical and anomalous transport models are considered as a thermal diffusivity perpendicular to the magnetic field. On the other hand, the classical transport model is chosen as a thermal diffusivity parallel to the magnetic field. The heat deposition profiles are evaluated for various kinds of transport models. It is found that the heat pulse which arrives at the divertor plate due to the classical transport is largest compared with other models. The steady state temperate profiles of the electron and ion are also discussed. (author)
Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laursen, Torben Vaarbye
2006-01-01
for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower....... The important concept of entropy is introduced. In general, the entropy of a constrained field is not readily computable, but we give a series of upper and lower bounds based on one dimensional techniques. We discuss the use of a Pickard probability model for constrained fields. The novelty lies in using...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...
Two-Dimensional Tail-Biting Convolutional Codes
Alfandary, Liam
2011-01-01
The multidimensional convolutional codes are an extension of the notion of convolutional codes (CCs) to several dimensions of time. This paper explores the class of two-dimensional convolutional codes (2D CCs) and 2D tail-biting convolutional codes (2D TBCCs), in particular, from several aspects. First, we derive several basic algebraic properties of these codes, applying algebraic methods in order to find bijective encoders, create parity check matrices and to inverse encoders. Next, we discuss the minimum distance and weight distribution properties of these codes. Extending an existing tree-search algorithm to two dimensions, we apply it to find codes with high minimum distance. Word-error probability asymptotes for sample codes are given and compared with other codes. The results of this approach suggest that 2D TBCCs can perform better than comparable 1D TBCCs or other codes. We then present several novel iterative suboptimal algorithms for soft decoding 2D CCs, which are based on belief propagation. Two ...
UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟
2003-01-01
In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.
Consistent theory of turbulent transport in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics.
Kim, Eun-jin
2006-03-03
A theory of turbulent transport is presented in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics with background shear and magnetic fields. We provide theoretical predictions for the transport of magnetic flux, momentum, and particles and turbulent intensities, which show stronger reduction compared with the hydrodynamic case, with different dependences on shearing rate, magnetic field, and values of viscosity, Ohmic diffusion, and particle diffusivity. In particular, particle transport is more severely suppressed than momentum transport, effectively leading to a more efficient momentum transport. The role of magnetic fields in quenching transport without altering the amplitude of flow velocity and in inhibiting the generation of shear flows is elucidated. Implications of the results are discussed.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-11-14
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2014-11-01
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
New Two-dimensional Modified Quadratic Congruence Code/Optical Orthogonal Code for OCDMA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dong; QIU Luo-lin; ZHANG Jin-rong; TANG Xian-lun; CAO Chang-xiu
2007-01-01
A new family of two-dimensional optical orthogonal code(2-DOOC), namely, modified quadratic congruence code(MQCC )/optical orthogonal code(OOC) is proposed who employs MQCC and OOC as wavelength hopping and time-spreading patterns, respectively. Through analyzing the performance of MQCC/OOC, we can see that the correlation properties of the MQCC/OOC are still ideal. Simultaneously, our analysis shows that the proposed new code families can get more cardinalities than other codes and can improve the bit error rate(BER) of optical code division multiple access(OCDMA) effectively.
Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder
Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S
2013-01-01
Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.
Transport of Bose-Einstein condensates through two dimensional cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartmann, Timo
2015-06-01
The recent experimental advances in manipulating ultra-cold atoms make it feasible to study coherent transport of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) through various mesoscopic structures. In this work the quasi-stationary propagation of BEC matter waves through two dimensional cavities is investigated using numerical simulations within the mean-field approach of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The focus is on the interplay between interference effects and the interaction term in the non-linear wave equation. One sees that the transport properties show a complicated behaviour with multi-stability, hysteresis and dynamical instabilities for non-vanishing interaction. Furthermore, the prominent weak localization effect, which is a robust interference effect emerging after taking a configuration average, is reduced and partially inverted for non-vanishing interaction.
Intensity Coding in Two-Dimensional Excitable Neural Networks
Copelli, Mauro
2016-01-01
In the light of recent experimental findings that gap junctions are essential for low level intensity detection in the sensory periphery, the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automaton is employed to model the response of a two-dimensional sensory network to external stimuli. We show that excitable elements (sensory neurons) that have a small dynamical range are shown to give rise to a collective large dynamical range. Therefore the network transfer (gain) function (which is Hill or Stevens law-like) is an emergent property generated from a pool of small dynamical range cells, providing a basis for a "neural psychophysics". The growth of the dynamical range with the system size is approximately logarithmic, suggesting a functional role for electrical coupling. For a fixed number of neurons, the dynamical range displays a maximum as a function of the refractory period, which suggests experimental tests for the model. A biological application to ephaptic interactions in olfactory nerve fascicles is proposed.
Nonlinear transport in a two dimensional holographic superconductor
Zeng, Hua Bi; Tian, Yu; Fan, Zhe Yong; Chen, Chiang-Mei
2016-06-01
The problem of nonlinear transport in a two-dimensional superconductor with an applied oscillating electric field is solved by the holographic method. The complex conductivity can be computed from the dynamics of the current for both the near- and nonequilibrium regimes. The limit of weak electric field corresponds to the near-equilibrium superconducting regime, where the charge response is linear and the conductivity develops a gap determined by the condensate. A larger electric field drives the system into a superconducting nonequilibrium steady state, where the nonlinear conductivity is quadratic with respect to the electric field. Increasing the amplitude of the applied electric field results in a far-from-equilibrium nonsuperconducting steady state with a universal linear conductivity of one. In the lower temperature regime we also find chaotic behavior of the superconducting gap, which results in a nonmonotonic field-dependent nonlinear conductivity.
Nonlinear Transport in a Two Dimensional Holographic Superconductor
Zeng, Hua Bi; Fan, Zhe Yong; Chen, Chiang-Mei
2016-01-01
The problem of nonlinear transport in a two dimensional superconductor with an applied oscillating electric field is solved by the holographic method. The complex conductivity can be computed from the dynamics of the current for both near- and non-equilibrium regimes. The limit of weak electric field corresponds to the near equilibrium superconducting regime, where the charge response is linear and the conductivity develops a gap determined by the condensate. A larger electric field drives the system into a superconducting non-equilibrium steady state, where the nonlinear conductivity is quadratic with respect to the electric field. Keeping increasing the amplitude of applied electric field results in a far-from-equilibrium non-superconducting steady state with a universal linear conductivity of one. In lower temperature regime we also find chaotic behavior of superconducting gap, which results in a non-monotonic field dependent nonlinear conductivity.
Two-dimensional QR-coded metamaterial absorber
Sui, Sai; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo
2016-01-01
In this paper, the design of metamaterial absorbers is proposed based on QR coding and topology optimization. Such absorbers look like QR codes and can be recognized by decoding softwares as well as mobile phones. To verify the design, two lightweight wideband absorbers are designed, which can achieve wideband absorption above 90 % in 6.68-19.30 and 7.00-19.70 GHz, respectively. More importantly, polarization-independent absorption over 90 % can be maintained under incident angle within 55°. The QR code absorber not only can achieve wideband absorption, but also can carry information such as texts and Web sites. They are of important values in applications such identification and electromagnetic protection.
Bounds on the Capacity of Weakly constrained two-dimensional Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren
2002-01-01
Upper and lower bounds are presented for the capacity of weakly constrained two-dimensional codes. The maximum entropy is calculated for two simple models of 2-D codes constraining the probability of neighboring 1s as an example. For given models of the coded data, upper and lower bounds...
Luukko, P J J
2013-01-01
We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy.
2013-01-01
We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. ...
Equipartition and transport in two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Nycander, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1998-01-01
of the magnetic field. Numerical solutions of the model equations on a bounded domain with sources and sinks show that the flux-driven turbulent fluctuations give rise to up-gradient transport, a “pinch flux,” of heat or particles. The averaged equilibrium density and temperature profiles approach n∼B and T∼B2...
Steinke, Ronald J.
1989-01-01
The Rai ROTOR1 code for two-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow analysis was applied to a supersonic throughflow fan stage design. The axial Mach number for this fan design increases from 2.0 at the inlet to 2.9 at the outlet. The Rai code uses overlapped O- and H-grids that are appropriately packed. The Rai code was run on a Cray XMP computer; then data postprocessing and graphics were performed to obtain detailed insight into the stage flow. The large rotor wakes uniformly traversed the rotor-stator interface and dispersed as they passed through the stator passage. Only weak blade shock losses were computerd, which supports the design goals. High viscous effects caused large blade wakes and a low fan efficiency. Rai code flow predictions were essentially steady for the rotor, and they compared well with Chima rotor viscous code predictions based on a C-grid of similar density.
Mechanical transport in two-dimensional networks of fractures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endo, H.K.
1984-04-01
The objectives of this research are to evaluate directional mechanical transport parameters for anisotropic fracture systems, and to determine if fracture systems behave like equivalent porous media. The tracer experiments used to measure directional tortuosity, longitudinal geometric dispersivity, and hydraulic effective porosity are conducted with a uniform flow field and measurements are made from the fluid flowing within a test section where linear length of travel is constant. Since fluid flow and mechanical transport are coupled processes, the directional variations of specific discharge and hydraulic effective porosity are measured in regions with constant hydraulic gradients to evaluate porous medium equivalence for the two processes, respectively. If the fracture region behaves like an equivalent porous medium, the system has the following stable properties: (1) specific discharge is uniform in any direction and can be predicted from a permeability tensor; and (2) hydraulic effective porosity is directionally stable. Fracture systems with two parallel sets of continuous fractures satisfy criterion 1. However, in these systems hydraulic effective porosity is directionally dependent, and thus, criterion 2 is violated. Thus, for some fracture systems, fluid flow can be predicted using porous media assumptions, but it may not be possible to predict transport using porous media assumptions. Two discontinuous fracture systems were studied which satisfied both criteria. Hydraulic effective porosity for both systems has a value between rock effective porosity and total porosity. A length-density analysis (LDS) of Canadian fracture data shows that porous media equivalence for fluid flow and transport is likely when systems have narrow aperture distributions. 54 references, 90 figures, 7 tables.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
required. Nature of problem: In inertial confinement fusion and related experiments with lasers and particle beams, energy transport by thermal radiation becomes important. Under these conditions, the radiation field strongly interacts with the hydrodynamic motion through emission and absorption processes. Solution method: The equations of radiation transfer coupled with Lagrangian hydrodynamics, heat diffusion and beam tracing (laser or ions) are solved, in two-dimensional axial-symmetric geometry ( R-Z coordinates) using a fractional step scheme. Radiation transfer is solved with angular resolution. Matter properties are either interpolated from tables (equations-of-state and opacities) or computed by user routines (conductivities and beam attenuation). Restrictions: The code has been designed for typical conditions prevailing in inertial confinement fusion (ns time scale, matter states close to local thermodynamical equilibrium, negligible radiation pressure, …). Although a wider range of situations can be treated, extrapolations to regions beyond this design range need special care. Unusual features: A special computer language, called r94, is used at top levels of the code. These parts have to be converted to standard C by a translation program (supplied as part of the package). Due to the complexity of code (hydro-code, grid generation, user interface, graphic post-processor, translator program, installation scripts) extensive manuals are supplied as part of the package. Running time: 567 seconds for the example supplied.
Proton transport in a membrane protein channel: two-dimensional infrared spectrum modeling.
Liang, C.; Knoester, J.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.
2012-01-01
We model the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectrum of a proton channel to investigate its applicability as a spectroscopy tool to study the proton transport process in biological systems. Proton transport processes in proton channels are involved in numerous fundamental biochemical reactions. How
A Two-Dimensional Fem Code for Impedance Calculation in High Frequency Domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Lanfa; /SLAC; Lee, Lie-Quan; /SLAC; Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC
2010-08-25
A new method, using the parabolic equation (PE), for the calculation of both high-frequency impedances of small-angle taper (or collimator) is developed in [1]. One of the most important advantages of the PE approach is that it eliminates the spatial scale of the small wavelength from the problem. As a result, only coarser spatial meshes are needed in calculating the numerical solution of the PE. We developed a new code based on Finite Element Method (FEM) which can handle arbitrary profile of a transition and speed up the calculation by orders of magnitude. As a first step, we completed and benchmarked a two-dimensional code. It can be upgraded to three-dimensional geometry.
Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.
2013-03-01
We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy. Catalogue identifier: AENR_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11310 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97720 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ and Python. Computer: Tested on x86 and x86-64 architectures. Operating system: Tested under Linux with the g++ compiler. Any POSIX-compliant OS with a C++ compiler and the required external routines should suffice. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, with OpenMP. RAM: 1 MB or more, depending on system size. Classification: 7.3. External routines: FFTW3 (http://www.fftw.org), CBLAS (http://netlib.org/blas), LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack), HDF5 (http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5), OpenMP (http://openmp.org), TCLAP (http://tclap.sourceforge.net), Python (http://python.org), Google Test (http://code.google.com/p/googletest/) Nature of problem: Numerical calculation
Schapers, T; Nitta, J; Heersche, HB; Takayanagi, H
2002-01-01
The spin dependent conductance of a ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas ferromagnet structure is theoretically examined in the ballistic transport regime. It is shown that the spin signal can be improved considerably by making use of the spin filtering effect of a barrier at the ferromagnet two
Spin and charge transport in a gated two dimensional electron gas
Lerescu, Alexandru Ionut
2007-01-01
The work presented in this thesis is centered around the idea of how one can inject, transport and detect the electron's spin in a two dimensional electron gas (a semiconductor heterostructure). Metal based spintronic devices have been established to be the easy way to implement spintronic concepts
Spin-polarized transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with interdigital-ferromagnetic contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, C.-M.; Nitta, Junsaku; Jensen, Ane
2001-01-01
Ferromagnetic contacts on a high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a narrow gap semiconductor with strong spin-orbit interaction are used to investigate spin-polarized electron transport. We demonstrate the use of magnetized contacts to preferentially inject and detect specific spin...
Two-Dimensional Core-Collapse Supernova Models with Multi-Dimensional Transport
Dolence, Joshua C; Zhang, Weiqun
2014-01-01
We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant $\\mathcal{O}(v/c)$ terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate $\\mathcal{O}(v/c)$ terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 milliseconds after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ``ray-by-ray' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ``ray-by-ray' calculations greatly exaggerate the ...
A two-dimensional mutate-and-map strategy for non-coding RNA structure
Kladwang, Wipapat; Vanlang, Christopher C.; Cordero, Pablo; Das, Rhiju
2011-12-01
Non-coding RNAs fold into precise base-pairing patterns to carry out critical roles in genetic regulation and protein synthesis, but determining RNA structure remains difficult. Here, we show that coupling systematic mutagenesis with high-throughput chemical mapping enables accurate base-pair inference of domains from ribosomal RNA, ribozymes and riboswitches. For a six-RNA benchmark that has challenged previous chemical/computational methods, this ‘mutate-and-map’ strategy gives secondary structures that are in agreement with crystallography (helix error rates, 2%), including a blind test on a double-glycine riboswitch. Through modelling of partially ordered states, the method enables the first test of an interdomain helix-swap hypothesis for ligand-binding cooperativity in a glycine riboswitch. Finally, the data report on tertiary contacts within non-coding RNAs, and coupling to the Rosetta/FARFAR algorithm gives nucleotide-resolution three-dimensional models (helix root-mean-squared deviation, 5.7 Å) of an adenine riboswitch. These results establish a promising two-dimensional chemical strategy for inferring the secondary and tertiary structures that underlie non-coding RNA behaviour.
EMC/FDTD/MD simulation of carrier transport and electrodynamics in two-dimensional electron systems
Sule, N.; Willis, K. J.; Hagness, S. C.; Knezevic, I.
2014-01-01
We present the implementation and application of a multiphysics simulation technique to carrier dynamics under electromagnetic excitation in supported two-dimensional electronic systems. The technique combines ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) for carrier transport with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) for short-range Coulomb interactions among particles. We demonstrate the use of this EMC/FDTD/MD technique by calculating the room-temperature dc an...
Modeling A.C. Electronic Transport through a Two-Dimensional Quantum Point Contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aronov, I.E.; Beletskii, N.N.; Berman, G.P.; Campbell, D.K.; Doolen, G.D.; Dudiy, S.V.
1998-12-07
We present the results on the a.c. transport of electrons moving through a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor quantum point contact (QPC). We concentrate our attention on the characteristic properties of the high frequency admittance ({omega}{approximately}0 - 50 GHz), and on the oscillations of the admittance in the vicinity of the separatrix (when a channel opens or closes), in presence of the relaxation effects. The experimental verification of such oscillations in the admittance would be a strong confirmation of the semi-classical approach to the a.c. transport in a QPC, in the separatrix region.
The Two-dimensional Code QR Code Encoding of Principle and Realization%二维条码QR Code编码原理及实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄吉兰
2013-01-01
In the implementation of the two-dimensional code encoding, to analysis QR Code structure of the two-dimensional barcode, the encoding step, the encoding principle and the Reed-Solomon algorithm, for instance,in digital mode,according to QR Code coding theory to describes how to achieve the two-dimensional code QR Code encoding, error correction and other functions. In the VC++ programming environment, achieved the two-dimensional code QR Code program designed, by the testing repeatedly for the two-dimensional coding program.%在二维码编码的实现过程中,分析了QR Code二维条码的结构、编码步骤、编码原理和Reed-Solomon算法,并以数字模式为实例按照QR Code编码原理直观的描述了实现二维码QR Code的编码、纠错等功能.采用VC++的编程环境,通过对二维码编码程序反复测试,实现了二维码QR Code的编码程序设计.
Neutronics code VALE for two-dimensional triagonal (hexagonal) and three-dimensional geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.
1981-08-01
This report documents the computer code VALE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with the diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport for a triagonal arrangement of mesh points on planes in two- and three-dimensional geometry. This code parallels the VENTURE neutronics code in the local computation system, making exposure and fuel management capabilities available. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by Reactor Physics RRT Division of the US DOE. The programming in FORTRAN is straightforward, although data is transferred in blocks between auxiliary storage devices and main core, and direct access schemes are used. The size of problems which can be handled is essentially limited only by cost of calculation since the arrays are variably dimensioned. The memory requirement is held down while data transfer during iteration is increased only as necessary with problem size. There is provision for the more common boundary conditions including the repeating boundary, 180/sup 0/ rotational symmetry, and the rotational symmetry conditions for the 30/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/, and 120/sup 0/ triangular grids on planes. A variety of types of problems may be solved: the usual neutron flux eignevalue problem, or a direct criticality search on the buckling, on a reciprocal velocity absorber (prompt mode), or on nuclide concentrations. The adjoint problem and fixed source problem may be solved, as well as the dominating higher harmonic, or the importance problem for an arbitrary fixed source.
Spin transport of the frustrated quasi-two-dimensional XY-like antiferromagnet
Lima, L. S.
2017-01-01
We use the Self Consistent Harmonic Approximation together with the Kubo formalism of the Linear Response Theory to study the spin transport in the two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a square lattice with easy-plane ion single anisotropy. The regular part of the spin conductivity σreg(ω) is determined for several values of the critical ion single parameter Dc, that separates the low D region from the large D quantum paramagnetic phase. We have obtained an abrupt change in the spin conductivity in the discontinuity points of the graphic Dc vs. η, where the system presents a quantum phase transition.
Photon-assisted spin transport in a two-dimensional electron gas
Fistul, M. V.; Efetov, K. B.
2007-01-01
We study spin-dependent transport in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to an external step-like potential $V(x)$ and irradiated by an electromagnetic field (EF). In the absence of EF the electronic spectrum splits into spin sub-bands originating from the "Rashba" spin-orbit coupling. We show that the resonant interaction of propagating electrons with the component EF parallel to the barrier induces a \\textit{% non-equilibrium dynamic gap} $(2\\Delta_{R})$ between the spin sub-bands. Exist...
Transport properties of magnetic-codoped two-dimensional hole system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knott, Stefan; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Hansen, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)
2009-07-01
The interaction of localized magnetic moments with a two dimensional hole system (2DHS) is studied with low-temperature magneto-transport measurements on molecular beam epitaxially grown InAs or InAlGaAs quantum-well structures that are C-modulation and Mn co-doped. Measurements in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the 2DHS reveal the typical transport behaviour of a two-dimensional charge carrier system indicated by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and quantum-Hall plateaus. Investigations at milli-Kelvin temperatures show a metal-insulator transition in the low field region. The fully spin-polarized quantum Hall state at filling factor {nu}=1 is very pronounced, i.e. over a field range of more than 4 T the longitudinal resistance vanishes and the Hall resistance is constant. Surprisingly, the {nu}=2 state seems to be fully suppressed whereas the {nu}=3 state is clearly resolved by an indistinct structure in the Hall resistance and a minimum in the longitudinal resistance. Transport measurements in tilted magnetic fields are carried out to resolve the nature of the observed quantum-Hall states.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PING Yun-Xia; CHENG Ze
2006-01-01
We study theoretically transport properties of two-dimensional electron gases through antiparallel magnetic electric barrier structures. Two kinds of magnetic barrier configurations are employed: one is that the strength of the double δ-function in opposite directions is equal and the other is that the strength is unequal. Similarities and differences of electronic transports are presented. It is found that the transmission and the conductance depend strongly on the shape of the magnetic barrier and the height of the electric barrier. The results indicate that this system does not possess any spin filtering and spin polarization and electron gases can realize perfect resonant tunneling and wave-vector filtering properties. Moreover, the strength of the effect of the inhomogeneous magnetic field on the transport properties is discussed.
Further two-dimensional code development for Stirling space engine components
Ibrahim, Mounir; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.
1990-01-01
The development of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components is described. Two-dimensional parallel plate models of an engine regenerator and a cooler were used to study heat transfer under conditions of laminar, incompressible oscillating flow. Substantial differences in the nature of the temperature variations in time over the cycle were observed for the cooler as contrasted with the regenerator. When the two-dimensional cooler model was used to calculate a heat transfer coefficient, it yields a very different result from that calculated using steady-flow correlations. Simulation results for the regenerator and the cooler are presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongxi Yin; Wei Liang; Le Ma; Liqiao Qin
2009-01-01
A new generation algorithm of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal codes for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. The code cardinality is obtained and the error-probability performance for corresponding OCDMA system is analyzed. The codes with two constraints (i.e., auto- and cross-correlation properties) being unequal are taken into account. On the premise of fixed system resources, the code cardinality can be significantly improved. By analysis of the error-probability performance, it is shown that the codes with different parameters have different performances. Therefore, this type of codes can be applied to support diverse quality of service (QoS) and satisfy the quality requirement of different multimedia or distinct users, and simultaneously make the better use of bandwidth resources in optical networks.
Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sirringhaus, H.; Brown, P.J.; Friend, R.H.
1999-01-01
Self-organization in many solution-processed, semiconducting conjugated polymers results in complex microstructures, in which ordered microcrystalline domains are embedded in an amorphous matrix(I). This has important consequences for electrical properties of these materials: charge transport...... is usually limited by the most difficult hopping processes and is therefore dominated by the disordered matrix, resulting in low charge-carrier mobilities(2) (less than or equal to 10(-5) cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)). Here we use thin-film, field-effect transistor structures to probe the transport properties...... of the ordered microcrystalline domains in the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, Self-organization in P3HT results in a lamella structure with two-dimensional conjugated sheets formed by interchain stacking. We find that, depending on processing conditions, the lamellae can adopt two different...
Isotropic model of fractional transport in two-dimensional bounded domains.
Kullberg, A; del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Morales, G J; Maggs, J E
2013-05-01
A two-dimensional fractional Laplacian operator is derived and used to model nonlocal, nondiffusive transport. This integro-differential operator appears in the long-wavelength, fluid description of quantities undergoing non-Brownian random walks without characteristic length scale. To study bounded domains, a mask function is introduced that modifies the kernel in the fractional Laplacian and removes singularities at the boundary. Green's function solutions to the fractional diffusion equation are presented for the unbounded domain and compared to the one-dimensional Cartesian approximations. A time-implicit numerical integration scheme is presented to study fractional diffusion in a circular disk with azimuthal symmetry. Numerical studies of steady-state reveal temperature profiles in which the heat flux and temperature gradient are in the same direction, i.e., uphill transport. The response to off-axis heating, scaling of confinement time with system size, and propagation of cold pulses are investigated.
Two-Dimensional Spatial Imaging of Charge Transport in Germanium Crystals at Cryogenic Temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moffatt, Robert [Stanford U.
2016-01-01
In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, two-dimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chu Jianli
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This article designs a new mobile-phone entrance guard system, uses the encryption two-dimensional code for identity authentication. Different from other similar products in the market, this system does not rely on specialized mobile phone card or NFC (near field communication module. It can be directly realized through mobile-phone software, and it can be operated simple and safer. This article designs the whole system model, includes structure, function and workflow. It also analyzes and researches the main algorithms used in the system, which include security policy algorithm, encryption two-dimensional code algorithm and image recognition algorithm. Finally, it provides the solution method for the problem in the experimental simulation. It also evaluated and summarized the experimental results.
Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.
Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping
2016-04-01
We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.
Role of quenching on superdiffusive transport in two-dimensional random media.
Barthelemy, Pierre; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Vynck, Kevin; Lepri, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S
2010-07-01
Transport in random media is known to be affected by quenched disorder. From the point of view of random walks, quenching induces correlations between steps that may alter the dynamical properties of the medium. This paper is intended to provide more insight into the role of quenched disorder on superdiffusive transport in two-dimensional random media. The systems under consideration are disordered materials called Lévy glasses that exhibit large spatial fluctuations in the density of scattering elements. We show that in an ideal Lévy glass the influence of quenching can be neglected, in the sense that transport follows to very good approximation that of a standard Lévy walk. We also show that, by changing sample parameters, quenching effects can be increased intentionally, thereby making it possible to investigate systematically diverse regimes of transport. In particular, we find that strong quenching induces local trapping effects which slow down superdiffusion and lead to a transient subdiffusivelike transport regime close to the truncation time of the system.
A standard test case suite for two-dimensional linear transport on the sphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. H. Lauritzen
2012-06-01
Full Text Available It is the purpose of this paper to propose a standard test case suite for two-dimensional transport schemes on the sphere intended to be used for model development and facilitating scheme intercomparison. The test cases are designed to assess important aspects of accuracy in geophysical fluid dynamics such as numerical order of convergence, "minimal" resolution, the ability of the transport scheme to preserve filaments, transport "rough" distributions, and to preserve pre-existing functional relations between species/tracers under challenging flow conditions.
The experiments are designed to be easy to set up. They are specified in terms of two analytical wind fields (one non-divergent and one divergent and four analytical initial conditions (varying from smooth to discontinuous. Both conventional error norms as well as novel mixing and filament preservation diagnostics are used that are easy to implement. The experiments pose different challenges for the range of transport approaches from Lagrangian to Eulerian. The mixing and filament preservation diagnostics do not require an analytical/reference solution, which is in contrast to standard error norms where a "true" solution is needed. Results using the CSLAM (Conservative Semi-Lagrangian Multi-tracer scheme on the cubed-sphere are presented for reference and illustrative purposes.
Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in CdSe single quantum wells
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P K Ghosh; A Ghosal; D Chattopadhyay
2009-02-01
Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are calculated with a numerical iterative technique in the framework of Fermi–Dirac statistics. Lattice scatterings due to polar-mode longitudinal optic (LO) phonons, and acoustic phonons via deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings, are considered together with background and remote ionized impurity interactions. The parallel mode of piezoelectric scattering is found to contribute more than the perpendicular mode. We observe that the Hall mobility decreases with increasing temperature but increases with increasing channel width. The magnetoresistance coefficient is found to decrease with increasing temperature and increase with increasing magnetic field in the classical region.
Modeling strong motions produced by earthquakes with two-dimensional numerical codes
Helmberger, Donald V.; Vidale, John E.
1988-01-01
We present a scheme for generating synthetic point-source seismograms for shear dislocation sources using line source (two-dimensional) theory. It is based on expanding the complete three-dimensional solution of the wave equation expressed in cylindrical coordinates in an asymptotic form which provides for the separation of the motions into SH and P-SV systems. We evaluate the equations of motion with the aid of the Cagniard-de Hoop technique and derive close-formed expressions appropriate fo...
da Silva, Carlos; Saiz, Fernan; Romero, David A.; Amon, Cristina H.
2016-03-01
Promoting coherent transport of phonons at material interfaces is a promising strategy for controlling thermal transport in nanostructures and an alternative to traditional methods based on structural defects. Coherent transport is particularly relevant in short-period heterostructures with smooth interfaces and long-wavelength heat-carrying phonons, such as two-dimensional superlattices of graphene and boron nitride. In this work, we predict phonon properties and thermal conductivities in these superlattices using a normal mode decomposition approach. We study the variation of the frequency dependence of these properties with the periodicity and interface configuration (zigzag and armchair) for superlattices with period lengths within the coherent regime. Our results showed that the thermal conductivity decreases significantly from the first period length (0.44 nm) to the second period length (0.87 nm), 13% across the interfaces and 16% along the interfaces. For greater periods, the conductivity across the interfaces continues decreasing at a smaller rate of 11 W/mK per period length increase (0.43 nm), driven by changes in the phonon group velocities (coherent effects). In contrast, the conductivity along the interfaces slightly recovers at a rate of 2 W/mK per period, driven by changes in the phonon relaxation times (diffusive effects). By changing the interface configuration from armchair to zigzag, the conductivities for all period lengths increase by approximately 7% across the interfaces and 19% along the interfaces.
Li, Song-Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals semiconductors represent the thinnest, air stable semiconducting materials known. Their unique optical, electronic and mechanical properties hold great potential for harnessing them as key components in novel applications for electronics and optoelectronics. However, the charge transport behavior in 2D semiconductors is more susceptible to external surroundings (e.g. gaseous adsorbates from air and trapped charges in substrates) and their electronic performance is generally lower than corresponding bulk materials due to the fact that the surface and bulk coincide. In this article, we review recent progress on the charge transport properties and carrier mobility engineering of 2D transition metal chalcogenides, with a particular focus on the markedly high dependence of carrier mobility on thickness. We unveil the origin of this unique thickness dependence and elaborate the devised strategies to master it for carrier mobility optimization. Specifically, physical and chemical methods towards the optimization of the major factors influencing the extrinsic transport such as electrode/semiconductor contacts, interfacial Coulomb impurities and atomic defects are discussed. In particular, the use of ad hoc molecules makes it possible to engineer the interface with the dielectric and heal the vacancies in such materials. By casting fresh light on the theoretical and experimental studies, we provide a guide for improving the electronic performance of 2D semiconductors, with the ultimate goal of achieving technologically viable atomically thin (opto)electronics.
Zhang, Mei; Wu, Juanxia; Zhu, Yiming; Dumcenco, Dumitru O; Hong, Jinhua; Mao, Nannan; Deng, Shibin; Chen, Yanfeng; Yang, Yanlian; Jin, Chuanhong; Chaki, Sunil H; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Zhang, Jin; Xie, Liming
2014-07-22
Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys have attracted intense attention due to their tunable band gaps. In the present work, photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport properties of monolayer and few-layer molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys (Mo1-xWxSe2, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are systematically investigated. The strong photoluminescence emissions from Mo1-xWxSe2 monolayers indicate composition-tunable direct band gaps (from 1.56 to 1.65 eV), while weak and broad emissions from the bilayers indicate indirect band gaps. The first-order Raman modes are assigned by polarized Raman spectroscopy. Second-order Raman modes are assigned according to its frequencies. As composition changes in Mo1-xWxSe2 monolayers and few layers, the out-of-plane A1g mode showed one-mode behavior, while B2g(1) (only observed in few layers), in-plane E2g(1), and all observed second-order Raman modes showed two-mode behaviors. Electrical transport measurement revealed n-type semiconducting transport behavior with a high on/off ratio (>10(5)) for Mo1-xWxSe2 monolayers.
FX2-TH: a two-dimensional nuclear reactor kinetics code with thermal-hydraulic feedback
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shober, R.A.; Daly, T.A.; Ferguson, D.R.
1978-10-01
FX2-TH is a two-dimensional, time-dependent nuclear reactor kinetics program with thermal and hydraulic feedback. The neutronics model used is multigroup neutron diffusion theory. The following geometry options are available: x, r, x-y, r-z, theta-r, and triangular. FX2-TH contains two basic thermal and hydraulic models: a simple adiabatic fuel temperature calculation, and a more detailed model consisting of an explicit representation of a fuel pin, gap, clad, and coolant. FX2-TH allows feedback effects from both fuel temperature (Doppler) and coolant temperature (density) changes. FX2-TH will calculate a consistent set of steady state conditions by iterating between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics until convergence is reached. The time-dependent calculation is performed by the use of the improved quasistatic method. A disk editing capability is available. FX2-TH is operational on IBM system 360 or 370 computers and on the CDC 7600.
Phonon transport properties of two-dimensional group-IV materials from ab initio calculations
Peng, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Shao, Hezhu; Xu, Yuanfeng; Ni, Gang; Zhang, Rongjun; Zhu, Heyuan
2016-12-01
It has been argued that stanene has lowest lattice thermal conductivity among two-dimensional (2D) group-IV materials because of its largest atomic mass, weakest interatomic bonding, and enhanced ZA phonon scattering due to the breaking of an out-of-plane symmetry selection rule. However, we show that, although the lattice thermal conductivity κ for graphene, silicene, and germanene decreases monotonically with decreasing Debye temperature, unexpected higher κ is observed in stanene. By enforcing all the invariance conditions in 2D materials and including Ge 3 d and Sn 4 d electrons as valence electrons for germanene and stanene, respectively, the lattice dynamics in these materials are accurately described. A large acoustic-optical gap and the bunching of the acoustic-phonon branches significantly reduce phonon scattering in stanene, leading to higher thermal conductivity than germanene. The vibrational origin of the acoustic-optical gap can be attributed to the buckled structure. Interestingly, a buckled system has two competing influences on phonon transport: the breaking of the symmetry selection rule leads to reduced thermal conductivity, and the enlarging of the acoustic-optical gap results in enhanced thermal conductivity. The size dependence of thermal conductivity is investigated as well. In nanoribbons, the κ of silicene, germanene, and stanene is much less sensitive to size effect due to their short intrinsic phonon mean-free paths. This work sheds light on the nature of phonon transport in buckled 2D materials.
Electrical transport of an AlGaN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxler, A.; Debray, P.; Perrin, R. [and others
2000-07-01
An Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N/GaN two-dimensional electron gas structure with x = 0.13 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate was characterized. Hall effect measurements gave a sheet electron concentration of 5.1x10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2} and a mobility of 1.9 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 10 K. Mobility spectrum analysis showed single-carrier transport and negligible parallel conduction at low temperatures. The sheet carrier concentrations determined from Shubnikov-de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations were in good agreement with the Hall data. The electron effective mass was determined to be 0.21 {+-} 0.006 m{sub 0} based on the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The quantum lifetime was about one-fifth of the transport lifetime of 2.3 x 10{sup {minus}12} s.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard;
2016-01-01
configuration sheet resistance as well as the resistance measured between opposing edges of the square sample have a simple unique dependency on the dimension-less parameter √nρGBG0, where G0 is the sheet conductance of a grain. The value of the ratio RA/RB between resistances measured in A- and B......-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately...
