WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional topology structure

  1. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  2. The topology of large-scale structure. V - Two-dimensional topology of sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. R., III; Mao, Shude; Park, Changbom; Lahav, Ofer

    1992-01-01

    A 2D algorithm is applied to observed sky maps and numerical simulations. It is found that when topology is studied on smoothing scales larger than the correlation length, the topology is approximately in agreement with the random phase formula for the 2D genus-threshold density relation, G2(nu) varies as nu(e) exp-nu-squared/2. Some samples show small 'meatball shifts' similar to those seen in corresponding 3D observational samples and similar to those produced by biasing in cold dark matter simulations. The observational results are thus consistent with the standard model in which the structure in the universe today has grown from small fluctuations caused by random quantum noise in the early universe.

  3. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.

  4. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  5. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  6. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  7. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  8. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  9. Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, Sabyasachi; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  10. Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301

    2012-01-01

    The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...

  11. Topology in two-dimensional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukman, A.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis includes two research directions both aim to discover a building block for topological quantum computing. First, in Chapter 3, a novel setup is designed, built, and tested, that can electrostatically gate a material without endangering the materials pristine quality. The setup was design

  12. Topology in two-dimensional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukman, A.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis includes two research directions both aim to discover a building block for topological quantum computing. First, in Chapter 3, a novel setup is designed, built, and tested, that can electrostatically gate a material without endangering the materials pristine quality. The setup was design

  13. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...

  14. Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059

  15. Topological Quantum Optics in Two-Dimensional Atomic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, J.; Borregaard, J.; Chang, D. E.; Pichler, H.; Yelin, S. F.; Zoller, P.; Lukin, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional atomic emitter arrays with subwavelength spacing constitute topologically protected quantum optical systems where the photon propagation is robust against large imperfections while losses associated with free space emission are strongly suppressed. Breaking time-reversal symmetry with a magnetic field results in gapped photonic bands with nontrivial Chern numbers and topologically protected, long-lived edge states. Due to the inherent nonlinearity of constituent emitters, such systems provide a platform for exploring quantum optical analogs of interacting topological systems.

  16. Spatial structure of correlations around a quantum impurity at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerdt, Andrew; Feiguin, A. E.; Martins, G. B.

    2017-07-01

    We calculate exact zero-temperature real-space properties of a substitutional magnetic impurity coupled to the edge of a zigzag silicenelike nanoribbon. Using a Lanczos transformation [A. Allerdt et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 085101 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.085101] and the density-matrix renormalization-group method, we obtain a realistic description of stanene and germanene that includes the bulk and the edges as boundary one-dimensional helical metallic states. Our results for substitutional impurities indicate that the development of a Kondo state and the structure of the spin correlations between the impurity and the electron spins in the metallic edge state depend considerably on the location of the impurity. More specifically, our real-space resolution allows us to conclude that there is a sharp distinction between the impurity being located at a crest or a trough site at the zigzag edge. We also observe, as expected, that the spin correlations are anisotropic due to an emerging Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with the conduction electrons and that the edges scatter from the impurity and "snake" or circle around it. Our estimates for the Kondo temperature indicate that there is a very weak enhancement due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling.

  17. Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.

  18. Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.

  19. Two-dimensional chiral topological superconductivity in Shiba lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Wang, Zhijun; MacDonald, A. H.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The chiral p-wave superconductor is the archetypal example of a state of matter that supports non-Abelian anyons, a highly desired type of exotic quasiparticle. With this, it is foundational for the distant goal of building a topological quantum computer. While some candidate materials for bulk chiral superconductors exist, they are subject of an ongoing debate about their actual paring state. Here we propose an alternative route to chiral superconductivity, consisting of the surface of an ordinary superconductor decorated with a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic impurities. We furthermore identify a promising experimental platform to realize this proposal.

  20. Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras and two-dimensional topological field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Getzler, E

    1994-01-01

    Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras are a new type of algebraic structure on graded vector spaces, which first arose in the work of Batalin and Vilkovisky on gauge fixing in quantum field theory. In this article, we show that there is a natural structure of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on the cohomology of a topological field theory in two dimensions. Lian and Zuckerman have constructed this Batalin-Vilkovisky structure, in the setting of topological chiral field theories, and shown that the structure is non-trivial in two-dimensional string theory. Our approach is to use algebraic topology, whereas their proofs have a more algebraic character.

  1. Fault-tolerance in Two-dimensional Topological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    This thesis is a collection of ideas with the general goal of building, at least in the abstract, a local fault-tolerant quantum computer. The connection between quantum information and topology has proven to be an active area of research in several fields. The introduction of the toric code by Alexei Kitaev demonstrated the usefulness of topology for quantum memory and quantum computation. Many quantum codes used for quantum memory are modeled by spin systems on a lattice, with operators that extract syndrome information placed on vertices or faces of the lattice. It is natural to wonder whether the useful codes in such systems can be classified. This thesis presents work that leverages ideas from topology and graph theory to explore the space of such codes. Homological stabilizer codes are introduced and it is shown that, under a set of reasonable assumptions, any qubit homological stabilizer code is equivalent to either a toric code or a color code. Additionally, the toric code and the color code correspond to distinct classes of graphs. Many systems have been proposed as candidate quantum computers. It is very desirable to design quantum computing architectures with two-dimensional layouts and low complexity in parity-checking circuitry. Kitaev's surface codes provided the first example of codes satisfying this property. They provided a new route to fault tolerance with more modest overheads and thresholds approaching 1%. The recently discovered color codes share many properties with the surface codes, such as the ability to perform syndrome extraction locally in two dimensions. Some families of color codes admit a transversal implementation of the entire Clifford group. This work investigates color codes on the 4.8.8 lattice known as triangular codes. I develop a fault-tolerant error-correction strategy for these codes in which repeated syndrome measurements on this lattice generate a three-dimensional space-time combinatorial structure. I then develop an

  2. Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, N; Smith, C Morais

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this non-Fermi-liquid phase based on the gauge-theory approach. Firstly, we derive a gauge theory for the edge states by simply assuming that the interactions between the Dirac fermions at the edge are mediated by a quantum dynamical electromagnetic field. Here, the massless Dirac fermions are confined to live on the one-dimensional boundary, while the (virtual) photons of the U(1) gauge field are free to propagate in all the three spatial dimensions that represent the physical space where the topological insulator is embedded. We then determine the effective 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) given by the conformal quantum electrodynamics (CQED). By integrating out the gauge field in the corresponding partition function, ...

  3. The Classification of Two-Dimensional Extended Topological Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schommer-Pries, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    We provide a complete generators and relations presentation of the 2-dimensional extended unoriented and oriented bordism bicategories as symmetric monoidal bicategories. Thereby we classify these types of 2-dimensional extended topological field theories with arbitrary target bicategory. As an immediate corollary we obtain a concrete classification when the target is the symmetric monoidal bicategory of algebras, bimodules, and intertwiners over a fixed commutative ground ring. In the oriented case, such an extended topological field theory is equivalent to specifying a (non-commutative) separable symmetric Frobenius algebra. We review the notion of symmetric monoidal bicategory, giving also a precise notion of generators and relations in this context. We provide several supporting lemmas, one of which provides a simple list of criteria for determining when a morphism of symmetric monoidal bicategories is an equivalence. We introduce the symmetric monoidal bicategory of bordisms with structure, where the all...

  4. Spin-orbit torque in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, S.

    2017-01-24

    We investigate spin transport in two-dimensional ferromagnetic (FTI) and antiferromagnetic (AFTI) topological insulators. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization AFTI supports zero energy modes, which enables topologically protected edge conduction at low energy. We address the nature of current-driven spin torque in these structures and study the impact of spin-independent disorder. Interestingly, upon strong disorder the spin torque develops an antidamping component (i.e., even upon magnetization reversal) along the edges, which could enable current-driven manipulation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This antidamping torque decreases when increasing the system size and when the system enters the trivial insulator regime.