Enhanced Transport of Passive Tracers In A Time Periodic Two-dimensional Flow
Boffetta, G.; Cencini, M.; Espa, S.; Musacchio, S.
, investigating systems in which the second condition is violated is much more inter- esting. With this purpose, some experiments have shown how superdiffusion arises in a two-dimensional quasi-geostrophic (planetary-type) flow, where particles can jump for very long time in the same direction performing a Levy flight (Castiglione et al., 2001 ). Moreover, two recent papers (Vulpiani, 1998; Solomon, 2001) show how, also in very simple two-dimensional, time and space periodic cellular flows,anomalous diffusive behaviours can appear. In this paper we present an experimental study of transport in an electromagnetically forced time periodic two-dimensional flow. The flow is generated by applying an electromagnetic forcing on a thin layer of an elec- trolyte solution and reveals in a square grid of alternating vortices. Time dependence can be easily obtained by changing the time dependence of the electric fields. In par- ticular, considering certain values of the imposed oscillation frequencies, particles can display very long jump. Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to measure the flow field. This technique is the most suitable for studying dispersion phenomena in a Lagrangian framework allowing the direct evaluation of particle displacements and related quantities (Cenedese, Querzoli; 2000). Moreover, due to the characteristics of the analyzed flow and to the improvement of the tracking procedure, we have been able to track a great number of particles for time intervals greater than the charac- teristic time-scales of the flow. In order to characterize the time correlations we will evaluate the so-called jumps probabilities with memory which represent the probabil- ities to jump in a given direction conditioned to having experienced jumps in the same direction at previous times. Such statistics will revealed very useful and suitable for detecting the onset of the aforementioned correlations. 2
MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko
1997-10-01
A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)
Phase coding by grid cells in unconstrained environments: Two-dimensional (2D) phase precession
Climer, Jason R.; Newman, Ehren L.; Hasselmo, Michael E.
2014-01-01
Action potential timing is thought to play a critical role in neural representation. For example, theta phase precession is a robust phenomenon exhibited by spatial cells of the rat entorhinal-hippocampal circuit. In phase precession, the time a neuron fires relative to the phase of theta rhythm (6-10Hz) oscillations in the local field potential reduces uncertainty about the position of the animal. This relationship between neural firing and behavior has made precession an important constraint for hypothetical mechanisms of temporal coding. However, challenges exist in identifying what regulates the spike timing of these cells. We have developed novel analytical techniques for mapping between behavior and neural firing that provide sufficient sensitivity to examine features of grid cell phase coding in open environments. Here, we show robust, omnidirectional phase precession by entorhinal grid cells in openfield enclosures. We present evidence that full phase precession persists regardless of how close the animal comes to the center of a firing field. We found many conjunctive grid cells, previously thought to be phase locked, also exhibit phase coding. However, we were unable to detect directional or field specific phase coding predicted by some variants of models. Finally, we present data that suggests bursting of layer II grid cells contributes to the bimodality of phase precession. We discuss implications of these observations for models of temporal coding and propose the utility of these techniques in other domains where behavior is aligned to neural spiking. PMID:23718553
Hu, W.; Wang, L.-J.; Chen, H.; Holbach, A.; Zheng, B.-H.; Norra, S.; Westrich, B.
2012-04-01
After impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in 2003, hydrological regimes of the Yangtze River, upstream and downstream of the Three Gorges Dam, have been changed enormously, leading to significant environmental, ecological and social impacts. Nutrients and pollutants from agriculture, industry and municipalities are of concern due to their impact on the aquatic environment and hence, transport behavior of sediment associated pollutants must be modeled and analyzed to establish a sustainable water reservoir management. As part of the Chinese-German Yangtze-Project [1], two-dimensional numerical model TELEMAC is applied to study the dissolved and particulate pollutant transport at different locations of concern in the TGR. In-situ measurement campaigns for morphology and water quality data using mobile measuring device (MINIBAT) are carried out to provide detailed information for the different water bodies at different time. Additional morphological data are taken from cross-section profiles in the literature, the digital elevation model (DEM) of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from CGIAR. Daily and hourly water level and discharge, suspended sediment concentration and pollutant loads are obtained from the authorities and extracted from literature. The model describes the spatial-temporal flow field, transport and dispersion of sediment associated pollutants with emphasis on the dynamic interaction and mutual influence of the river Yangtze, its major tributaries and adjacent lagoon-like dead water bodies due to the 30 meter annual reservoir water level fluctuation. Since algae bloom, especially in the tributaries and side arms of the mainstream, is one of the major issues occurred after 2003, the results of the numerical modeling together with the statistical analysis of the MINIBAT measurements are used for the eutrophication status analysis. Acknowledgments The Yangtze-Project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard
2016-01-01
We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain boundary resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation......-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately......, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity....
QR Code 二维码在准考证中的应用%Application of QR code two - dimensional code in the examination certificate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李文江; 陈诗琴
2015-01-01
针对现有纸质准考证身份验证存在的缺点，基于 QR Code 二维码技术，设计并实现了准考证的二维码生成、发布与识别，并从需求分析与技术思路、应用设计、具体实现和实际运行效果等方面进行阐述。二维码的应用可以极大地方便考试组织部门和考生。%Based on the QR Code technology,this paper designs and implements the confirmation code generation,distribution and identification according to the disadvantages of the existing paper ticket authenti-cation,and the paper explains in detail from the aspects of demand analysis and technical ideas,application design,implementation and practical operation effect. The application of two - dimensional code promotes the fairness of the exam. Also it greatly facilitates the examination of the organization department and the candidates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai-Victor PRICOP
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical approach of static linear elasticity equations for anisotropic materials. The domain and boundary conditions are simple, to enhance an easy implementation of the finite difference scheme. SOR and gradient are used to solve the resulting linear system. The simplicity of the geometry is also useful for MPI parallelization of the code.
Extended pseudorandom sequences and two-dimensional coding collimators based on them
Fedorov, G. A.; Tereshchenko, S. A.
2007-01-01
A new extensive class of one-dimensional binary sequences, called extended pseudorandom sequences, is proposed which enables a radiation-physics experiment to be optimized more completely and enables problems of planar emission tomography to be solved effectively using integral-code measuring system
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654-60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor-metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.
CSQII: a two-dimensional Eulerian code for computation of material motion in two dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGlaun, J M; Thompson, S L
1980-01-01
CSQII is a general-purpose code with a wide variety of options: rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, up to ten materials, allowance for void, elestic-plastic or distended material, inclusion of energy sources or gravity. The basic solution scheme integrates the Lagrangian form of the conservation equations through a time step and then explicity rezones back to the Eulerian grid. The following aspects are treated in some detail: equation of state, momentum balance, energy balance, rezoning, and radiation. (RWR)
Rathjen, K. A.
1977-01-01
A digital computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis Via Eigenvalues), which finds application in the analysis of two dimensional transient heating of hypersonic vehicles is described. The CAVE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on both IBM 360-67 and CDC 6600 computers. The method of solution is a hybrid analytical numerical technique that is inherently stable permitting large time steps even with the best of conductors having the finest of mesh size. The aerodynamic heating boundary conditions are calculated by the code based on the input flight trajectory or can optionally be calculated external to the code and then entered as input data. The code computes the network conduction and convection links, as well as capacitance values, given basic geometrical and mesh sizes, for four generations (leading edges, cooled panels, X-24C structure and slabs). Input and output formats are presented and explained. Sample problems are included. A brief summary of the hybrid analytical-numerical technique, which utilizes eigenvalues (thermal frequencies) and eigenvectors (thermal mode vectors) is given along with aerodynamic heating equations that have been incorporated in the code and flow charts.
Spin transport in the two-dimensional quantum disordered anisotropic Heisenberg model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima, L.S. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pires, A.S.T.; Costa, B.V. [Departamento de Física ICEx, UFMG, CP 702, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2014-12-15
We use the self consistent harmonic approximation together with the Linear Response Theory to study the effect of nonmagnetic disorder on spin transport in the quantum diluted two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with spin S=1 in a square lattice. The model has a BKT transition at zero dilution. We calculate the regular part of the spin conductivity σ{sup reg}(ω) and the Drude weight D{sub S}(T) as a function of the non-magnetic concentration, x. Our calculations show that the spin conductivity drops abruptly to zero at x{sub c}{sup SCHA}≈0.5 indicating that the system changes from an ideal spin conductor state to an insulator. This value is far above the site percolation threshold x{sub c}{sup site}≈0.41. Although the SCHA fails in determining precisely the percolation threshold, both the spin conductivity and the Drude weight show a quite regular behavior inside 0≤x≤x{sub c}{sup SCHA} indicating that the transition stays in the same universality class all along the interval. - Highlights: • The site dilution generates a large influence on regular part of the spin conductivity, σ{sup reg}(ω), and in the Drude weight, D(T). • In a concentration of impurities about x≈0.5, the regular part of the spin conductivity and the Drude weight fall to zero. • In this point we have a change in the state of the system from an ideal spin conductor to a spin insulator.
Malo, Sergio; Fateri, Sina; Livadas, Makis; Mares, Cristinel; Gan, Tat-Hean
2017-07-01
Ultrasonic guided waves testing is a technique successfully used in many industrial scenarios worldwide. For many complex applications, the dispersive nature and multimode behavior of the technique still poses a challenge for correct defect detection capabilities. In order to improve the performance of the guided waves, a 2-D compressed pulse analysis is presented in this paper. This novel technique combines the use of pulse compression and dispersion compensation in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal-spatial resolution of the signals. The ability of the technique to discriminate different wave modes is also highlighted. In addition, an iterative algorithm is developed to identify the wave modes of interest using adaptive peak detection to enable automatic wave mode discrimination. The employed algorithm is developed in order to pave the way for further in situ applications. The performance of Barker-coded and chirp waveforms is studied in a multimodal scenario where longitudinal and flexural wave packets are superposed. The technique is tested in both synthetic and experimental conditions. The enhancements in SNR and temporal resolution are quantified as well as their ability to accurately calculate the propagation distance for different wave modes.
Computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water
Konikow, Leonard F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.
1978-01-01
This report presents a model that simulates solute transport in flowing ground water. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be applied to a wide range of problem types. It is applicable to one- or two-dimensional problems involving steady-state or transient flow. The model computes changes in concentration over time caused by the processes of convective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, and mixing (or dilution) from fluid sources. The model assumes that the solute is non-reactive and that gradients of fluid density, viscosity, and temperature do not affect the velocity distribution. However, the aquifer may be heterogeneous and (or) anisotropic. The model couples the ground-water flow equation with the solute-transport equation. The digital computer program uses an alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve a finite-difference approximation to the ground-water flow equation, and it uses the method of characteristics to solve the solute-transport equation. The latter uses a particle- tracking procedure to represent convective transport and a two-step explicit procedure to solve a finite-difference equation that describes the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion, fluid sources and sinks, and divergence of velocity. This explicit procedure has several stability criteria, but the consequent time-step limitations are automatically determined by the program. The report includes a listing of the computer program, which is written in FORTRAN IV and contains about 2,000 lines. The model is based on a rectangular, block-centered, finite difference grid. It allows the specification of any number of injection or withdrawal wells and of spatially varying diffuse recharge or discharge, saturated thickness, transmissivity, boundary conditions, and initial heads and concentrations. The program also permits the designation of up to five nodes as observation points, for which a summary table of head and concentration versus time is printed at the end of the
二维码标准与检测质量的研究%Research of Two-dimensional Code Standard and Test Quality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
严风
2016-01-01
二维码质量是二维码技术应用的关键因素，针对我国对二维码标准和质量研究的成熟度远远低于一维码的现状，文中对二维码标准和主要质量指标“符号等级”进行深入研究，探讨层排式和矩阵式二维条码符号的符号等级与印刷质量评判以及相关参数指标对符号等级的影响，旨在提高二维码印制质量，促进二维码技术推广应用。%The two-dimensional code quality is a key factor in the application of two-dimensional code technology. In view of the situation that the research maturity of the standard and the quality on two-dimensional code is far below one-dimensional code. The article makes a deep study about the two-dimensional code standard and the main quality index of "symbol level".In order to improve two-dimensional code printing quality and promote the popularization and application of two-dimensional code technology,the article also discusses the inlfuence of line type and matrix two-dimensional bar code symbol level on printing quality evaluation,as well as the inlfuence of relative parameters on the symbol level.
Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Akiko; Zhou, Biao; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya
2016-06-01
Resistance and dielectric constants have been measured in the antiferromagnetic insulating phase of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 to understand charge transport. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics are observed at low temperatures, which are explained by a charge transport model based on the electric-field dependent Coulomb potential between the thermally excited electron and hole. A small dip in the magnetic field dependence of the resistance is found at 1.2 T, which is ascribed to a spin-flop transition. The large difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric constants shows the two-dimensionality of the Coulomb potential, which is consistent with the charge transport model. The angular dependence of the metal-insulator transition field is determined, which suggests that the Zeeman effect of the 3d spins of the Fe ions plays an essential role.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa-Cabral, M.C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik
1999-07-01
Current Lagrangian models for simulating advective transport of trace species in a discretized two-dimensional flow field use simplified descriptions of tracer sources, receptors and flow paths. When 'forward trajectories' are used, a diffuse source spread over a two-dimensional grid cell is treated as a single point source located at the cell's center, and its flow is projected in the downflow direction by a line. When 'backward trajectories' are used, each cell is treated as a point receptor and flow is projected back in time in the upflow direction by a line. In both cases, two-dimensional sources or receptors are treated as zero dimensional, and two-dimensional flow tubes are replaced by one-dimensional lines. While these simplifications may be acceptable in some cases, they can generate large errors when the flow field contains regions of considerable divergence of flow directions, or when fine scales are used. A new algorithm is introduced, called TUBES, which provides an exact solution to advective transport in a discretized two-dimensional flow field. TUBES uses two-dimensional flow tubes whose width expands and contracts over directionally divergent and convergent regions of the flow field, respectively. TUBES has applications in a wide variety of the earth sciences, including atmospheric science, oceanography, and surface and groundwater hydrology. (orig.) [German] Gegenwaertige Lagrange-Modelle zur Simulation advektiver Transporte von Tracern in einem diskretisierten zweidimensionalen Stroemungsfeld verwenden vereinfachte Beschreibungen der Quellen, Rezeptoren und Transportwege. Bei der Verwendung vorwaerts gerichteter Trajektorien ('forward trajectories') werden diffusive Quellen, die ueber eine zweidimensionale Gitterzelle verteilt sind, als Punktquelle behandelt, und der Transport mit der Stroemung erfolgt entlang einer Linie. Bei der Verwendung rueckwaerts gerichteter Trajektorien ('backward trajectories
Electronic transport in two-dimensional systems in the quantum hall regime
Tarquini, Vinicio
The integer and the fractional quantum Hall effects are essential to the exploration of quantum matters characterized by topological phases. A quantum Hall system hosts one-dimensional (1D) chiral edge channels that manifest zero magnetoresistance, dissipationless due to the broken time reversal symmetry, and quantized Hall resistance vhe2 with v being the topological invariant (or Chern number). The 1-1 correspondence between the conducting gapless edge channels to the gapped incompressible bulk states is a defining character of a topological insulator (TI). Understanding this correspondence in real systems, especially the origin of its robustness (in terms of the limit of breakdown), is important both fundamentally and practically (i.e. in relation to spintronics). However, the breakdown mechanism, especially in light of the edge-bulk correlation, is still an open question. We adopt GaAs two-dimensional (2D) high-mobility hole systems confined in a 20 nm wide (100)-GaAs quantum wells and have perform transport measurement for a range of charge densities between 4 and 5 x 1010 cm -2 with a carrier mobility of 2 - 4 x 106 cm 2/V·s down to millikelvin temperatures. Systematic characterization of the 2D systems through Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations yields an effective mass between 0.30 and 0.50me, in good agreement with the cyclotron resonance results. We then modify a regular Hall bar system into a unique anti-Hall bar geometry that provides an extra set of independent chiral edge channels without altering the topological invariant. We perform systematic measurement of quantum oscillations via chiral edges while simultaneously probing the bulk dynamics, through measuring across independent edges, in respond to the edge excitations. The edge-bulk correspondence reveals a non-equilibrium dynamical development of the incompressible bulk states that leads to a novel asymmetrical 1-0 Hall potential distribution. Moreover, probing the breakdown via inner and outer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory [University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Delettrez, Jacques [Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2015-08-15
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional scattering media by natural element method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Xie, Ming; Tan, He-Ping
2014-04-01
The natural element method (NEM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer (TRT) in two-dimensional semitransparent media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. The least-squares (LS) weighted residuals approach is employed to spatially discretize the transient radiative heat transfer equation. First, for the case of the refractive index matched boundary, LSNEM solutions to TRT are validated by comparison with results reported in the literature. Effects of the incident angle on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Afterward, the accuracy of this algorithm for the case of the refractive index mismatched boundary is studied. Finally, the LSNEM is extended to study the TRT in a two-dimensional semitransparent medium with refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. The effects of scattering albedo, optical thickness, scattering phase function, and refractive index on transmittance and reflectance signals are investigated. Several interesting trends on the time-resolved signals are observed and analyzed.
Electrical transport across metal/two-dimensional carbon junctions: Edge versus side contacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yihong Wu
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Metal/two-dimensional carbon junctions are characterized by using a nanoprobe in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. Significant differences were found in bias voltage (V dependence of differential conductance (dI/dV between edge- and side-contact; the former exhibits a clear linear relationship (i.e., dI/dV ∝ V, whereas the latter is characterized by a nonlinear dependence, dI/dV ∝ V3/2. Theoretical calculations confirm the experimental results, which are due to the robust two-dimensional nature of the carbon materials under study. Our work demonstrates the importance of contact geometry in graphene-based electronic devices.
Modeling two-dimensional water flow and bromide transport in a heterogeneous lignitic mine soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)
2006-02-15
Water and solute fluxes in lignitic mine soils and in many other soils are often highly heterogeneous. Here, heterogeneity reflects dumping-induced inclined structures and embedded heterogeneous distributions of sediment mixtures and of lignitic fragments. Such two-scale heterogeneity effects may be analyzed through the application of two-dimensional models for calculating water and solute fluxes. The objective of this study was to gain more insight to what extent spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters contributes to preferential flow at a lignitic mine soil. The simulations pertained to the 'Barenbrucker Hohe' site in Germany where previously water fluxes and applied tracers had been monitored with a cell lysimeter, and from where a soil block had been excavated for detailed two-dimensional characterization of the hydraulic parameters using pedotransfer functions. Based on those previous studies, scenarios with different distributions of hydraulic parameters were simulated. The results show that spatial variability of hydraulic parameters alone can hardly explain the observed flow patterns. The observed preferential flow at the site was probably caused by additional factors such as hydrophobicity, the presence of root channels, anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, and heterogeneous root distributions. To study the relative importance of these other factors by applying two-dimensional flow models to such sites, the experimental database must be improved. Single-continuum model approaches may be insufficient for such sites.
Quantized transport for a skyrmion moving on a two-dimensional periodic substrate
Reichhardt, C.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson
2015-03-01
We examine the dynamics of a skyrmion moving over a two-dimensional periodic substrate utilizing simulations of a particle-based skyrmion model. We specifically examine the role of the nondissipative Magnus term on the driven motion and the resulting skyrmion velocity-force curves. In the overdamped limit, there is a depinning transition into a sliding state in which the skyrmion moves in the same direction as the external drive. When there is a finite Magnus component in the equation of motion, a skyrmion in the absence of a substrate moves at an angle with respect to the direction of the external driving force. When a periodic substrate is added, the direction of motion or Hall angle of the skyrmion is dependent on the amplitude of the external drive, only approaching the substrate-free limit for higher drives. Due to the underlying symmetry of the substrate the direction of skyrmion motion does not change continuously as a function of drive, but rather forms a series of discrete steps corresponding to integer or rational ratios of the velocity components perpendicular ( ) and parallel ( ) to the external drive direction: / =n /m , where n and m are integers. The skyrmion passes through a series of directional locking phases in which the motion is locked to certain symmetry directions of the substrate for fixed intervals of the drive amplitude. Within a given directionally locked phase, the Hall angle remains constant and the skyrmion moves in an orderly fashion through the sample. Signatures of the transitions into and out of these locked phases take the form of pronounced cusps in the skyrmion velocity versus force curves, as well as regions of negative differential mobility in which the net skyrmion velocity decreases with increasing external driving force. The number of steps in the transport curve increases when the relative strength of the Magnus term is increased. We also observe an overshoot phenomena in the directional locking, where the skyrmion motion
Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emmett, M.B.
1975-02-01
The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)
Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Dirch H.
2016-10-01
We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain boundary resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation to emulate a polycrystalline sheet, and a square sample was cut from the tessellated surface. Four-point resistances and Hall effect signals were calculated for a probe placed in the center of the square sample as a function of grain density n and grain boundary resistivity ρ GB . We find that the dual configuration sheet resistance as well as the resistance measured between opposing edges of the square sample have a simple unique dependency on the dimension-less parameter √{ n } ρ GB G 0 , where G0 is the sheet conductance of a grain. The value of the ratio R A / R B between resistances measured in A- and B-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity.
Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo
2017-04-01
Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where
Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-06-01
A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahraoui, Melik [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (IPEIT) (Tunisia); Kharrat, Chafik; Halouani, Kamel [UR: Micro-Electro-Thermal Systems (METS-ENIS), Industrial Energy Systems Group, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), University of Sfax, B.P: 1172, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)
2009-04-15
A two-dimensional CFD model of PEM fuel cell is developed by taking into account the electrochemical, mass and heat transfer phenomena occurring in all of its regions simultaneously. The catalyst layers and membrane are each considered as distinct regions with finite thickness and calculated properties such as permeability, local protonic conductivity, and local dissolved water diffusion. This finite thickness model enables to model accurately the protonic current in these regions with higher accuracy than using an infinitesimal interface. In addition, this model takes into account the effect of osmotic drag in the membrane and catalyst layers. General boundary conditions are implemented in a way taking into consideration any given species concentration at the fuel cell inlet, such as water vapor which is a very important parameter in determining the efficiency of fuel cells. Other operating parameters such as temperature, pressure and porosity of the porous structure are also investigated to characterize their effect on the fuel cell efficiency. (author)
Schlosser, Malte; Gierl, Christian; Teichmann, Stephan; Tichelmann, Sascha; Birkl, Gerhard; 10.1088/1367-2630/14/12/123034
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional arrays of optical micro-traps created by microoptical elements present a versatile and scalable architecture for neutral atom quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum gases. In this article, we demonstrate advanced capabilities of this approach by introducing novel techniques and functionalities as well as the combined operation of previously separately implemented functions. We introduce piezo-actuator based transport of atom ensembles over distances of more than one trap separation, examine the capabilities of rapid atom transport provided by acousto-optical beam steering, and analyze the adiabaticity limit for atom transport in these configurations. We implement a spatial light modulator with 8-bit transmission control for the per-site adjustment of the trap depth and the number of atoms loaded. We combine single-site addressing, trap depth control, and atom transport in one configuration for demonstrating the splitting of atom ensembles...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani
2014-01-01
Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filho, J. F. P. [Institute de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, s/n, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barichello, L. B. [Institute de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2013-07-01
In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)
Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis
1991-01-01
The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.
Application of two-dimensional code in mobile education%二维码在移动学习中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕海燕; 刘瑞儒; 霍惠芳
2013-01-01
随着3G时代的到来以及手机、平板电脑等移动终端的普及,使得二维码这种新的信息传递方式迅速发展,目前已被大量应用于商业领域,但在教育领域应用很少.文章主要介绍了二维码的相关知识,并结合当前一些商用二维码软件,以手机终端为例,构建了一个基于二维码的移动教育案例.同时,介绍了相关操作步骤及使用注意事项.%With the coming of the 3G era and the popularity of mobile terminals such as mobile phones and tablet PCs, two-dimensional code, the new mode of information transmission, is developing rapidly. However, this technology is rarely applied in education. This article briefly introduces related knowledge of two-dimensional code, and constructs a mobile education case based on the two-dimensional code by combining current business two-dimensional code software and taking mobile phone terminal as an example. The article also introduces the operation steps and related precautions when it is used.
Diverse anisotropy of phonon transport in two-dimensional IV-VI compounds: A first-principles study
Qin, Guangzhao; Fang, Wu-Zhang; Zhang, Li-Chuan; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Yan, Qing-Bo; Hu, Ming; Su, Gang
2016-01-01
New class two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures, are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and clean energy, where thermal transport property is one of the fundamental physical parameters. In this paper, we systematically investigated the phonon transport properties of 2D orthorhombic IV-VI compounds of $GeS$, $GeSe$, $SnS$ and $SnSe$ by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations. Despite the similar puckered (hinge-like) structure along the armchair direction as phosphorene, the four monolayer compounds possess diverse anisotropic properties in many aspects, such as group velocity, Young's modulus and lattice thermal conductivity ($\\kappa$), etc. Especially, the $\\kappa$ along the zigzag and armchair directions of monolayer $GeS$ shows the strongest anisotropy while monolayer $SnS$ and $SnSe$ shows an almost isotropy in p...
O'Connor, Evan
2015-01-01
We present results from computational simulations of core-collapse supernovae in {\\tt FLASH} using a newly-implemented multidimensional neutrino transport scheme and a newly-implemented general relativistic (GR) treatment of gravity. For the neutrino transport, we use a two moment method with an analytic closure (so-called M1 transport). This transport is multienergy, multispecies and truly multidimensional since we do not assume the commonly used ray-by-ray approximation. Our GR gravity is implemented in our Newtonian hydrodynamics simulations via an effective relativistic potential that closely reproduces the GR structure of neutron stars and has been shown to match GR simulations of core collapse quite well. In axisymmetry, we simulate core-collapse supernovae with five different progenitor models in both Newtonian and GR gravity. We find that the more compact protoneutron star structure realized in simulations with GR gravity gives higher neutrino luminosities and higher neutrino energies. These differenc...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚立; 刘幺和
2012-01-01
GPS positioning and two-dimensional bar code scanning system based on ARM is presented, using the linux operating system and the associated software is provided. System can tin ly locate the positon of the goods on the transporting way and timely read the infor-mation in the two-dimensional code of the goods. Thereby increasing the efficiency of the system.%文章提出了一种以嵌入式ARM为核心,以GPS定位和二维条码扫描为基础的系统,采用Linux操作系统,并给出了相关的软件程序设计.系统可以在物品运输的途中实时的定位,并且还可以实时的了解物品上二维码的信息,从而提高了系统的效率.
Sensitivity analysis explains quasi-one-dimensional current transport in two-dimensional materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boll, Mads; Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Hansen, Ole;
2014-01-01
. The sensitivity analysis presents a formal definition of quasi-1D current transport, which was recently observed experimentally in chemical-vapor-deposition graphene. Our numerical model for calculating sensitivity is verified by comparing the model to analytical calculations based on conformal mapping...
Transport at low electron density in the two-dimensional electron gas of silicon MOSFETs
Heemskerk, Richard
1998-01-01
his thesis contains the result of an experimental study on the transport properties of high quality Si MOSFETs at low temperatures. A metalinsulator transition is found at a critical electron density. The electrons in the inversion layer of a silicon MOSFET are trapped in a potential well at the Si-
A two-dimensional simulation of tritium transport in the vadose zone at the Nevada Test site
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, W.C.; Wheatcraft, S.W.
1994-09-01
The site of a 0.75-kiloton underground nuclear explosion, the Cambric event, was selected for the study of radionuclide transport in the hydrologic environment. Water samples from RNM-2S, a well located 91 m from Cambric, have been analyzed for tritium and other radionuclides since the initiation of pumping. Water from RNM-2S flows to Frenchman Lake via an unlined canal. Flume data indicate canal transmission losses of approximately 2m{sup 3}/day/meter of canal. To determine if infiltrating canal water might be recirculated by RNM-2S, and therefore provide an additional radionuclide input to water samples collected at RNM-2S, a two-dimensional variably saturated solute transport computer model (SATURN, Huyakorn et al., 1983) was used to simulate the movement of tritium from the canal to the water table. Results indicate that recirculated canal water has not had a significant effect on the breakthrough of tritium at RNM-2S.
Two-dimensional modelling of benzene transport and biodegradation in a laboratory-scale aquifer.
Choi, N C; Choi, J W; Kim, S B; Park, S J; Kim, D J
2009-01-01
In this study biodegradation of aqueous benzene during transport in a laboratory-scale aquifer model was investigated by conducting a 2-D plume test and numerical modelling. Benzene biodegradation and transport was simulated with the 2-D numerical model developed for solute transport coupled with a Haldane-Andrews type function for inclusion of an inhibition constant which is effective for high concentrations. Experimental data revealed that in the early stages the benzene plume showed a rather clear shape but lost its shape with increased travel time. The mass recoveries of benzene at 9, 16, and 22 h were 37, 13 and 8%, respectively, showing that a significant mass reduction of aqueous benzene occurred in the model aquifer. The major processes responsible for the mass reduction were biodegradation and irreversible sorption. The modelling results also indicated that the simulation based on the microbial parameters from the batch experiments slightly overestimated the mass reduction of benzene during transport. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the benzene plume was sensitive to the maximum specific growth rate and slightly sensitive to the half-saturation constant of benzene but almost insensitive to the Haldane inhibition constant. The insensitivity to the Haldane inhibition constant was due to the rapid decline of the benzene peak concentration by natural attenuation such as hydrodynamic dispersion and irreversible sorption. An analysis of the model simulation also indicated that the maximum specific growth rate was the key parameter controlling the plume behaviour, but its impact on the plume was affected by competing parameter such as the irreversible sorption rate coefficient.
Revealing origin of quasi-one dimensional current transport in defect rich two dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H., E-mail: dirch.petersen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG), Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Ole [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation' s Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kjær, Daniel [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); CAPRES A/S, Scion-DTU, Building 373, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
2014-08-04
The presence of defects in graphene have for a long time been recognized as a bottleneck for its utilization in electronic and mechanical devices. We recently showed that micro four-point probes may be used to evaluate if a graphene film is truly 2D or if defects in proximity of the probe will lead to a non-uniform current flow characteristic of lower dimensionality. In this work, simulations based on a finite element method together with a Monte Carlo approach are used to establish the transition from 2D to quasi-1D current transport, when applying a micro four-point probe to measure on 2D conductors with an increasing amount of line-shaped defects. Clear 2D and 1D signatures are observed at low and high defect densities, respectively, and current density plots reveal the presence of current channels or branches in defect configurations yielding 1D current transport. A strong correlation is found between the density filling factor and the simulation yield, the fraction of cases with 1D transport and the mean sheet conductance. The upper transition limit is shown to agree with the percolation threshold for sticks. Finally, the conductance of a square sample evaluated with macroscopic edge contacts is compared to the micro four-point probe conductance measurements and we find that the micro four-point probe tends to measure a slightly higher conductance in samples containing defects.
Hao, Qing; Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Hongbo
2016-08-01
In the past two decades, phonon transport within nanoporous thin films has attracted enormous attention for their potential applications in thermoelectrics and thermal insulation. Various computational studies have been carried out to explain the thermal conductivity reduction within these thin films. Considering classical phonon size effects, the lattice thermal conductivity can be predicted assuming diffusive pore-edge scattering of phonons and bulk phonon mean free paths. Following this, detailed phonon transport can be simulated for a given porous structure to find the lattice thermal conductivity [Hao et al., J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114321 (2009)]. However, such simulations are intrinsically complicated and cannot be used for the data analysis of general samples. In this work, the characteristic length Λ P o r e of periodic nanoporous thin films is extracted by comparing the predictions of phonon Monte Carlo simulations and the kinetic relationship using bulk phonon mean free paths modified by Λ P o r e . Under strong ballistic phonon transport, Λ P o r e is also extracted by the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method for graphene with periodic nanopores. The presented model can be widely used to analyze the measured thermal conductivities of such nanoporous structures.
A two-dimensional model for the transport of pollutants in an urban basin
Liu, C. Y.; Goodin, W. R.
1977-01-01
The distribution of carbon monoxide emitted mainly from an automobile exhaust is investigated. Carbon monoxide is assumed to be chemically inert. The transport model, in analogy with the shallow-water theory in fluid dynamics, considers variation of all physical quantities in the horizontal direction below the temperature inversion layer. Pollutants are found to be carried primarily by the wind; turbulent diffusion in a normal day plays only a minor role. The concentration of CO predicted by the present model for the entire Los Angeles basin is compared with observed data at nine stations. Accuracy of four different numerical schemes, the effect of turbulent diffusivity, and the source strengths are examined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1996-12-01
A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries and uses an electromagnetic field which is decomposed in its transverse magnetic (TM) and electric (TE) components. The code has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D, and on the CRAY Y-MP. (author) figs., tabs., refs.
Katyal, A. K.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Parker, J. C.
1991-05-01
The manual describes a two-dimensional finite element model for coupled multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in planar or radially symmetric vertical sections. Flow and transport of three fluid phases, including water, nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), and gas are considered by the program. The program can simulate flow only or coupled flow and transport. The flow module can be used to analyze two phases, water and NAPL, with the gas phase held at constant pressure, or explicit three-phase flow of water, NAPL, and gas at various pressures. The transport module can handle up to five components which partition among water, NAPL, gas and solid phases assuming either local equilibrium or first-order mass transfer. Three phase permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations are defined by an extension of the van Genuchten model. The governing equations are solved using an efficient upstream-weighted finite element scheme. The required inputs for flow and transport analysis are described. Detailed instructions for creating data files needed to run the program and examples of input and output files are given in appendices.
Diverse anisotropy of phonon transport in two-dimensional group IV-VI compounds: A comparative study
Qin, Guangzhao; Qin, Zhenzhen; Fang, Wu-Zhang; Zhang, Li-Chuan; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Yan, Qing-Bo; Hu, Ming; Su, Gang
2016-05-01
New classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures, are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and clean energy, where thermal transport is a fundamental physical parameter. In this paper, we systematically investigated the phonon transport properties of the 2D orthorhombic group IV-VI compounds of GeS, GeSe, SnS and SnSe by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations. Despite their similar puckered (hinge-like) structure along the armchair direction as phosphorene, the four monolayer compounds possess diverse anisotropic properties in many aspects, such as phonon group velocity, Young's modulus and lattice thermal conductivity (κ), etc. Especially, the κ along the zigzag and armchair directions of monolayer GeS shows the strongest anisotropy while monolayer SnS and SnSe show almost isotropy in phonon transport. The origin of the diverse anisotropy is fully studied and the underlying mechanism is discussed in details. With limited size, the κ could be effectively lowered, and the anisotropy could be effectively modulated by nanostructuring, which would extend the applications to nanoscale thermoelectrics and thermal management. Our study offers fundamental understanding of the anisotropic phonon transport properties of 2D materials, and would be of significance for further study, modulation and applications in emerging technologies.