  5. Topological Aspect and Bifurcation of Disclination Lines in Two-Dimensional Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Hong; ZHANG Hui; DUAN Yi-Shi

    2002-01-01

    Using φ-mapping method and topological current theory, the topological structure and bifurcation ofdisclination lines in two-dimensional liquid crystals are studied. By introducing the strength density and the topologicalcurrent of many disclination lines, the total disclination strength is topologically quantized by the Hopf indices andBrouwer degrees at the singularities of the director field when the Jacobian determinant of director field does not vanish.When the Jacobian determinant vanishes, the origin, annihilation and bifurcation processes of disclination lines arestudied in the neighborhoods of the limit points and bifurcation points, respectively. The branch solutions at the limitpoint and the different directions of all branch curves at the bifurcation point are calculated with the conservation lawof the topological quantum numbers. It is pointed out that a disclination line with a higher strength is unstable and itwill evolve to the lower strength state through the bifurcation process.

  6. Helical bound states in the continuum of the edge states in two dimensional topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablikov, Vladimir A., E-mail: sablikov@gmail.com; Sukhanov, Aleksei A.

    2015-09-04

    We study bound states embedded into the continuum of edge states in two-dimensional topological insulators. These states emerge in the presence of a short-range potential of a structural defect coupled to the boundary. In this case the edge states flow around the defect and have two resonances in the local density of states. The bound state in continuum (BIC) arises due to an interference of the resonances when they are close to the degeneracy. We find the condition under which the BIC appears, study the spacial distribution of the electron density, and show that the BIC has a helical structure with an electron current circulating around the defect. - Highlights: • We find bound states in the continuum of edge states in 2D topological insulators. • The bound states are induced by an impurity potential and topological order. • The bound state in the continuum has a helical structure of spin and current density.

  7. Multifarious topological quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2016-06-01

    We study the two-dimensional topological superconductors of spinless fermions in a checkerboard-lattice Chern-insulator model. With the short-range p-wave superconducting pairing, multifarious topological quantum phase transitions have been found and several phases with high Chern numbers have been observed. We have established a rich phase diagram for these topological superconducting states. A finite-size checkerboard-lattice cylinder with a harmonic trap potential has been further investigated. Based upon the self-consistent numerical calculations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, various phase transitions have also been identified at different regions of the system. Multiple pairs of Majorana fermions are found to be well-separated and localized at the phase boundaries between the phases characterized by different Chern numbers.

  8. Multifarious topological quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2016-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topological superconductors of spinless fermions in a checkerboard-lattice Chern-insulator model. With the short-range p-wave superconducting pairing, multifarious topological quantum phase transitions have been found and several phases with high Chern numbers have been observed. We have established a rich phase diagram for these topological superconducting states. A finite-size checkerboard-lattice cylinder with a harmonic trap potential has been further investigated. Based upon the self-consistent numerical calculations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, various phase transitions have also been identified at different regions of the system. Multiple pairs of Majorana fermions are found to be well-separated and localized at the phase boundaries between the phases characterized by different Chern numbers. PMID:27329219

  9. Transient Topology Optimization of Two-Dimensional Elastic Wave Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, René; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    A tapering device coupling two monomodal waveguides is designed with the topology optimization method based on transient wave propagation. The gradient-based optimization technique is applied to predict the material distribution in the tapering area such that the squared output displacement (a...

  10. Photoinduced topological phase transition and spin polarization in a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. N.; Su, W.; Deng, M. X.; Ruan, Jiawei; Luo, W.; Shao, D. X.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-11-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid to the topological phases engineered by photonics over the past few years. Here, we propose a topological quantum phase transition to a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) phase induced by off-resonant circularly polarized light in a two-dimensional system that is initially in a quantum spin Hall phase or a trivial insulator phase. This provides an alternative method to realize the QAH effect, other than magnetic doping. The circularly polarized light effectively creates a Zeeman exchange field and a renormalized Dirac mass, which are tunable by varying the intensity of the light and drive the quantum phase transition. Both the transverse and longitudinal Hall conductivities are studied, and the former is consistent with the topological phase transition when the Fermi level lies in the band gap. A highly controllable spin-polarized longitudinal electrical current can be generated when the Fermi level is in the conduction band, which may be useful for designing topological spintronics.

  11. Isolated structures in two-dimensional optical superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xin-Hao; Yang, Bao-Guo; Xu, Xia; Tang, Peng-Ju; Zhou, Xiao-Ji

    2017-10-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices". Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  12. Isolated Structures in Two-Dimensional Optical Superlattice

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Xinhao; Xu, Xia; Tang, Pengju; Zhou, Xiaoji

    2016-01-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices." Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  13. Effects of defects and dephasing on charge and spin currents in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, John S.; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-01-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism, we investigate the effect of defects on the electronic structure and transport properties of two-dimensional topological insulators (TI). We demonstrate how the spatial flow of charge changes between the topologically protected edge and bulk states and show that elastically and inelastically scattering defects that preserve the time-reversal symmetry of the TI lead to qualitatively different effects on the TI's local electronic structure and its transport properties. Moreover, we show that the recently predicted ability to create highly spin-polarized currents by breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the TI via magnetic defects [J. S. Van Dyke and D. K. Morr, Phys. Rev. B 93, 081401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.081401] is robust against the inclusion of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the effects of dephasing, and remains unaffected by changes over a wide range of the TI's parameters. We discuss how the sign of the induced spin currents changes under symmetry operations, such as reversal of bias and gate voltages, or spatial reflections. Finally, we show that the insight into the interplay between topology and symmetry of the magnetic defects can be employed for the creation of intriguing quantum phenomena, such as highly localized magnetic fields inside the TI.

  14. Two-dimensional topological crystalline quantum spin Hall effect in transition metal intercalated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Jena, Puru

    2017-02-01

    While most of the two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) belong to group IV-VI narrow-band-gap semiconductors in a square lattice, in the present work we predict a TCI family based on transition metal intercalated compounds in a hexagonal lattice. First-principles calculations combined with a substrate-fixed globally optimal structural search technique show that a layer of Os prefers a uniform distribution between two graphene sheets. Band dispersion calculations reveal a Dirac point and a Dirac nodal ring near the Fermi level. The Dirac point is ascribed to the hybridization of e2 and e2* orbitals, and the Dirac ring is formed due to dispersion of s and e1* orbitals. Upon inclusion of spin-orbit coupling, these Dirac states open topologically nontrivial local band gaps, which are characterized by nonzero mirror Chern numbers. The quantum spin Hall effect is also observed by integrating the spin Berry curvature in the Brillouin zone. In contrast to the 2D group IV-VI TCIs whose band inversions at X and Y points are "locked" by C4 rotation symmetry, here the relative energy of two local band gaps can be manipulated by in-plane biaxial strains. Some other similar intercalation compounds are also shown to be topologically nontrivial. Our work extends the 2D TCI family into a hexagonal lattice composed of transition metals.

  15. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2016-09-02

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Î

  16. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

    1999-01-01

    Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of nonlinear coordinate...

  17. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

    1998-01-01

    Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of non-linear coordinate...

  18. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  19. Zeeman-Field-Tuned Topological Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Class-DIII Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W Y; Geng, H; Luo, W; Sheng, L; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductor in the presence of a Zeeman field. Based on the spin Chern number theory, we find that the system exhibits a number of topologically distinct phases with changing the out-of-plane component of the Zeeman field, including a quantum spin Hall-like phase, quantum anomalous Hall-like phases with total Chern number C = -2, -1, 1 and 2, and a topologically trivial superconductor phase. The BdG band gap closes at each boundary of the phase transitions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zero bias conductance provides clear transport signatures of the different topological phases, which are robust against symmetry-breaking perturbations.

  20. Topological origin of edge states in two-dimensional inversion-symmetric insulators and semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Miert, Guido; Ortix, Carmine; Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2017-03-01

    Symmetries play an essential role in identifying and characterizing topological states of matter. Here, we classify topologically two-dimensional (2D) insulators and semimetals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling using time-reversal ({ T }) and inversion ({ I }) symmetry. This allows us to link the presence of edge states in { I } and { T } symmetric 2D insulators, which are topologically trivial according to the Altland-Zirnbauer table, to a {{{Z}}}2 topological invariant. This invariant is directly related to the quantization of the Zak phase. It also predicts the generic presence of edge states in Dirac semimetals, in the absence of chiral symmetry. We then apply our findings to bilayer black phosphorus and show the occurrence of a gate-induced topological phase transition, where the {{{Z}}}2 invariant changes.