Revealing origin of quasi-one dimensional current transport in defect rich two dimensional materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Hansen, Ole;
2014-01-01
The presence of defects in graphene have for a long time been recognized as a bottleneck for its utilization in electronic and mechanical devices. We recently showed that micro four-point probes may be used to evaluate if a graphene film is truly 2D or if defects in proximity of the probe will lead...... to a non-uniform current flow characteristic of lower dimensionality. In this work, simulations based on a finite element method together with a Monte Carlo approach are used to establish the transition from 2D to quasi-1D current transport, when applying a micro four-point probe to measure on 2D...... contacts is compared to the micro four-point probe conductance measurements and we find that the micro four-point probe tends to measure a slightly higher conductance in samples containing defects. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC....
Two-Dimensional Dirac Fermions in a Topological Insulator: Transport in the Quantum Limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Analytis, J.G.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; McDonald, R.D.; /Los Alamos; Riggs, S.C.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Chu, J.-H.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Boebinger, G.S.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Fisher, I.R.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.
2011-08-12
Pulsed magnetic fields of up to 55T are used to investigate the transport properties of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the extreme quantum limit. For samples with a bulk carrier density of n = 2.9 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, the lowest Landau level of the bulk 3D Fermi surface is reached by a field of 4T. For fields well beyond this limit, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations arising from quantization of the 2D surface state are observed, with the {nu} = 1 Landau level attained by a field of {approx} 35T. These measurements reveal the presence of additional oscillations which occur at fields corresponding to simple rational fractions of the integer Landau indices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilardy, Juan M; Giacometto, F; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: vilardy.juan@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)
2011-01-01
The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.
Applications of two-dimensional code in academic journals%科技期刊二维码的应用情况分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨郁霞
2013-01-01
Applications of two-dimensional code in academic journals are explored from two aspects:reading and being read.Meanwhile the possible problems and solutions involved in editors,authors and readers,technology and standard drafting in the applications of two-dimensional code in academic journals are put forward.%二维码的应用分为主读和被读2类.从这2个方面分析二维码在科技期刊中的应用情况,并从编辑、作者、读者以及技术、标准的制订等方面指出二维码应用中存在的问题,提出解决问题的途径.
Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D
2013-06-01
We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.
The Application of QR Two-dimensional Code in the Elevator Using Sign%QR二维码在电梯使用标志中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王艳平; 吴爱京; 廖学春; 李春红
2014-01-01
According to the relevant requirements of the state, the anti-counterfeiting mark with two-dimensional code should be used to realize the information management in the elevator using symbol by the institute of especial equipment supervision and inspection with appropriate conditions. The selection and realization of two-dimensional code in elevator are researched in this paper, and the advantages and principle of QR two-dimensional code are briefly introduced. Then the systems to generate and print and read and recognize the elevator using symbol based on QR two-dimensional code are developed, and the reading of intelligent information and anti-counterfeit identification of elevator using symbol in the on-site inspection are realized, which are easy to query and verify the equipment information.%根据国家有关要求，有条件的检验机构应在电梯使用标志上使用二维码防伪标志，实现信息化管理。该文对电梯二维码选型及实现进行了研究，简要介绍了QR二维码的优点及原理，开发了基于QR二维码的电梯使用标志生成打印、读取识别系统，实现检验现场对电梯设备信息智能化读取及电梯使用标志防伪识别，便于检验现场查询及核实设备信息。
A Novel Automatic Algorithm of Customized Two Dimensional Code%一种个性化二维码自动生成算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丘文峰; 王耀民; 赵云
2012-01-01
针对个性化QR码手工设计过程复杂，无法精确放置嵌入个性化图片的问题．根据QK数据存放的位置特性，修改QR码生成算法，设计一个个性化二维码自动生成算法。该算法可以设定图像前景和背景色，在QR码中央、角落、放置图像。实验表明，生成的个性化二维码可以被主流QR码识别工具识别、%According to the problem that the personalized QR code manual design process is complex, and cannot be accurately placed embedded personalized picture, for the QR data storage location characteristics, modifies the QR code generation algorithm, designs a personalized two-dimensional code automatic generation algorithm. This algorithm can set the colors of the image foreground and background, in the QR code central, corner, placing the image. Experimental result shows that the generated personalized two-dimensional code can be distinguished by mainstream QR code identification tool.
Research and Implementation of a Secure Two-dimensional Code%安全实用的二维码研究与实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高彦受; 许春根
2012-01-01
Two-dimensional code is carried large amounts of information in the form of pictures, to achieve the purpose of fast and convenient. So far, It is widely used in e-commerce and ticketing systems. However, two-dimensional codes is also faced with security threats such as information disclosure and information altered. Our article research the main problem faced by the two-dimensional code. For example, when we generated the QR code, we encrypt the source data to prevent information leakage. The encryption method is RC4. Finally, designed and implemented a QR code. This design will not disclose personal information and generate high efficiency. The important is application value in practice.% 二维码是将大量信息以图片的形式承载，达到快捷方便的目的，目前广泛运用于电子商务、票务系统等。然而，二维码也面临着信息泄露和信息涂改等安全威胁，文章对二维码所面临的主要问题进行了研究，以QR码为例，为防止信息泄露，在进行QR码生成时对数据进行了加密处理，主要是RC4加密，最后设计并实现了QR码的生成，该设计方案不仅不会泄露个人信息，而且生成效率很高，在实际中具有应用价值。
Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.
1994-01-01
Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated
User's manual for EVITS: a steady state fluids code for complex two-dimensional geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domanus, H.M.
1976-07-01
A 2-D computer code, EVITS, has been developed for estimating steady state, incompressible, isothermal flow fields in complex geometries. A vorticity-stream function formulation is used along with a model to resolve viscous effects at solid boundaries. Sufficient geometry and boundary type options are included within the code so that a large number of flow situations can be specified without modifying the program. All instructions to the code are via an input dataset. Detailed instructions for preparing the user oriented input, along with examples, are included in this users' manual.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Li-Feng; Dong Li-Min; Wu Zhi-Fang; Fang Chao
2013-01-01
we studied and compared the transport properties of charge carriers in bilayer graphene,monolayer graphene,and the conventional semiconductors (the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)).It is elucidated that the normal incidence transmission in the bilayer graphene is identical to that in the 2DEG but totally different from that in the monolayer graphene.However,resonant peaks appear in the non-normal incidence transmission profile for a high barrier in the bilayer graphene,which do not occur in the 2DEG.Furthermore,there are tunneling and forbidden regions in the transmission spectrum for each material,and the division of the two regions has been given in the work.The tunneling region covers a wide range of the incident energy for the two graphene systems,but only exists under specific conditions for the 2DEG.The counterparts of the transmission in the conductance profile are also given for the three materials,which may be used as high-performance devices based on the bilayer graphene.
Wang, Ping; Guo, Lixin; Song, Zhenjie; Yang, Yintang; Shang, Tao; Li, Jing; Huang, Feng; Zheng, Qinghong
2013-12-01
Quantum transport properties of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in undoped MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with polarization charge effect have been investigated theoretically. Polarization roughness scattering (PRS) combining polarization charge and interface roughness scattering was proposed as a new scattering mechanism. It was found that the carriers confined in the heterostructures (HSs) would be scattered from polarization charges when they were moving along the in-plane and PRS played a very important role for the low-temperature electron mobility when the electron density Ns exceeded 1.0e11 cm-2, especially in a higher electron density region. With PRS, the experimental data on the density dependence of 2DEG mobility in the MgZnO/ZnO HSs under study can be well reproduced. The study indicates that the improved processing techniques providing a smooth interface and a good separation between the 2DEG electrons and the polarization charges should be significant for the quantum device’s performance.
Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul
2009-04-30
Electronic excitations and the optical properties of the photosynthetic complex PSI are analyzed using an effective exciton model developed by Vaitekonis et al. [Photosynth. Res. 2005, 86, 185]. States of the reaction center, the linker states, the highly delocalized antenna states and the red states are identified and assigned in absorption and circular dichroism spectra by taking into account the spectral distribution of density of exciton states, exciton delocalization length, and participation ratio in the reaction center. Signatures of exciton cooperative dynamics in nonchiral and chirality-induced two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo signals are identified. Nonchiral signals show resonances associated with the red, the reaction center, and the bulk antenna states as well as transport between them. Spectrally overlapping contributions of the linker and the delocalized antenna states are clearly resolved in the chirality-induced signals. Strong correlations are observed between the delocalized antenna states, the linker states, and the RC states. The active space of the complex covering the RC, the linker, and the delocalized antenna states is common to PSI complexes in bacteria and plants.
Effect of phase transition on quantum transport in group-IV two-dimensional U-shape device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadi, Mohammad Abdullah; Gupta, Gaurav, E-mail: a0089293@nus.edu.sg; Liang, Gengchiau [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2014-10-21
The effect of phase-transition from the quantum-spin-hall to the band-insulator phase on the transport through a three-terminal U-shape spin-separator has been computationally investigated via non-equilibrium green function formalism. Two-dimensional group-IV elements have been comprehensively appraised as the device material. The device separates the unpolarized current injected at the source-terminal into nearly 100% spin-polarized currents of the opposite polarities at the two drain terminals. The phase-transition activated by the electric-field orthogonal to the device is shown to extensively influence the current magnitude and its spin-polarization, and the effect is stronger for materials with smaller intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, the device length and the area under field are shown to critically affect the device characteristics on phase change. It is shown that the same device can be operated as a spin-filter by inducing phase-transition selectively in the channel. The results are important for designing spin-devices from Group-IV monolayers.
Ab initio electronic transport study of two-dimensional silicon carbide-based p–n junctions
Zhou, Hanming; Lin, Xiao; Guo, Hongwei; Lin, Shisheng; Sun, Yiwei; Xu, Yang
2017-03-01
Two-dimensional silicon carbide (2d-SiC) is a viable material for next generation electronics due to its moderate, direct bandgap with huge potential. In particular, its potential for p–n junctions is yet to be explored. In this paper, three types of 2d-SiC-based p–n junctions with different doping configuration are modeled. The doping configurations refer to partially replacing carbon with boron or nitrogen atoms along the zigzag or armchair direction, respectively. By employing density functional theory, we calculate the transport properties of the SiC based p–n junctions and obtain negative differential resistance and high rectification ratio. We also find that the junction along the zigzag direction with lower doping density exhibits optimized rectification performance. Our study suggests that 2d-SiC is a promising candidate as a material platform for future nano-devices. Project supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474099, 61674127) and the ZJ-NSF (No. Z17F04003).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Prolo Filho, Joao Francisco [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei; Basso Barichello, Liliane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica
2014-04-15
In this work a study of two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, is reported. The approach reduces the complexity of the multidimensional problem using a combination of nodal schemes and the Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method (ADO). The unknown leakage terms on the boundaries that appear from the use of the derivation of the nodal scheme are incorporated to the problem source term, such as to couple the one-dimensional integrated solutions, made explicit in terms of the x and y spatial variables. The formulation leads to a considerable reduction of the order of the associated eigenvalue problems when combined with the usual symmetric quadratures, thereby providing solutions that have a higher degree of computational efficiency. Reflective-type boundary conditions are introduced to represent the domain on a simpler form than that previously considered in connection with the ADO method. Numerical results obtained with the technique are provided and compared to those present in the literature. (orig.)
Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish
2016-12-07
We investigate the role of interfacial electronic properties on the phonon transport in two-dimensional MoS2 adsorbed on metal substrates (Au and Sc) using first-principles density functional theory and the atomistic Green's function method. Our study reveals that the different degree of orbital hybridization and electronic charge distribution between MoS2 and metal substrates play a significant role in determining the overall phonon-phonon coupling and phonon transmission. The charge transfer caused by the adsorption of MoS2 on Sc substrate can significantly weaken the Mo-S bond strength and change the phonon properties of MoS2, which result in a significant change in thermal boundary conductance (TBC) from one lattice-stacking configuration to another for same metallic substrate. In a lattice-stacking configuration of MoS2/Sc, weakening of the Mo-S bond strength due to charge redistribution results in decrease in the force constant between Mo and S atoms and substantial redistribution of phonon density of states to low-frequency region which affects overall phonon transmission leading to 60% decrease in TBC compared to another configuration of MoS2/Sc. Strong chemical coupling between MoS2 and the Sc substrate leads to a significantly (∼19 times) higher TBC than that of the weakly bound MoS2/Au system. Our findings demonstrate the inherent connection among the interfacial electronic structure, the phonon distribution, and TBC, which helps us understand the mechanism of phonon transport at the MoS2/metal interfaces. The results provide insights for the future design of MoS2-based electronics and a way of enhancing heat dissipation at the interfaces of MoS2-based nanoelectronic devices.
Collet, Arnaud; Cox, Cédric; Gérard, Jean-Claude
2010-12-01
We present a numerical tool developed to quantify the role of processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of the NO ultraviolet and O2(Δg1) infrared nightglows in the Venus night side upper atmosphere, observed with the VIRTIS and SPICAV instruments on board Venus Express. This numerical tool consists in a two-dimensional chemical-transport time-dependent model which computes in a hypothetical rectangular solving domain the spatio-temporal distributions of the number densities of the four minor species at play in these two nightglow emissions. The coupled nonlinear system of the four partial differential equations, describing the spatio-temporal variations of the minor species, has been solved using a finite volume method with a forward Euler method for the time integration scheme. As an application, we have first simulated a time-constant supply of atoms through the upper boundary of the solving domain. The fluxes are inhomogeneous relative to its horizontal direction, in order to simulate regions of enhanced downward flow of oxygen and nitrogen giving rise to NO and O 2 brightening. Given that these two emissions show large time variations, we have also simulated a time-dependent downward flux of O and N atoms. It results from these simulations that the lack of correlation between the NO and O2(Δg1) nightglows largely result from to the coupling between horizontal and vertical transport processes and the very different chemical lifetimes of the two species. In particular, we have quantified the role of each process generating spatio-temporal de-correlations between the NO and O2(Δg1) nightglows.
Khalaf, E.; Skvortsov, M. A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.
2016-03-01
We study electron transport at the edge of a generic disordered two-dimensional topological insulator, where some channels are topologically protected from backscattering. Assuming the total number of channels is large, we consider the edge as a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire and describe it in terms of a nonlinear sigma model with a topological term. Neglecting localization effects, we calculate the average distribution function of transmission probabilities as a function of the sample length. We mainly focus on the two experimentally relevant cases: a junction between two quantum Hall (QH) states with different filling factors (unitary class) and a relatively thick quantum well exhibiting quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect (symplectic class). In a QH sample, the presence of topologically protected modes leads to a strong suppression of diffusion in the other channels already at scales much shorter than the localization length. On the semiclassical level, this is accompanied by the formation of a gap in the spectrum of transmission probabilities close to unit transmission, thereby suppressing shot noise and conductance fluctuations. In the case of a QSH system, there is at most one topologically protected edge channel leading to weaker transport effects. In order to describe `topological' suppression of nearly perfect transparencies, we develop an exact mapping of the semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional sigma model onto a zero-dimensional sigma model of a different symmetry class, allowing us to identify the distribution of transmission probabilities with the average spectral density of a certain random-matrix ensemble. We extend our results to other symmetry classes with topologically protected edges in two dimensions.
Li, Hanshan; Lei, Zhiyong
2013-01-01
To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basso Barichello, Liliane; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada
2015-05-15
A nodal formulation of a fixed-source two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in Cartesian geometry, defined in a heterogeneous medium, is solved by an analytical approach. Explicit expressions, in terms of the spatial variables, are derived for averaged fluxes in each region in which the domain is subdivided. The procedure is an extension of an analytical discrete ordinates method, the ADO method, for the solution of the two-dimensional homogeneous medium case. The scheme is developed from the discrete ordinates version of the two-dimensional transport equation along with the level symmetric quadrature scheme. As usual for nodal schemes, relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown angular fluxes at the contours are introduced as auxiliary equations. Numerical results are in agreement with results available in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muir, D.W.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Davierwalla, D.M.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.
1988-01-01
The lack of suitable benchmark problems makes it difficult to test sensitivity codes with a covariance library. A benchmark problem has therefore been defined for one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainity analysis codes and code systems. The problem, representative of a fusion reactor blanket, has a simple, three-zone )tau)-z geometry containing a D-T fusion neutron source distributed in a central void region surrounded by a thick /sup 6/LiH annulus. The response of interest is the /sup 6/Li tritium production per source neutron, T/sub 6/. The calculation has been performed with SENSIBL using other codes from the AARE code system as a test of both SENSIBL and the linked, modular system. The caluclation was performed using the code system in the standard manner with a covariance data library in the COVFILS-2 format but modified to contain specifically tailored covariance data for H and /sup 6/Li (Path A). The calculation was also performed by a second method which uses specially perturbed H and Li cross sections (Path B). This method bypasses SENSIBL and allows a hand calculation of the benchmark T/sub 6/ uncertainties. The results of Path A and Path B were total uncertainties in T/sub 6/ of 0.21% and 0.19%, respectively. The closeness of the results for this challenging test gives confidence that SENSIBL and the AARE system will perform well for realistic sensitivity and uncertainty analyses
二维欧拉程序中一种新的分界面跟踪技术%AN ALGORITHM FOR TRACKING INTERFACES IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL EULERIAN CODE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
温万治; 恽寿榕; 张月琴
2000-01-01
A method is presented for tracking interfaces, which is MOCL (marker oncell line) employed in two-dimensional Eulerian code. To test it, fivekinds of objects with different shapes being uniform motion arenumerically simulated in a two-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics codethat uses the MOCL technique to track interfaces. Results show that themethod is simple and feasible.
Dubinski, I. M.
2012-12-01
Sedimentation is an ongoing concern for reservoirs that may be addressed using a variety of sediment management options. Sedimentation in reservoirs reduces reservoir storage and alters the sediment supply downstream. The objective of this study is to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of deposited sediment in a proposed reservoir in the Reventazón River, Costa Rica over long-term operation (40 years) under different sediment management scenarios. The two-dimensional sediment transport model MIKE 21C by DHI is used to simulate sediment deposition for the base case (i.e., no sediment management) and assess the anticipated effectiveness of two sediment management strategies (i.e., full drawdown flushing and partial drawdown flushing). Incoming total sediment load is estimated using measured and estimated suspended sediment load combined with bed load estimated using the BAGS model with the Wilcock and Crowe (2003) equation. The base case simulation indicates that the anticipated storage loss in the absence of sediment management would amount to about 35% of the total and 33% of the active storage volume over a 40-year period. The predicted storage losses are significantly less when the performance of full drawdown flushing and partial drawdown flushing was simulated. In the case of full drawdown flushing the total anticipated storage loss is about 22%, while the loss in active storage is only 7%. In the case of partial drawdown flushing the predicted loss in total storage is 26%, while the anticipated loss in active storage is 8% after 40 years of operation. The simulations indicate that flushing is a viable and sustainable sediment management option for maintaining active storage in the proposed reservoir and passing through sediment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsai, Ching-Ju; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej;
2007-01-01
The osmoregulated and chill-sensitive glycine-betaine transporter (BetP) from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted into lipids to form two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The sensitivity of BetP partly bases on its interaction with lipids. Here we demonstrate that lipids and salts influence...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Sik Choi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The operating characteristics of hydrogen iodide (HI decomposition for hydrogen production were investigated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, and various factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare device performance with that expected for device development. Hydrogen production increased with an increase of the surface-to-volume (STV ratio. With an increase of hydrogen production, the reaction heat increased. The internal pressure and velocity of the HI decomposer were estimated through pressure drop and reducing velocity from the preheating zone. The mass of H2O was independent of the STV ratio, whereas that of HI decreased with increasing STV ratio.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕慧中; 蓝凤华; 李宏昌
2015-01-01
This paper introduces the color two-dimensional code on the basis of introducing the traditional black and white two-dimensional code. The two dimensional code is changed into color to provide more watermark embedding position and higher visibility. The MATLAB simulation experiment proves the feasibility of embedding the watermark information in the two-dimensional code. Based on characteristics of color two-dimensional code, this paper studies the application of digital watermark in color two-dimensional code. By embedding watermark through through R, G, B color component translation and rotation, this paper designs a watermarking algorithm based on the color two-dimensional code, which can resist geometric attacks and improve the security and practicability of two-dimensional code.%在介绍了传统黑白二维码的基础上,对彩色二维码进行了介绍.将二维码变成彩色,提供了更多的水印嵌入位置和更高的不可见性.通过Matlab仿真实验,验证了在彩色二维码中嵌入水印信息的可行性,并结合彩色二维码的特点,对数字水印在彩色二维码中的应用进行研究,采用R、G和B三种颜色分量分别平移和旋转的方法嵌入水印,设计出了一种可抵抗几何攻击的彩色二维码水印算法,提高了二维码的安全性和实用性.
Einkemmer, Lukas
2017-01-01
To optimize the geometry of airfoils for a specific application is an important engineering problem. In this context genetic algorithms have enjoyed some success as they are able to explore the search space without getting stuck in local optima. However, these algorithms require the computation of aerodynamic properties for a significant number of airfoil geometries. Consequently, for low-speed aerodynamics, panel methods are most often used as the inner solver. In this paper we evaluate the performance of such an optimization algorithm on modern accelerators (more specifically, the Intel Xeon Phi 7120 and the NVIDIA K80). For that purpose, we have implemented an optimized version of the algorithm on the CPU and Xeon Phi (based on OpenMP, vectorization, and the Intel MKL library) and on the GPU (based on CUDA and the MAGMA library). We present timing results for all codes and discuss the similarities and differences between the three implementations. Overall, we observe a speedup of approximately 2.5 for adding an Intel Xeon Phi 7120 to a dual socket workstation and a speedup between 3.4 and 3.8 for adding a NVIDIA K80 to a dual socket workstation.
Evaluation of the Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA K80 as accelerators for two-dimensional panel codes
Einkemmer, Lukas
2015-01-01
To predict the properties of fluid flow over a solid geometry is an important engineering problem. In many applications so-called panel methods (or boundary element methods) have become the standard approach to solve the corresponding partial differential equation. Since panel methods in two dimensions are computationally cheap, they are well suited as the inner solver in an optimization algorithm. In this paper we evaluate the performance of the Intel Xeon Phi 7120 and the NVIDIA K80 to accelerate such an optimization algorithm. For that purpose, we have implemented an optimized version of the algorithm on the CPU and Xeon Phi (based on OpenMP, vectorization, and the Intel MKL library) and on the GPU (based on CUDA and the MAGMA library). We present timing results for all codes and discuss the similarities and differences between the three implementations. Overall, we observe a speedup of approximately $2.5$ for adding a Intel Xeon Phi 7120 to a dual socket workstation and a speedup between $3$ and $3.5$ for...
Gonzalez, C. M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Wright, G. B.; Barnett, G. A.
2010-12-01
As computational modeling became prolific throughout the physical sciences community, newer and more efficient ways of processing large amounts of data needed to be devised. One particular method for processing such large amounts of data arose in the form of using a graphics processing unit (GPU) for calculations. Computational scientists were attracted to the GPU as a computational tool as the performance, growth, and availability of GPUs over the past decade increased. Scientists began to utilize the GPU as the sole workhorse for their brute force calculations and modeling. The GPUs, however, were not originally designed for this style of use. As a result, difficulty arose when trying to find a use for the GPU from a scientific standpoint. A lack of parallel programming routines was the main culprit behind the difficulty in programming with a GPU, but with time and a rise in popularity, NVIDIA released a proprietary architecture named Fermi. The Fermi architecture, when used in conjunction with development tools such as CUDA, allowed the programmer easier access to routines that made parallel programming with the NVIDIA GPUs an ease. This new architecture enabled the programmer full access to faster memory, double-precision support, and large amounts of global memory at their fingertips. Our model was based on using a second-order, spatially correct finite difference method and a third order Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme for studying the 2D Rayleigh-Benard code. The code extensively used the CUBLAS routines to do the heavy linear algebra calculations. The calculations themselves were completed using a single GPU, the NVDIA C2070 Fermi, which boasts 6 GB of global memory. The overall scientific goal of our work was to apply the Tesla C2070's computing potential to achieve an onset of flow reversals as a function of increasing large Rayleigh numbers. Previous investigations were successful using a smaller grid size of 1000x1999 and a Rayleigh number of 10^9. The
DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.
1995-06-01
The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.
Buras, R; Rampp, M; Kifonidis, K
2005-01-01
1D and 2D supernova simulations for stars between 11 and 25 solar masses are presented, making use of the Prometheus/Vertex neutrino-hydrodynamics code, which employs a full spectral treatment of the neutrino transport. Multi-dimensional transport aspects are treated by the ``ray-by-ray plus'' approximation described in Paper I. Our set of models includes a 2D calculation for a 15 solar mass star whose iron core is assumed to rotate rigidly with an angular frequency of 0.5 rad/s before collapse. No important differences were found depending on whether random seed perturbations for triggering convection are included already during core collapse, or whether they are imposed on a 1D collapse model shortly after bounce. Convection below the neutrinosphere sets in about 40 ms p.b. at a density above 10**12 g/cm^3 in all 2D models, and encompasses a layer of growing mass as time goes on. It leads to a more extended proto-neutron star structure with accelerated lepton number and energy loss and significantly higher ...
A Recognition Algorithm for Highly Deformed Two-Dimensional Code%高形变二维码识别算法设计与实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于继明; 徐楠; 陈硕
2014-01-01
针对 QR(Quick Response)二维码在高偏离拍摄角度下难以识别的问题，设计一种在高偏离拍摄角度下正确识别的算法。该算法通过对图像二值化处理、形态学处理、边缘检测、Hough 变换和射影几何变换5个步骤，实现对图像的高准确率识别，使用 java 语言环境和移动终端的 android 环境下对算法进行仿真与算法验证，并实现了通过扫描或读取二维码图像来写入、查找信息等操作。%A recognition algorithm at a highly deviated shooting angle is proposed,which can solve the puzzle of identification for QR (Quick Response)two-dimensional code in case of high-angle shooting deviation from itself.The image can be recognized with high accuracy through the method with five procedures to process the image,i.e.,binarization processing, morphological processing,edge detection,Hough transformation and projective geometry trans-formation.Then the algorithm has been simulated and evaluated by using java language envi-ronment and android mobile terminal.By scanning or reading two-dimensional code image,the i-dentification function can be realized with the algorithm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖菲菲; 刘真
2011-01-01
The principle of two-dimensional bar code anti-counterfeiting technology was analyzed.A plan of applying two-dimensional code anti-counterfeiting technology in variable-data printing was put forward.On the basis of experiments on generation and recognition of two-dimensional bar code,anti-counterfeiting properties of two different two-dimensional bar codes（PDF417 code and QR code） were obtained and their difference was compared.The theoretical analysis and experiment results showed that anti-counterfeiting technology based on two-dimensional bar code can be used in variable data printing,besides,different two-dimensional bar codes have different anti-counterfeiting properties;different two-dimensional bar code should be selected according to specific requirements.%分析了二维码的防伪原理,提出了在可变数据印刷中应用二维码进行防伪的方案,在完成基于可变数据印刷的二维码的生成和识别实验的基础上,设计实验比较得出了不同二维码（PDF417码与QR码）的防伪特性的差异。理论分析及实验结果表明,利用二维码对可变数据印刷进行防伪的方案是可行的,并且不同二维码的防伪特性存在差异,在实际应用中可以根据具体的要求选用不同的二维码。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐义钊; 白瑞林; 余震虹; 吉峰
2012-01-01
为实现工业现场中Data Matrix二维条码的快速识别,提出一种基于链码跟踪、直线段提取的条码快速识别方法.首先采用Sobel算子提取图像边缘；然后基于链码跟踪方法,跟踪图像的边缘点,记录链码；接着根据快速直线段提取方法,将直线相似度低于阈值的线段剔除,结合线形连接方法合并断裂线段,并使用长度判别剔除不可靠的线段；最后结合Data Matrix二维条码的特征,定位Data Matrix二维条码.实际测试表明,该识别方法能够快速、准确地定位二维条码区域,识别正确率可达99.39％以上,具有实时性强、可靠性好等特点,满足工业现场要求.%A two-dimensional bar code recognition method based on chain code tracking and straight line segment extraction was proposed in order to realize quick identification of the Data Matrix two-dimensional bar code in the industrial field. Firstly, the Sobel operator was used to extract the edge of image. Secondly, the image edge points were tracked and chain codes were recorded based on chain code tracking method. Thirdly, line segment whose straight line similarity was below the threshold was removed with fast straight line segment extraction method. The fracture line was combined with the linear connection method and the unreliable line was excluded by length discrimination. Finally, the Data Matrix bar code was located with the characteristics of the Data Matrix two-dimensional bar code. The application test shows that the two-dimensional bar code area can be quickly and accurately located by the recognition method with the recognition rate of 99. 39%. The proposed method is ready to meet the requirements of industrial field with strong real-time ability and high reliability.
Lima, L. S.
2017-02-01
We have used the Dirac's massless quasi-particles together with the Kubo's formula to study the spin transport by electrons in the graphene monolayer. We have calculated the electric conductivity and verified the behavior of the AC and DC currents of this system, that is a relativistic electron plasma. Our results show that the AC conductivity tends to infinity in the limit ω → 0 , similar to the behavior obtained for the spin transport in the two-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice. We have made a diagrammatic expansion for the Green's function and we have not gotten significative change in the results.
Users manual for the UEDGE edge-plasma transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Smith, G R
2000-01-10
Operational details are given for the two-dimensional UEDGE edge-plasma transport code. The model applies to nearly fully-ionized plasmas in a strong magnetic field. Equations are solved for the plasma density, velocity along the magnetic field, electron temperature, ion temperature, and electrostatic potential. In addition, fluid models of neutrals species are included or the option to couple to a Monte Carlo code description of the neutrals. Multi-species ion mixtures can be simulated. The physical equations are discretized by a finite-difference procedure, and the resulting system of algebraic equations are solved by fully-implicit techniques. The code can be used to follow time-dependent solutions or to find steady-state solutions by direct iteration.
Chang, Yuan-Ming; Lin, Che-Yi; Lin, Yen-Fu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito
2016-11-01
We present a review of recent developments in the synthesis, thickness identification, electronic properties, and possible applications of layered MoTe2 flakes. Special emphasis is made on two-dimensional (2D) MoTe2 semiconductors and the extensive research in recent years on their applications in electronics. Layered MoTe2 flakes have been the focus of substantial interest in the research community because of their fascinating characteristics, including an appropriate band gap and a simple fabrication method (exfoliation) to form layered nanomaterials. Our aim is to provide the readers an overview of layered MoTe2 flakes and to understand their properties, which may lead to their applications in micro- and nanoelectronics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hummel, D.W.; Langton, S.E.; Ball, M.R.; Novog, D.R.; Buijs, A., E-mail: hummeld@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
2013-07-01
Discrepancies have been observed among a number of recent reactor physics studies in support of the PT-SCWR pre-conceptual design, including differences in lattice-level predictions of infinite neutron multiplication factor, coolant void reactivity, and radial power profile. As a first step to resolving these discrepancies, a lattice-level benchmark problem was designed based on the 78-element plutonium-thorium PT-SCWR fuel design under a set of prescribed local conditions. This benchmark problem was modeled with a suite of both deterministic and Monte Carlo neutron transport codes. The results of these models are presented here as the basis of a code-to-code comparison. (author)
Coupled One and Two Dimensional Model for River Network Flow and Sediment Transport%一二维耦合河网水沙模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕文丽; 张旭
2011-01-01
Based on previous research, a new one and two-dimensional coupled model of river water and sediment was proposed.With reference to the three-level solution for one-dimensional river network water mode, the two-dimensional river section will be generalized to river section within the river network.One and two dimensional coupled river network sediment model will be established with the balance of flow amount and sediment transport.The model sets up the chasing relationship between variables of water level and sediment content at the end and first section to further establish matrix equations of the whole one and two-dimensional river network node water level and sediment content.Though the verification and calculation for generalized river network from Datong to Zhenjiang in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it is found that the model is of great practical value.%借鉴河网水流的三级解法,将二维河段概化为河网内部河段,通过河网节点流量和输沙量的平衡,建立一二维耦合河网水沙模型.模型采用全隐式方法建立二维河段以首末断面的水位和含沙量为中间变量的矩阵追赶关系,进而建立整个一二维河网的节点水位及含沙量的矩阵方程组.对方程组的求解,可实现一二维水沙模型的耦合求解.通过对长江下游大通至镇江概化河网的验证计算,表明模型具有很好的实用价值.
Gourgue, O.; Baeyens, W.; Chen, M. S.; de Brauwere, A.; de Brye, B.; Deleersnijder, E.; Elskens, M.; Legat, V.
2013-12-01
This paper presents the sediment module designed for the two-dimensional depth-averaged and one-dimensional section-averaged components of the finite-element model SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model) in the framework of its application to the tidal part of the Scheldt Basin. This sediment transport module focuses on fine-grained, cohesive sediments. It is a necessary tool to undertake environmental biogeochemical studies, in which fine sediment dynamics play a crucial role.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.
Domański, J.; Badziak, J.; Jabloński, S.