  1. Two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase in quantum wells of trivial insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chengwang; Buhl, Patrick M.; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Wortmann, Daniel; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2016-06-01

    The realization of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells (QWs) has generated an explosion of research on TIs and novel topologically nontrivial phases. Here we predict, based on first-principles calculations, that the newly discovered 2D topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) phase exists even in the QWs of trivial insulators, e.g. (Sn/Pb)Te and Na(Cl/Br), with mirror Chern number {n}{{M}}=-2. Tunable nontrivial energy gaps ranging from 4 to 238 meV are obtained, guaranteeing further room-temperature observations and applications. The combined effect of strain and electrostatic interaction that can be engineered by the cladding layers leads to a band inversion, resulting in the phase transition from trivial insulator to 2D TCIs. Our work provides a new strategy for engineering topological states in 2D materials.

  2. Tunable band topology reflected by fractional quantum Hall States in two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Liu, Zhao; Cao, Junpeng; Fan, Heng

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional lattice models subjected to an external effective magnetic field can form nontrivial band topologies characterized by nonzero integer band Chern numbers. In this Letter, we investigate such a lattice model originating from the Hofstadter model and demonstrate that the band topology transitions can be realized by simply introducing tunable longer-range hopping. The rich phase diagram of band Chern numbers is obtained for the simple rational flux density and a classification of phases is presented. In the presence of interactions, the existence of fractional quantum Hall states in both |C| = 1 and |C| > 1 bands is confirmed, which can reflect the band topologies in different phases. In contrast, when our model reduces to a one-dimensional lattice, the ground states are crucially different from fractional quantum Hall states. Our results may provide insights into the study of new fractional quantum Hall states and experimental realizations of various topological phases in optical lattices.

  3. Topological Invariants of Edge States for Periodic Two-Dimensional Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Julio Cesar; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann, E-mail: schuba@mi.uni-erlangen.de; Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    Transfer matrix methods and intersection theory are used to calculate the bands of edge states for a wide class of periodic two-dimensional tight-binding models including a sublattice and spin degree of freedom. This allows to define topological invariants by considering the associated Bott-Maslov indices which can be easily calculated numerically. For time-reversal symmetric systems in the symplectic universality class this leads to a Z{sub 2} -invariant for the edge states. It is shown that the edge state invariants are related to Chern numbers of the bulk systems and also to (spin) edge currents, in the spirit of the theory of topological insulators.

  4. Topological invariants of edge states for periodic two-dimensional models

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, Julio Cesar; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Transfer matrix methods and intersection theory are used to calculate the bands of edge states for a wide class of periodic two-dimensional tight-binding models including a sublattice and spin degree of freedom. This allows to define topological invariants by considering the associated Bott-Maslov indices which can be easily calculated numerically. For time-reversal symmetric systems in the symplectic universality class this leads to a Z_2-invariant for the edge states. It is shown that the edge state invariants are related to Chern numbers of the bulk systems and also to (spin) edge currents, in the spirit of the theory of topological insulators.

  5. Optical vortices: the concept of topological potential and analogies with two-dimensional electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, Anderson M; de Araújo, Cid B

    2015-01-01

    We show how the phase profile of a distribution of topological charges (TC) of an optical vortex (OV) can be described by a potential analogous to the Coulomb's potential for a distribution of electric charges in two-dimensional electrostatics. From what we call the Topological Potential (TP), the properties of TC multipoles and a 2D radial distribution were analyzed. The TC multipoles have a transverse profile that is topologically stable under propagation and may be exploited in optical communications; on the other hand, the 2D distributions can be used to tune the transverse forces in optical tweezers. Considering the analogies with the electrostatics formalism, it is also expected that the TP allows the tailoring of OV for specific applications.

  6. Effects of light on quantum phases and topological properties of two-dimensional Metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunhua; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Periodically driven nontrivial quantum states open another door to engineer topological phases in solid systems by light. Here we show, based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, that the on-resonant linearly and circularly polarized infrared light brings in the exotic Floquet quantum spin Hall state and half-metal in two-dimensional Metal-organic frameworks (2D MOFs) because of the unbroken and broken time-reversal symmetry, respectively. We also observe that the off-resonant light triggers topological quantum phase transitions and induces semimetals with pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions via the photon-dressed topological band structures of 2D MOFs. This work paves a way to design light-controlled spintronics and optoelectronics based on 2D MOFs. PMID:28134315

  7. Effects of light on quantum phases and topological properties of two-dimensional Metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunhua; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Periodically driven nontrivial quantum states open another door to engineer topological phases in solid systems by light. Here we show, based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, that the on-resonant linearly and circularly polarized infrared light brings in the exotic Floquet quantum spin Hall state and half-metal in two-dimensional Metal-organic frameworks (2D MOFs) because of the unbroken and broken time-reversal symmetry, respectively. We also observe that the off-resonant light triggers topological quantum phase transitions and induces semimetals with pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions via the photon-dressed topological band structures of 2D MOFs. This work paves a way to design light-controlled spintronics and optoelectronics based on 2D MOFs.

  8. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  9. Analytical solutions of the two-dimensional Dirac equation for a topological channel intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, J. R.; Schulz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations in a tight-binding model have shown that an intersection of topologically protected one-dimensional chiral channels can function as a beam splitter for noninteracting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice [Qiao, Jung, and MacDonald, Nano Lett. 11, 3453 (2011), 10.1021/nl201941f; Qiao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 206601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.206601]. Here we confirm this result analytically in the corresponding continuum k .p model, by solving the associated two-dimensional Dirac equation, in the presence of a "checkerboard" potential that provides a right-angled intersection between two zero-line modes. The method by which we obtain our analytical solutions is systematic and potentially generalizable to similar problems involving intersections of one-dimensional systems.

  10. Two-dimensional topological superconducting phases emerged from d-wave superconductors in proximity to antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guang-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the recent observations of nodeless superconductivity in the monolayer CuO2 grown on the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ substrates, we study the two-dimensional superconducting (SC) phases described by the two-dimensional t\\text-J model in proximity to an antiferromagnetic (AF) insulator. We found that i) the nodal d-wave SC state can be driven via a continuous transition into a nodeless d-wave pairing state by the proximity-induced AF field. ii) The energetically favorable pairing states in the strong field regime have extended s-wave symmetry and can be nodal or nodeless. iii) Between the pure d-wave and s-wave paired phases, there emerge two topologically distinct SC phases with (s+\\text{i}d) symmetry, i.e., the weak and strong pairing phases, and the weak pairing phase is found to be a Z 2 topological superconductor protected by valley symmetry, exhibiting robust gapless nonchiral edge modes. These findings strongly suggest that the high-T c superconductors in proximity to antiferromagnets can realize fully gapped symmetry-protected topological SC.

  11. Topological order, symmetry, and Hall response of two-dimensional spin-singlet superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Sergej; Prem, Abhinav; Gurarie, Victor; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    Fully gapped two-dimensional superconductors coupled to dynamical electromagnetism are known to exhibit topological order. In this work, we develop a unified low-energy description for spin-singlet paired states by deriving topological Chern-Simons field theories for s -wave, d +i d , and chiral higher even-wave superconductors. These theories capture the quantum statistics and fusion rules of Bogoliubov quasiparticles and vortices and incorporate global continuous symmetries—specifically, spin rotation and conservation of magnetic flux—present in all singlet superconductors. For all such systems, we compute the Hall response for these symmetries and investigate the physics at the edge. In particular, the weakly coupled phase of a chiral d +i d chiral state has a spin Hall coefficient νs=2 and a vanishing Hall response for the magnetic flux symmetry. We argue that the latter is a generic result for two-dimensional superconductors with gapped photons, thereby demonstrating the absence of a spontaneous magnetic field in the ground state of chiral superconductors. It is also shown that the Chern-Simons theories of chiral spin-singlet superconductors derived here fall into Kitaev's 16-fold classification of topological superconductors.