2016-04-01
Laser-driven generation of high-energy ion beams has recently attracted considerable interest due to a variety of potential applications including proton radiography, ICF fast ignition, nuclear physics or hadron therapy. The ion beam parameters depend on both laser pulse and target parameters, and in order to produce the ion beam of properties required for a particular application the laser and target parameters must be carefully selected, and the mechanism of the ion beam generation should be well understood and controlled. Convenient and commonly used tools for studies of the ion acceleration process are particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. Using two-dimensional PIC simulations, the properties of a proton beam generated from a thin erbium hydride (ErH3) target irradiated by a 25fs laser pulse of linear or circular polarization and of intensity ranging from 1020 to 1021 W/cm2 are investigated and compared with the features of a proton beam produced from a hydrocarbon (CH) target. It has been found that using erbium hydride targets instead of hydrocarbon ones creates an opportunity to generate more compact proton beams of higher mean energy, intensity and of better collimation. This is especially true for the linear polarization of the laser beam, for which the mean proton energy, the amount of high energy protons and the intensity of the proton beam generated from the hydride target is by an order of magnitude higher than for the hydrocarbon target. For the circular polarization, the proton beam parameters are lower than those for the linear one, and the effect of target composition on the acceleration process is weaker.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋佳男; 王必超; 冯善武; 王化宇; 付东英
2015-01-01
Objective To manage the precious instruments in operating room using the self-made two-di-mensional code by QR two-dimensional code storage information principle. Methods Two-dimensional QR code, generated by the two-dimensional code software based on the relevant information of the required storage instru-ments edited by the office software, were pasted in the instruments for equipment management. Results The effi-ciency of equipment management using two-dimensional QR code technology was higher than that of traditional method. Conclusion Two-dimensional QR codes provide valuable benefits for the optimization of management pro-cess, data statistics, and instrument tracing, showing great convenience to equipment management in operating room.%目的：运用QR二维码存储信息原理，自制二维码对手术室贵重仪器进行管理。方法利用Office软件编辑所需存储仪器的相应信息，使二维码软件生成对应的二维码并粘贴在仪器上，进行仪器管理。结果使用QR二维码技术进行仪器管理效率明显高于传统管理效率。结论 QR二维码在优化管理流程，数据统计，仪器追踪等方面效果明显，为手术室仪器管理工作提供便捷。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何旭凤; 金镇; 颜凯利; 钟倩茹; 赵一飞
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional code as one of the entrances of the Mobile Internet Marketing, connecting online with offline. It becomes an effective platform for information dissemination and communication between businesses and consumers, and forms a marketing mode of O2O. Based on the relevant theory of information dissemination, the research status of the two-dimensional code marketing is analyzed, and the two-dimensional code marketing model is designed, and the application of two-dimensional code marketing in real life is described.%二维码作为移动互联网营销的入口之一，连接线上与线下，成为商家与消费者之间信息传播与交流的有效平台，并形成O2O的营销模式。基于信息传播的相关理论，分析二维码营销的研究现状，设计并提出二维码营销模型，并阐述二维码营销在现实生活中的应用。
Duin, van E.H.S.
1992-01-01
This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data
浅谈设计型二维码在品牌识别系统中的应用%Application of Design Two-dimensional Code in Brand Recognition System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高立伟
2013-01-01
With the continuous development of image recognition technology and wireless communication technology, two-dimensional code technology has a wide range of application in the new media such as mobile phone. Creative two-dimensional code with high reorganization is significant to the improvement of enterprise's brand image the increase of consumer's attention and fancy to brand for brand design and communication. The current design of two-dimensional code in our country is made of the simple black and white squares, and it is more and more difficult to meet the increasing demand of consumer, and is difficult to make the brand stand out form the general two-dimensional code design. The paper puts forward that the new design philosophy that changing line and color, adding drawing and graphics elements for increasing the design sense of two-dimensional code and improving its reorganization and affinity, and states the necessity of the two-dimensional code with design sense and its development trend in order to promote the progress of two-dimensional code design.%随着无线通信技术、图像识别技术的不断发展，二维码技术在手机等新媒体上的应用也更为广泛，在品牌设计与传播中，充满创意、辨识度较高的二维码对提升企业品牌形象，增加消费者对于品牌的关注和喜爱具有重要意义。然而当前我国的二维码设计大多还停留在在简单的黑白格子上，越来越难以满足消费者日益增大的求新求异需求，难以让品牌在同一的二维码设计中脱颖而出，因此本文提出在传统二维码中改变线条、颜色，加入手绘、图形等元素，增加二维码的设计感，提升其辨别度和亲和度，并对发展这种有设计感的二维码的必要性及其未来发展趋势做了阐述，以期促进我国二维码设计的进步。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pogosov, A.G.; Budantsev, M.V.; Lavrov, R.A.; Mansurov, V.G.; Nikitin, A.Yu.; Preobrazhenskii, V.V.; Zhuravlev, K.S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 13 Lavrentiev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2006-07-15
Transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy are experimentally investigated. Conventional Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements as well as investigations of quantum transport phenomena are reported. It is found that negative magnetoresistance (NMR) caused by weak localization demonstrates an unusual behavior at low temperature (1.8 K). The observed NMR cannot be described by the ordinary theory of quantum corrections to conductivity based on a single phase breaking time {tau}{sub {phi}}. The anomalous NMR behavior can be explained by the presence of two occupied quantum subbands, characterized by their own phase breaking times {tau} {sub {phi}} {sub 1} and {tau} {sub {phi}} {sub 2}. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katyal, A.K.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Parker, J.C.
1991-05-01
The manual describes a two-dimensional finite element model for coupled multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in planar or radially symmetric vertical sections. Flow and transport of three fluid phases, including water, nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), and gas are considered by the program. The program can simulate flow only or coupled flow and transport. The flow module can be used to analyze two phases, water and NAPL, with the gas phase held at constant pressure, or explicit three-phase flow of water, NAPL, and gas at various pressures. The transport module can handle up to five components which partition among water, NAPL, gas and solid phases assuming either local equilibrium or first-order mass transfer. Three phase permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations are defined by an extension of the van Genuchten model. The governing equations are solved using an efficient upstream-weighted finite element scheme. The report describes the required inputs for flow analysis and transport analysis. Time dependent boundary conditions for flow and transport analysis can be handled by the program and are described in the report. Detailed instructions for creating data files needed to run the program and example input and output files are given in appendices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUE ZhiYuan; CAO ZhiXian; LI Xin; CHE Tao
2008-01-01
Alluvial rivers may experience intense sediment transport and rapid bed evolution under a high flow regime, for which traditional decoupled mathematical river mod-els based on simplified conservation equations are not applicable. A two-dimen-sional coupled mathematical model is presented, which is generally applicable to the fluvial processes with either intense or weak sediment transport. The governing equations of the model comprise the complete shallow water hydrodynamic equa-tions closed with Manning roughness for boundary resistance and empirical rela-tionships for sediment exchange with the erodible bed. The second-order Total-Variation-Diminishing version of the Weighted-Average-Flux method, along with the HLLC approximate Riemann Solver, is adapted to solve the governing equations, which can properly resolve shock waves and contact discontinuities. The model is applied to the pilot study of the flooding due to a sudden outburst of a real glacial-lake.
Liscio, Fabiola; Albonetti, Cristiano; Broch, Katharina; Shehu, Arian; Quiroga, Santiago David; Ferlauto, Laura; Frank, Christian; Kowarik, Stefan; Nervo, Roberto; Gerlach, Alexander; Milita, Silvia; Schreiber, Frank; Biscarini, Fabio
2013-02-26
Charge transport in organic thin film transistors takes place in the first few molecular layers in contact with the gate dielectric. Here we demonstrate that the charge transport pathways in these devices are extremely sensitive to the orientational defects of the first monolayers, which arise from specific growth conditions. Although these defects partially heal during the growth, they cause depletion of charge carriers in the first monolayer, and drive the current to flow in the monolayers above the first one. Moreover, the residual defects induce lower crystalline order and charge mobility. These results, which are not intuitively explained by electrostatics arguments, have been obtained by combining in situ real time structural and electrical characterization together with ex situ AFM measurements, on thin films of a relevant n-type organic semiconductor, N,N'-bis(n-octyl)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis dicarboximide grown by sublimation in a quasi-layer-by-layer mode at different substrate temperatures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Alluvial rivers may experience intense sediment transport and rapid bed evolution under a high flow regime,for which traditional decoupled mathematical river mod-els based on simplified conservation equations are not applicable. A two-dimen-sional coupled mathematical model is presented,which is generally applicable to the fluvial processes with either intense or weak sediment transport. The governing equations of the model comprise the complete shallow water hydrodynamic equa-tions closed with Manning roughness for boundary resistance and empirical rela-tionships for sediment exchange with the erodible bed. The second-order Total-Variation-Diminishing version of the Weighted-Average-Flux method,along with the HLLC approximate Riemann Solver,is adapted to solve the governing equations,which can properly resolve shock waves and contact discontinuities. The model is applied to the pilot study of the flooding due to a sudden outburst of a real glacial-lake.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pei, Q. L.; Luo, X., E-mail: xluo@issp.ac.cn, E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn; Lin, G. T.; Song, J. Y.; Hu, L.; Song, W. H.; Lu, W. J. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, Y. M.; Yu, L.; Tong, W. [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Y. P., E-mail: xluo@issp.ac.cn, E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2016-01-28
2-Dimensional (2D) CrPS{sub 4} single crystals have been grown by the chemical vapor transport method. The crystallographic, magnetic, electronic, and thermal transport properties of the single crystals were investigated by the room-temperature X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity ρ(T), specific heat C{sub P}(T), and the electronic spin response (ESR) measurements. CrPS{sub 4} crystals crystallize into a monoclinic structure. The electrical resistivity ρ(T) shows a semiconducting behavior with an energy gap E{sub a} = 0.166 eV. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature is about T{sub N} = 36 K. The spin flipping induced by the applied magnetic field is observed along the c axis. The magnetic phase diagram of CrPS{sub 4} single crystal has been discussed. The extracted magnetic entropy at T{sub N} is about 10.8 J/mol K, which is consistent with the theoretical value R ln(2S + 1) for S = 3/2 of the Cr{sup 3+} ion. Based on the mean-field theory, the magnetic exchange constants J{sub 1} and J{sub c} corresponding to the interactions of the intralayer and between layers are about 0.143 meV and −0.955 meV are obtained based on the fitting of the susceptibility above T{sub N}, which agree with the results obtained from the ESR measurements. With the help of the strain for tuning the magnetic properties, monolayer CrPS{sub 4} may be a promising candidate to explore 2D magnetic semiconductors.
NASA Space Radiation Transport Code Development Consortium.
Townsend, Lawrence W
2005-01-01
Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the University of Tennessee (lead institution), the University of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking.
Chetverikov, A. P.; Ebeling, W.; Velarde, M. G.
2016-09-01
We present computational evidence of the possibility of fast, supersonic or subsonic, nearly loss-free ballistic-like transport of electrons bound to lattice solitons (a form of electron surfing on acoustic waves) along crystallographic axes in two-dimensional anharmonic crystal lattices. First we study the structural changes a soliton creates in the lattice and the time lapse of recovery of the lattice. Then we study the behavior of one electron in the polarization field of one and two solitons with crossing pathways with suitably monitored delay. We show how an electron surfing on a lattice soliton may switch to surf on the second soliton and hence changing accordingly the direction of its path. Finally we discuss the possibility to control the way an excess electron proceeds from a source at a border of the lattice to a selected drain at another border by following appropriate straight pathways on crystallographic axes.
Reactive transport codes for subsurface environmental simulation
Steefel, C.I.; Appelo, C.A.J.; Arora, B.; Kalbacher, D.; Kolditz, O.; Lagneau, V.; Lichtner, P.C.; Mayer, K.U.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Molins, S.; Moulton, D.; Shao, D.; Simunek, J.; Spycher, N.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Yeh, G.T.
2015-01-01
A general description of the mathematical and numerical formulations used in modern numerical reactive transport codes relevant for subsurface environmental simulations is presented. The formulations are followed by short descriptions of commonly used and available subsurface simulators that conside
Salas, J; Ayora, C
2004-03-01
The stability of uranium-bearing minerals in natural environments is of interest to evaluate the feasibility of radioactive waste repositories. The uraninite bodies, UO2(s), in the Oklo district (Gabon) are the result of a natural fission process, which took place 1970 Ma ago. These deposits can be regarded as natural analogues for spent fuel. One of the uraninite bodies, the Okélobondo deposit, is located at a depth of 300 m. Groundwater samples from boreholes located at shallow depths (100-200 m) show neutral to basic pH, anoxic conditions (Eh = 0.10 to -0.05 V) and are saturated with respect to uraninite. In contrast, deeper samples collected in the vicinity of the ore body are oxidising (Eh = 0.32-0.47 V), slightly basic (pH = 7.0-8.5) and undersaturated with respect to uraninite. These oxidising conditions at depth, if present under repository conditions, may affect the stability of uranium oxide. In order to improve our understanding of the observed site geochemistry, the available information on the lithology and groundwater flow was integrated in a reactive transport model. The chemical composition and the pH-Eh values of the water sampled above and in the western side of the Okélobondo deposit can be explained by the interaction of meteoric recharge with pelites, dolomites and sandstones. The dissolution of Fe(II)-silicates and the oxidation of the Fe(II)-aqueous species maintained the pH-Eh distribution along the Fe(2+)-Fe(OH)3(am) equilibrium, with the result that uraninite does not dissolve. This may explain the lower uranium content in the water samples from pelites and dolomites above the Okélobondo deposit. The high Mn/Fe ratio and the high pH-Eh values of the water sampled at depth, close to the Okélobondo deposit, suggest a control by the Mn(2+)-MnOOH(s) equilibrium. This control is attributed to the dissolution of a large rhodochrosite, MnCO3(s), and manganite, MnOOH(s) deposit in the recharge area on the eastern side.
Salas, J.; Ayora, C.
2004-03-01
The stability of uranium-bearing minerals in natural environments is of interest to evaluate the feasibility of radioactive waste repositories. The uraninite bodies, UO 2(s), in the Oklo district (Gabon) are the result of a natural fission process, which took place 1970 Ma ago. These deposits can be regarded as natural analogues for spent fuel. One of the uraninite bodies, the Okélobondo deposit, is located at a depth of 300 m. Groundwater samples from boreholes located at shallow depths (100-200 m) show neutral to basic pH, anoxic conditions (Eh=0.10 to -0.05 V) and are saturated with respect to uraninite. In contrast, deeper samples collected in the vicinity of the ore body are oxidising (Eh=0.32-0.47 V), slightly basic (pH=7.0-8.5) and undersaturated with respect to uraninite. These oxidising conditions at depth, if present under repository conditions, may affect the stability of uranium oxide. In order to improve our understanding of the observed site geochemistry, the available information on the lithology and groundwater flow was integrated in a reactive transport model. The chemical composition and the pH-Eh values of the water sampled above and in the western side of the Okélobondo deposit can be explained by the interaction of meteoric recharge with pelites, dolomites and sandstones. The dissolution of Fe(II)-silicates and the oxidation of the Fe(II)-aqueous species maintained the pH-Eh distribution along the Fe 2+-Fe(OH) 3(am) equilibrium, with the result that uraninite does not dissolve. This may explain the lower uranium content in the water samples from pelites and dolomites above the Okélobondo deposit. The high Mn/Fe ratio and the high pH-Eh values of the water sampled at depth, close to the Okélobondo deposit, suggest a control by the Mn 2+-MnOOH(s) equilibrium. This control is attributed to the dissolution of a large rhodochrosite, MnCO 3(s), and manganite, MnOOH(s) deposit in the recharge area on the eastern side.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E Taghizdehsiskht
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In recent years, semiconductor nanostructures have become the model systems of choice for investigation of electrical conduction on short length scales. Quantum transport is studied in a two dimensional electron gas because of the combination of a large Fermi wavelength and large mean free path. In the present work, a numerical method is implemented in order to contribute to the understanding of quantum transport in narrow channels in different conditions of disorder and magnetic fields. We have used an approach that has proved to be very useful in describing mesoscopic transport. We have assumed zero temperature and phase coherent transport. By using the trick that a conductor connected to infinite leads can be replaced by a finite conductor with the effect of the leads incorporated through a 'self-energy' function, a convenient method was provided for evaluating the Green's function of the whole device numerically. Then, Fisher-Lee relations was used for calculating the transmission coefficients through coherent mesoscopic conductors. Our calculations were done in a model system with Hard-wall boundary conditions in the transverse direction, and the Anderson model of disorder was used in disordered samples. We have presented the results of quantum transport for different strengths of disorder and introduced magnetic fields. Our results confirmed the Landauer formalism for calculation of electronic transport. We observed that weak localization effect can be removed by application of a weak perpendicular magnetic field. Finally, we numerically showed the transition to the integral quantum Hall effect regime through the suppression of backscattering on a disordered model system by calculating the two terminal conductance of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum conductor as a strong magnetic field is applied. Our results showed that this regime is entered when there is a negligible overlap between electron edge states localized at opposite sides of
Benchmarking of Heavy Ion Transport Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ronningen, Reginald M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Heilbronn, Lawrence [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
2011-01-01
Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in designing and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
滕旭
2013-01-01
In other countries ,two-dimensional code has been common for document management ,but because its encoding technology is mature ,criminals can be forged .Using pseudo fingerprint key feature encryption of two-dimensional code technology program ,achieves a"witness identity"issue ,and has an important significance for document management base on two-dimensional code .%二维条码用于证件管理在国外已经十分常见，但由于二维码的编解码技术已经非常成熟，很容易被不法分子伪造。提出了利用伪指纹特征密钥加密二维条码的技术方案，实现了“人证同一性”问题，对基于二维码的证件管理具有重要的现实意义。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘金元; 陆野; 汪天睿
2016-01-01
This paper expounds the present situation of the two -dimensional code technology of power supplies in settlement,then explore the specific application of two-dimensional code technology in the related business process,finally the two-dimensional code technology in the material balance the next step in the direction of the application,to further improve the electric power material has an important guiding significance to the settlement system.%文中首先阐述了电力物资结算中二维码技术应用的现状，其次探索了二维码技术在相关业务流程中的具体应用，最后提出了二维码技术在物资结算中的下一步应用方向，对进一步完善电力物资结算体系具有重要的指导意义。
Implement of Product Secret Key Two-Dimensional Code Based on Unity 3D%基于Unity 3D的产品秘钥二维码实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
倪莹莹; 王晓峰; 丁小未
2016-01-01
With the development of computer technology and the rapid rise of the mobile Internet, two-dimensional code, as an automatic identifica-tion technology, is widely applied in various fields. For many software products with their own activate the secret key to maintain the copyright, puts forward to use Unity 3D to perform the client implementation, explores a new method two-dimensional code to realize the activation of the secret key. The experimental results show that, compared with the traditional activation methods, two-dimensional code is more convenient and quick, to some extent, it is of certain practical value.%随着计算机技术的发展以及移动互联网的迅速崛起，二维码作为自动识别技术广泛应用于各个领域。针对不少软件产品通过激活秘钥维护版权的问题，提出利用Unity 3D作为客户端，探索用二维码作为激活秘钥激活产品的新方法。实验结果表明，与传统激活方式相比，二维码作为激活秘钥更方便快捷，具有一定的实用价值。
Quek, Su Ying; Khoo, Khoong Hong
2014-11-18
CONSPECTUS: The emerging field of flexible electronics based on organics and two-dimensional (2D) materials relies on a fundamental understanding of charge and spin transport at the molecular and nanoscale. It is desirable to make predictions and shine light on unexplained experimental phenomena independently of experimentally derived parameters. Indeed, density functional theory (DFT), the workhorse of first-principles approaches, has been used extensively to model charge/spin transport at the nanoscale. However, DFT is essentially a ground state theory that simply guarantees correct total energies given the correct charge density, while charge/spin transport is a nonequilibrium phenomenon involving the scattering of quasiparticles. In this Account, we critically assess the validity and applicability of DFT to predict charge/spin transport at the nanoscale. We also describe a DFT-based approach, DFT+Σ, which incorporates corrections to Kohn-Sham energy levels based on many-electron calculations. We focus on single-molecule junctions and then discuss how the important considerations for DFT descriptions of transport can differ in 2D materials. We conclude that when used appropriately, DFT and DFT-based approaches can play an important role in making predictions and gaining insight into transport in these materials. Specifically, we shall focus on the low-bias quasi-equilibrium regime, which is also experimentally most relevant for single-molecule junctions. The next question is how well can the scattering of DFT Kohn-Sham particles approximate the scattering of true quasiparticles in the junction? Quasiparticles are electrons (holes) that are surrounded by a constantly changing cloud of holes (electrons), but Kohn-Sham particles have no physical significance. However, Kohn-Sham particles can often be used as a qualitative approximation to quasiparticles. The errors in standard DFT descriptions of transport arise primarily from errors in the Kohn-Sham energy levels
Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Thomas, Hywel R; Sedighi, Majid; Masum, Shakil A; Ran, Qihua
2016-02-01
A field investigation of contaminant transport beneath and around an uncontrolled landfill site in Huainan in China is presented in this paper. The research aimed at studying the migration of some chemicals present in the landfill leachate into the surrounding clayey soils after 17 years of landfill operation. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions in the pore water of soil samples collected at depths up to 15 m were obtained through an extensive site investigation. The contents of organic matter in the soil samples were also determined. A two-dimensional numerical study of the reactive transport of sodium and chloride ion in the soil strata beneath and outside the landfill is also presented. The numerical modelling approach adopted is based on finite element/finite difference techniques. The domain size of approximately 300 × 30 m has been analysed and major chemical transport parameters/mechanisms are established via a series of calibration exercises. Numerical simulations were then performed to predict the long-term behaviour of the landfill in relation to the chemicals studied. The lateral migration distance of the chloride ions was more than 40 m which indicates that the advection and mechanical dispersion are the dominant mechanism controlling the contaminant transport at this site. The results obtained from the analysis of chloride and sodium migration also indicated a non-uniform advective flow regime of ions with depth, which were localised in the first few metres of the soil beneath the disposal site. The results of long-term simulations of contaminant transport indicated that the concentrations of ions can be 10 to 30 times larger than that related to the allowable limit of concentration values. The results of this study may be of application and interest in the assessment of potential groundwater and soil contamination at this site with a late Pleistocene clayey soil. The obtained transport properties of the soils and the contaminant transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
晏燕; 王大程; 王前前; 孙婷婷
2012-01-01
In order to reduce the waste of papers used for printing admission tickets for all kinds of examinations and avoid the problem that two-dimensional bar code cannot carry certificate images of high quality, a two-dimensional bar code examination information system was designed and realized based on QR code. In this system a half-on-line and half-off-line method was used to provide major functions such as information gathering of candidates, arrangement of examination information, generation of electronic admission tickets with two dimensional bar code, and identification of examination information. It could not only save the paper resources but also realize triple-sided united authentication among candidates, information of electronic admission tickets, and database of candidate information.%为了减少各类考试中纸质准考证件造成的资源浪费,同时避免二维码无法承载高质量证件图像的难题,设计并实现了基于QR码的二维码考务信息系统.采用半离线半在线的方式提供考生信息采集、考务信息安排、二维码电子准考凭证生成和考务信息识别等主要功能,不但可以节约纸张资源,还可以实现参加考试人员与电子凭证信息和考生信息数据库之间的三方联合认证.
基于FPGA快速二维DCT图像编码结构%FPGA Rapid Two-dimensional DCT Image Coding Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙飞; 李良荣; 李绪诚
2012-01-01
本文提出了一种二维DCT快速算法的FPGA实现结构,采用行列分解算法将二维DCT分解成两个一维DCT和一个转置缓冲器组成的结构,其中一雏DCT借鉴Arai DCT算法,并采取了FPGA特有的并行的流水线技术,该结构极大减少了加法器和乘法器的数量,节省了计算时间.该结构的特点是高数据吞吐率、硬件资源消耗少,功耗低.实验结果证明了二维DCT核设计的正确性,适合图像的实时处理.%In this paper, a two-dimensional DCT fast algorithm for FPGA implementation structure. Decomposition algorithm using the line-column, 2D-DCT is broken down into the structure of two 1D-DCT and a transpose buffer, and 1D-DCT is learn from Arai DCT algorithm, and mining is indeed a unique parallel pipeline technique in FPGA. The structure greatly reduces the adder and multiplier is the number, to save calculation time. The structure is characterized by high data throughput, the hardware resource consumption, low power consumption. The experimental results show the correctness of the two-dimensional DCT core design, suitable for real-time processing of the image.
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
FLUKA: A Multi-Particle Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.R.; /CERN /INFN, Milan; Fasso, A.; /SLAC; Ranft, J.; /Siegen U.
2005-12-14
This report describes the 2005 version of the Fluka particle transport code. The first part introduces the basic notions, describes the modular structure of the system, and contains an installation and beginner's guide. The second part complements this initial information with details about the various components of Fluka and how to use them. It concludes with a detailed history and bibliography.
Pitari, Giovanni; Visconti, Guido
1985-08-01
Two-dimensional distributions for long-lived species, N2O, CFCl3, and CF2Cl2, have been calculated by using a 2-D model extending from the ground to 70 km. The model utilizes a residual mean meridional circulation and a set of eddy diffusion coefficients. Both these fields have been obtained from the output of the MIT-GIT three-dimensional general circulation model of the stratosphere. The calculation of the residual mean circulation takes into account consistent fields of temperature and diabatic heating, meridional temperature advection, and vertical eddy fluxes. The diffusion tensor is obtained following Holton (1981) and utilizes the eddy field that is an output of the 3-D model. The chemical source term is treated by introducing an additional tensor, following the suggestion by Tung (1982). This approach has the advantage of using the same matrix for all the chemical compounds. Values obtained for the residual mean meridional mass flux are in good agreement with similar results. The trace gas distributions obtained show a fairly good agreement in the equatorial regions but overpredict the concentration in the mid-latitude stratosphere. This is a common modeling problem, especially with fluorocarbons, and is attributed, in our case, to values of the Kyy and Kzz components that are too large in the lower stratosphere. This particular result is probably due to the heating parameterization adopted in the original general circulation model.
Himabindu, M.; Tyagi, Anil; Sharma, Devendra; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Bonnin, Xavier
2014-02-01
Computational analysis of coupled plasma and neutral transport in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) region of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is done using SOLPS for Phase-I of double-null divertor plasma operations. An optimum set of plasma parameters is explored computationally for the first phase operations with the central objective of achieving an effective control over particle and power exhaust. While the transport of plasma species is treated using a fluid model in the B2.5 code, a full kinetic description is provided by the EIRENE code for the neutral particle transport in a realistic geometry. Cases with and without external gas puffing are analyzed for finding regimes where an effective control of plasma operations can be exercised by controlling the SOL plasma conditions over a range of heating powers. In the desired parameter range, a reasonable neutral penetration across the SOL is observed, capable of causing a variation of up to 15% of the total input power, in the power deposited on the divertors. Our computational characterization of the SOL plasma with input power 1 MW and lower hybrid current drive, for the separatrix density up to 1019 m-3, indicates that there will be access to high recycling operations producing reduction in the temperature and the peak heat flux at the divertor targets. This indicates that a control of the core plasma density and temperature would be achievable. A power balance analysis done using the kinetic neutral transport code EIRENE indicates about 60%-75% of the total power diverted to the targets, providing quantitative estimates for the relative power loading of the targets and the rest of the plasma facing components.
THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
WATERS, LAURIE S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCKINNEY, GREGG W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURKEE, JOE W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FENSIN, MICHAEL L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JAMES, MICHAEL R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JOHNS, RUSSELL C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PELOWITZ, DENISE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-10
MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.
The MC21 Monte Carlo Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sutton TM, Donovan TJ, Trumbull TH, Dobreff PS, Caro E, Griesheimer DP, Tyburski LJ, Carpenter DC, Joo H
2007-01-09
MC21 is a new Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code currently under joint development at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. MC21 is the Monte Carlo transport kernel of the broader Common Monte Carlo Design Tool (CMCDT), which is also currently under development. The vision for CMCDT is to provide an automated, computer-aided modeling and post-processing environment integrated with a Monte Carlo solver that is optimized for reactor analysis. CMCDT represents a strategy to push the Monte Carlo method beyond its traditional role as a benchmarking tool or ''tool of last resort'' and into a dominant design role. This paper describes various aspects of the code, including the neutron physics and nuclear data treatments, the geometry representation, and the tally and depletion capabilities.
Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy
Cho, Minhaeng
2009-01-01
Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.
Reichert, R, S.; Biringen, S.; Howard, J. E.
1999-01-01
LINER is a system of Fortran 77 codes which performs a 2D analysis of acoustic wave propagation and noise suppression in a rectangular channel with a continuous liner at the top wall. This new implementation is designed to streamline the usage of the several codes making up LINER, resulting in a useful design tool. Major input parameters are placed in two main data files, input.inc and nurn.prm. Output data appear in the form of ASCII files as well as a choice of GNUPLOT graphs. Section 2 briefly describes the physical model. Section 3 discusses the numerical methods; Section 4 gives a detailed account of program usage, including input formats and graphical options. A sample run is also provided. Finally, Section 5 briefly describes the individual program files.
Application of QR Two-dimensional Code in Iinternational Project Logistics%QR二维码在国际工程项目物流的应用初探
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱艳平
2016-01-01
Aiming at the problems encountered in international engineering project regarding the tracking and management of logistics information,this paper discusses the demand analysis,and then establishes the QR two dimensional code element design,generation and use of methods and processes in the international engineering project logistics management.At last,as per an actual case,this paper proposes operational plans and suggestions for the application of the two -dimensional bar code technology in the international project logistics implementation and management.%针对国际工程项目在物流信息化追踪和管理中遇到的问题，文中论述了需求分析，构建了应用于国际工程项目物流的QR二维码的要素设计、生成及使用方法和流程，结合参与管理项目的实际案例，为二维码技术在国际工程项目物流实施和管理中的应用提出了具有可操作性的方案和建议。
Buras, R; Janka, H T; Kifonidis, K
2005-01-01
Supernova models with a full spectral treatment of the neutrino transport are presented, employing the Prometheus/Vertex neutrino-hydrodynamics code with a ``ray-by-ray plus'' approximation for treating two- (or three-) dimensional problems. The method is described in detail and critically assessed with respect to its capabilities, limitations, and inaccuracies in the context of supernova simulations. In this first paper of a series, 1D and 2D core-collapse calculations for a (nonrotating) 15 M_sun star are discussed, uncertainties in the treatment of the equation of state -- numerical and physical -- are tested, Newtonian results are compared with simulations using a general relativistic potential, bremsstrahlung and interactions of neutrinos of different flavors are investigated, and the standard approximation in neutrino-nucleon interactions with zero energy transfer is replaced by rates that include corrections due to nucleon recoil, thermal motions, weak magnetism, and nucleon correlations. Models with t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szymkiewicz Adam
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Flow in unsaturated porous media is commonly described by the Richards equation. This equation is strongly nonlinear due to interrelationships between water pressure head (negative in unsaturated conditions, water content and hydraulic conductivity. The accuracy of numerical solution of the Richards equation often depends on the method used to estimate average hydraulic conductivity between neighbouring nodes or cells of the numerical grid. The present paper discusses application of the computer simulation code VS2DI to three test problems concerning infiltration into an initially dry medium, using various methods for inter-cell conductivity calculation (arithmetic mean, geometric mean and upstream weighting. It is shown that the influence of the averaging method can be very large for coarse grid, but that it diminishes as cell size decreases. Overall, the arithmetic average produced the most reliable results for coarse grids. Moreover, the difference between results obtained with various methods is a convenient indicator of the adequacy of grid refinement.
Szymkiewicz, Adam; Tisler, Witold; Burzyński, Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Flow in unsaturated porous media is commonly described by the Richards equation. This equation is strongly nonlinear due to interrelationships between water pressure head (negative in unsaturated conditions), water content and hydraulic conductivity. The accuracy of numerical solution of the Richards equation often depends on the method used to estimate average hydraulic conductivity between neighbouring nodes or cells of the numerical grid. The present paper discusses application of the computer simulation code VS2DI to three test problems concerning infiltration into an initially dry medium, using various methods for inter-cell conductivity calculation (arithmetic mean, geometric mean and upstream weighting). It is shown that the influence of the averaging method can be very large for coarse grid, but that it diminishes as cell size decreases. Overall, the arithmetic average produced the most reliable results for coarse grids. Moreover, the difference between results obtained with various methods is a convenient indicator of the adequacy of grid refinement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, J A; Molenkamp, C R; Bixler, N E; Morrow, C W; Ramsdell, Jr., J V
2004-05-10
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2) for regulatory purposes such as planning for emergencies and cost-benefit analyses. MACCS2 uses a straight-line Gaussian model for atmospheric transport and dispersion. This model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, although only expected values of metrics of interest are used in the regulatory arena. To test the assumption that averaging numerous weather results adequately compensates for the loss of structure in the meteorology that occurs away from the point of release, average MACCS2 results have been compared with average results from a state-of-the-art, 3-dimensional LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator)/ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Technique) and a Lagrangian trajectory, Gaussian puff transport and dispersion model from RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). The weather sample included 610 weather trials representing conditions for a hypothetical release at the Central Facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. The values compared were average ground concentrations and average surface-level air concentrations at several distances out to 100 miles (160.9 km) from the assumed release site.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐任弘; 曾武
2016-01-01
随着移动通信技术的发展，基于移动终端的自动识别技术已经成为研究热点。二维码技术是一种信息存储，传递和识别防伪技术，已经融入到了人们的日常应用中。本文研究了基于Android平台的生物特征信息及其二维码的生成识别应用技术的开发技术，并将二维码和移动终端结合，该系统开发研究对身份信息防伪及存储方面有重要意义。%With the develop of mobile communication technology, the technology of identification based on the mobile terminal has become a frontier subject, as a new information storage, transmission and identification technology, the two-dimensional code has been integrated into the social life. In this paper, an identification and security system is designed and developed based on the Android platform of mobile terminal. Combined the mobile terminal and two-dimensional, the research of this system has important significance in the security and storage of identity information.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱雯晶; 夏翠娟
2012-01-01
针对种类繁多的二维码标准，选择目前使用较普及的QR码，将上海市中心图书馆联盟各成员馆各类信息进行编辑并生成相应QR码，然后印制在“上海市中心图书馆一卡通分布图册”上，再由上海图书馆手机客户端或其他条码识别软件进行识别，即可随时获取上海市中心图书馆各成员馆基本信息，并可通过其中的地理位置信息进行导航，从而形成比较完整的移动服务应用场景。%Shanghai Library chooses the QR code as the standard to generate the two - dimensional code including all the common information of Shanghai Central Library members, then prints them on the Shanghai Central Library One - card - through map and uses Shanghai Library＇s smart- phone app or other apps to identify all the information, especially the GEO information inside the QR code. Combined with navigation apps, the users can get to the library more efficiently.
Plasma transport in an Eulerian AMR code
Vold, E. L.; Rauenzahn, R. M.; Aldrich, C. H.; Molvig, K.; Simakov, A. N.; Haines, B. M.