  12. A General Theorem Relating the Bulk Topological Number to Edge States in Two-dimensional Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wu, Yong-Shi; /Utah U.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Tsinghua U., Beijing

    2010-01-15

    We prove a general theorem on the relation between the bulk topological quantum number and the edge states in two dimensional insulators. It is shown that whenever there is a topological order in bulk, characterized by a non-vanishing Chern number, even if it is defined for a non-conserved quantity such as spin in the case of the spin Hall effect, one can always infer the existence of gapless edge states under certain twisted boundary conditions that allow tunneling between edges. This relation is robust against disorder and interactions, and it provides a unified topological classification of both the quantum (charge) Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect. In addition, it reconciles the apparent conflict between the stability of bulk topological order and the instability of gapless edge states in systems with open boundaries (as known happening in the spin Hall case). The consequences of time reversal invariance for bulk topological order and edge state dynamics are further studied in the present framework.

  13. Detection of topological states in two-dimensional Dirac systems by the dynamic spin susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Tokuno, Akiyuki

    2016-08-01

    We discuss dynamic spin susceptibility (DSS) in two-dimensional (2D) Dirac electrons with spin-orbit interactions to characterize topological insulators. The imaginary part of the DSS appears as an absorption rate in response to a transverse ac magnetic field, just as in an electron spin resonance experiment for localized spin systems. We found that when the system is in a static magnetic field, the topological state can be identified by an anomalous resonant peak of the imaginary part of the DSS as a function of the frequency of the transverse magnetic field ω . In the absence of a static magnetic field, the imaginary part of the DSS becomes a continuous function of ω with a threshold frequency ωc. In this case, the topological and the trivial phases can also be distinguished by the values of ωc and by the line shapes. Thus the DSS is an experimentally observable physical quantity to characterize a topological insulator directly from bulk properties, without observing a topological transition.

  14. A Multi-Resolution Data Structure for Two-Dimensional Morse Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, P-T; Edelsbrunner, H; Hamann, B; Pascucci, V

    2003-07-30

    The efficient construction of simplified models is a central problem in the field of visualization. We combine topological and geometric methods to construct a multi-resolution data structure for functions over two-dimensional domains. Starting with the Morse-Smale complex we build a hierarchy by progressively canceling critical points in pairs. The data structure supports mesh traversal operations similar to traditional multi-resolution representations.

  15. Nuclear-spin-induced localization of edge states in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the influence of nuclear spins on the resistance of helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (2DTIs). Via the hyperfine interaction, nuclear spins allow electron backscattering, otherwise forbidden by time-reversal symmetry. We identify two backscattering mechanisms, depending on whether the nuclear spins are ordered or not. Their temperature dependence is distinct but both give resistance, which increases with the edge length, decreasing temperature, and increasing strength of the electron-electron interaction. Overall, we find that the nuclear spins will typically shut down the conductance of the 2DTI edges at zero temperature.

  16. Topological order, symmetry, and Hall response of two-dimensional spin-singlet superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Sergej; Gurarie, Victor; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Fully gapped two-dimensional superconductors coupled to dynamical electromagnetism are known to exhibit topological order. In this work, we develop a unified low-energy description for spin-singlet paired states by deriving topological Chern-Simons field theories for $s$-wave, $d+id$, and chiral higher even-wave superconductors. These theories capture the quantum statistics and fusion rules of low-energy excitations and incorporate global continuous symmetries - specifically, spin rotation and conservation of magnetic flux - present in all singlet superconductors. We compute the Hall response for these symmetries and investigate the physics at the edge. In particular, the weakly-coupled phase of a chiral state paired in the even $k^{\\text{th}}$ partial wave has a spin Hall coefficient $\

  17. All-electric spin modulator based on a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xianbo; Ai, Guoping [School of Computer Science, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004 (China); Liu, Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A., E-mail: shengyuan-yang@sutd.edu.sg [Research Laboratory for Quantum Materials, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); Liu, Zhengfang [School of Science, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhou, Guanghui, E-mail: ghzhou@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Structures and Quantum Manipulation (Ministry of Education), and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2016-01-18

    We propose and investigate a spin modulator device consisting of two ferromagnetic leads connected by a two-dimensional topological insulator as the channel material. It exploits the unique features of the topological spin-helical edge states, such that the injected carriers with a non-collinear spin-polarization direction would travel through both edges and show interference effect. The conductance of the device can be controlled in a simple and all-electric manner by a side-gate voltage, which effectively rotates the spin-polarization of the carrier. At low voltages, the rotation angle is linear in the gate voltage, and the device can function as a good spin-polarization rotator by replacing the drain electrode with a non-magnetic material.

  18. Fermionic Symmetry-Protected Topological Phase in a Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chien; Muechler, Lukas; Car, Roberto; Neupert, Titus; Maciejko, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    We study the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model using exact diagonalization for spin-1 /2 fermions on the triangular and honeycomb lattices decorated with a single hexagon per site. In certain parameter ranges, the Hubbard model maps to a quantum compass model on those lattices. On the triangular lattice, the compass model exhibits collinear stripe antiferromagnetism, implying d -density wave charge order in the original Hubbard model. On the honeycomb lattice, the compass model has a unique, quantum disordered ground state that transforms nontrivially under lattice reflection. The ground state of the Hubbard model on the decorated honeycomb lattice is thus a 2D fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase. This state—protected by time-reversal and reflection symmetries—cannot be connected adiabatically to a free-fermion topological phase.

  19. Static Structure of Two-Dimensional Granular Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ping-Ping; LI Liang-Sheng; ZHENG Ning; SHI Qing-Fan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Static packing structures of two-dimensional granular chains are investigated experimentally.It is shown that the packing density approximates the saturation with the exponential law as the length of chain increases.The packing structures are globally disordered,while the local square crystallization is found by using the radial distribution function.This characteristic phase of chain packing is similar to a liquid crystal state,and has properties between a conventional liquid and solid crystal.

  20. Two-dimensional topological insulators in group-11 chalcogenide compounds: M2Te (M =Cu ,Ag )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) are recently recognized states of quantum matter that are highly interesting for lower-power-consuming electronic devices owing to their nondissipative transport properties protected from backscattering. So far, only few 2D TIs, suffering from small bulk band gap (TIs in group-11 chalcogenide 2D crystals, M2Te (M =Cu ,Ag ) . The nontrivial topological states in C u2Te and A g2Te 2D crystals, identified by topological invariant and edge state calculations, exhibit sizeable bulk gaps of 78 and 150 meV, respectively, suggesting that they are candidates for room-temperature applications. Moreover, strain engineering leads to effective control of the nontrivial gaps of C u2Te and A g2Te , and a topological phase transition can be realized in C u2Te , while the nontrivial phase in A g2Te is stable against strain. Their dynamic and thermal stabilities are further confirmed by employing phonon calculations and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations.

  1. Emergent topology and dynamical quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional closed quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Utso; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) manifested in the nonanalyticities in the temporal evolution of a closed quantum system generated by the time-independent final Hamiltonian, following a quench (or ramping) of a parameter of the Hamiltonian, is an emerging frontier of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. We, here, introduce the notion of a dynamical topological order parameter (DTOP) that characterizes these DQPTs occurring in quenched (or ramped) two-dimensional closed quantum systems; this is quite a nontrivial generalization of the notion of DTOP introduced in Budich and Heyl [Phys. Rev. B 93, 085416 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085416] for one-dimensional situations. This DTOP is obtained from the "gauge-invariant" Pancharatnam phase extracted from the Loschmidt overlap, i.e., the modulus of the overlap between the initially prepared state and its time-evolved counterpart reached following a temporal evolution generated by the time-independent final Hamiltonian. This generic proposal is illustrated considering DQPTs occurring in the subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden quench of the staggered mass of the topological Haldane model on a hexagonal lattice where it stays fixed to zero or unity and makes a discontinuous jump between these two values at critical times at which DQPTs occur. What is remarkable is that while the topology of the equilibrium model is characterized by the Chern number, the emergent topology associated with the DQPTs is characterized by a generalized winding number.

  2. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-09-02

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Γ point, we can construct pseudo-time-reversal symmetry as well as pseudo-spin states in this classical system. We develop an effective Hamiltonian for the associated dispersion bands around the Brillouin zone center, and find the inherent link between the band inversion and the topological phase transition. With numerical simulations, we unambiguously demonstrate the unidirectional propagation of acoustic edge states along the interface between a topologically nontrivial acoustic crystal and a trivial one, and the robustness of the edge states against defects with sharp bends. Our work provides a new design paradigm for manipulating and transporting acoustic waves in a topologically protected manner. Technological applications and devices based on our design are expected in various frequency ranges of interest, spanning from infrasound to ultrasound.

  3. Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.

  4. Isotopological Relaxation, Coherent Structures, and Gaussian Turbulence in Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isichenko, M B

    1994-01-01

    The long-time relaxation of ideal two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence subject to the conservation of two infinite families of constants of motion---the magnetic and the "cross" topology invariants--is examined. The analysis of the Gibbs ensemble, where all integrals of motion are respected, predicts the initial state to evolve into an equilibrium, stable coherent structure (the most probable state) and decaying Gaussian turbulence (fluctuations) with a vanishing, but always positive temperature. The non-dissipative turbulence decay is accompanied by decrease in both the amplitude and the length scale of the fluctuations, so that the fluctuation energy remains finite. The coherent structure represents a set of singular magnetic islands with plasma flow whose magnetic topology is identical to that of the initial state, while the energy and the cross topology invariants are shared between the coherent structure and the Gaussian turbulence. These conservation laws suggest the variational principle of i...

  5. Electrically controlled crossing of energy levels in quantum dots in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A.

    2017-05-15

    We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.

  6. Zigzag nanoribbons of two-dimensional silicene-like crystals: magnetic, topological and thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Michał; Barnaś, Józef; Swirkowicz, Renata

    2015-12-01

    The effects of electron-electron and spin-orbit interactions on the ground-state magnetic configuration and on the corresponding thermoelectric and spin thermoelectric properties in zigzag nanoribbons of two-dimensional hexagonal crystals are analysed theoretically. The thermoelectric properties of quasi-stable magnetic states are also considered. Of particular interest is the influence of Coulomb and spin-orbit interactions on the topological edge states and on the transition between the topological insulator and conventional gap insulator states. It is shown that the interplay of both interactions also has a significant impact on the transport and thermoelectric characteristics of the nanoribbons. The spin-orbit interaction also determines the in-plane magnetic easy axis. The thermoelectric properties of nanoribbons with in-plane magnetic moments are compared to those of nanoribbons with edge magnetic moments oriented perpendicularly to their plane. Nanoribbons with ferromagnetic alignment of the edge moments are shown to reveal spin thermoelectricity in addition to the conventional one.

  7. The encoding complexity of two dimensional range minimum data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Brodnik, Andrej; Davoodi, Pooya

    2013-01-01

    In the two-dimensional range minimum query problem an input matrix A of dimension m ×n, m ≤ n, has to be preprocessed into a data structure such that given a query rectangle within the matrix, the position of a minimum element within the query range can be reported. We consider the space complexity...... of the encoding variant of the problem where queries have access to the constructed data structure but can not access the input matrix A, i.e. all information must be encoded in the data structure. Previously it was known how to solve the problem with space O(mn min {m,logn}) bits (and with constant query time...

  8. Band structure of absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lem, Han; Tip, Adriaan; Moroz, Alexander

    2003-06-01

    The band structure for an absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystal made from cylinders consisting of a Drude material is calculated. Absorption causes the spectrum to become complex and form islands in the negative complex half-plane. The boundaries of these islands are not always formed by the eigenvalues calculated for Bloch vectors on the characteristic path, and we find a hole in the spectrum. For realistic parameter values, the real part of the spectrum is hardly influenced by absorption, typically less than 0.25%. The employed method uses a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker procedure together with analytical continuation. This results in an efficient approach that allows these band-structure calculations to be done on a Pentium III personal computer.

  9. Topology optimization for coated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new results within the design of three-dimensional (3D) coated structures using topology optimization.The work is an extension of a recently published two-dimensional (2D) method for including coatedstructures into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. The high...... level of control over key parameters demonstrated for the 2D model can likewise be achieved in 3D. The effectiveness of the approach isdemonstrated with numerical examples, which for the 3D problems have been solved using a parallel topology optimization implementation based on the PETSc toolkit....

  10. Structure and computation of two-dimensional incompressible extended MHD

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, D; Abdelhamid, H M; Morrison, P J

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study of a reduced version of Lust's equations, the extended magnetohydrodynamic (XMHD) model obtained from the two-fluid theory for electrons and ions with the enforcement of quasineutrality, is given. Starting from the Hamiltonian structure of the fully three-dimensional theory, a Hamiltonian two-dimensional incompressible four-field model is derived. In this way energy conservation along with four families of Casimir invariants are naturally obtained. The construction facilitates various limits leading to the Hamiltonian forms of Hall, inertial, and ideal MHD, with their conserved energies and Casimir invariants. Basic linear theory of the four-field model is treated, and the growth rate for collisionless reconnection is obtained. Results from nonlinear simulations of collisionless tearing are presented and interpreted using, in particular normal fields, a product of the Hamiltonian theory that gives rise to simplified equations of motion.

  11. Structure and computation of two-dimensional incompressible extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, D.; Tassi, E.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the extended magnetohydrodynamic model obtained from the two-fluid theory for electrons and ions with the enforcement of quasineutrality is given. Starting from the Hamiltonian structure of the fully three-dimensional theory, a Hamiltonian two-dimensional incompressible four-field model is derived. In this way, the energy conservation along with four families of Casimir invariants is naturally obtained. The construction facilitates various limits leading to the Hamiltonian forms of Hall, inertial, and ideal MHD, with their conserved energies and Casimir invariants. Basic linear theory of the four-field model is treated, and the growth rate for collisionless reconnection is obtained. Results from nonlinear simulations of collisionless tearing are presented and interpreted using, in particular, normal fields, a product of the Hamiltonian theory that gives rise to simplified equations of motion.

  12. Polarized heat current generated by quantum pumping in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronetti, F.; Carrega, M.; Ferraro, D.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.; Sassetti, M.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the transport properties of a two-dimensional topological insulator in a double quantum point contact geometry in the presence of a time-dependent external field. In the proposed setup an external gate is placed above a single constriction and it couples only with electrons belonging to the top edge. This asymmetric configuration and the presence of an ac signal allow for a quantum pumping mechanism, which, in turn, can generate finite heat and charge currents in an unbiased device configuration. A microscopic model for coupling with the external time-dependent gate potential is developed and the induced finite heat and charge currents are investigated. We demonstrate that in the noninteracting case, heat flow is associated with a single spin component, due to the helical nature of the edge states, and therefore a finite and polarized heat current is obtained in this configuration. The presence of e -e interchannel interactions strongly affects the current signal, lowering the degree of polarization of the system. Finally, we also show that separate heat and charge flows can be achieved, varying the amplitude of the external gate.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  14. Prediction of two-dimensional topological insulator by forming a surface alloy on Au/Si(111) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chou, Hsin-Lei; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Wu, Shih-Yu; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Yeh, Wang-Chi V.; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs), which can be integrated into the modern silicon industry, are highly desirable for spintronics applications. Here, using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we show that the Au/Si(111)-√{3 } substrate can provide a platform for hosting 2D TIs obtained through the formation of surface alloys with a honeycomb pattern of adsorbed atoms. We systematically examined elements from groups III to VI of the periodic table at 2/3 monolayer coverage on Au/Si(111)-√{3 }, and found that In, Tl, Ge, and Sn adsorbates result in topologically nontrivial phases with band gaps varying from 0 to 50 meV. Our scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction experiments confirm the presence of the honeycomb pattern when Bi atoms are deposited on Au/Si(111)-√{3 }, in accord with our theoretical predictions. Our findings pave the way for using surface alloys as a potential route for obtaining viable 2D TI platforms.