2017-04-01
A plasma transport model has been implemented in an Eulerian AMR radiation-hydrodynamics code, xRage, which includes plasma viscosity in the momentum tensor, viscous dissipation in the energy equations, and binary species mixing with consistent species mass and energy fluxes driven by concentration gradients, ion and electron baro-diffusion terms and temperature gradient forces. The physics basis, computational issues, numeric options, and results from several test problems are discussed. The transport coefficients are found to be relatively insensitive to the kinetic correction factors when the concentrations are expressed with the molar fractions and the ion mass differences are large. The contributions to flow dynamics from plasma viscosity and mass diffusion were found to increase significantly as scale lengths decrease in an inertial confinement fusion relevant Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mix layer. The mixing scale lengths in the test case are on the order of 100 μm and smaller for viscous effects to appear and 10 μm or less for significant ion species diffusion, evident over durations on the order of nanoseconds. The temperature gradient driven mass flux is seen to deplete a high Z tracer ion at the ion shock front. The plasma transport model provides the generation of the atomic mix per unit of interfacial area between two species with no free parameters. The evolution of the total atomic mix then depends also on an accurate resolution or estimate of the interfacial area between the species mixing by plasma transport. High resolution simulations or a more Lagrangian-like treatment of species interfaces may be required to distinguish plasma transport and numerical diffusion in an Eulerian computation of complex and dynamically evolving mix regions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩飞; 薛劭节; 宋纪恩
2016-01-01
With the in-depth work related to the construction of UHV,UHV materials by categories and specifications of various types,affecting performance supervision difficult constraints,Jiangsu province electric power company supplies the in-creasing pressure of uhv.This paper mainly by citing the concept of modern logistics management,in-depth study of the two-dimensional code technology,the use of two-dimensional code technology innovation of the effective management of UHV electric power supplies,explore the “standard”management mode,clear UHV supplies customized performance tracking process and scheme,supplemented by the development of the material performance visual tracking system,the material will be two-dimen-sional code the basic information and dynamic information display in the system,the formation of visual effect,realize the tracking of material supply,enhance UHV supply management level.%随着深入开展特高压建设相关工作以来，受特高压物资品类、规格型号繁多，履约监管难度大等制约因素影响，江苏省电力公司特高压物资供应压力日益增大。文中主要通过引用现代物流管理理念，深入研究二维码技术，创新性的运用二维码技术对电力特高压物资进行有效管理，探索“标准件”管理模式，明确特高压物资客户化履约跟踪流程及方案，同时辅以开发物资可视化履约跟踪系统，将物资二维码基础信息和动态信息展示在系统内，形成可视化效果，实现对物资供应的全程跟踪，全面提升特高压物资供应管理水平。
SYMTRAN - A Time-dependent Symmetric Tandem Mirror Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hua, D; Fowler, T
2004-06-15
A time-dependent version of the steady-state radial transport model in symmetric tandem mirrors in Ref. [1] has been coded up and first tests performed. Our code, named SYMTRAN, is an adaptation of the earlier SPHERE code for spheromaks, now modified for tandem mirror physics. Motivated by Post's new concept of kinetic stabilization of symmetric mirrors, it is an extension of the earlier TAMRAC rate-equation code omitting radial transport [2], which successfully accounted for experimental results in TMX. The SYMTRAN code differs from the earlier tandem mirror radial transport code TMT in that our code is focused on axisymmetric tandem mirrors and classical diffusion, whereas TMT emphasized non-ambipolar transport in TMX and MFTF-B due to yin-yang plugs and non-symmetric transitions between the plugs and axisymmetric center cell. Both codes exhibit interesting but different non-linear behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadkhani, R., E-mail: rmkhani@znu.ac.ir; Hassanloo, Gh.
2014-11-01
We have studied the tunneling conductance of a clean two dimensional electron gas/p- wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) which is present in the normal layer and at the interface. Using the extended Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk formalism we have found that the subgap conductance peaks are shifted to a nonzero bias by RSOC at the interface which are the same as Ref. [1]. It is shown that for low insulating barrier and in the absence of the interface RSOC, the tunneling conductance decreases within energy gap with increasing of the RSOC in the normal layer while for high insulating barrier it enhances by increase of the RSOC. We have also shown that the RSOC inside the normal cannot affect the location of the subgap conductance peaks shifted by the interface RSOC.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吉建华; 范戈
2002-01-01
A new one-dimensional optical orthogonal codes(1-D OOC) named extended hyperbolic line congruence codes(EHLC) is constructed,and its performance is analyzed.Compared with extended quadratic congruence codes(EQC),EHLC has large code cardinality,but has a little poor performances of auto-correlation and cross-correlation.Then,using EHLC for time spreading and prime sequence(PC) for wavelength hopping,a new two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes(2-D OOC)named EHLC/PC is constructed.Because the code weight of EHLC equals(p-1) and the code weight of PC equals p,selection function f(i) should be used to pick out(p-1)wavelengths from each prime sequence.At last,the performance of EHLC/PC is analyzed,and is also compared with EQC/PC.Because each wavelength within a code is different,auto-correlation of EHLC/PC equals zero.When examining the cross-correlation of EHLC/PC,authors should consider four different modes:same time spreading pattern/same wavelength hopping pattern(different sk),same time spreading pattern/different wavelength hopping pattern,different time spreading pattern/same wavelength hopping pattern,different time spreading pattern/different wavelenght hopping pattern.By using difference function and wavelength hopping pattern,it is not difficult to get the cross-correlation performances of EHLC/PC.It is shown that the cross-correlation performance of EHLC/PC is a little worse than EQC/PC,but EHLC/PC has much larger code cardinality.Moreover,EHLC/PC has shorter code length and smaller code weight,which can enhance user data rate and also can reduce the complexity of optical encoders/decoders.Therefore,EHLC/PC is suitable for massive optical code-division multiple-access(OCDMA) networks.%构造了一种扩展的双曲线性同余码(EHLC)并分析了其码字性能.用该码作为时间扩频伪随机序列和以素数码(PC)作为波长跳频伪随机序列,再构成一种新的二维光正交码EHLC/PC.然后分析了EHLC/PC码字的性能,并与EQC/PC
Description of Transport Codes for Space Radiation Shielding
Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2011-01-01
This slide presentation describes transport codes and their use for studying and designing space radiation shielding. When combined with risk projection models radiation transport codes serve as the main tool for study radiation and designing shielding. There are three criteria for assessing the accuracy of transport codes: (1) Ground-based studies with defined beams and material layouts, (2) Inter-comparison of transport code results for matched boundary conditions and (3) Comparisons to flight measurements. These three criteria have a very high degree with NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晨; 司占军; 沈柯
2015-01-01
产品平面宣传广告是关系产品销售的重要环节，在产品的市场推广中起着重要的作用，而二维码作为新兴的条码存储技术使人们获取信息的方式更便捷。因此，将二维码技术应用于平面广告宣传中，以手机的平面广告为研究对象，对其使用3DS Max进行建模并在网页上实现360度实景展示，最终通过二维码技术实现广告从平面到立体的延伸，完善平面媒体在信息表达方式上的缺憾。%The product graphic advertisement is an important part of the relationship among product sales, it plays an important role in product marketing, and the QR code as the barcode emerging storage technology makes people access to information in more convenient way. Therefore, the QR code technology is applied in the graphic advertising, as the research object, mobile phone to the plane advertisement can be used with 3DS Max modeling and Realization in Webpage real 360 degree display performance, finally from the plane to three-dimensional extension acheives two-dimensional code technology, where consummate the graphic media in the form of expression of the information.
Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)
A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.
Campbell, J. R.; Tackett, J. L.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Westphal, D. L.; Vaughan, M.; Winker, D. M.; Welton, E. J.; Prospero, J. M.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.
2011-12-01
Launched in 2006, the Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization instrument (CALIOP) flown aboard the NASA/CNES Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite has collected the first high-resolution global, inter-seasonal and multi-year measurements of aerosol structure. Profiles for aerosol particle extinction coefficient and column-integrated optical depth (AOD) are unique and highly synergistic satellite measurements, given the limitations of passive aerosol remote sensors from resolving information vertically. However, accurate value-added (Level 2.0) CALIOP aerosol products require comprehensive validation of retrieval techniques and calibration stability. Daytime Level 2.0 CALIOP AOD retrievals have been evaluated versus co-located NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-AQUA) data. To date, no corresponding investigation of nighttime retrieval performance has been conducted from a lack of requisite global nighttime validation datasets. In this paper, Version 3.01 CALIOP 5-km retrievals of nighttime 0.532 μm AOD from 2007 are evaluated versus corresponding 0.550 μm AOD analyses derived with the global 1° x 1° U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS). Mean regional profiles of CALIOP nighttime 0.532 μm extinction coefficient are assessed versus NASA Micropulse Lidar Network and NIES Skynet Lidar Network measurements. NAAPS features a two-dimensional variational assimilation procedure for quality-assured MODIS and NASA Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) AOD products. Whereas NAAPS nighttime AOD datasets represent a nominal 12-hr forecast field, from lack of MODIS/MISR retrievals for assimilation in the dark sector of the model, evaluation of NAAPS 00-hr analysis and 24-hr forecast skill versus MODIS and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates adequate stability for conducting this study. Corresponding daytime comparisons of CALIOP retrievals with NAAPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umana-Membreno, G.A.; Dell, J.M.; Parish, G.; Nener, B.D.; Faraone, L. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University ofWestern Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Ventury, R.; Mishra, U.K. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2005-05-01
The effect of {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiation on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.67}N/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using DC and geometrical magnetoresistance measurements. The devices studied were of similar epitaxial structure, yet differed in the doping levels of the Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.67}N barrier layer: (A) nominally undoped and (B) Si-doped with SiN{sub x} passivation. Exposure to cumulative gamma-ray doses up to 20 Mrad(Si) is shown to induce significant changes in drain-current level, threshold voltage and gate leakage current level. Analysis of magnetoresistance characteristics measured at 80 K indicated that irradiation induced an increase in two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) density, which leads to negative threshold voltage shifts observable in the drain current versus gate voltage characteristics, attributable to the introduction of defect centers in the Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.67}N layer and/or at the gate-AlGaN interface. The 2DEG mobility-concentration profiles are shown to remain approximately unchanged for doses up to 20 Mrad(Si). Device failure, evidenced as loss of gate control over the channel and/or excessive gate leakage, occurred after exposure to 30 Mrad(Si) for device A, whereas sample B failed after 20 Mrad(Si) total dose due to failure of half of the gate contact. Degradation of gate and source/drain contacts characteristics with total dose appears to limit the tolerance of the studied HEMTs to {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takako, Shiraki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Shin, Usami; Zenro, Suzuoki; Takehide, Deshimaru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan); Kenji, Sasaki; Keiko, Tada; Hitoshi, Yokobori [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd (Japan)
2003-07-01
Shielding design of Monju was performed in 1980's by using the two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code, DOT3.5. In view of complexity of the three-dimensional shielding geometry of Monju, the three-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code, TORT(2), has been applied to shielding measurement analyses of Monju in an attempt to prove practical usefulness of the code and to learn how much margin is associated with the shielding design performed by DOT3.5. This study has confirmed that TORT can practically be applied to the shielding measurement analyses of Monju, and has provided significant improvement in calculation accuracy thanks to its three-dimensional geometry employed, making the code applicable to the Monju shielding design evaluation analyses together with pre- and post-analyses of the shielding measurement now being planned. (authors)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A systematic theoretical approach is developed to study the electronic and transport properties of a twodimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the presence of spin-orbit interactions induced by the Rashba effect. The standard random-phase approximation is employed to calculate the screening length caused by electron-electron interaction in different transition channels. The quantum and transport mobilities in different spin branches are evaluated using the momentum-balance equation derived from the Boltzmann equation,in which the electron interactions with both the remote and background impurities are taken into account in an InAlAs/InGaAs heterojunction at low-temperatures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟州; 金梁; 黄开枝; 白慧卿; 易鸣
2013-01-01
该文通过分析安全编码的原理推导了安全间隙约束条件下高斯窃听信道保密速率的计算方法，并根据置信传播(Belief Propagation, BP)译码算法及其改进算法，针对基于中短码长LDPC码所设计的安全编码提出一种2维信息修正的分类归一化最小和译码算法。该算法先将输入校验节点信息绝对值分成最小值和次小值两类，然后在译码初始化时利用概率统计理论分别推导出相应的最佳归一化因子对分类后的信息进行修正。仿真结果表明，该算法在高信噪比区域的译码性能高于BP算法和归一化最小和算法，低信噪比区域误比特率迅速逼近0.5，且能减小不同安全编码速率LDPC码的安全间隙，提高了保密信息安全传输的性能。%This paper analyzes the mechanism of physical layer secrecy coding and calculates the secrecy rate for the Gaussian wiretap channel under the security gap constraint. Furthermore, a classified normalized decoding algorithm with two-dimensional information correction based on Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm and its improvements for the short and medium block length Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) based secrecy codes is presented. The algorithm first utilizes classification according to the absolute values of incoming messages in check nodes. Then it uses 2-dimensional normalization to correct the minimum and sub-minimum values. The 2-dimensional normalized factors can be calculated respectively by using probability and statistic theory in the initialization step. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves better performance than BP algorithm and normalized BP-based algorithm at the high SNR, but the bit error radio gets close to 0.5 rapidly at the low SNR. It can reduce security gap of LDPC-based secrecy codes with different secrecy rates efficiently.
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...
Contaminant transport in fracture networks with heterogeneous rock matrices. The Picnic code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barten, Werner [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Robinson, Peter C. [QuantiSci Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)
2001-02-01
In the context of safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, complex radionuclide transport models covering key safety-relevant processes play a major role. In recent Swiss safety assessments, such as Kristallin-I, an important drawback was the limitation in geosphere modelling capability to account for geosphere heterogeneities. In marked contrast to this limitation in modelling capabilities, great effort has been put into investigating the heterogeneity of the geosphere as it impacts on hydrology. Structural geological methods have been used to look at the geometry of the flow paths on a small scale and the diffusion and sorption properties of different rock materials have been investigated. This huge amount of information could however be only partially applied in geosphere transport modelling. To make use of these investigations the 'PICNIC project' was established as a joint cooperation of PSI/Nagra and QuantiSci to provide a new geosphere transport model for Swiss safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories. The new transport code, PICNIC, can treat all processes considered in the older geosphere model RANCH MD generally used in the Kristallin-I study and, in addition, explicitly accounts for the heterogeneity of the geosphere on different spatial scales. The effects and transport phenomena that can be accounted for by PICNIC are a combination of (advective) macro-dispersion due to transport in a network of conduits (legs), micro-dispersion in single legs, one-dimensional or two-dimensional matrix diffusion into a wide range of homogeneous and heterogeneous rock matrix geometries, linear sorption of nuclides in the flow path and the rock matrix and radioactive decay and ingrowth in the case of nuclide chains. Analytical and numerical Laplace transformation methods are integrated in a newly developed hierarchical linear response concept to efficiently account for the transport mechanisms considered which typically act on extremely
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vong, T.S.; Leroy, M. [CEA Vaujours-Moronvilliers, 77 - Courtry (France)
1996-12-31
In this paper, the kinetics of hot spots priming in heterogenous explosives is introduced into a 2D hydrodynamical code. The AMORC kinetics model takes into account the two priming phases (formation, firing of hot spots and combustion of grains) and is evaluated in various experimental configurations with 1D and 2D symmetries. A TATB-based composition was used for this first evaluation. (J.S.) 7 refs.
Priimak, Dmitri
2014-01-01
We present finite differences numerical algorithm for solving 2D spatially homogeneous Boltzmann transport equation for semiconductor superlattices (SL) subject to time dependant electric field along SL axis and constant perpendicular magnetic field. Algorithm is implemented in C language targeted to CPU and in CUDA C language targeted to commodity NVidia GPUs. We compare performance and merits of one implementation versus another and discuss various methods of optimization.
De Luca, G. M.; Di Capua, R.; Di Gennaro, E.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Stornaiuolo, D.; Salluzzo, M.; Gadaleta, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Marrè, D.; Piamonteze, C.; Radovic, M.; Ristic, Z.; Rusponi, S.
2014-06-01
We study the structural, magnetic, and transport properties of LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures grown by pulsed laser deposition. The samples are characterized in situ by electron diffraction and scanning probe microscopy and ex situ by transport measurements and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 films show a ferromagnetic transition at T ≤7.5 K, related to the ordering of Eu2+ spins, even in samples characterized by just two EuTiO3 unit cells. A finite metallic conductivity is observed only in the case of samples composed by one or two EuTiO3 unit cells and, simultaneously, by a LaAlO3 thickness greater than or equal to four unit cells. The effect of ferromagnetic EuTiO3 on the transport properties of δ-doped LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 is critically discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐真
2015-01-01
随着移动通信和互联网的快速发展，O2O 营销平台模式应运而生。其后，对 O2O 平台商业模式的探索从未停歇。自2012年二维码于各行各业的广泛应用以来，其作为移动互联网的线下入口，将在诸多方面引领O2O 营销平台模式的创新，具体包括引流阶段的创新、转化阶段的创新、消费阶段的创新、反馈阶段的创新和留存阶段的创新等。并对二级码在我国的未来发展进行了展望。%With the rapid development of mobile communications and the Internet,O2O marketing platform has e-merged and the exploration of the O2O platform business model has been ever growing.In 2012,the emergence of a small black and white box opened a new way for the innovation of O2O marketing platform,which included the drainage stage innovation,the transformation stage innovation,the consumption stage innovation,the feedback phase innovation and the innovation of the retention period.This paper will discuss how the small two-dimensional code promoting the innovation of O2O marketing platform model.
基于二维码识别技术的电子签到模块设计%The Modern Check-in System Based on Two-Dimensional Bar Code
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李立峰
2012-01-01
With the continuous development of the socio-economic information network technology,people increasingly rely on mobile Internet,and have much higher requirements for the mobile experience; on the other hand,another part of consumption - the merchant is also gradually looking for more innovative and efficient means to demonstrate their products and services to increase revenue. In such circumstances,the sign business model appears on the scene,people can go to merchant stores to check-in and get more promotions with handheld devices. In order to solve the consumer to sign the accurate location positioning,two-dimensional code recognition technology is used to provide a real and effective sign experience.%随着社会经济与信息网络技术的不断发展,人们对移动互联网越来越依赖,对移动体验的要求也越来越高；另一方面消费的另一环节-商户也渐渐地在寻找更加新颖快捷的技术手段来表现他们的产品及服务以增加收入.在这样的环境下,签到商业模式应运而生,人们可以通过手持设备向某地的商户门店进行签到进行互动.为了解决消费者签到位置定位不准确的问题,采取了二维码识别技术来为商家和消费者提供真实有效的签到体验.
Labram, John G; Lin, Yen-Hung; Anthopoulos, Thomas D
2015-11-04
In the last decade, metal oxides have emerged as a fascinating class of electronic material, exhibiting a wide range of unique and technologically relevant characteristics. For example, thin-film transistors formed from amorphous or polycrystalline metal oxide semiconductors offer the promise of low-cost, large-area, and flexible electronics, exhibiting performances comparable to or in excess of incumbent silicon-based technologies. Atomically flat interfaces between otherwise insulating or semiconducting complex oxides, are also found to be highly conducting, displaying 2-dimensional (2D) charge transport properties, strong correlations, and even superconductivity. Field-effect devices employing such carefully engineered interfaces are hoped to one day compete with traditional group IV or III-V semiconductors for use in the next-generation of high-performance electronics. In this Concept article we provide an overview of the different metal oxide transistor technologies and potential future research directions. In particular, we look at the recent reports of multilayer oxide thin-film transistors and the possibility of 2D electron transport in these disordered/polycrystalline systems and discuss the potential of the technology for applications in large-area electronics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.
1988-01-01
In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S/sub N/-transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S/sub N/-transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceeded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the uncertainties of a calculated tritium production per source neutron from lithium along the central Li/sub 2/O rod in the LBM. Considered were the contributions from /sup 1/H, /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, /sup nat/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 23/Na, /sup 27/Al, /sup nat/Si, /sup nat/Cr, /sup nat/Fe, /sup nat/Ni, and /sup nat/Pb. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Lu, Fangchao; Tang, Ning; Shang, Liangliang; Guan, Hongming; Xu, Fujun; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo
2017-01-01
Magnetic transport spectroscopy is investigated in quantum point contacts (QPCs) fabricated in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures. The magnetic field perpendicular to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is shown to depopulate the quasi-one-dimensional energy levels in the first two-dimensional (2D) subband faster than those in the second one. In GaN based heterostructures, the energy levels in the second 2D subband is generally concealed in the fast course of depletion and hence rarely detected. The perpendicular magnetic field facilitates the observation of the second 2D subband, and provides a method to study the properties of these energy levels. A careful analysis on the rate of the magnetic depletion with respect to the level index and confinement is carried out, from which the profile of the lateral confinement in GaN based QPCs is found to be triangular. The stability diagram at T shows the energy separation between the first and second 2D subband to be in the range of 32 to 42 meV. PMID:28225042
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schumacher, O.
2007-07-20
In this thesis magneto-resistance studies on evenly curved two-dimensional electron systems in cylindric geometry are presented and discussed. A principle first introduced by Prinz and co-workers in 1998 enables us to roll up thin semiconductor layer systems by taking advantage of internal elastic strain. The radius of such a semiconductor tube can be adjusted ranging from a few nanometers up to several micrometers. The tubes' shape and place on the substrate can be defined by lithographic methods which are presented in this work. Furthermore, we show rolled-up structures containing a two-dimensional electron system in the tube wall. With a special lithographic procedure we are able to structure, to contact and to roll up these 2D-electron-gases in Hall geometry. As a result, a cylindric two-dimensional electron system is produced, which experiences a modulation of the perpendicular magnetic field component. The radius of curvature of our structures is about 10 {mu}m, the carrier mobility is optimized to values up to 125,000 cm{sup 2}/Vs. In transport experiments on curved Hall bars containing two dimensional electron systems two Hall bar orientations, with respect to the curvature, may be distinguished. In this work both orientations, i.e. with a Hall bar along the tube curvature as well as a Hall bar along the tube axis, are presented and discussed. Measurements on Hall bars along the curvature show signatures in the longitudinal resistance, which can be understood with the help of the Landauer-Buttiker-formalism and the model of magnetic barriers. For Hall bars oriented along the tube axis the perpendicular magnetic field component averaged over the width of the bar defines the minimum position of the Shubnikov-de Haas-oscillations as well as the slope of the Hall resistance. Furthermore, measurements on so-called van the Pauw-lamellas are presented. In this geometry the magneto-resistance shows a slope which refers to highly mobile conditions at the zero
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brinks, Peter [University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Siemons, Wolter [ORNL; Kleibeuker, Josee [University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Koster, Gertjan [University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Rijnders, Guus [MESA+ University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Huijben, Mark [University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands
2011-01-01
Experimental evidence of strong in-plane anisotropy in electrical properties of the confined electron gas at the SrTiO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} interface on top of (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 3}){sub 0.7} substrates is provided by detailed transport measurements. Structured measurement geometries in multiple directions are used to show dependence of the sheet resistance with the in-plane angle {theta}, which is fitted with a sine function with a period of 180{sup o}. The carrier density remains constant and a directional dependence of the carrier mobility of more than one order of magnitude is determined with respect to the orientation of the unit cell height steps present at the SrTiO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} interface.
Huang, Xue-Qin; Chen, Yue-Xing; Yin, Meijie; Feng, Dan; He, Jiaqing
2017-03-01
P-type SnSe compositing with 2D MoSe2 materials have been prepared by the solid solution method followed by the spark plasma sintering technique. The total thermal conductivities of SnSe/MoSe2 composites were found to be higher than for pristineSnSe at room temperature; and the disparity between them becomes smaller at higher temperatures, where the low thermal conductivities remained. Both the carrier concentration and the carrier mobility were significantly improved after MoSe2 was introduced into the SnSe matrix along the direction perpendicular to the pressing direction, leading to an extraordinary enhancement in electrical transport performance. The maximum ZT of 0.5 was obtained at 773 K for SnSe + 1.5%MoSe2 along the direction perpendicular to the pressing direction; this value is 1.5 times as large as that of the pristine SnSe.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-10-15
The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code.
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suryadeep Ray
2004-09-01
We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-06
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Benchmark studies of BOUT++ code and TPSMBI code on neutral transport during SMBI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Z.H., E-mail: zhwang@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Guo, W., E-mail: wfguo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Ren, Q.L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, A.P.; Xu, M.; Wang, A.K. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiang, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2017-06-09
SMBI (supersonic molecule beam injection) plays an important role in tokamak plasma fuelling, density control and ELM mitigation in magnetic confinement plasma physics, which has been widely used in many tokamaks. The trans-neut module of BOUT++ code is the only large-scale parallel 3D fluid code used to simulate the SMBI fueling process, while the TPSMBI (transport of supersonic molecule beam injection) code is a recent developed 1D fluid code of SMBI. In order to find a method to increase SMBI fueling efficiency in H-mode plasma, especially for ITER, it is significant to first verify the codes. The benchmark study between the trans-neut module of BOUT++ code and the TPSMBI code on radial transport dynamics of neutral during SMBI has been first successfully achieved in both slab and cylindrical coordinates. The simulation results from the trans-neut module of BOUT++ code and TPSMBI code are consistent very well with each other. Different upwind schemes have been compared to deal with the sharp gradient front region during the inward propagation of SMBI for the code stability. The influence of the WENO3 (weighted essentially non-oscillatory) and the third order upwind schemes on the benchmark results has also been discussed. - Highlights: • A 1D model of SMBI has developed. • Benchmarks of BOUT++ and TPSMBI codes have first been finished. • The influence of the WENO3 and the third order upwind schemes on the benchmark results has also been discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Both, J.P.; Lee, Y.K.; Mazzolo, A.; Peneliau, Y.; Petit, O.; Roesslinger, B. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)
2003-07-01
Tripoli-4 is a three dimensional calculations code using the Monte Carlo method to simulate the transport of neutrons, photons, electrons and positrons. This code is used in four application fields: the protection studies, the criticality studies, the core studies and the instrumentation studies. Geometry, cross sections, description of sources, principle. (N.C.)
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...
DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT METHODS AND CODES AT LOS ALAMOS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. E. MOREL
1999-06-01
The purposes of this paper are to: Present a brief history of deterministic transport methods development at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1950's to the present; Discuss the current status and capabilities of deterministic transport codes at Los Alamos; and Discuss future transport needs and possible future research directions. Our discussion of methods research necessarily includes only a small fraction of the total research actually done. The works that have been included represent a very subjective choice on the part of the author that was strongly influenced by his personal knowledge and experience. The remainder of this paper is organized in four sections: the first relates to deterministic methods research performed at Los Alamos, the second relates to production codes developed at Los Alamos, the third relates to the current status of transport codes at Los Alamos, and the fourth relates to future research directions at Los Alamos.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Benchmark studies of BOUT++ code and TPSMBI code on neutral transport during SMBI
Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Guo, W.; Ren, Q. L.; Sun, A. P.; Xu, M.; Wang, A. K.; Xiang, N.
2017-06-01
SMBI (supersonic molecule beam injection) plays an important role in tokamak plasma fuelling, density control and ELM mitigation in magnetic confinement plasma physics, which has been widely used in many tokamaks. The trans_neut module of BOUT++ code is the only large-scale parallel 3D fluid code used to simulate the SMBI fueling process, while the TPSMBI (transport of supersonic molecule beam injection) code is a recent developed 1D fluid code of SMBI. In order to find a method to increase SMBI fueling efficiency in H-mode plasma, especially for ITER, it is significant to first verify the codes. The benchmark study between the trans_neut module of BOUT++ code and the TPSMBI code on radial transport dynamics of neutral during SMBI has been first successfully achieved in both slab and cylindrical coordinates. The simulation results from the trans_neut module of BOUT++ code and TPSMBI code are consistent very well with each other. Different upwind schemes have been compared to deal with the sharp gradient front region during the inward propagation of SMBI for the code stability. The influence of the WENO3 (weighted essentially non-oscillatory) and the third order upwind schemes on the benchmark results has also been discussed.
Modeling of Anomalous Transport in Tokamaks with FACETS code
Pankin, A. Y.; Batemann, G.; Kritz, A.; Rafiq, T.; Vadlamani, S.; Hakim, A.; Kruger, S.; Miah, M.; Rognlien, T.
2009-05-01
The FACETS code, a whole-device integrated modeling code that self-consistently computes plasma profiles for the plasma core and edge in tokamaks, has been recently developed as a part of the SciDAC project for core-edge simulations. A choice of transport models is available in FACETS through the FMCFM interface [1]. Transport models included in FMCFM have specific ranges of applicability, which can limit their use to parts of the plasma. In particular, the GLF23 transport model does not include the resistive ballooning effects that can be important in the tokamak pedestal region and GLF23 typically under-predicts the anomalous fluxes near the magnetic axis [2]. The TGLF and GYRO transport models have similar limitations [3]. A combination of transport models that covers the entire discharge domain is studied using FACETS in a realistic tokamak geometry. Effective diffusivities computed with the FMCFM transport models are extended to the region near the separatrix to be used in the UEDGE code within FACETS. 1. S. Vadlamani et al. (2009) %First time-dependent transport simulations using GYRO and NCLASS within FACETS (this meeting).2. T. Rafiq et al. (2009) %Simulation of electron thermal transport in H-mode discharges Submitted to Phys. Plasmas.3. C. Holland et al. (2008) %Validation of gyrokinetic transport simulations using %DIII-D core turbulence measurements Proc. of IAEA FEC (Switzerland, 2008)
Two-dimensional quantum repeaters
Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.
2016-11-01
The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Two-dimensional cubic convolution.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank
2003-01-01
The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.
TRIPOLI-3: a neutron/photon Monte Carlo transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees
2001-07-01
The present version of TRIPOLI-3 solves the transport equation for coupled neutron and gamma ray problems in three dimensional geometries by using the Monte Carlo method. This code is devoted both to shielding and criticality problems. The most important feature for particle transport equation solving is the fine treatment of the physical phenomena and sophisticated biasing technics useful for deep penetrations. The code is used either for shielding design studies or for reference and benchmark to validate cross sections. Neutronic studies are essentially cell or small core calculations and criticality problems. TRIPOLI-3 has been used as reference method, for example, for resonance self shielding qualification. (orig.)
Verification of high-energy transport codes on the basis of activation data
Titarenko, Yu E; Butko, M A; Dikarev, D V; Florya, S N; Pavlov, K V; Titarenko, A Yu; Tikhonov, R S; Zhivun, V M; Ignatyuk, A V; Mashnik, S G; Boudard, A; Leray, S; David, J -C; Cugnon, J; Mancusi, D; Yariv, Y; Kumawat, H; Nishihara, K; Matsuda, N; Mank, G; Gudowski, W
2011-01-01
Nuclide production cross sections measured at ITEP for the targets of nat-Cr, 56-Fe, nat-Ni, 93-Nb, 181-Ta, nat-W, nat-Pb, 209-Bi irradiated by protons with energies from 40 to 2600 MeV were used to estimate the predictive accuracy of several popular high-energy transport codes. A general agreement of the ITEP data with the data obtained by other groups, including the numerous GSI data measured by the inverse kinematics method was found. Simulations of the measured data were performed with the MCNPX (Bertini and ISABEL options), CEM03.02, INCL4.2+ABLA, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, and CASCADE.07 codes. Deviation factors between the calculated and experimental cross sections have been estimated for each target and for the whole energy range covered by our measurements. Two-dimensional diagrams of deviation factor values were produced for estimating the predictive power of every code for intermediate, not measured masses of nuclei-targets and bombarding energies of protons. Further improvements of all tested here cod...
Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras
Issa, A Nourou
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.
Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes
Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank
2008-01-01
In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.
Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.
1998-11-01
We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)
Benchmarking of neutron production of heavy-ion transport codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remec, I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Ronningen, R. M. [Michigan State Univ., National Superconductiong Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Univ. of Tennessee, 1004 Estabrook Rd., Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)
2011-07-01
Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required. (authors)
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.
Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....
CTCN: Colloid transport code -- nuclear; A user`s manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, R.
1993-09-01
This report describes the CTCN computer code, designed to solve the equations of transient colloidal transport of radionuclides in porous and fractured media. This Fortran 77 package solves systems of coupled nonlinear differential-algebraic equations with a wide range of boundary conditions. The package uses the Method of Lines technique with a special section which forms finite-difference discretizations in up to four spatial dimensions to automatically convert the system into a set of ordinary differential equations. The CTCN code then solves these equations using a robust, efficient ODE solver. Thus CTCN can be used to solve population balance equations along with the usual transport equations to model colloid transport processes or as a general problem solver to treat up to four-dimensional differential-algebraic systems.
Colloid transport code-nuclear user`s manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1992-04-03
This report describes the CTCN computer code, designed to solve the equations of transient colloidal transport of radionuclides in porous and fractured media. This Fortran 77 package solves systems of coupled nonlinear differential equations with a wide range of boundary conditions. The package uses the Method of Lines technique with a special section which forms finite-difference discretizations in up to four spatial dimensions to automatically convert the system into a set of ordinary differential equations. The CTCN code then solves these equations using a robust, efficient ODE solver. Thus CTCN can be used to solve population balance equations along with the usual transport equations to model colloid transport processes or as a general problem solver to treat up to four-dimensional differential systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taasti, Vicki Trier; Knudsen, Helge; Holzscheiter, Michael
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A is designed to simulate therapeutic beams for cancer radiotherapy with fast ions. SHIELD-HIT12A allows creation of antiproton beam kernels for the treatment planning system TRiP98, but first it must be benchmarked against experimental data...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedon-Magnaud, C.
1994-01-01
The general ideas which are applied to introduce the resolution of the neutron transport equation in CRONOS code are given in this paper. They are: - the even parity formulation; - the symmetry boundary treatment; - an angle condensation acceleration. The first qualifying results are also presented. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tab.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李健; 杨京峰; 张成昱
2012-01-01
针对国内图书馆中地理信息的缺失,介绍条形码/二维码在国内外的研究现状,利用Android等技术,设计并实现以图书导航服务为中心的图书馆个性化服务系统,重点介绍该系统的用户需求、设计思路与功能实现。通过对应用效果的评估,认为该系统可以极大地提升图书馆的服务效率和服务质量。%Due to the lack of geographic information in national library,the paper introduces the research of bar code and two-dimensional bar code,using Android and other technology,designs and realizes library personalized services system which is based on book navigation service.It focuses on user needs,design thought and implementation of main functions.According to the assessment of the application,the system can greatly enhance the efficiency and quality of library services.
NERO - A Post Maximum Supernova Radiation Transport Code
Maurer, I; Mazzali, P A; Taubenberger, S; Hachinger, S; Kromer, M; Sim, S; Hillebrandt, W
2011-01-01
The interpretation of supernova (SN) spectra is essential for deriving SN ejecta properties such as density and composition, which in turn can tell us about their progenitors and the explosion mechanism. A very large number of atomic processes are important for spectrum formation. Several tools for calculating SN spectra exist, but they mainly focus on the very early or late epochs. The intermediate phase, which requires a NLTE treatment of radiation transport has rarely been studied. In this paper we present a new SN radiation transport code, NERO, which can look at those epochs. All the atomic processes are treated in full NLTE, under a steady-state assumption. This is a valid approach between roughly 50 and 500 days after the explosion depending on SN type. This covers the post-maximum photospheric and the early and the intermediate nebular phase. As a test, we compare NERO to the radiation transport code of Jerkstrand et al. (2011) and to the nebular code of Mazzali et al. (2001). All three codes have bee...
NERO- a post-maximum supernova radiation transport code
Maurer, I.; Jerkstrand, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Taubenberger, S.; Hachinger, S.; Kromer, M.; Sim, S.; Hillebrandt, W.