  15. Electrical Oscillations in Two-Dimensional Microtubular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, María Del Rocío; Perez, Paula L.; Smoler, Mariano; Villa Etchegoyen, Cecilia; Cantiello, Horacio F.

    2016-06-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are unique components of the cytoskeleton formed by hollow cylindrical structures of αβ tubulin dimeric units. The structural wall of the MT is interspersed by nanopores formed by the lateral arrangement of its subunits. MTs are also highly charged polar polyelectrolytes, capable of amplifying electrical signals. The actual nature of these electrodynamic capabilities remains largely unknown. Herein we applied the patch clamp technique to two-dimensional MT sheets, to characterize their electrical properties. Voltage-clamped MT sheets generated cation-selective oscillatory electrical currents whose magnitude depended on both the holding potential, and ionic strength and composition. The oscillations progressed through various modes including single and double periodic regimes and more complex behaviours, being prominent a fundamental frequency at 29 Hz. In physiological K+ (140 mM), oscillations represented in average a 640% change in conductance that was also affected by the prevalent anion. Current injection induced voltage oscillations, thus showing excitability akin with action potentials. The electrical oscillations were entirely blocked by taxol, with pseudo Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a KD of ~1.29 μM. The findings suggest a functional role of the nanopores in the MT wall on the genesis of electrical oscillations that offer new insights into the nonlinear behaviour of the cytoskeleton.

  16. Two dimensional electron spin resonance: Structure and dynamics of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sunil; Freed, Jack H.

    1998-03-01

    The potential of two dimensional (2D) electron spin resonance (ESR) for measuring the structural properties and slow dynamics of labeled biomolecules will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown how the recently developed method of double quantum (DQ) 2D ESR (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 107), 1317, (1997) can be used to measure large interelectron distances in bilabeled peptides. The need for DQ ESR spectroscopy, as well as the challenges and advantages of this method will be discussed. The elucidation of the slow reorientational dynamics of this peptide (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101) 7998 (1997) in a glassy medium using COSY and 2D ELDOR ESR spectroscopy will be demonstrated. The contributions to the homogeneous relaxation time, T_2, from the overall and/or internal rotations of the nitroxide can be distinguished from the COSY spectrum. The growth of spectral diffusion cross-peaks^2 with mixing time in the 2D ELDOR spectra can be used to directly determine a correlation time from the experiment which can be related to the rotational correlation time.

  17. Dirac Cones, Topological Edge States, and Nontrivial Flat Bands in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors with a Honeycomb Nanogeometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kalesaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically two-dimensional single-crystalline sheets of semiconductors that form a honeycomb lattice with a period below 10 nm. These systems could combine the usual semiconductor properties with Dirac bands. Using atomistic tight-binding calculations, we show that both the atomic lattice and the overall geometry influence the band structure, revealing materials with unusual electronic properties. In rocksalt Pb chalcogenides, the expected Dirac-type features are clouded by a complex band structure. However, in the case of zinc-blende Cd-chalcogenide semiconductors, the honeycomb nanogeometry leads to rich band structures, including, in the conduction band, Dirac cones at two distinct energies and nontrivial flat bands and, in the valence band, topological edge states. These edge states are present in several electronic gaps opened in the valence band by the spin-orbit coupling and the quantum confinement in the honeycomb geometry. The lowest Dirac conduction band has S-orbital character and is equivalent to the π-π^{⋆} band of graphene but with renormalized couplings. The conduction bands higher in energy have no counterpart in graphene; they combine a Dirac cone and flat bands because of their P-orbital character. We show that the width of the Dirac bands varies between tens and hundreds of meV. These systems emerge as remarkable platforms for studying complex electronic phases starting from conventional semiconductors. Recent advancements in colloidal chemistry indicate that these materials can be synthesized from semiconductor nanocrystals.

  18. Links between topology of the transition graph and limit cycles in a two-dimensional piecewise affine biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Chaves, Madalena; Gouzé, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    A class of piecewise affine differential (PWA) models, initially proposed by Glass and Kauffman (in J Theor Biol 39:103-129, 1973), has been widely used for the modelling and the analysis of biological switch-like systems, such as genetic or neural networks. Its mathematical tractability facilitates the qualitative analysis of dynamical behaviors, in particular periodic phenomena which are of prime importance in biology. Notably, a discrete qualitative description of the dynamics, called the transition graph, can be directly associated to this class of PWA systems. Here we present a study of periodic behaviours (i.e. limit cycles) in a class of two-dimensional piecewise affine biological models. Using concavity and continuity properties of Poincaré maps, we derive structural principles linking the topology of the transition graph to the existence, number and stability of limit cycles. These results notably extend previous works on the investigation of structural principles to the case of unequal and regulated decay rates for the 2-dimensional case. Some numerical examples corresponding to minimal models of biological oscillators are treated to illustrate the use of these structural principles.

  19. Quadratic band touching points and flat bands in two-dimensional topological Floquet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Zhou, Xiaoting; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically study, using Floquet-Bloch theory, the influence of circularly and linearly polarized light on two-dimensional band structures with Dirac and quadratic band touching points, and flat bands, taking the nearest neighbor hopping model on the kagome lattice as an example. We find circularly polarized light can invert the ordering of this three-band model, while leaving the flat band dispersionless. We find a small gap is also opened at the quadratic band touching point by two-photon and higher order processes. By contrast, linearly polarized light splits the quadratic band touching point (into two Dirac points) by an amount that depends only on the amplitude and polarization direction of the light, independent of the frequency, and generally renders dispersion to the flat band. The splitting is perpendicular to the direction of the polarization of the light. We derive an effective low-energy theory that captures these key results. Finally, we compute the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity for this three-band model and analyze the various interband contributions of the Floquet modes. Our results suggest strategies for optically controlling band structure and interaction strength in real systems.

  20. Topological Strings, Two-Dimensional Yang-Mills Theory and Chern-Simons Theory on Torus Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Caporaso, N; Griguolo, L; Pasquetti, S; Seminara, D; Szabó, R J

    2006-01-01

    We study the relations between two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on the torus, topological string theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold whose local geometry is the sum of two line bundles over the torus, and Chern-Simons theory on torus bundles. The chiral partition function of the Yang-Mills gauge theory in the large N limit is shown to coincide with the topological string amplitude computed by topological vertex techniques. We use Yang-Mills theory as an efficient tool for the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants and derive explicitly their relation with Hurwitz numbers of the torus. We calculate the Gopakumar-Vafa invariants, whose integrality gives a non-trivial confirmation of the conjectured nonperturbative relation between two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and topological string theory. We also demonstrate how the gauge theory leads to a simple combinatorial solution for the Donaldson-Thomas theory of the Calabi-Yau background. We match the instanton representation of Yang-Mills theory on the torus with ...

  1. Two dimensional black-hole as a topological coset model of c=1 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhi, S

    1993-01-01

    We show that a special superconformal coset (with $\\hat c =3$) is equivalent to $c=1$ matter coupled to two dimensional gravity. This identification allows a direct computation of the correlation functions of the $c=1$ non-critical string to all genus, and at nonzero cosmological constant, directly from the continuum approach. The results agree with those of the matrix model. Moreover we connect our coset with a twisted version of a Euclidean two dimensional black hole, in which the ghost and matter systems are mixed.

  2. Partial chiral symmetry-breaking as a route to spectrally isolated topological defect states in two-dimensional artificial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Charles; Schomerus, Henning; Bellec, Matthieu; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice

    2017-06-01

    Bipartite quantum systems from the chiral universality classes admit topologically protected zero modes at point defects. However, in two-dimensional systems these states can be difficult to separate from compacton-like localized states that arise from flat bands, formed if the two sublattices support a different number of sites within a unit cell. Here we identify a natural reduction of chiral symmetry, obtained by coupling sites on the majority sublattice, which gives rise to spectrally isolated point-defect states, topologically characterized as zero modes supported by the complementary minority sublattice. We observe these states in a microwave realization of a dimerized Lieb lattice with next-nearest neighbour coupling, and also demonstrate topological mode selection via sublattice-staggered absorption.

  3. Topological phase transitions driven by next-nearest-neighbor hopping in two-dimensional lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugeling, W.; Everts, J.C.; de Morais Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    For two-dimensional lattices in a tight-binding description, the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, acting as a complex next-nearest-neighbor hopping, opens gaps that exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. In this paper, we study the effect of a real next-nearest-neighbor hopping term on the band structu

  4. Two-dimensional acoustic particle velocity sensors based on a crossing wires topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, O.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and realization of two-dimensional acoustic particle velocity sensors based on thermal convection. The sensors are of the order of 1 mm×1 mm and consist of two crossing wires with each wire sensing the acoustic particle velocity in the direction parallel to it. Their

  5. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2016-10-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a rectangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  6. Topological patterns in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of DNA knots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michieletto, Davide; Marenduzzo, Davide; Orlandini, Enzo

    2015-10-06

    Gel electrophoresis is a powerful experimental method to probe the topology of DNA and other biopolymers. Although there is a large body of experimental work that allows us to accurately separate different topoisomers of a molecule, a full theoretical understanding of these experiments has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the mobility of DNA knots depends crucially and subtly on the physical properties of the gel and, in particular, on the presence of dangling ends. The topological interactions between these and DNA molecules can be described in terms of an "entanglement number" and yield a nonmonotonic mobility at moderate fields. Consequently, in 2D electrophoresis, gel bands display a characteristic arc pattern; this turns into a straight line when the density of dangling ends vanishes. We also provide a novel framework to accurately predict the shape of such arcs as a function of molecule length and topological complexity, which may be used to inform future experiments.

  7. Semiclassical electron transport at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator: Interplay of protected and unprotected modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, E.; Skvortsov, M. A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.

    2016-03-01

    We study electron transport at the edge of a generic disordered two-dimensional topological insulator, where some channels are topologically protected from backscattering. Assuming the total number of channels is large, we consider the edge as a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire and describe it in terms of a nonlinear sigma model with a topological term. Neglecting localization effects, we calculate the average distribution function of transmission probabilities as a function of the sample length. We mainly focus on the two experimentally relevant cases: a junction between two quantum Hall (QH) states with different filling factors (unitary class) and a relatively thick quantum well exhibiting quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect (symplectic class). In a QH sample, the presence of topologically protected modes leads to a strong suppression of diffusion in the other channels already at scales much shorter than the localization length. On the semiclassical level, this is accompanied by the formation of a gap in the spectrum of transmission probabilities close to unit transmission, thereby suppressing shot noise and conductance fluctuations. In the case of a QSH system, there is at most one topologically protected edge channel leading to weaker transport effects. In order to describe `topological' suppression of nearly perfect transparencies, we develop an exact mapping of the semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional sigma model onto a zero-dimensional sigma model of a different symmetry class, allowing us to identify the distribution of transmission probabilities with the average spectral density of a certain random-matrix ensemble. We extend our results to other symmetry classes with topologically protected edges in two dimensions.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  9. Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We show the presence of Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice. The Weyl points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone and Fermi-arc surface states are clearly demonstrated in the quasienergy spectrum of the system in the Weyl phase. In addition, chiral surface states coexist in this phase. The Floquet-topological-insulator phase is characterized by the winding number of two in the reflection matrices of the semi-infinite system and resulting two gapless surface states in the quasienergy g ap of the bulk. The phase diagram of the system is derived in the two-parameter space of hopping S-matrices among the rings. We also discuss a possible optical realization of the system together with the introduction of synthetic gauge fields.

  10. Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    We show the presence of Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice. The Weyl points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone and Fermi-arc surface states are clearly demonstrated in the quasienergy spectrum of the system in the Floquet-Weyl phase. In addition, chiral surface states coexist in this phase. The Floquet-topological-insulator phase is characterized by the winding number of two in the reflection matrices of the semi-infinite system and resulting two gapless surface states in the quasienergy gap of the bulk. The phase diagram of the system is derived in the two-parameter space of hopping S-matrices among the rings. We also discuss a possible optical realization of the system together with the introduction of synthetic gauge fields.

  11. Detecting and identifying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological, symmetry-breaking, and intrinsic topological phases with modular matrices via tensor-network methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases exhibit nontrivial order if symmetry is respected but are adiabatically connected to the trivial product phase if symmetry is not respected. However, unlike the symmetry-breaking phase, there is no local order parameter for SPT phases. Here we employ a tensor-network method to compute the topological invariants characterized by the simulated modular S and T matrices to study transitions in a few families of two-dimensional (2D) wave functions which are ZN (N =2 and3 ) symmetric. We find that in addition to the topologically ordered phases, the modular matrices can be used to identify nontrivial SPT phases and detect transitions between different SPT phases as well as between symmetric and symmetry-breaking phases. Therefore modular matrices can be used to characterize various types of gapped phases in a unifying way.

  12. Two-dimensional spin liquids with Z2 topological order in an array of quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Chowdhury, Debanjan

    2016-11-01

    Insulating Z2 spin liquids are a phase of matter with bulk anyonic quasiparticle excitations and ground-state degeneracies on manifolds with nontrivial topology. We construct a time-reversal symmetric Z2 spin liquid in two spatial dimensions using an array of quantum wires. We identify the anyons as kinks in the appropriate Luttinger-liquid description, compute their mutual statistics, and construct local operators that transport these quasiparticles. We also present a construction of a fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) by coupling the spin sector of the Z2 spin liquid to a Fermi liquid via a Kondo-like coupling.

  13. Coherent structures in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huld, T.; Nielsen, A.H.; Pécseli, H.L.;

    1991-01-01

    -band turbulent fluctuations is demonstrated by a conditional sampling technique. Depending on plasma parameters, the dominant structures can appear as monopole or multipole vortices, dipole vortices in particular. The importance of large structures for the turbulent plasma diffusion is discussed. A statistical...... analysis of the randomly varying plasma flux is presented....

  14. Long-range ordering of topological excitations in a two-dimensional superfluid far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hayder; Maestrini, Davide

    2016-10-01

    We study the relaxation of a two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Bose gas from a nonequilibrium initial state containing vortex excitations in experimentally realizable square and rectangular traps. We show that the subsystem of vortex gas excitations results in the spontaneous emergence of a coherent superfluid flow with a nonzero coarse-grained vorticity field. The stream function of this emergent quasiclassical 2D flow is governed by a Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This equation reveals that maximum entropy states of a neutral vortex gas that describe the spectral condensation of energy can be classified into types of flow depending on whether or not the flow spontaneously acquires angular momentum. Numerical simulations of a neutral point vortex model and a Bose gas governed by the 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a square reveal that a large-scale monopole flow field with net angular momentum emerges that is consistent with predictions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results allow us to characterize the spectral energy condensate in a 2D quantum fluid that bears striking similarity to similar flows observed in experiments of 2D classical turbulence. By deforming the square into a rectangular region, the resulting maximum entropy state switches to a dipolar flow field with zero net angular momentum.

  15. Stable topological modes in two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau models with trapping potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalache, D; Skarka, V; Malomed, B A; Leblond, H; Aleksić, N B; Lederer, F

    2010-01-01

    Complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) models of laser media (with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity) do not contain an effective diffusion term, which makes all vortex solitons unstable in these models. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the addition of a two-dimensional periodic potential, which may be induced by a transverse grating in the laser cavity, to the CGL equation stabilizes compound (four-peak) vortices, but the most fundamental "crater-shaped" vortices (CSVs), alias vortex rings, which are, essentially, squeezed into a single cell of the potential, have not been found before in a stable form. In this work we report families of stable compact CSVs with vorticity S=1 in the CGL model with the external potential of two different types: an axisymmetric parabolic trap, and the periodic potential. In both cases, we identify stability region for the CSVs and for the fundamental solitons (S=0). Those CSVs which are unstable in the axisymmetric potential break up into robust dipoles. All the vortices with S=2 a...