2011-12-01
The interpretation of supernova (SN) spectra is essential for deriving SN ejecta properties such as density and composition, which in turn can tell us about their progenitors and the explosion mechanism. A very large number of atomic processes are important for spectrum formation. Several tools for calculating SN spectra exist, but they mainly focus on the very early or late epochs. The intermediate phase, which requires a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) treatment of radiation transport has rarely been studied. In this paper, we present a new SN radiation transport code, NERO, which can look at those epochs. All the atomic processes are treated in full NLTE, under a steady-state assumption. This is a valid approach between roughly 50 and 500 days after the explosion depending on SN type. This covers the post-maximum photospheric and the early and the intermediate nebular phase. As a test, we compare NERO to the radiation transport code of Jerkstrand, Fransson & Kozma and to the nebular code of Mazzali et al. All three codes have been developed independently and a comparison provides a valuable opportunity to investigate their reliability. Currently, NERO is one-dimensional and can be used for predicting spectra of synthetic explosion models or for deriving SN properties by spectral modelling. To demonstrate this, we study the spectra of the 'normal' Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2005cf between 50 and 350 days after the explosion and identify most of the common SN Ia line features at post-maximum epochs.
The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) Code: Description and Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrow, Charles W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bartel, Timothy James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-01
The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) computer code was developed at Sandia National Laboratories as part of their nuclear launch accident consequences analysis suite of computer codes. The purpose of IAT is to predict the initial puff/plume rise resulting from either a solid rocket propellant or liquid rocket fuel fire. The code generates initial conditions for subsequent atmospheric transport calculations. The Initial Atmospheric Transfer (IAT) code has been compared to two data sets which are appropriate to the design space of space launch accident analyses. The primary model uncertainties are the entrainment coefficients for the extended Taylor model. The Titan 34D accident (1986) was used to calibrate these entrainment settings for a prototypic liquid propellant accident while the recent Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL, or simply APL) large propellant block tests (2012) were used to calibrate the entrainment settings for prototypic solid propellant accidents. North American Meteorology (NAM )formatted weather data profiles are used by IAT to determine the local buoyancy force balance. The IAT comparisons for the APL solid propellant tests illustrate the sensitivity of the plume elevation to the weather profiles; that is, the weather profile is a dominant factor in determining the plume elevation. The IAT code performed remarkably well and is considered validated for neutral weather conditions.
3D unstructured-mesh radiation transport codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morel, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-12-31
Three unstructured-mesh radiation transport codes are currently being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first code is ATTILA, which uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh in conjunction with standard Sn (discrete-ordinates) angular discretization, standard multigroup energy discretization, and linear-discontinuous spatial differencing. ATTILA solves the standard first-order form of the transport equation using source iteration in conjunction with diffusion-synthetic acceleration of the within-group source iterations. DANTE is designed to run primarily on workstations. The second code is DANTE, which uses a hybrid finite-element mesh consisting of arbitrary combinations of hexahedra, wedges, pyramids, and tetrahedra. DANTE solves several second-order self-adjoint forms of the transport equation including the even-parity equation, the odd-parity equation, and a new equation called the self-adjoint angular flux equation. DANTE also offers three angular discretization options: $S{_}n$ (discrete-ordinates), $P{_}n$ (spherical harmonics), and $SP{_}n$ (simplified spherical harmonics). DANTE is designed to run primarily on massively parallel message-passing machines, such as the ASCI-Blue machines at LANL and LLNL. The third code is PERICLES, which uses the same hybrid finite-element mesh as DANTE, but solves the standard first-order form of the transport equation rather than a second-order self-adjoint form. DANTE uses a standard $S{_}n$ discretization in angle in conjunction with trilinear-discontinuous spatial differencing, and diffusion-synthetic acceleration of the within-group source iterations. PERICLES was initially designed to run on workstations, but a version for massively parallel message-passing machines will be built. The three codes will be described in detail and computational results will be presented.
Particle, momentum and thermal transport in the PTRANSP code
Bateman, G.; Halpern, F. D.; Kritz, A. H.; Pankin, A. Y.; Rafiq, T.; McCune, D. C.; Budny, R. V.; Indireshkumar, K.
2008-11-01
The combined effects of particle, momentum and thermal transport are investigated in tokamak discharges using a coupled system of transport equations implemented in the PTRANSP integrated modeling code. The magnetic diffusion equation is advanced separately, along with the evolution of the equilibrium. Simulations are carried out using theory-based models to compute transport, sources and sinks. Boundary conditions are either read from data or computed using a pedestal model for H-mode discharges. Different techniques are explored for controlling numerical problems [1] in time-dependent simulations that include sawtooth oscillations and other rapid changes in the profiles. Results for the density, temperature and toroidal angular velocity profiles are compared with experimental data. [1] S.C. Jardin et al, ``On 1D diffusion problems with a gradient-dependent diffusion coefficient''; G.V. Pereverzev and G. Corrigan, ``Stable numeric scheme for diffusion equation with a stiff transport''; both papers to appear in Comp. Phys. Comm. (2008).
Su, Xiaoru; Shu, Longcang; Chen, Xunhong; Lu, Chengpeng; Wen, Zhonghui
2016-12-01
Interactions between surface waters and groundwater are of great significance for evaluating water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Heat as a tracer method is widely used in determination of the interactive exchange with high precision, low cost and great convenience. The flow in a river-bank cross-section occurs in vertical and lateral directions. In order to depict the flow path and its spatial distribution in bank areas, a genetic algorithm (GA) two-dimensional (2-D) heat-transport nested-loop method for variably saturated sediments, GA-VS2DH, was developed based on Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. VS2DH was applied to model a 2-D bank-water flow field and GA was used to calibrate the model automatically by minimizing the difference between observed and simulated temperatures in bank areas. A hypothetical model was developed to assess the reliability of GA-VS2DH in inverse modeling in a river-bank system. Some benchmark tests were conducted to recognize the capability of GA-VS2DH. The results indicated that the simulated seepage velocity and parameters associated with GA-VS2DH were acceptable and reliable. Then GA-VS2DH was applied to two field sites in China with different sedimentary materials, to verify the reliability of the method. GA-VS2DH could be applied in interpreting the cross-sectional 2-D water flow field. The estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity at the Dawen River and Qinhuai River sites are 1.317 and 0.015 m/day, which correspond to sand and clay sediment in the two sites, respectively.
Su, Xiaoru; Shu, Longcang; Chen, Xunhong; Lu, Chengpeng; Wen, Zhonghui
2016-08-01
Interactions between surface waters and groundwater are of great significance for evaluating water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Heat as a tracer method is widely used in determination of the interactive exchange with high precision, low cost and great convenience. The flow in a river-bank cross-section occurs in vertical and lateral directions. In order to depict the flow path and its spatial distribution in bank areas, a genetic algorithm (GA) two-dimensional (2-D) heat-transport nested-loop method for variably saturated sediments, GA-VS2DH, was developed based on Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. VS2DH was applied to model a 2-D bank-water flow field and GA was used to calibrate the model automatically by minimizing the difference between observed and simulated temperatures in bank areas. A hypothetical model was developed to assess the reliability of GA-VS2DH in inverse modeling in a river-bank system. Some benchmark tests were conducted to recognize the capability of GA-VS2DH. The results indicated that the simulated seepage velocity and parameters associated with GA-VS2DH were acceptable and reliable. Then GA-VS2DH was applied to two field sites in China with different sedimentary materials, to verify the reliability of the method. GA-VS2DH could be applied in interpreting the cross-sectional 2-D water flow field. The estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity at the Dawen River and Qinhuai River sites are 1.317 and 0.015 m/day, which correspond to sand and clay sediment in the two sites, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freedsman, J. J., E-mail: freedy54@gmail.com; Watanabe, A.; Urayama, Y. [Research Center for Nano-Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan); Egawa, T., E-mail: egawa.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Research Center for Nano-Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan)
2015-09-07
The authors report on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 0.85}In{sub 0.15}N/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (MOS-HEMT) on Si fabricated by using atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate insulator and passivation layer. The MOS-HEMT with the gate length of 2 μm exhibits excellent direct-current (dc) characteristics with a drain current maximum of 1270 mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V and an off-state breakdown voltage of 180 V for a gate-drain spacing of 4 μm. Also, the 1 μm-gate MOS-HEMT shows good radio-frequency (rf) response such as current gain and maximum oscillation cut-off frequencies of 10 and 34 GHz, respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics at 1 MHz revealed significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density for the MOS-HEMT compared to conventional Schottky barrier HEMTs. Analyses using drain-source conductivity measurements showed improvements in 2DEG transport characteristics for the MOS-HEMT. The enhancements in dc and rf performances of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 0.85}In{sub 0.15}N/GaN MOS-HEMT are attributed to the improvements in 2DEG characteristics.
A comparison between the Monte Carlo radiation transport codes MCNP and MCBEND
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sawamura, Hidenori; Nishimura, Kazuya [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2001-01-01
In Japan, almost of all radiation analysts are using the MCNP code and MVP code on there studies. But these codes have not had automatic variance reduction. MCBEND code made by UKAEA have automatic variance reduction. And, MCBEND code is user friendly more than other Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Codes. Our company was first introduced MCBEND code in Japan. Therefore, we compared with MCBEND code and MCNP code about functions and production capacity. (author)
C5 Benchmark Problem with Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Code DENOVO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yesilyurt, Gokhan [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL
2011-01-01
The C5 benchmark problem proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency was modeled to examine the capabilities of Denovo, a three-dimensional (3-D) parallel discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) radiation transport code, for problems with no spatial homogenization. Denovo uses state-of-the-art numerical methods to obtain accurate solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. Problems were run in parallel on Jaguar, a high-performance supercomputer located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both the two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D configurations were analyzed, and the results were compared with the reference MCNP Monte Carlo calculations. For an additional comparison, SCALE/KENO-V.a Monte Carlo solutions were also included. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed for the optimal angular quadrature and mesh resolution for both the 2-D and 3-D infinite lattices of UO{sub 2} fuel pin cells. Denovo was verified with the C5 problem. The effective multiplication factors, pin powers, and assembly powers were found to be in good agreement with the reference MCNP and SCALE/KENO-V.a Monte Carlo calculations.
Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity
Salehi, H
2001-01-01
We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.
Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals
Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai
2008-01-01
By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.
Reduced Fast Ion Transport Model For The Tokamak Transport Code TRANSP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podesta,, Mario; Gorelenkova, Marina; White, Roscoe
2014-02-28
Fast ion transport models presently implemented in the tokamak transport code TRANSP [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, CEC Brussels, 1 , 19 (1980)] are not capturing important aspects of the physics associated with resonant transport caused by instabilities such as Toroidal Alfv en Eigenmodes (TAEs). This work describes the implementation of a fast ion transport model consistent with the basic mechanisms of resonant mode-particle interaction. The model is formulated in terms of a probability distribution function for the particle's steps in phase space, which is consistent with the MonteCarlo approach used in TRANSP. The proposed model is based on the analysis of fast ion response to TAE modes through the ORBIT code [R. B. White et al., Phys. Fluids 27 , 2455 (1984)], but it can be generalized to higher frequency modes (e.g. Compressional and Global Alfv en Eigenmodes) and to other numerical codes or theories.
Parallelization of a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code
Hadjidoukas, P.; Bousis, C.; Emfietzoglou, D.
2010-05-01
We have developed a high performance version of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code MC4. The original application code, developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for Microsoft Excel, was first rewritten in the C programming language for improving code portability. Several pseudo-random number generators have been also integrated and studied. The new MC4 version was then parallelized for shared and distributed-memory multiprocessor systems using the Message Passing Interface. Two parallel pseudo-random number generator libraries (SPRNG and DCMT) have been seamlessly integrated. The performance speedup of parallel MC4 has been studied on a variety of parallel computing architectures including an Intel Xeon server with 4 dual-core processors, a Sun cluster consisting of 16 nodes of 2 dual-core AMD Opteron processors and a 200 dual-processor HP cluster. For large problem size, which is limited only by the physical memory of the multiprocessor server, the speedup results are almost linear on all systems. We have validated the parallel implementation against the serial VBA and C implementations using the same random number generator. Our experimental results on the transport and energy loss of electrons in a water medium show that the serial and parallel codes are equivalent in accuracy. The present improvements allow for studying of higher particle energies with the use of more accurate physical models, and improve statistics as more particles tracks can be simulated in low response time.
New Parallel computing framework for radiation transport codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostin, M.A.; /Michigan State U., NSCL; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Niita, K.; /JAERI, Tokai
2010-09-01
A new parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was integrated with the MARS15 code, and an effort is under way to deploy it in PHITS. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. Several checkpoint files can be merged into one thus combining results of several calculations. The framework also corrects some of the known problems with the scheduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be used efficiently on homogeneous systems and networks of workstations, where the interference from the other users is possible.
New Parallel computing framework for radiation transport codes
Kostin, M A; Niita, K
2012-01-01
A new parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The frame work was integrated with the MARS15 code, and an effort is under way to deploy it in PHITS. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. Several checkpoint files can be merged into one thus combining results of several calculations. The framework also corrects some of the known problems with the sch eduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be...
Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces
Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue
2012-12-01
Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.
High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niita, Koji [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2001-03-01
We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI97. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM is extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation and fission process, we have also implemented a new model, GEM, by which the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus can be described. According to the extension of the applicable energy, we have upgraded the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data by employing new systematics. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field has been implemented for the beam transport calculations. In this upgrade, some new tally functions are added and the format of input of data has been improved very much in a user friendly manner. Due to the implementation of these new calculation functions and utilities, consequently, NMTC/JAM enables us to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than before. This report serves as a user manual of the code. (author)
Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities
Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.
1997-01-01
We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects
Mandrekas, John
2004-08-01
GTNEUT is a two-dimensional code for the calculation of the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas. It is based on the Transmission and Escape Probabilities (TEP) method and can be considered a computationally efficient alternative to traditional Monte Carlo methods. The code has been benchmarked extensively against Monte Carlo and has been used to model the distribution of neutrals in fusion experiments. Program summaryTitle of program: GTNEUT Catalogue identifier: ADTX Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTX Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The program was developed on a SUN Ultra 10 workstation and has been tested on other Unix workstations and PCs. Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Solaris 8, 9, HP-UX 11i, Linux Red Hat v8.0, Windows NT/2000/XP. Programming language used: Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 6 219 388 bytes No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 300 709 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 365 Distribution format: compressed tar gzip file Keywords: Neutral transport in plasmas, Escape probability methods Nature of physical problem: This code calculates the transport of neutral particles in thermonuclear plasmas in two-dimensional geometric configurations. Method of solution: The code is based on the Transmission and Escape Probability (TEP) methodology [1], which is part of the family of integral transport methods for neutral particles and neutrons. The resulting linear system of equations is solved by standard direct linear system solvers (sparse and non-sparse versions are included). Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The current version of the code can
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于英政; 许宏丽
2014-01-01
With the wide application of two‐dimensional code, two‐dimensional code encryption technology has attracted more and more attention. QR(Quick Response) two‐dimensional code is a widely used two‐dimensional code. The different stages of the implementation procedure have different characteristics. This paper presents a multilevel fusion encryption algo‐rithm based on QR code, greatly improved the encryption intensity of QR code by using DES and fixed keys RC4 encryption in different stages. This algorithm does not significantly increase the length and the processing time of QR code. The experi‐mental data show the validity of the algorithm.%随着二维码的广泛应用，二维码加密技术受到越来越多的关注。快速响应（Quick Response ，QR）二维码是一种被广泛使用的二维码，其实现过程的不同阶段有不同的特点。论文提出一种基于QR二维码的多级融合加密算法概念，通过对不同阶段采取DES加密和固定密钥的RC4加密大大提高QR二维码的加密强度，同时不明显增加二维码的长度和处理时间。实验数据表明了论文所提算法的有效性。
Verification of ARES transport code system with TAKEDA benchmarks
Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Penghe; Chen, Mengteng; Zhao, Jingchang; Zhang, Shun; Chen, Yixue
2015-10-01
Neutron transport modeling and simulation are central to many areas of nuclear technology, including reactor core analysis, radiation shielding and radiation detection. In this paper the series of TAKEDA benchmarks are modeled to verify the critical calculation capability of ARES, a discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code system. SALOME platform is coupled with ARES to provide geometry modeling and mesh generation function. The Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm is applied to accelerate the traditional transport calculation process. The results show that the eigenvalues calculated by ARES are in excellent agreement with the reference values presented in NEACRP-L-330, with a difference less than 30 pcm except for the first case of model 3. Additionally, ARES provides accurate fluxes distribution compared to reference values, with a deviation less than 2% for region-averaged fluxes in all cases. All of these confirms the feasibility of ARES-SALOME coupling and demonstrate that ARES has a good performance in critical calculation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taasti, Vicki Trier; Knudsen, Helge; Holzscheiter, Michael
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A is designed to simulate therapeutic beams for cancer radiotherapy with fast ions. SHIELD-HIT12A allows creation of antiproton beam kernels for the treatment planning system TRiP98, but first it must be benchmarked against experimental data. An...... conclude that more experimental cross section data are needed in the lower energy range in order to resolve this contradiction, ideally combined with more rigorous models for annihilation on compounds....
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng
2017-09-01
The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS
Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit
2014-06-01
A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.
Improvements to the National Transport Code Collaboration Data Server
Alexander, David A.
2001-10-01
The data server of the National Transport Code Colaboration Project provides a universal network interface to interpolated or raw transport data accessible by a universal set of names. Data can be acquired from a local copy of the Iternational Multi-Tokamak (ITER) profile database as well as from TRANSP trees of MDS Plus data systems on the net. Data is provided to the user's network client via a CORBA interface, thus providing stateful data server instances, which have the advantage of remembering the desired interpolation, data set, etc. This paper will review the status and discuss the recent improvements made to the data server, such as the modularization of the data server and the addition of hdf5 and MDS Plus data file writing capability.
Hayek, M.; Kosakowski, G.; Jakob, A.; Churakov, S.
2012-04-01
Numerical computer codes dealing with precipitation-dissolution reactions and porosity changes in multidimensional reactive transport problems are important tools in geoscience. Recent typical applications are related to CO2 sequestration, shallow and deep geothermal energy, remediation of contaminated sites or the safe underground storage of chemotoxic and radioactive waste. Although the agreement between codes using the same models and similar numerical algorithms is satisfactory, it is known that the numerical methods used in solving the transport equation, as well as different coupling schemes between transport and chemistry, may lead to systematic discrepancies. Moreover, due to their inability to describe subgrid pore space changes correctly, the numerical approaches predict discretization-dependent values of porosity changes and clogging times. In this context, analytical solutions become an essential tool to verify numerical simulations. We present a benchmark study where we compare a two-dimensional analytical solution for diffusive transport of two solutes coupled with a precipitation-dissolution reaction causing porosity changes with numerical solutions obtained with the COMSOL Multiphysics code and with the reactive transport code OpenGeoSys-GEMS. The analytical solution describes the spatio-temporal evolution of solutes and solid concentrations and porosity. We show that both numerical codes reproduce the analytical solution very well, although distinct differences in accuracy can be traced back to specific numerical implementations.
A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids
Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.
2007-05-01
We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.
Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2010-03-01
We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
ARM11-based video capture system and two-dimensional code recognition%基于ARM11的视频采集系统及二维码识别
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
段东波; 靳天玉
2013-01-01
With the development of information technology,more and more application of ARM embedded system as the core. Therefore,further research ARM core and based on the ARM core application will make it better to meet the practical need. This article through to ARM core as well as the embedded Linux research, using QT programming,realized the video acquisition which based on Samsung S3C6410 processor and QR code recognition.The article emphasis on describes the process of Embedded Linux transplantation, Video acquisition and QR code recognition.%随着信息技术的发展，越来越多的领域应用ARM作为嵌入式系统的核心。因此，深入研究ARM核心以及基于ARM核心的应用使其更好的符合实际需要，便显得尤为重要。本文通过对ARM核心以及嵌入式Linux的研究，利用QT编程，实现了基于三星S3C6410处理器的视频采集以及二维码识别。文章重点描述了嵌入式Linux的移植、视频采集以及二维码识别等应用程序的流程。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李佳芮
2015-01-01
This thesis introduced the spreading characteristics of wechat and QR code's release,generate and threat,analyzed the problems in wechat network information communication from the case of phishing.Based on the concepts of complex network,we made a research on the characteristics and propagation model of complex network and introduced weighted network spread model,then applied them into the spread through wechat networks,trying to make a research on wechat dynamic broadcast about phishing hidden in QR code,and the analyzes were made quantitatively and qualitatively,which helped us have a better understanding on the spread of phising and find the key factor in spreading in order to propose an effective system to prevent the phishing spreading.%文章针对微信传播特点和二维码病毒的发布方式、如何生成以及危害进行简要概述,以隐藏在二维码中的钓鱼信息为例分析二维码在微信传播中存在的安全问题.通过对复杂网络的特征、传播模型的研究,结合加权网络传播模型的进一步分析,将这种研究结果应用到微信网络的传播中,对微信传播网络中的二维码钓鱼信息动态传播进行定性和定量研究,从而更加完备和深入地认识钓鱼信息传播过程,找到传播的关键因素,并简要设计了一套有效的系统来控制钓鱼信息的传播.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁飞凤; 刘海燕; 李彩婷; 张洁芳
2013-01-01
目的探讨应用二维条形码信息管理对手术灭菌器械进行质量追溯的效果。方法将16857件手术灭菌器械分为实验组8356件和对照组8501件，模拟实验组有276件和对照组有288件灭菌器械不合格，实验组使用二维条形码信息管理，对照组采用传统方法对手术灭菌不合格器械质量进行追溯。比较两组器械质量追溯花费时间的差异。结果实验组质量追溯时间短于对照组，两组比较，t=-244.09，t=P＜0.001，差异具有统计学意义。结论使用二维条形码信息管理对手术灭菌器械进行质量追溯，不仅能提高工作效率，同时保证手术病人的安全。%Objective To investigate the application of two dimensional bar code on the quality tracking of surgical instrument. Methods Sixty cases of surgical instrument packets without sterilization in sterilization and supply center were selected.The parkets were divided into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group.The observation group was applied two dimensional bar code on the surgical instrument packets.We eraluated the effect of quality tracking according to the using time that started from discorering sterilization items unqualified to tracking to the patient who use this item.The control group was applied traditional methods.Results The quality tracking time of experiment group was significantly shorter than the time of control group. The difference was statistically significant(P<0.001).The staff satisfaction of the observation group was better than that of the control group.The difference was statistically significant(P<0.001).Conclusion Applying two dimensional bar code can improve the work efficiency,the sterilization quality of surgical instrument packet and guarantee the operation safety of patients.
Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
2003-08-01
This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.
Gamma ray transport simulations using SGaRD code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Humbert Philippe
2017-01-01
Full Text Available SGaRD (Spectroscopy, Gamma rays, Rapid, Deterministic code is used for the fast calculation of the gamma-ray spectrum, produced by a spherical shielded source and measured by a detector. The photon source lines originate from the radioactive decay of the unstable isotopes. The leakage spectrum is separated in two parts: the uncollided component is transported by ray tracing, and the scattered component is calculated using a multigroup discrete ordinates method. The pulse height spectrum is then simulated by folding the leakage spectrum with the detector response function, which is precalculated for each considered detector type. An application to the simulation of the gamma spectrum produced by a natural uranium ball coated with plexiglass and measured using a NaI detector is presented. The SGaRD code is also used to infer the dimensions of a one-dimensional model of a shielded gamma ray source. The method is based on the simulation of the uncollided leakage current of discrete gamma lines that are produced by nuclear decay. The material thicknesses are computed with SGaRD using a fast ray-tracing algorithm embedded in a nonlinear multidimensional iterative optimization procedure that minimizes the error metric between calculated and measured signatures.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-20
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.
Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong
2016-12-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...
Final Report for National Transport Code Collaboration PTRANSP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold H. Kritz
2012-06-14
PTRANSP, which is the predictive version of the TRANSP code, was developed in a collaborative effort involving the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, General Atomics Corporation, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Lehigh University. The PTRANSP/TRANSP suite of codes is the premier integrated tokamak modeling software in the United States. A production service for PTRANSP/TRANSP simulations is maintained at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; the server has a simple command line client interface and is subscribed to by about 100 researchers from tokamak projects in the US, Europe, and Asia. This service produced nearly 13000 PTRANSP/TRANSP simulations in the four year period FY 2005 through FY 2008. Major archives of TRANSP results are maintained at PPPL, MIT, General Atomics, and JET. Recent utilization, counting experimental analysis simulations as well as predictive simulations, more than doubled from slightly over 2000 simulations per year in FY 2005 and FY 2006 to over 4300 simulations per year in FY 2007 and FY 2008. PTRANSP predictive simulations applied to ITER increased eight fold from 30 simulations per year in FY 2005 and FY 2006 to 240 simulations per year in FY 2007 and FY 2008, accounting for more than half of combined PTRANSP/TRANSP service CPU resource utilization in FY 2008. PTRANSP studies focused on ITER played a key role in journal articles. Examples of validation studies carried out for momentum transport in PTRANSP simulations were presented at the 2008 IAEA conference. The increase in number of PTRANSP simulations has continued (more than 7000 TRANSP/PTRANSP simulations in 2010) and results of PTRANSP simulations appear in conference proceedings, for example the 2010 IAEA conference, and in peer reviewed papers. PTRANSP provides a bridge to the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) and to the future of integrated modeling. Through years of widespread usage, each of the many parts of the PTRANSP suite of codes has been thoroughly
Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials
Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter
2017-02-01
Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holford, D.J.
1994-01-01
This document is a user`s manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water.
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Hu
2006-01-01
Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.
Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim E. Vekslerchik
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, O.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of
Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons
Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C
2010-01-01
We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion
Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.
2016-02-01
In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.
Simple models of two-dimensional information sources and codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Shtarkov, Y. M.
1998-01-01
We consider discrete random fields which have simple descriptions of rows and columns. We present constructions which combine high entropy with simple means of generating the fields and analyzing the probability distribution. Hidden state Markov sources are an essential tool in the construction...
Development of a Two-Dimensional Implicit Interior Ballistics Code
1980-01-01
the universal gas constant, W is the gas molecular weight, u m and n is the covolume factor, which is composition dependent . Following Gough (Ref...c is dependent on the gas composition but not temperature. v The static enthalpy is then h = p e + p The specific heat at constant pressure is...Gun Interior Ballistics Transient Combustion Time- dependent Adaptive Grid 20, ABST’RACT (Cazrt&au:e _. .. ._._ lliO 11 ~ llltld ldenllly by block
Object-Oriented Two-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field Solver Code
2007-11-02
MX2 = sizeof (ds.svil 1); new TEdit (this, idcinfo0 1, MX 1); new TEdit (this, idcinfo02, MX 1); new TEdit (this, idcinfo03, MX1 ); new TEdit (this...idcinfo04, MX1 ); new TEdit (this, idcinfo05, MXl); new TEdit (this, idcinfo06, MXl); new TEdit (this, idcinfo07, MXl); new TEdit (this, idcinfol 1, MX2
Chan, B. C.
1986-05-01
A basic, limited scope, fast-running computer model is presented for the solution of two-dimensional, transient, thermally-coupled fluid flow problems. This model is to be the module in the SSC (an LMFBR thermal-hydraulic systems code) for predicting complex flow behavior, as occurs in the upper plenum of the loop-type design or in the sodium pool of the pool-type design. The nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations and the two-equation (two-variable) transport model of turbulence are reduced to a set of linear algebraic equations in an implicit finite difference scheme, based on the control volume approach. These equations are solved iteratively in a line-by-line procedure using the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. The results of calculational examplers are shown in the computer-generated plots.
ASDEX Upgrade Edge Transport Studies by Turbulence and Braginskii Divertor Transport Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.P.; Kim, J.W.; Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)
2001-07-01
The equilibration time for diverter transport simulations is in the range of milliseconds to seconds. There, perpendicular transport is given empirically and usually assumed to be constant in time and space. In this work, we aim at describing edge plasma profiles in both the H-mode and the L-mode confinement regimes using a model that couples the transport scale to the underlying turbulence scale. There are 2d and 3d variants of DALF, which is a turbulence code that describes short time scale nonlinear phenomena based on first principles of plasma physics. B2 employs an implicit method which is suitable for describing long time scale, quasi-steady state behavior, while fluctuation/intermittency is inherent in turbulence and typically gives rise to short time scale variations of the radial flux. We coarse rained the information from the 2d version of DALF within the order of turbulence auto correlation time and iterated over the divertor simulation (and thus passed plasma parameters to the turbulence code). Numerical algorithm and criteria for convergence in bridging the physics of two different scales is discussed. The generation mechanism of radial electric field in steep gradient regimes is revisited in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor geometry with realistic parameters. Inclusion of turbulent suppression effects by E x B shear flow is considered. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
顾伟; 况华; 孙科芬; 张科娜; 王天鹰
2013-01-01
目的：开发医院设备管理系统，提高设备资产管理工作的质量和效率。方法结合国家、行业、地方医疗器械编码标准，借助二维条码和移动技术开发一套符合医院设备管理需要的信息系统。结果本系统的使用，提升了医院整体管理水平。结论该系统实现了国有资产的规范管理、合理利用。%Objective To develop medical equipment management system to improve the quality and efficiency of equipment assets management. Methods Combined with national, industrial and local coding standards of medical equipment, the management system which is in accordance with management requirements of hospital equipment is developed by using two-dimensional bar code and mobile technologies. Results The overall management level of the hospital has been improved with the application of the management system. Conclusion The standard management and rational utilization of state-owned property have been implemented with the application of the system.
Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.
Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi
2014-10-01
The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-04-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuolei Xiao
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.
Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM
Narayanan, R
2009-01-01
Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.
Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
String breaking in two-dimensional QCD
Hornbostel, K J
1999-01-01
I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.
Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.
Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya
2013-05-07
A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.
DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S
1981-11-01
With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.
GALILEE: A nuclear data processing system for transport, depletion and shielding codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
COSTE-DELCLAUX, Mireille [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LLPR, 91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)
2008-07-01
The Nuclear Data Processing System for Transport, Depletion and Shielding Codes GALILEE is part of a CEA global development program dedicated to fine modelling of nuclear systems. The other projects contributing to this aim are APOLLO3 inherited from DESCARTES (Calvin and Fedon-Magnaud, 2007) which treats deterministic transport, TRIPOLI-4 (Diop et al., 2006) which treats Monte Carlo transport and DARWIN3 (Tsilanizara et al., 1999) which solves all fuel cycle problems. GALILEE aims are: - To provide to application codes (deterministic or Monte Carlo transport codes, shielding codes or depletion codes), a tool-box allowing a consistent processing for nuclear data coming from any evaluation given in ENDF-6 format, - To carry out an automatic chain for creating application libraries, - To provide consistent application libraries for modelling a nuclear system. GALILEE project is carried out in synergy with application codes in order to be able to share 'objects' but also 'tools'. (author)
Neutral Particle Transport in Cylindrical Plasma Simulated by a Monte Carlo Code
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Deliang; YAN Longwen; ZHONG Guangwu; LU Jie; YI Ping
2007-01-01
A Monte Carlo code (MCHGAS) has been developed to investigate the neutral particle transport.The code can calculate the radial profile and energy spectrum of neutral particles in cylindrical plasmas.The calculation time of the code is dramatically reduced when the Splitting and Roulette schemes are applied. The plasma model of an infinite cylinder is assumed in the code,which is very convenient in simulating neutral particle transports in small and middle-sized tokamaks.The design of the multi-channel neutral particle analyser (NPA) on HL-2A can be optimized by using this code.
Kum, Oyeon; Han, Youngyih; Jeong, Hae Sun
2012-05-01
Minimizing the differences between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient is an essential requirement for successful radiotheraphy. Accurate calculation of dose distributions in the treatment planning process is important and can be done only by using a Monte Carlo calculation of particle transport. In this paper, we perform a further validation of our previously developed parallel Monte Carlo electron and photon transport (PMCEPT) code [Kum and Lee, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, 716 (2005) and Kim and Kum, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1640 (2006)] for applications to clinical radiation problems. A linear accelerator, Siemens' Primus 6 MV, was modeled and commissioned. A thorough validation includes both small fields, closely related to the intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT), and large fields. Two-dimensional comparisons with film measurements were also performed. The PMCEPT results, in general, agreed well with the measured data within a maximum error of about 2%. However, considering the experimental errors, the PMCEPT results can provide the gold standard of dose distributions for radiotherapy. The computing time was also much faster, compared to that needed for experiments, although it is still a bottleneck for direct applications to the daily routine treatment planning procedure.
Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons
Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine
2004-03-01
We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.
Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A
2012-08-07
We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.
Theory of two-dimensional transformations
Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.
1998-01-01
The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L
2010-01-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong
2016-01-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory
Zak, M.
1979-01-01
The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.
Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking, Version 2(RATCHET2)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsdell, James V.; Rishel, Jeremy P.
2006-07-01
This manual describes the atmospheric model and computer code for the Atmospheric Transport Module within SAC. The Atmospheric Transport Module, called RATCHET2, calculates the time-integrated air concentration and surface deposition of airborne contaminants to the soil. The RATCHET2 code is an adaptation of the Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emissions Tracking (RATCHET). The original RATCHET code was developed to perform the atmospheric transport for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Fundamentally, the two sets of codes are identical; no capabilities have been deleted from the original version of RATCHET. Most modifications are generally limited to revision of the run-specification file to streamline the simulation process for SAC.
Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities
Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.
1994-05-01
We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.
Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Yaghmaie
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maingi, R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1992-08-01
The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VOOGD, J.A.
1999-04-19
An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; TIAN Qiang
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Antonio [AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm Center of Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Sundstroem, Benny [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)
2003-12-01
Radionuclide releases from the near-field for the vaults of the SFR 1 repository are examined in this report. To model those releases we have developed four models, one for each of the vaults; 2BTF, 1BTF, BMA and BLA. The respective codes are based on the finite element method and are called FEMBTF2, FEMBTF1, FEMBMA and FEMBLA, respectively. These codes are two-dimensional representations of the cross sections of the vaults. The different barriers of the vaults have been modelled individually using the physical dimensions of the cross sections. The same conceptual model has been used to estimate the releases from the near-field. This conceptual model is implemented by four different FEM codes that solve the two-dimensional transport equation, e.g. the advective-diffusive-reactive equation that also includes radioactive decay. An interesting property of the codes is that they allow the use of time-dependent properties to represent for instance the evolution of water flow, porosities, distribution coefficients etc. This capability of the code has been used only in some cases because the FEM codes put heavy requirements on the computer's CPU. The nuclides studied here were chosen from a set representing the highest release rates from the near-field obtained by SKB during their project SAFE. Some of the results reported here are somewhat lower than SKBs, other higher. Uncertainties in the conceptual models and differences in the input data are the reasons for the numerical differences. For most cases, the differences between our results and those of SKB should be considered relatively small within present context of near-field calculations.
Fault-tolerance in Two-dimensional Topological Systems
Anderson, Jonas T.
This thesis is a collection of ideas with the general goal of building, at least in the abstract, a local fault-tolerant quantum computer. The connection between quantum information and topology has proven to be an active area of research in several fields. The introduction of the toric code by Alexei Kitaev demonstrated the usefulness of topology for quantum memory and quantum computation. Many quantum codes used for quantum memory are modeled by spin systems on a lattice, with operators that extract syndrome information placed on vertices or faces of the lattice. It is natural to wonder whether the useful codes in such systems can be classified. This thesis presents work that leverages ideas from topology and graph theory to explore the space of such codes. Homological stabilizer codes are introduced and it is shown that, under a set of reasonable assumptions, any qubit homological stabilizer code is equivalent to either a toric code or a color code. Additionally, the toric code and the color code correspond to distinct classes of graphs. Many systems have been proposed as candidate quantum computers. It is very desirable to design quantum computing architectures with two-dimensional layouts and low complexity in parity-checking circuitry. Kitaev's surface codes provided the first example of codes satisfying this property. They provided a new route to fault tolerance with more modest overheads and thresholds approaching 1%. The recently discovered color codes share many properties with the surface codes, such as the ability to perform syndrome extraction locally in two dimensions. Some families of color codes admit a transversal implementation of the entire Clifford group. This work investigates color codes on the 4.8.8 lattice known as triangular codes. I develop a fault-tolerant error-correction strategy for these codes in which repeated syndrome measurements on this lattice generate a three-dimensional space-time combinatorial structure. I then develop an
Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities
Constantinou, Navid C
2010-01-01
Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...
Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics
Lyubich, Mikhail
2011-01-01
In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.
Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra
2004-08-01
A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.
Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-09-01
In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.
Local doping of two-dimensional materials
Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan
2008-01-01
Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Modification of PRETOR Code to Be Applied to Transport Simulation in Stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fontanet, J.; Castejon, F.; Dies, J.; Fontdecaba, J.; Alejaldre, C.
2001-07-01
The 1.5 D transport code PRETOR, that has been previously used to simulate tokamak plasmas, has been modified to perform transport analysis in stellarator geometry. The main modifications that have been introduced in the code are related with the magnetic equilibrium and with the modelling of energy and particle transport. Therefore, PRETOR- Stellarator version has been achieved and the code is suitable to perform simulations on stellarator plasmas. As an example, PRETOR- Stellarator has been used in the transport analysis of several Heliac Flexible TJ-II shots, and the results are compared with those obtained using PROCTR code. These results are also compared with the obtained using the tokamak version of PRETOR to show the importance of the introduced changes. (Author) 18 refs.
Homma, Yuto; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Ohki, Shigeo; Ikeda, Kazumi
2014-06-01
This paper deals with verification of three dimensional triangular prismatic discrete ordinates transport calculation code ENSEMBLE-TRIZ by comparison with multi-group Monte Carlo calculation code GMVP in a large fast breeder reactor. The reactor is a 750 MWe electric power sodium cooled reactor. Nuclear characteristics are calculated at beginning of cycle of an initial core and at beginning and end of cycle of equilibrium core. According to the calculations, the differences between the two methodologies are smaller than 0.0002 Δk in the multi-plication factor, relatively about 1% in the control rod reactivity, and 1% in the sodium void reactivity.
Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young S. Shin
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.
A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.
2013-01-01
We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.
77 FR 18716 - Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment
2012-03-28
... Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule is a technical change to correct a regulatory reference to TSA's postal zip code. This rule revises existing regulations to reflect organizational changes and it has no...
Metropol, a computer code for the simulation of transport of contaminants with groundwater
Sauter FJ; Hassanizadeh SM; Leijnse A; Glasbergen P; Slot AFM
1990-01-01
In this report a description is given of the computer code METROPOL. This code simulates the three dimensional flow of groundwater with varying density and the simultaneous transport of contaminants in low concentration and is based on the finite element method. The basic equations for groundwater
On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1975-01-01
The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....
Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.
Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay
2016-09-09
The pioneering work by Patrick H. O'Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry1975, 250, 4007-4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O'Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins.
Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.
2003-01-01
In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low-frequency bur......In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...... to the mean component of the flow. Bursting can also result from the quasi-linear modification of the linear instability drive which is the mean pressure gradient. For each bursting process the relevant zero-dimensional model equations are given. These are finally coupled in a minimal model of convection...
Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.
Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Morozov, S V; Jiang, D; Katsnelson, M I; Grigorieva, I V; Dubonos, S V; Firsov, A A
2005-11-10
Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.
Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Murphy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021. The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins.
TART97 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cullen, D.E.
1997-11-22
TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on- line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and its data riles.
Environmental, Transient, Three-Dimensional, Hydrothermal, Mass Transport Code - FLESCOT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onishi, Yasuo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glass, Kevin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eyler, L. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Okumura, Masahiko [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-03-28
The purpose of the project was to modify and apply the transient, three-dimensional FLESCOT code to be able to effectively simulate cesium behavior in Fukushima lakes/dam reservoirs, river mouths, and coastal areas. The ultimate objective of the FLESCOT simulation is to predict future changes of cesium accumulation in Fukushima area reservoirs and costal water. These evaluation results will assist ongoing and future environmental remediation activities and policies in a systematic and comprehensive manner.
Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy
Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.
2016-11-01
Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.
Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows
Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-01-01
In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...
Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.
Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.
Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene
Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van
2016-12-01
The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.
Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.
Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2016-09-14
The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.
Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-12-15
The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials
Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2012-01-01
We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki
1996-11-01
In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)
LEADS-DC: A computer code for intense dc beam nonlinear transport simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
An intense dc beam nonlinear transport code has been developed. The code is written in Visual FORTRAN 6.6 and has ~13000 lines. The particle distribution in the transverse cross section is uniform or Gaussian. The space charge forces are calculated by the PIC (particle in cell) scheme, and the effects of the applied fields on the particle motion are calculated with the Lie algebraic method through the third order approximation. Obviously,the solutions to the equations of particle motion are self-consistent. The results obtained from the theoretical analysis have been put in the computer code. Many optical beam elements are contained in the code. So, the code can simulate the intense dc particle motions in the beam transport lines, high voltage dc accelerators and ion implanters.
Fluid dynamics of two-dimensional pollination in Ruppia maritima
Musunuri, Naga; Bunker, Daniel; Pell, Susan; Pell, Fischer; Singh, Pushpendra
2016-11-01
The aim of this work is to understand the physics underlying the mechanisms of two-dimensional aquatic pollen dispersal, known as hydrophily. We observed two mechanisms by which the pollen released from male inflorescences of Ruppia maritima is adsorbed on a water surface: (i) inflorescences rise above the surface and after they mature their pollen mass falls onto the surface as clumps and disperses on the surface; (ii) inflorescences remain below the surface and produce air bubbles which carry their pollen mass to the surface where it disperses. In both cases dispersed pollen masses combined under the action of capillary forces to form pollen rafts. This increases the probability of pollination since the capillary force on a pollen raft towards a stigma is much larger than on a single pollen grain. The presence of a trace amount of surfactant can disrupt the pollination process so that the pollen is not transported or captured on the water surface. National Science Foundation.
Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun
2015-01-01
We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...
Two-dimensional optical thermal ratchets based on Fibonacci spirals.
Xiao, Ke; Roichman, Yael; Grier, David G
2011-07-01
An ensemble of symmetric potential energy wells arranged at the vertices of a Fibonacci spiral can serve as the basis for an irreducibly two-dimensional thermal ratchet. Periodic rotation of the potential energy landscape through a three-step cycle drives trapped Brownian particles along spiral trajectories through the pattern. Which spiral is selected depends on the angular displacement at each step, with transitions between selected spirals arising at rational proportions of the golden angle. Fibonacci spiral ratchets therefore display an exceptionally rich range of transport properties, including inhomogeneous states in which different parts of the pattern induce motion in different directions. Both the radial and angular components of these trajectories can undergo flux reversal as a function of the scale of the pattern or the rate of rotation.
Anomaly matching condition in two-dimensional systems
Dubinkin, O; Gubankova, E
2016-01-01
Based on Son-Yamamoto relation obtained for transverse part of triangle axial anomaly in ${\\rm QCD}_4$, we derive its analog in two-dimensional system. It connects the transverse part of mixed vector-axial current two-point function with diagonal vector and axial current two-point functions. Being fully non-perturbative, this relation may be regarded as anomaly matching for conductivities or certain transport coefficients depending on the system. We consider the holographic RG flows in holographic Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory via the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with respect to the radial coordinate. Within this holographic model it is found that the RG flows for the following relations are diagonal: Son-Yamamoto relation and the left-right polarization operator. Thus the Son-Yamamoto relation holds at wide range of energy scales.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruess, Karsten
2003-08-08
Numerical simulation has become a widely practiced andaccepted technique for studying flow and transport processes in thevadose zone and other subsurface flow systems. This article discusses asuite of codes, developed primarily at Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory (LBNL), with the capability to model multiphase flows withphase change. We summarize history and goals in the development of theTOUGH codes, and present the governing equations for multiphase,multicomponent flow. Special emphasis is given to space discretization bymeans of integral finite differences (IFD). Issues of code implementationand architecture are addressed, as well as code applications,maintenance, and future developments.
Applying Advanced Neutron Transport Calculations for Improving Fuel Performance Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botazzoli, P.; Luzzi, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division - CeSNEF, Milano (Italy); Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haeck, W. [Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)
2009-06-15
TRANSURANUS is a computer code for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors. As part of the code, the TUBRNP model calculates the local concentration of the actinides (U, Pu, Am, Cm), the main fission products (Xe, Kr, Cs and Nd) and {sup 4}He produced during the irradiation as a function of the radial position across a fuel pellet (radial profiles). These local quantities are required for the determination of the local power density, the local burn-up, and the source term of fission products and other inert gases. In previous works the neutronic code ALEPH has been used to validate the models for the actinides and fission products concentrations in UO{sub 2} fuels. A similar approach has been adopted in the present work for verifying the Helium production. The present paper focuses on the modelling of the Helium production in PWR oxide fuels (MOX and UO{sub 2}). A reliable prediction of the Helium production and release in LWR oxide fuels is of great interest in case of increasing burn-up, linear heat generation rates and Plutonium content. The contribution of the Helium released plays a fundamental role in the gap pressure and subsequently in the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod, in particular during the storage of the high burn-up spent fuel. Helium is produced in oxide fuels by three main paths: (i) alpha decay of the actinides (the main contribution is due to {sup 242}Cm, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 244}Cm); (ii) (n,{alpha}) reactions; and (iii) ternary fission. In the present work, the contributions due to ternary fission and the (n,{alpha}) reaction on {sup 16}O as well as some refinements in the {sup 241}Am burn-up chain have been included in TUBRNP. The VESTA neutronic code has been used for the validation of the He production model. The generic VESTA Monte Carlo depletion interface developed at IRSN allows us to couple different Monte Carlo codes with a depletion module. It currently allows for combining the ORIGEN 2.2 isotope
Intact coding region of the serotonin transporter gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altemus, M.; Murphy, D.L.; Greenberg, B. [NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lesch, K.P. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)
1996-07-26
Epidemiologic studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder is genetically transmitted in some families, although no genetic abnormalities have been identified in individuals with this disorder. The selective response of obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with agents which block serotonin reuptake suggests the gene coding for the serotonin transporter as a candidate gene. The primary structure of the serotonin-transporter coding region was sequenced in 22 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, using direct PCR sequencing of cDNA synthesized from platelet serotonin-transporter mRNA. No variations in amino acid sequence were found among the obsessive-compulsive disorder patients or healthy controls. These results do not support a role for alteration in the primary structure of the coding region of the serotonin-transporter gene in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 27 refs.
Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons
Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.
2017-04-01
We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.
Transport Corrections in Nodal Diffusion Codes for HTR Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Frederick N. Gleicher
2010-08-01
The cores and reflectors of High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) type are dominantly diffusive media from the point of view of behavior of the neutrons and their migration between the various structures of the reactor. This means that neutron diffusion theory is sufficient for modeling most features of such reactors and transport theory may not be needed for most applications. Of course, the above statement assumes the availability of homogenized diffusion theory data. The statement is true for most situations but not all. Two features of NGNP-type HTRs require that the diffusion theory-based solution be corrected for local transport effects. These two cases are the treatment of burnable poisons (BP) in the case of the prismatic block reactors and, for both pebble bed reactor (PBR) and prismatic block reactor (PMR) designs, that of control rods (CR) embedded in non-multiplying regions near the interface between fueled zones and said non-multiplying zones. The need for transport correction arises because diffusion theory-based solutions appear not to provide sufficient fidelity in these situations.
Two-dimensional equilibrium in coronal magnetostatic flux tubes: an accurate equilibrium solver
Belien, A. J. C.; Poedts, S.; Goedbloed, J. P.
1997-01-01
To study linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, continuous spectra, and instabilities in coronal magnetic flux tubes that are anchored in dense chromospheric and photospheric regions, a two-dimensional numerical code, called PARIS, has been developed. PARIS solves the pertinent nonlinear Grad-S
Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions
Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.
2016-09-01
Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.
Optical Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Graphene and Boron Nitride
Ju, Long
This dissertation describes the use of optical spectroscopy in studying the physical properties of two dimensional nano materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Compared to bulk materials, atomically thin two dimensional materials have a unique character that is the strong dependence of physical properties on external control. Both electronic band structure and chemical potential can be tuned in situ by electric field-which is a powerful knob in experiment. Therefore the optical study at atomic thickness scale can greatly benefit from modern micro-fabrication technique and electric control of the material properties. As will be shown in this dissertation, such control of both gemometric and physical properties enables new possibilities of optical spectroscopic measurement as well as opto-electronic studies. Other experimental techniques like electric transport and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are also combined with optical spectroscopy to reveal the physics that is beyond the reach of each individual technique. There are three major themes in the dissertation. The first one is focused on the study of plasmon excitation of Dirac electrons in monolayer graphene. Unlike plasmons in ordinary two dimensional electron gas, plasmons of 2D electrons as in graphene obey unusual scaling laws. We fabricate graphene micro-ribbon arrays with photolithography technique and use optical absorption spectroscopy to study its absorption spectrum. The experimental result demonstrates the extraordinarily strong light-plasmon coupling and its novel dependence on both charge doping and geometric dimensions. This work provides a first glance at the fundamental properties of graphene plasmons and forms the basis of an emerging subfield of graphene research and applications such as graphene terahertz metamaterials. The second part describes the opto-electronic response of heterostructures composed of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We found that there is
Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform
Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.
2011-01-01
One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that
Depletion methodology in the 3-D whole core transport code DeCART
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kang Seog; Cho, Jin Young; Zee, Sung Quun
2005-02-01
Three dimensional whole-core transport code DeCART has been developed to include a characteristics of the numerical reactor to replace partly the experiment. This code adopts the deterministic method in simulating the neutron behavior with the least assumption and approximation. This neutronic code is also coupled with the thermal hydraulic code CFD and the thermo mechanical code to simulate the combined effects. Depletion module has been implemented in DeCART code to predict the depleted composition in the fuel. The exponential matrix method of ORIGEN-2 has been used for the depletion calculation. The library of including decay constants, yield matrix and others has been used and greatly simplified for the calculation efficiency. This report summarizes the theoretical backgrounds and includes the verification of the depletion module in DeCART by performing the benchmark calculations.
Image encryption using the two-dimensional logistic chaotic map
Wu, Yue; Yang, Gelan; Jin, Huixia; Noonan, Joseph P.
2012-01-01
Chaos maps and chaotic systems have been proved to be useful and effective for cryptography. In our study, the two-dimensional logistic map with complicated basin structures and attractors are first used for image encryption. The proposed method adopts the classic framework of the permutation-substitution network in cryptography and thus ensures both confusion and diffusion properties for a secure cipher. The proposed method is able to encrypt an intelligible image into a random-like one from the statistical point of view and the human visual system point of view. Extensive simulation results using test images from the USC-SIPI image database demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Security analysis results of using both the conventional and the most recent tests show that the encryption quality of the proposed method reaches or excels the current state-of-the-art methods. Similar encryption ideas can be applied to digital data in other formats (e.g., digital audio and video). We also publish the cipher MATLAB open-source-code under the web page https://sites.google.com/site/tuftsyuewu/source-code.
Two dimensional structural analysis of reactor fuel element claddings due to local effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karimi, R; Wolf, L
1978-04-01
Two dimensional thermoelastic and inelastic stresses and deformation of typical LWR (PWR) and LMFBR (CRBR) claddings are evaluated by utilizing the following codes, for (1) Thermoelastic analysis (a) STRESS Code (b) SEGPIPE Code (2) Thermoinelastic analysis (a) Modified version of the GOGO code (b) One dimensional GRO-II code. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the effect of various local perturbations in the clad temperature field, namely eccentrically mounted fuel pellet, clad ovality, power tilt across the fuel and clad-coolant heat transfer variation on the cladding stress and deformation. In view of the fact that the thermoelastic analysis is always the first logical choice entering the structural field, it was decided to start the analysis with the two dimensional codes such as STRESS and SEGPIPE. Later, in order to assess the validity and compare the thermoelastic results to those obtained for actual reactor conditions, a two dimensional code, namely a modified version of the GOGO code, was used to account for inelastic effects such as irradiation and thermal creep and swelling in the evaluation. The comparison of thermoelastic and inelastic results shows that the former can be used effectively to analyze LWR fuel pin over 350 hours of lifetime under the most adverse condition and 500 hours of lifetime for an LMFBR fuel pin. Beyond that the inelastic solution must be used. The impact of the individual thermal perturbation and combinations thereof upon the structural quantity is also shown. Finally, the effect of rod displacement on the two dimensional thermal and structural quantities of the LMFBR fuel pin cladding is analyzed.
Improvement in two-dimensional barcode
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SONAM WASULE; SHILPA METKAR
2017-07-01
Barcode is one of the existing systems which is very fast in scanning and more accurate when compared with other coding systems. It is extensively used because speed of scanning the barcode is very high as compared with manual data entry. To increase the capacity of 2D monochrome QR code to 3 fold, 2D colour QR code is developed. The challenge in the development of colour barcode is in its decoding, since the intensity and depth of colours vary during the printing and scanning process. We need to understand the decoding process and make it insensitive to such variations. A lot of work has been already done to deal with such variations but acceptable results have not yet been achieved. The objective behind colour barcode is to increase the capacity to 3 fold as compared with 2D monochrome barcode. In this paper we proposed a novel approach that will increase the capacity of barcode beyond 3 fold and deals with decoding problem of intensity variation. In the proposed technique, quantization of grey levels is specified to handle the problem of intensity variation.
Pseudo-two-dimensional random dimer lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naether, U., E-mail: naether@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mejía-Cortés, C.; Vicencio, R.A. [Departamento de Física and MSI – Nucleus for Advanced Optics, Center for Optics and Photonics (CEFOP), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
2015-06-05
We study the long-time wave transport in correlated and uncorrelated disordered 2D arrays. When a separation of dimensions is applied to the model, we find that the previously predicted 1D random dimer phenomenology also appears in so-called pseudo-2D arrays. Therefore, a threshold behavior is observed in terms of the effective size for eigenmodes, as well as in long-time dynamics. A minimum system size is required to observe this threshold, which is very important when considering a possible experimental realization. For the long-time evolution, we find that for correlated lattices a super-diffusive long-range transport is observed. For completely uncorrelated disorder 2D transport becomes sub-diffusive within the localization length and for random binary pseudo-2D arrays localization is observed.
Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy
Fayer, Michael
2011-03-01
The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific
The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry
CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, Alfredo; Silari, Marco
2006-01-01
Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. In these codes, photon transport is simulated by using the detailed scheme, i.e., interaction by interaction. Detailed simulation is easy to implement, and the reliability of the results is only limited by the accuracy of the adopted cross sections. Simulations of electron and positron transport are more difficult, because these particles undergo a large number of interactions in the course of their slowing down. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interacti...
Verification and Validation of The Tritium Transport Code TMAP7
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glen R. Longhurst; James Ambrosek
2004-09-01
The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it has been upgraded several times and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its most recent upgrade to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. Prior versions had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT. That has been removed. Under pre-specified boundary enclosure conditions and solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions, such as Sieverts' law, TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in molecule formation with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not, themselves, diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy and includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the
Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials
Wang, Qiaoming
Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We
Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.
2016-06-01
We present a freely available MATLAB code for the simulation of electron transport in arbitrary gas mixtures in the presence of uniform electric fields. For steady-state electron transport, the program provides the transport coefficients, reaction rates and the electron energy distribution function. The program uses established Monte Carlo techniques and is compatible with the electron scattering cross section files from the open-access Plasma Data Exchange Project LXCat. The code is written in object-oriented design, allowing the tracing and visualization of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron swarms and the temporal development of the mean energy and the electron number due to attachment and/or ionization processes. We benchmark our code with well-known model gases as well as the real gases argon, N2, O2, CF4, SF6 and mixtures of N2 and O2.
Carrier transport in dichromatic color-coded semipolar (2021) and (2021) III-N LEDs
Kisin, Mikhail V.; Huang, Chih-Li; El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.
2014-03-01
Simulation of III-nitride color-coded multiple quantum well (MQW) LED structures was performed using as an experimental benchmark dichromatic semipolar LEDs grown in Ga-polar and N-polar crystallographic orientations (Y. Kawaguchi et.al, APL 100, 231110, 2012). Different QW depths in the color-coded LEDs and opposite interface polarization charges in Ga-polar and N-polar structures provide different conditions for carrier transport across the LED active regions. Combination of several effects was crucial for adequate reproduction of the emission spectra experimentally observed in color-coded structures with violet-aquamarine and aquamarine-violet active region layouts. A standard drift-diffusion transport model wascompleted with rate equations for nonequilibrium QW populations and several high-energy transport features, including the effects of QW carrier overshoot and Auger-assisted QW depopulation. COMSOL-based Optoelectronic Device Modeling Software (ODMS) developed at Ostendo Technologies Inc. was utilized for device simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordy, J.M.; Kodeli, I.; Menard, St.; Bouchet, J.L.; Renard, F.; Martin, E.; Blazy, L.; Voros, S.; Bochud, F.; Laedermann, J.P.; Beaugelin, K.; Makovicka, L.; Quiot, A.; Vermeersch, F.; Roche, H.; Perrin, M.C.; Laye, F.; Bardies, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Gschwind, R.; Fernandez, F.; Quesne, B.; Fritsch, P.; Lamart, St.; Crovisier, Ph.; Leservot, A.; Antoni, R.; Huet, Ch.; Thiam, Ch.; Donadille, L.; Monfort, M.; Diop, Ch.; Ricard, M
2006-07-01
The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TP Clement
1999-06-24
RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in
ITS Version 6 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William
2008-04-01
ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of lineartime-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 90. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.
Srna - Monte Carlo codes for proton transport simulation in combined and voxelized geometries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilić Radovan D.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes new Monte Carlo codes for proton transport simulations in complex geometrical forms and in materials of different composition. The SRNA codes were developed for three dimensional (3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry. The model of these codes is based on the theory of proton multiple scattering and a simple model of compound nucleus decay. The developed package consists of two codes: SRNA-2KG and SRNA-VOX. The first code simulates proton transport in combined geometry that can be described by planes and second order surfaces. The second one uses the voxelized geometry of material zones and is specifically adopted for the application of patient computer tomography data. Transition probabilities for both codes are given by the SRNADAT program. In this paper, we will present the models and algorithms of our programs, as well as the results of the numerical experiments we have carried out applying them, along with the results of proton transport simulation obtained through the PETRA and GEANT programs. The simulation of the proton beam characterization by means of the Multi-Layer Faraday Cup and spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by our program indicate the imminent application of Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice.
A fast Monte Carlo code for proton transport in radiation therapy based on MCNPX.
Jabbari, Keyvan; Seuntjens, Jan
2014-07-01
An important requirement for proton therapy is a software for dose calculation. Monte Carlo is the most accurate method for dose calculation, but it is very slow. In this work, a method is developed to improve the speed of dose calculation. The method is based on pre-generated tracks for particle transport. The MCNPX code has been used for generation of tracks. A set of data including the track of the particle was produced in each particular material (water, air, lung tissue, bone, and soft tissue). This code can transport protons in wide range of energies (up to 200 MeV for proton). The validity of the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code is evaluated with data MCNPX as a reference code. While analytical pencil beam algorithm transport shows great errors (up to 10%) near small high density heterogeneities, there was less than 2% deviation of MCNPX results in our dose calculation and isodose distribution. In terms of speed, the code runs 200 times faster than MCNPX. In the Fast MC code which is developed in this work, it takes the system less than 2 minutes to calculate dose for 10(6) particles in an Intel Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHZ desktop computer.
A fast Monte Carlo code for proton transport in radiation therapy based on MCNPX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keyvan Jabbari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An important requirement for proton therapy is a software for dose calculation. Monte Carlo is the most accurate method for dose calculation, but it is very slow. In this work, a method is developed to improve the speed of dose calculation. The method is based on pre-generated tracks for particle transport. The MCNPX code has been used for generation of tracks. A set of data including the track of the particle was produced in each particular material (water, air, lung tissue, bone, and soft tissue. This code can transport protons in wide range of energies (up to 200 MeV for proton. The validity of the fast Monte Carlo (MC code is evaluated with data MCNPX as a reference code. While analytical pencil beam algorithm transport shows great errors (up to 10% near small high density heterogeneities, there was less than 2% deviation of MCNPX results in our dose calculation and isodose distribution. In terms of speed, the code runs 200 times faster than MCNPX. In the Fast MC code which is developed in this work, it takes the system less than 2 minutes to calculate dose for 10 6 particles in an Intel Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHZ desktop computer.
Srna-Monte Carlo codes for proton transport simulation in combined and voxelized geometries
Ilic, R D; Stankovic, S J
2002-01-01
This paper describes new Monte Carlo codes for proton transport simulations in complex geometrical forms and in materials of different composition. The SRNA codes were developed for three dimensional (3D) dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry. The model of these codes is based on the theory of proton multiple scattering and a simple model of compound nucleus decay. The developed package consists of two codes: SRNA-2KG and SRNA-VOX. The first code simulates proton transport in combined geometry that can be described by planes and second order surfaces. The second one uses the voxelized geometry of material zones and is specifically adopted for the application of patient computer tomography data. Transition probabilities for both codes are given by the SRNADAT program. In this paper, we will present the models and algorithms of our programs, as well as the results of the numerical experiments we have carried out applying them, along with the results of proton transport simulation obtaine...
The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG CHI
2013-01-01
In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.
Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all detector optimization.
Some Examples of the Application and Validation of the NUFT Subsurface Flow and Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nitao, J J
2001-08-01
This report was written as partial fulfillment of a subcontract from DOD/DOE Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of a project directed by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The report documents examples of field validation of the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) code for environmental remediation, with emphasis on soil vapor extraction, and describes some of the modifications needed to integrate the code into the DOD Groundwater Modeling System (GMS, 2000). Note that this report highlights only a subset of the full capabilities of the NUFT code.
Development of a relativistic Particle In Cell code PARTDYN for linear accelerator beam transport
Phadte, D.; Patidar, C. B.; Pal, M. K.
2017-04-01
A relativistic Particle In Cell (PIC) code PARTDYN is developed for the beam dynamics simulation of z-continuous and bunched beams. The code is implemented in MATLAB using its MEX functionality which allows both ease of development as well higher performance similar to a compiled language like C. The beam dynamics calculations carried out by the code are compared with analytical results and with other well developed codes like PARMELA and BEAMPATH. The effect of finite number of simulation particles on the emittance growth of intense beams has been studied. Corrections to the RF cavity field expressions were incorporated in the code so that the fields could be calculated correctly. The deviations of the beam dynamics results between PARTDYN and BEAMPATH for a cavity driven in zero-mode have been discussed. The beam dynamics studies of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) using PARTDYN have been presented.
Françoise Benz
2006-01-01
2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29 June 11:00-12:00 - TH Conference Room, bldg. 4 The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona, A. FERRARI, CERN-AB, M. SILARI, CERN-SC Lecture 1. Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interaction models and multiple-scattering theories will be analyzed. Benchmark comparisons of simu...
A portable, parallel, object-oriented Monte Carlo neutron transport code in C++
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.R.; Cummings, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nolen, S.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1997-05-01
We have developed a multi-group Monte Carlo neutron transport code using C++ and the Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA) class library. This transport code, called MC++, currently computes k and {alpha}-eigenvalues and is portable to and runs parallel on a wide variety of platforms, including MPPs, clustered SMPs, and individual workstations. It contains appropriate classes and abstractions for particle transport and, through the use of POOMA, for portable parallelism. Current capabilities of MC++ are discussed, along with physics and performance results on a variety of hardware, including all Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) hardware. Current parallel performance indicates the ability to compute {alpha}-eigenvalues in seconds to minutes rather than hours to days. Future plans and the implementation of a general transport physics framework are also discussed.
Curved Two-Dimensional Electron Systems in Semiconductor Nanoscrolls
Peters, Karen; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang
The perfect control of strain and layer thickness in epitaxial semiconductor bilayers is employed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with precisely adjusted scroll diameter ranging between a few nanometers and several tens of microns. Furthermore, semiconductor heteroepitaxy allows us to incorporate quantum objects such as quantum wells, quantum dots, or modulation doped low-dimensional carrier systems into the nanoscrolls. In this review, we summarize techniques that we have developed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with well-defined location, orientation, geometry, and winding number. We focus on magneto-transport studies of curved two-dimensional electron systems in such nanoscrolls. An externally applied magnetic field results in a strongly modulated normal-to-surface component leading to magnetic barriers, reflection of edge channels, and local spin currents. The observations are compared to finite-element calculations and discussed on the basis of simple models taking into account the influence of a locally modulated state density on the conductivity. In particular, it is shown that the observations in high magnetic fields can be well described considering the transport in edge channels according to the Landauer-Büttiker model if additional magnetic field induced channels aligned along magnetic barriers are accounted for.
Fission-gas release at extended burnups: effect of two-dimensional heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tayal, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Yu, S.D. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lau, J.H.K
2000-09-01
To better simulate the performance of high-burnup CANDU fuel, a two-dimensional model for heat transfer between the pellet and the sheath has been added to the computer code ELESTRES. The model covers four relative orientations of the pellet and the sheath and their impacts on heat transfer and fission-gas release. The predictions of the code were compared to a database of 27 experimental irradiations involving extended burnups and normal burnups. The calculated values of fission gas release matched the measurements to an average of 94%. Thus, the two-dimensional heat transfer model increases the versatility of the ELESTRES code to better simulate fuels at normal as well as at extended burnups. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gheisari, R., E-mail: gheisari@pgu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Energy Research Center, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H. [Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-01-15
A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.
Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.
2014-01-01
A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2). The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ - z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume) equal to 6.79 × 106 cm-2s-1 and 2.20 ×105 cm-3s-1, respectively.
Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise
Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.
2015-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The overall objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail variations on boattail drag; (2) develop an experimental data base for 2D nozzles with long divergent flaps and small boattail angles and (3) provide data for correlating computational fluid dynamic predictions of nozzle boattail drag. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 9. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4deg to 8deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags. Summary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Gheisari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2. The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume equal to 6.79 × 106 cm−2s−1 and 2.20 ×105 cm−3s−1, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, F.M.
1998-01-26
The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, and disposal of waste currently being held in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In order to successfully carry out its mission, TWRS must perform environmental analyses describing the consequences of tank contents leaking from tanks and associated facilities during the storage, retrieval, or closure periods and immobilized low-activity tank waste contaminants leaving disposal facilities. Because of the large size of the facilities and the great depth of the dry zone (known as the vadose zone) underneath the facilities, sophisticated computer codes are needed to model the transport of the tank contents or contaminants. This document presents the code selection criteria for those vadose zone analyses (a subset of the above analyses) where the hydraulic properties of the vadose zone are constant in time the geochemical behavior of the contaminant-soil interaction can be described by simple models, and the geologic or engineered structures are complicated enough to require a two-or three dimensional model. Thus, simple analyses would not need to use the fairly sophisticated codes which would meet the selection criteria in this document. Similarly, those analyses which involve complex chemical modeling (such as those analyses involving large tank leaks or those analyses involving the modeling of contaminant release from glass waste forms) are excluded. The analyses covered here are those where the movement of contaminants can be relatively simply calculated from the moisture flow. These code selection criteria are based on the information from the low-level waste programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as well as experience gained in the DOE Complex in applying these criteria. Appendix table A-1 provides a comparison between the criteria in these documents and those used here. This document does not define the models (that
Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, G.E. [KMS Fusion, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
1998-08-01
For laser intensities in the range of 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of order 10 {micro}sec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing.
Development of two-dimensional hot pool model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, H. D
2000-05-01
During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coast-down. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHX{sub s}, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHX{sub s} and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, in this study two-dimensional hot pool model is developed instead of existing one-dimensional model to predict the hot pool coolant temperature and velocity distribution more accurately and is applied to the SSC-K code.
Two-dimensional audio watermark for MPEG AAC audio
Tachibana, Ryuki
2004-06-01
Since digital music is often stored in a compressed file, it is desirable that an audio watermarking method in a content management system handles compressed files. Using an audio watermarking method that directly manipulates compressed files makes it unnecessary to decompress the files before embedding or detection, so more files can be processed per unit time. However, it is difficult to detect a watermark in a compressed file that has been compressed after the file was watermarked. This paper proposes an MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) bitstream watermarking method using a two-dimensional pseudo-random array. Detection is done by correlating the absolute values of the recovered MDCT coefficients and the pseudo-random array. Since the embedding algorithm uses the same pseudo-random values for two adjacent overlapping frames and the detection algorithm selects the better frame in the two by comparing detected watermark strengths, it is possible to detect a watermark from a compressed file that was compressed after the watermark was embedded in the original uncompressed file. Though the watermark is not detected as clearly in this case, the watermark can still be detected even when the watermark was embedded in a compressed file and the file was then decompressed, trimmed, and compressed again.
SQA of finite element method (FEM) codes used for analyses of pit storage/transport packages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russel, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1997-11-01
This report contains viewgraphs on the software quality assurance of finite element method codes used for analyses of pit storage and transport projects. This methodology utilizes the ISO 9000-3: Guideline for application of 9001 to the development, supply, and maintenance of software, for establishing well-defined software engineering processes to consistently maintain high quality management approaches.
The neutron transport code DTF-Traca users manual and input data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahnert, C.
1979-07-01
This is a users manual of the neutron transport code DTF-TRACA, which is a version of the original DTF-IV with some modifications made at JEN. A detailed input data descriptions is given. The new options developed at JEN are included too. (Author) 18 refs.
Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics
Yuan, Shuhao
2016-11-14
Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. Â© 2016 Author(s).
The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs
De, Sanchari
2014-01-01
In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2007-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...
Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity
Cai, Rong-Gen
2016-01-01
In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.
Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong
2009-01-01
By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.
Validation of the 3D finite element transport theory code EVENT for shielding applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warner, Paul [Rolls Royce Power Engineering Plc., Derby (United Kingdom); Oliveira, R.E. de [T. H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)
2000-03-01
This paper is concerned with the validation of the 3D deterministic neutral-particle transport theory code EVENT for shielding applications. The code is based on the finite element-spherical harmonics (FE-P{sub N}) method which has been extensively developed over the last decade. A general multi-group, anisotropic scattering formalism enables the code to address realistic steady state and time dependent, multi-dimensional coupled neutron/gamma radiation transport problems involving high scattering and deep penetration alike. The powerful geometrical flexibility and competitive computational effort makes the code an attractive tool for shielding applications. In recognition of this, EVENT is currently in the process of being adopted by the UK nuclear industry. The theory behind EVENT is described and its numerical implementation is outlined. Numerical results obtained by the code are compared with predictions of the Monte Carlo code MCBEND and also with the results from benchmark shielding experiments. In particular, results are presented for the ASPIS experimental configuration for both neutron and gamma ray calculations using the BUGLE 96 nuclear data library. (author)
Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.
2001-01-01
This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....
Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunrong Zhu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zardini, D.M.
1996-12-31
The feasibility of neutron transport problems parallel resolution by CRONOS code`s SN module is here studied. In this report we give the first data about the parallel resolution by angular variable decomposition of the transport equation. Problems about parallel resolution by spatial variable decomposition and memory stage limits are also explained here. (author). 9 refs.
Open-Source Development of the Petascale Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN
Hammond, G. E.; Andre, B.; Bisht, G.; Johnson, T.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Mills, R. T.
2013-12-01
Open-source software development has become increasingly popular in recent years. Open-source encourages collaborative and transparent software development and promotes unlimited free redistribution of source code to the public. Open-source development is good for science as it reveals implementation details that are critical to scientific reproducibility, but generally excluded from journal publications. In addition, research funds that would have been spent on licensing fees can be redirected to code development that benefits more scientists. In 2006, the developers of PFLOTRAN open-sourced their code under the U.S. Department of Energy SciDAC-II program. Since that time, the code has gained popularity among code developers and users from around the world seeking to employ PFLOTRAN to simulate thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth's surface/subsurface environment. PFLOTRAN is a massively-parallel subsurface reactive multiphase flow and transport simulator designed from the ground up to run efficiently on computing platforms ranging from the laptop to leadership-class supercomputers, all from a single code base. The code employs domain decomposition for parallelism and is founded upon the well-established and open-source parallel PETSc and HDF5 frameworks. PFLOTRAN leverages modern Fortran (i.e. Fortran 2003-2008) in its extensible object-oriented design. The use of this progressive, yet domain-friendly programming language has greatly facilitated collaboration in the code's software development. Over the past year, PFLOTRAN's top-level data structures were refactored as Fortran classes (i.e. extendible derived types) to improve the flexibility of the code, ease the addition of new process models, and enable coupling to external simulators. For instance, PFLOTRAN has been coupled to the parallel electrical resistivity tomography code E4D to enable hydrogeophysical inversion while the same code base can be used as a third
Quantifying leaf venation patterns: two-dimensional maps.
Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Amin, Mira; Pakulska, Malgosia
2009-01-01
The leaf vasculature plays crucial roles in transport and mechanical support. Understanding how vein patterns develop and what underlies pattern variation between species has many implications from both physiological and evolutionary perspectives. We developed a method for extracting spatial vein pattern data from leaf images, such as vein densities and also the sizes and shapes of the vein reticulations. We used this method to quantify leaf venation patterns of the first rosette leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana throughout a series of developmental stages. In particular, we characterized the size and shape of vein network areoles (loops), which enlarge and are split by new veins as a leaf develops. Pattern parameters varied in time and space. In particular, we observed a distal to proximal gradient in loop shape (length/width ratio) which varied over time, and a margin-to-center gradient in loop sizes. Quantitative analyses of vein patterns at the tissue level provide a two-way link between theoretical models of patterning and molecular experimental work to further explore patterning mechanisms during development. Such analyses could also be used to investigate the effect of environmental factors on vein patterns, or to compare venation patterns from different species for evolutionary studies. The method also provides a framework for gathering and overlaying two-dimensional maps of point, line and surface morphological data.
Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer in a Heterogeneous Fracture Network
Gisladottir, V. R.; Roubinet, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.
2015-12-01
Geothermal energy harvesting requires extraction and injection of geothermal fluid. Doing so in an optimal way requires a quantitative understanding of site-specific heat transfer between geothermal fluid and the ambient rock. We develop a heat transfer particle-tracking approach to model that interaction. Fracture-network models of heat transfer in fractured rock explicitly account for the presence of individual fractures, ambient rock matrix, and fracture-matrix interfaces. Computational domains of such models span the meter scale, whereas fracture apertures are on the millimeter scale. The computations needed to model these multi-scale phenomenon can be prohibitively expensive, even for methods using nonuniform meshes. Our approach appreciably decreases the computational costs. Current particle-tracking methods usually assume both infinite matrix and one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer in the matrix blocks. They rely on 1D analytical solutions for heat transfer in a single fracture, which can lead to large predictive errors. Our two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer simulation algorithm is mesh-free and takes into account both longitudinal and transversal heat conduction in the matrix. It uses a probabilistic model to transfer particle to the appropriate neighboring fracture unless it returns to the fracture of origin or remains in the matrix. We use this approach to look at the impact of a fracture-network topology (e.g. the importance of smaller scale fractures), as well as the matrix block distribution on the heat transport in heterogeneous fractured rocks.
Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures
Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhao, Jijun; Zhang, Shengbai
2017-03-01
Recent experimental synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures opens a door to new opportunities in tailoring the electronic properties for novel 2D devices. Here, we show that a wide range of lateral 2D heterostructures could have a prominent advantage over the traditional three-dimensional (3D) heterostructures, because their band alignments are insensitive to the interfacial conditions. They should be at the Schottky-Mott limits for semiconductor-metal junctions and at the Anderson limits for semiconductor junctions, respectively. This fundamental difference from the 3D heterostructures is rooted in the fact that, in the asymptotic limit of large distance, the effect of the interfacial dipole vanishes for 2D systems. Due to the slow decay of the dipole field and the dependence on the vacuum thickness, however, studies based on first-principles calculations often failed to reach such a conclusion. Taking graphene/hexagonal-BN and MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures as the respective prototypes, we show that the converged junction width can be order of magnitude longer than that for 3D junctions. The present results provide vital guidance to high-quality transport devices wherever a lateral 2D heterostructure is involved.
Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; QIANG Tian
2009-01-01
We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).
Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes
Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng
2016-08-01
Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as
Update on the Development and Validation of MERCURY: A Modern, Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Procassini, R J; Taylor, J M; McKinley, M S; Greenman, G M; Cullen, D E; O' Brien, M J; Beck, B R; Hagmann, C A
2005-06-06
An update on the development and validation of the MERCURY Monte Carlo particle transport code is presented. MERCURY is a modern, parallel, general-purpose Monte Carlo code being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During the past year, several major algorithm enhancements have been completed. These include the addition of particle trackers for 3-D combinatorial geometry (CG), 1-D radial meshes, 2-D quadrilateral unstructured meshes, as well as a feature known as templates for defining recursive, repeated structures in CG. New physics capabilities include an elastic-scattering neutron thermalization model, support for continuous energy cross sections and S ({alpha}, {beta}) molecular bound scattering. Each of these new physics features has been validated through code-to-code comparisons with another Monte Carlo transport code. Several important computer science features have been developed, including an extensible input-parameter parser based upon the XML data description language, and a dynamic load-balance methodology for efficient parallel calculations. This paper discusses the recent work in each of these areas, and describes a plan for future extensions that are required to meet the needs of our ever expanding user base.
PFLOTRAN: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan; Mills, Richard T.
2012-04-18
PFLOTRAN, a next-generation reactive flow and transport code for modeling subsurface processes, has been designed from the ground up to run efficiently on machines ranging from leadership-class supercomputers to laptops. Based on an object-oriented design, the code is easily extensible to incorporate additional processes. It can interface seamlessly with Fortran 9X, C and C++ codes. Domain decomposition parallelism is employed, with the PETSc parallel framework used to manage parallel solvers, data structures and communication. Features of the code include a modular input file, implementation of high-performance I/O using parallel HDF5, ability to perform multiple realization simulations with multiple processors per realization in a seamless manner, and multiple modes for multiphase flow and multicomponent geochemical transport. Chemical reactions currently implemented in the code include homogeneous aqueous complexing reactions and heterogeneous mineral precipitation/dissolution, ion exchange, surface complexation and a multirate kinetic sorption model. PFLOTRAN has demonstrated petascale performance using 2{sup 17} processor cores with over 2 billion degrees of freedom. Accomplishments achieved to date include applications to the Hanford 300 Area and modeling CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep geologic formations.
MCNP: a general Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forster, R.A.; Godfrey, T.N.K.
1985-01-01
MCNP is a very general Monte Carlo neutron photon transport code system with approximately 250 person years of Group X-6 code development invested. It is extremely portable, user-oriented, and a true production code as it is used about 60 Cray hours per month by about 150 Los Alamos users. It has as its data base the best cross-section evaluations available. MCNP contains state-of-the-art traditional and adaptive Monte Carlo techniques to be applied to the solution of an ever-increasing number of problems. Excellent user-oriented documentation is available for all facets of the MCNP code system. Many useful and important variants of MCNP exist for special applications. The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is the contact point for worldwide MCNP code and documentation distribution. A much improved MCNP Version 3A will be available in the fall of 1985, along with new and improved documentation. Future directions in MCNP development will change the meaning of MCNP to Monte Carlo N Particle where N particle varieties will be transported.
Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star
Pratt, J; Goffrey, T; Geroux, C; Viallet, M; Folini, D; Constantino, T; Popov, M; Walder, R
2016-01-01
Context: We study the impact of two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from a one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star. Methods: We perform hydrodynamic implicit large-eddy simulations of compressible convection using the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC). Because MUSIC has been designed to use realistic stellar models produced from one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, MUSIC simulations are capable of seamlessly modeling a whole star. Simulations in two-dimensional spherical shells that have different radial extents are performed over hundreds of convective turnover times, permitting the collection of well-converged statistics. Results: We evaluate basic statistics of the convective turnover time, the convective velocity, and the overshooting layer. These quantities are selected for their relevance to one-dimensional s...
The Dynamics of Water in Porous Two-Dimensional Crystals.
Strong, Steven E; Eaves, Joel D
2017-01-12
Porous two-dimensional crystals offer many promises for water desalination applications. For computer simulation to play a predictive role in this area, however, one needs to have reliable methods for simulating an atomistic system with hydrodynamic currents and interpretative tools to relate microscopic interactions to emergent macroscopic dynamical quantities, such as friction, slip length, and permeability. In this article, we use Gaussian dynamics, a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method that provides microscopic insights into the interactions that control the flows of both simple liquids and liquid water through atomically small channels. In simulations of aqueous transport, we mimic the effect of changing the membrane chemical composition by adjusting the attractive strength of the van der Waals interactions between the membrane atoms and water. We find that the wetting contact angle, a common measure of a membrane's hydrophobicity, does not predict the permeability of a membrane. Instead, the hydrophobic effect is subtle, with both static and dynamic effects that can both help and hinder water transport through these materials. The competition between the static and dynamical hydrophobicity balances an atomic membrane's tendency to wet against hydrodynamic friction, and determines an optimal contact angle for water passage through nonpolar membranes. To a reasonable approximation, the optimal contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the pore. We also find that water molecules pass through the most hydrophobic membranes in a punctuated series of bursts that are separated by long pauses. A continuous-time Markov model of these data provides evidence of a molecular analogue to the clogging transition, a phenomenon observed in driven granular flows.
Two-dimensional simulation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hum, B.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2002-07-01
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have fast startup, are highly energy efficient and have high power density, rendering them very suitable for use in zero-emission vehicles and on-site power cogeneration. Before the PEM fuel cell can reach widespread commercial use, the performance has to be improved regarding the minimization of all transport resistances. This can be done by considering the electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layers along with the physical transport of reactant gas flows, product and process water, heat and the charged particles in the individual cells and stacks. This paper presents the results of a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a steady, isothermal, fully humidified PEM fuel cell which was conducted to examine what happens in the catalyst layers. The finite volume method was used together with the alternating direction implicit algorithm. It was determined that the cathode catalyst layer has more pronounced changes in potential, reaction rate and current density generation compared to the anode catalyst layer. This is because of the large cathode activation overpotential and the low diffusion coefficient of oxygen. It was demonstrated that catalyst layers, by nature, are 2 dimensional, particularly in areas of low reactant concentrations. Maximum power density is limited by the depletion of one of the reactants in the catalyst layer. Both the fuel and oxidant supply must be managed simultaneously for optimal cell performance. It was concluded that cell performance is not greatly affected by flow direction. It was noted that this analysis can also be used for more complex cell design, such as cross flow between reactant streams and practical serpentine flow channel design. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.
Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway
2012-09-01
ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located
RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang
2006-01-01
The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Radial transport dynamics studies of SMBI with a newly developed TPSMBI code
Wang, Ya-Hui; Guo, Wen-Feng; Wang, Zhan-Hui; Ren, Qi-Long; Sun, Ai-Ping; Xu, Min; Wang, Ai-Ke; Xiang, Nong
2016-10-01
In tokamak plasma fueling, supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI) with a higher fueling efficiency and a deeper penetration depth than the traditional gas puffing method has been developed and widely applied to many tokamak devices. It is crucial to study the transport dynamics of SMBI to improve its fueling efficiency, especially in the high confinement regime. A new one-dimensional (1D) code of TPSMBI has also been developed recently based on a six-field SMBI model in cylindrical coordinate. It couples plasma density and heat radial transport equations together with neutral density transport equations for both molecules and atoms and momentum radial transport equations for molecules. The dominant particle collisional interactions between plasmas and neutrals, such as molecule dissociation, atom ionization and charge-exchange effects, are included in the model. The code is verified to be correct with analytical solutions and also benchmarked well with the trans-neut module of BOUT++ code. Time-dependent radial transport dynamics and mean profile evolution are studied during SMBI with the TPSMBI code in both slab and cylindrical coordinates. Along the SMBI path, plasma density increases due to particle fuelling, while plasma temperature decreases due to heat cooling. Being different from slab coordinate, the curvature effect leads to larger front densities of molecule and atom during SMBI in cylindrical coordinate simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575055, 11375053, and 11475219) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013GB111005, 2014GB108004, and 2015GB110001).
Development of Particle-in-Cell Simulation in a Two Dimensional Trench Geometry
Lin, Tai-Lu
2016-01-01
A two dimensional electrostatic Particle-in-Cell simulation code is developed to investigate anisotropy of ions in a trench geometry for plasma etching. The numerical simulation results suggest that if the trench width is larger than Debye length scale, anisotropy can be lost due to potential development across the trench. Furthermore, the effects of ion charge build up on the trench bottom is investigated, which can degrade the anisotropy.
Two-Dimensional Simulation of Left-Handed Metamaterial Flat Lens Using Remcon XFDTD
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Reinert, Jason M.
2006-01-01
Remcom's XFDTD software was used to model the properties of a two-dimensional left-handed metamaterial (LHM) flat lens. The focusing capability and attenuation of the material were examined. The results showed strong agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions of focusing effects and focal length. The inherent attenuation in the model corresponds well with the experimental results and implies that the code does a reasonably accurate job of modeling the actual metamaterial.
A Two-Dimensional MagnetoHydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids
Livne, E; Burrows, A; Meakin, C A; Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.
2007-01-01
We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation-hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALE). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of $div(\\bB)$ by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for...
A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin
2006-01-01
By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.
Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.
1979-01-01
The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....
Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor
Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R
2016-01-01
We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.
Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McGill Stephen A.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.
Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion
Lavrov, P M
1999-01-01
We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.
Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-11-01
We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.
Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang Wen-Chao
2004-01-01
We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.
A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.
Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji
2012-02-05
Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.
Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra
2003-10-01
Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.
Draft ASME code case on ductile cast iron for transport packaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saegusa, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan); Arai, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka (Japan); Hirose, M. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Nippon Chuzo, Kawasaki (Japan); Tezuka, Y. [Mitsubishi Materials Co., Tokyo (Japan); Urabe, N. [Kokan Keisoku K. K., Kawasaki (Japan); Hueggenberg, R. [GNB, Essen (Germany)
2004-07-01
The current Rules for Construction of ''Containment Systems for Storage and Transport Packagings of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste'' of Division 3 in Section III of ASME Code (2001 Edition) does not include ductile cast iron in its list of materials permitted for use. The Rules specify required fracture toughness values of ferritic steel material for nominal wall thickness 5/8 to 12 inches (16 to 305 mm). New rule for ductile cast iron for transport packaging of which wall thickness is greater than 12 inches (305mm) is required.
Coarse mesh methods for the transport calculation in the CRONOS reactor code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedon-Magnaud, C.; Lautard, J.J.; Akherraz, B.; Wu, G.J. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)
1995-12-31
Homogeneous transport methods have been recently implemented in the kinetic code CRONOS dedicated mainly to PWR calculations. Two different methods are presented. The first one is based on the even parity flux formalism and uses finite element spatial discretization and a discrete ordinates angular approximation; the treatment of the anisotropic scattering is described in detail. The second method uses the odd flux as the main unknown, it is closely connected to nodal methods. This method is used to solve two different problems, the simplified PN equations and the exact transport equation using an angular PN expansion. Numerical results are presented for some standard benchmarks and the methods are compared.
Coarse mesh methods for the transport calculation in the Cronos reactor code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedon-Magnaud, C.; Lautard, J.J.; Akherraz, B.; Wu, G.J.
1995-12-31
Homogeneous transports methods have been recently implemented in the kinetic code CRONOS dedicated mainly to PWR calculations. Two different methods are presented. The first one is based on the even parity flux formalism and uses finite element spatial discretization and a discrete ordinates angular approximation; the treatment of the anisotropic scattering is described in detail. The second method uses the odd flux as the main unknown, it is closely to nodal methods. This method is used to solve different problems, the simplified PN equations and the exact transport equation using an angular PN expansion. Numerical results are presented for some standard benchmarks and the method are compared. (authors). 18 refs., 3 tabs.
Energy Conservation Tests of a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stotler, D. P.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. H.; Lang, J.; Park, G.
2012-08-29
A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.
Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation
Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.
2016-01-01
International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...
Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation
T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University
1997-01-01
Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...
Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers
2016-06-15
polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan
2002-05-01
We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.
Application of the new MultiTrans SP3 radiation transport code in BNCT dose planning.
Kotiluoto, P; Hiisamäki, P; Savolainen, S
2001-09-01
Dose planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a complex problem and requires sophisticated numerical methods. In the framework of the Finnish BNCT project, new deterministic three-dimensional radiation transport code MultiTrans SP3 has been developed at VTT Chemical Technology, based on a novel application of the tree multigrid technique. To test the applicability of this new code in a realistic BNCT dose planning problem, cylindrical PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) phantom was chosen as a benchmark case. It is a convenient benchmark, as it has been modeled by several different codes, including well-known DORT and MCNP. Extensive measured data also exist. In this paper, a comparison of the new MultiTrans SP3 code with other methods is presented for the PMMA phantom case. Results show that the total neutron dose rate to ICRU adult brain calculated by the MultiTrans SP3 code differs less than 4% in 2 cm depth in phantom (in thermal maximum) from the DORT calculation. Results also show that the calculated 197Au(n,gamma) and 55Mn(n,gamma) reaction rates in 2 cm depth in phantom differ less than 4% and 1% from the measured values, respectively. However, the photon dose calculated by the MultiTrans SP3 code seems to be incorrect in this PMMA phantom case, which requires further studying. As expected, the deterministic MultiTrans SP3 code is over an order of magnitude faster than stochastic Monte Carlo codes (with similar resolution), thus providing a very efficient tool for BNCT dose planning.
Heavy-ion transport codes for radiotherapy and radioprotection in space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mancusi, Davide
2006-06-15
Simulation of the transport of heavy ions in matter is a field of nuclear science that has recently received attention in view of its importance for some relevant applications. Accelerated heavy ions can, for example, be used to treat cancers (heavy-ion radiotherapy) and show some superior qualities with respect to more conventional treatment systems, like photons (x-rays) or protons. Furthermore, long-term manned space missions (like a possible future mission to Mars) pose the challenge to protect astronauts and equipment on board against the harmful space radiation environment, where heavy ions can be responsible for a significant share of the exposure risk. The high accuracy expected from a transport algorithm (especially in the case of radiotherapy) and the large amount of semi-empirical knowledge necessary to even state the transport problem properly rule out any analytical approach; the alternative is to resort to numerical simulations in order to build treatment-planning systems for cancer or to aid space engineers in shielding design. This thesis is focused on the description of HIBRAC, a one-dimensional deterministic code optimised for radiotherapy, and PHITS (Particle and Heavy- Ion Transport System), a general-purpose three-dimensional Monte-Carlo code. The structure of both codes is outlined and some relevant results are presented. In the case of PHITS, we also report the first results of an ongoing comprehensive benchmarking program for the main components of the code; we present the comparison of partial charge-changing cross sections for a 400 MeV/n {sup 40}Ar beam impinging on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium, copper, tin and lead targets.
Development of a tritium transport analysis code for the LMFBR system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Torii, Tatsuo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga Head Office, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)
2001-03-01
A tritium transport analysis code for the LMFBR system, TTT code, has been developed and validated using data from a power rising test conducted at Monju in 1995. The behavior of tritium during future long-term full power operation of Monju has been estimated. The TTT code was created from the tritium and hydrogen transport model devised by R. Kumar and ANL. Actual data from some plants has been used to improve the code. In this study, we used data from Monju to increase the accuracy of the calculated to measured ratio, the C/E ratio. As a result of the study, we were able to: 1. show that the calculated tritium concentration distribution and the change in the primary and secondary sodium, steam and water correlated sufficiently closely with the measured, C/E ratio of 1.1; 2. propose a transport model between sodium and the cover gas system taking into account the mechanisms affecting the partial pressure difference and the isotopic exchange of H and H3; 3. examine the considerable effect of the hydrogen source within the sodium cooling system of Monju on tritium behavior and clarify the characteristics at the initial stage of plant; 4. estimate the tritium transport and distribution for the long-term full power operation of Monju. The tritium release from the core will be 7,400 TBq during 30 years of operation. The primary and secondary cold trap will capture 99% of this and 1% or less will be released to the environment as gaseous radioactive waste from stack and its drainage water from SG; and 5. compare the best fitted tritium source rates from cores in Phenix and Monju and estimate the major release from Monju's helium bond closed type control rods. (author)
VVER-440 Ex-Core Neutron Transport Calculations by MCNP-5 Code and Comparison with Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borodkin, Pavel; Khrennikov, Nikolay [Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS) Malaya Krasnoselskaya ul., 2/8, bld. 5, 107140 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2008-07-01
Ex-core neutron transport calculations are needed to evaluate radiation loading parameters (neutron fluence, fluence rate and spectra) on the in-vessel equipment, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and support constructions of VVER type reactors. Due to these parameters are used for reactor equipment life-time assessment, neutron transport calculations should be carried out by precise and reliable calculation methods. In case of RPVs, especially, of first generation VVER-440s, the neutron fluence plays a key role in the prediction of RPV lifetime. Main part of VVER ex-core neutron transport calculations are performed by deterministic and Monte-Carlo methods. This paper deals with precise calculations of the Russian first generation VVER-440 by MCNP-5 code. The purpose of this work was an application of this code for expert calculations, verification of results by comparison with deterministic calculations and validation by neutron activation measured data. Deterministic discrete ordinates DORT code, widely used for RPV neutron dosimetry and many times tested by experiments, was used for comparison analyses. Ex-vessel neutron activation measurements at the VVER-440 NPP have provided space (in azimuth and height directions) and neutron energy (different activation reactions) distributions data for experimental (E) validation of calculated results. Calculational intercomparison (DORT vs. MCNP-5) and comparison with measured values (MCNP-5 and DORT vs. E) have shown agreement within 10-15% for different space points and reaction rates. The paper submits a discussion of results and makes conclusions about practice use of MCNP-5 code for ex-core neutron transport calculations in expert analysis. (authors)
Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seba Sara Varghese
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.
Load balancing in highly parallel processing of Monte Carlo code for particle transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higuchi, Kenji; Takemiya, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kawasaki, Takuji [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)
2001-01-01
In parallel processing of Monte Carlo(MC) codes for neutron, photon and electron transport problems, particle histories are assigned to processors making use of independency of the calculation for each particle. Although we can easily parallelize main part of a MC code by this method, it is necessary and practically difficult to optimize the code concerning load balancing in order to attain high speedup ratio in highly parallel processing. In fact, the speedup ratio in the case of 128 processors remains in nearly one hundred times when using the test bed for the performance evaluation. Through the parallel processing of the MCNP code, which is widely used in the nuclear field, it is shown that it is difficult to attain high performance by static load balancing in especially neutron transport problems, and a load balancing method, which dynamically changes the number of assigned particles minimizing the sum of the computational and communication costs, overcomes the difficulty, resulting in nearly fifteen percentage of reduction for execution time. (author)
Efficient processing of two-dimensional arrays with C or C++
Donato, David I.
2017-07-20
Because fast and efficient serial processing of raster-graphic images and other two-dimensional arrays is a requirement in land-change modeling and other applications, the effects of 10 factors on the runtimes for processing two-dimensional arrays with C and C++ are evaluated in a comparative factorial study. This study’s factors include the choice among three C or C++ source-code techniques for array processing; the choice of Microsoft Windows 7 or a Linux operating system; the choice of 4-byte or 8-byte array elements and indexes; and the choice of 32-bit or 64-bit memory addressing. This study demonstrates how programmer choices can reduce runtimes by 75 percent or more, even after compiler optimizations. Ten points of practical advice for faster processing of two-dimensional arrays are offered to C and C++ programmers. Further study and the development of a C and C++ software test suite are recommended.Key words: array processing, C, C++, compiler, computational speed, land-change modeling, raster-graphic image, two-dimensional array, software efficiency
Dose estimation in space using the Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustafsson, Katarina
2009-06-15
The radiation risks in space are well known, but work still needs to be done in order to fully understand the radiation effects on humans and how to minimize the risks especially now when the activity in space is increasing with plans for missions to the Moon and Mars. One goal is to develop transport codes that can estimate the radiation environment and its effects. These would be useful tools for reducing the radiation effects when designing and planning space missions. The Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is a three dimensional Monte Carlo code with great possibilities to perform radiation transport calculations and estimating radiation exposure such as absorbed dose, equivalent dose and dose equivalent. Therefore a benchmarking with experiments performed at the ISS was done and also an estimation of different material's influences on the shielding was made. The simulated results already agree reasonable with the measurements, but can most likely be significantly improved when more realistic shielding geometries will be used. This indicates that PHITS is a useful tool for estimating radiation risks for humans in space and when designing shielding of space crafts
Nonlinear kinetic modeling and simulations of Raman scattering in a two-dimensional geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bénisti Didier
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present our nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS by the means of envelope equations, whose coefficients have been derived using a mixture of perturbative and adiabatic calculations. First examples of the numerical resolution of these envelope equations in a two-dimensional homogeneous plasma are given, and the results are compared against those of particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. These preliminary comparisons are encouraging since our envelope code provides threshold intensities consistent with those of PIC simulations while requiring computational resources reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to full-kinetic codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coste-Delclaux, M
2006-03-15
This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)
Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics
Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.
Two-dimensional protonic percolation on lightly hydrated purple membrane.
Rupley, J A; Siemankowski, L; Careri, G; Bruni, F
1988-12-01
The capacitance and dielectric loss factor were measured for a sample of purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium as a function of hydration level (0.017 to >0.2 g of water/g of membrane) and frequency (10 kHz to 10 MHz). The capacitance and the derived conductivity show explosive growth above a threshold hydration level, h(c) approximately 0.0456. The conductivity shows a deuterium isotope effect, H/(2)H = 1.38, in close agreement with expectation for a protonic process. The level h(c) is frequency independent and shows no deuterium isotope effect. These properties are analogous to those found for lysozyme in a related study. Protonic conduction for the purple membrane can be considered, as for lysozyme, within the framework of a percolation model. The critical exponent, t, which describes the conductivity of a percolative system near the threshold, has the value 1.23. This number is in close agreement with expectation from theory for a two-dimensional percolative process. The dielectric properties of the purple membrane are more complex than those of lysozyme, seen in the value of h(c) and in the frequency and hydration dependence of the loss factor. There appear to be preferred regions of proton conduction. The percolation model is based upon stochastic behavior of a system partially populated with conducting elements. This model suggests that ion transport in membranes and its control can be based on pathways formed of randomly connected conducting elements and that a fixed geometry (a proton wire) is not the only possible basis for a mechanism of conduction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.
1984-11-01
TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, Oral
2002-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis system for flutter and forced response analysis of turbomachines based on a two-dimensional linearized unsteady Euler solver has been developed. The ASTROP2 code, an aeroelastic stability analysis program for turbomachinery, was used as a basis for this development. The ASTROP2 code uses strip theory to couple a two dimensional aerodynamic model with a three dimensional structural model. The code was modified to include forced response capability. The formulation was also modified to include aeroelastic analysis with mistuning. A linearized unsteady Euler solver, LINFLX2D is added to model the unsteady aerodynamics in ASTROP2. By calculating the unsteady aerodynamic loads using LINFLX2D, it is possible to include the effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response in the analysis. The stability is inferred from an eigenvalue analysis. The revised code, ASTROP2-LE for ASTROP2 code using Linearized Euler aerodynamics, is validated by comparing the predictions with those obtained using linear unsteady aerodynamic solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Cai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Chemical fingerprinting is currently a widely used tool that enables rapid and accurate quality evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, chemical fingerprints are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval, which limit their use in Chinese medicine traceability. In this study, samples of three kinds of Chinese medicines were randomly selected and chemical fingerprints were then constructed by using high performance liquid chromatography. Based on chemical data, the process of converting the TCM chemical fingerprint into two-dimensional code is presented; preprocess and filtering algorithm are also proposed aiming at standardizing the large amount of original raw data. In order to know which type of two-dimensional code (2D is suitable for storing data of chemical fingerprints, current popular types of 2D codes are analyzed and compared. Results show that QR Code is suitable for recording the TCM chemical fingerprint. The fingerprint information of TCM can be converted into data format that can be stored as 2D code for traceability and quality control.
Growth and electronic properties of two-dimensional systems on (110) oriented GaAs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, F.
2005-07-01
As the only non-polar plane the (110) surface has a unique role in GaAs. Together with Silicon as a dopant it is an important substrate orientation for the growth of n-type or p-type heterostructures. As a consequence, this thesis will concentrate on growth and research on that surface. In the course of this work we were able to realize two-dimensional electron systems with the highest mobilities reported so far on this orientation. Therefore, we review the necessary growth conditions and the accompanying molecular process. The two-dimensional electron systems allowed the study of a new, intriguing transport anisotropy not explained by current theory. Moreover, we were the first growing a two-dimensional hole gas on (110) GaAs with Si as dopant. For this purpose we invented a new growth modulation technique necessary to retrieve high mobility systems. In addition, we discovered and studied the metal-insulator transition in thin bulk p-type layers on (110) GaAs. Besides we investigated the activation process related to the conduction in the valence band and a parallelly conducting hopping band. The new two-dimensional hole gases revealed interesting physics. We studied the zero B-field spin splitting in these systems and compared it with the known theory. Furthermore, we investigated the anisotropy of the mobility. As opposed to the expectations we observed a strong persistent photoconductivity in our samples. Landau levels for two dimensional hole systems are non-linear and can show anticrossings. For the first time we were able to resolve anticrossings in a transport experiment and study the corresponding activation process. Finally, we compared these striking results with theoretical calculations. (orig.)
Interaction of two-dimensional turbulence with a sheared channel flow: a numerical study
Kamp, Leon; Marques Rosas Fernandes, Vitor; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman
2015-11-01
Interaction of large-scale flows with turbulence is of fundamental and widespread importance in geophysical fluid dynamics and also, more recently for the dynamics of fusion plasma. More specifically the interplay between two-dimensional turbulence and so-called zonal flows has gained considerable interest because of its relevance for transport and associated barriers. We present numerical results on the interaction of driven two-dimensional turbulence with typical sheared channel flows (Couette and Poiseuille). It turns out that a linear shear rate that is being sustained by moving channel walls (Couette flow) is far more effective in suppressing turbulence and associated transport than a Poiseuille flow. We explore the mechanisms behind this in relation to the width of the channel and the strength of the shear of the background flow. Also the prominent role played by the no-slip boundaries and the Reynolds stress is discussed.
Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio
2015-07-01
The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.
An upgraded version of the nucleon meson transport code: NMTC/JAERI97
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Kosako, Kazuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji
1998-02-01
The nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI is upgraded to NMTC/JAERI97 which has new features not only in physics model and nuclear data but also in computational procedure. NMTC/JAERI97 implements the following two new physics models: an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process more accurately, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. Other than those physical aspects, a new geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique are implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The resultant NMTC/JAERI97 is tuned to be executed on the UNIX system. This paper explains about the function, physics models and geometry model adopted in NMTC/JAERI97 and guides how to use the code. (author)
Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University; Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Heilbronn, Lawrence H. [University of Tennessee-Knoxville
2013-06-07
Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".
Numerically exact correlations and sampling in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.
Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan
2013-04-01
A powerful existing technique for evaluating statistical mechanical quantities in two-dimensional Ising models is based on constructing a matrix representing the nearest-neighbor spin couplings and then evaluating the Pfaffian of the matrix. Utilizing this technique and other more recent developments in evaluating elements of inverse matrices and exact sampling, a method and computer code for studying two-dimensional Ising models is developed. The formulation of this method is convenient and fast for computing the partition function and spin correlations. It is also useful for exact sampling, where configurations are directly generated with probability given by the Boltzmann distribution. These methods apply to Ising model samples with arbitrary nearest-neighbor couplings and can also be applied to general dimer models. Example results of computations are described, including comparisons with analytic results for the ferromagnetic Ising model, and timing information is provided.
Two-Dimensional Rotating Stall Analysis in a Wide Vaneless Diffuser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We report a numerical study on the vaneless diffuser core flow instability in centrifugal compressors. The analysis is performed for the purpose of better understanding of the rotating stall flow mechanism in radial vaneless diffusers. Since the analysis is restricted to the two-dimensional core flow, the effect of the wall boundary layers is neglected. A commercial code with the standard incompressible viscous flow solver is applied to model the vaneless diffuser core flow in the plane parallel to the diffuser walls. At the diffuser inlet, rotating jet-wake velocity pattern is prescribed and at the diffuser outlet constant static pressure is assumed. Under these circumstances, two-dimensional rotating flow instability similar to rotating stall is found to exist. Performed parameter analysis reveals that this instability is strongly influenced by the diffuser geometry and the inlet and outlet flow conditions.
Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks
Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si
2009-12-01
We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.
Pavlov, Maxim V
2014-12-08
In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.
Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday Augustus REJU
2006-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis
Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2012-01-01
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...
A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.
Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G
2015-06-22
Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng
2016-01-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.