  16. Coherent vortical structures in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Coutsias, E.A.; Huld, T.;

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the nonlinear saturated stage of the cross-field electrostatic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly magnetized plasma. The presence of large vortex-like structures in a background of wide-band turbulent fluctuations was demonstrated...... simulations. The importance of the large scale structures for the turbulent plasma transport across magnetic field lines was analyzed in detail....

  17. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Harold H.; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M.; Kung, Mayfair C.

    2016-05-31

    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  18. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C

    2013-10-08

    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  19. Two-dimensional bismuth-silver structures on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, N. V.; Chukurov, E. N.; Luniakov, Yu. V.; Utas, O. A.; Azatyan, S. G.; Yakovlev, A. A.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observations, it has been found that deposition of 0.8-1.3 monolayer of Ag onto the mixed Si(111)α - √ 3 × √ 3 / β - √ 3 × √ 3-Bi surfaces followed by annealing at 150-250°C induces formation of new ordered and quasi-ordered (Bi,Ag)/Si(111) metastable structures, √ 19 × √ 19, 4 × 4, 2 √ 3 × 2 √ 3, and ‘3 √ 3 × 3√3’. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy has demonstrated that the 2√3 × 2√3 structure is semiconducting, while the √19 × √19 and 4 × 4 structures are metallic. Structural models of the √19 × √19 and 4 × 4 have been proposed based on placing a single Ag(111)1 × 1 layer with selected Ag atoms being substituted for Bi atoms onto the bulk-like Si(111)1 × 1 surface. The models have been proved with DFT calculations and comparison of simulated and experimental STM images. Calculated band structure of the Si(111)4 × 4 structure displays a spin-split metallic surface-state band with splitting of ∆k ≈ 0.002 Å- 1 and ∆E ≈ 10 meV in the vicinity of the Fermi level.

  20. Solitary wave propagation through two-dimensional treelike structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, William J; Sen, Surajit

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that a velocity perturbation can travel through a mass spring chain with strongly nonlinear interactions as a solitary and antisolitary wave pair. In recent years, nonlinear wave propagation in 2D structures have also been explored. Here we first consider the propagation of such a velocity perturbation for cases where the system has a 2D "Y"-shaped structure. Here each of the three pieces that make up the "Y" are made of a small mass spring chain. In addition, we consider a case where multiple "Y"-shaped structures are used to generate a "tree." We explore the early time dynamical behavior associated with the propagation of a velocity perturbation initiated at the trunk and at the extremities for both cases. We are looking for the energy transmission properties from one branch to another of these "Y"-shaped structures. Our dynamical simulations suggest the following broad observations: (i) for strongly nonlinear interactions, mechanical energy propagation resembles pulse propagation with the energy propagation being dispersive in the linear case; (ii) for strong nonlinear interactions, the tree-like structure acts as an energy gate showing preference for large perturbations in the system while the behavior of the linear case shows no such preference, thereby suggesting that such structures can possibly act as switches that activate at sufficiently high energies. The study aspires to develop insights into the nature of nonlinear wave propagation through a network of linear chains.

  1. Zero-energy states bound to a magnetic {pi}-flux vortex in a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesaros, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.mesaros@bc.edu [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Slager, Robert-Jan; Zaanen, Jan; Juricic, Vladimir [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-02-21

    We show that the existence of a pair of zero-energy modes bound to a vortex carrying a {pi}-flux is a generic feature of the topologically non-trivial phase of the M-B model, which was introduced to describe the topological band insulator in HgTe quantum wells. We explicitly find the form of the zero-energy states of the corresponding Dirac equation, which contains a novel momentum-dependent mass term and describes a generic topological transition in a band insulator. The obtained modes are exponentially localized in the vortex-core, with the dependence of characteristic length on the parameters of the model matching the dependence extracted from a lattice version of the model. We consider in full generality the short-distance regularization of the vector potential of the vortex, and show that a particular choice yields the modes localized and simultaneously regular at the origin. Finally, we also discuss a realization of two-dimensional spin-charge separation through the vortex zero-modes.

  2. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional shuffled foams: geometry-topology correlation in small or large disorder limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marc; Kraynik, Andrew M; van Swol, Frank; Käfer, Jos; Quilliet, Catherine; Cox, Simon; Ataei Talebi, Shirin; Graner, François

    2014-06-01

    Bubble monolayers are model systems for experiments and simulations of two-dimensional packing problems of deformable objects. We explore the relation between the distributions of the number of bubble sides (topology) and the bubble areas (geometry) in the low liquid fraction limit. We use a statistical model [M. Durand, Europhys. Lett. 90, 60002 (2010)] which takes into account Plateau laws. We predict the correlation between geometrical disorder (bubble size dispersity) and topological disorder (width of bubble side number distribution) over an extended range of bubble size dispersities. Extensive data sets arising from shuffled foam experiments, surface evolver simulations, and cellular Potts model simulations all collapse surprisingly well and coincide with the model predictions, even at extremely high size dispersity. At moderate size dispersity, we recover our earlier approximate predictions [M. Durand, J. Kafer, C. Quilliet, S. Cox, S. A. Talebi, and F. Graner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 168304 (2011)]. At extremely low dispersity, when approaching the perfectly regular honeycomb pattern, we study how both geometrical and topological disorders vanish. We identify a crystallization mechanism and explore it quantitatively in the case of bidisperse foams. Due to the deformability of the bubbles, foams can crystallize over a larger range of size dispersities than hard disks. The model predicts that the crystallization transition occurs when the ratio of largest to smallest bubble radii is 1.4.

  3. A new structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group V elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    The elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and black phosphorus have attracted considerable attention due to their fascinating physical properties. Structurally they possess the honeycomb or distorted honeycomb lattices, which are composed of six-atom rings. Here we find a new structure of 2D allotropes of group V elements composed of eight-atom rings, which we name as the octagonal tiling (OT) structure. First-principles calculations indicate that these allotropes are dynamically stable and are also thermally stable at temperatures up to 600 K. These allotropes are semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 eV, thus they are potentially useful in near- and mid-infrared optoelectronic devices. OT-Bi is also a 2D topological insulator (TI) with a band gap of 0.33 eV, which is the largest among the reported elemental 2D TIs, and this gap can be increased further by applying compressive strains.

  4. On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Davoodi, Pooya; Rao, S. Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    the space and query time of the problem. We show that every algorithm enabled to access A during the query and using a data structure of size O(N/c) bits requires Ω(c) query time, for any c where 1≤c≤N. This lower bound holds for arrays of any dimension. In particular, for the one dimensional version...... of the problem, the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits which can be preprocessed in O(N) time to support O(clog 2 c) query time. For c=O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using a data...... structure of optimal size O(N) bits. For the case where queries can not probe A, we give a data structure of size O(N⋅min {m,log n}) bits with O(1) query time, assuming m≤n. This leaves a gap to the space lower bound of Ω(Nlog m) bits for this version of the problem...

  5. Two-Dimensional Dirac Fermions in a Topological Insulator: Transport in the Quantum Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, J.G.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; McDonald, R.D.; /Los Alamos; Riggs, S.C.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Chu, J.-H.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Boebinger, G.S.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Fisher, I.R.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    Pulsed magnetic fields of up to 55T are used to investigate the transport properties of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the extreme quantum limit. For samples with a bulk carrier density of n = 2.9 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, the lowest Landau level of the bulk 3D Fermi surface is reached by a field of 4T. For fields well beyond this limit, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations arising from quantization of the 2D surface state are observed, with the {nu} = 1 Landau level attained by a field of {approx} 35T. These measurements reveal the presence of additional oscillations which occur at fields corresponding to simple rational fractions of the integer Landau indices.

  6. On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rao, S. Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    , the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits additional space which can be preprocessed in O(N) time and achieves O(clog2 c) query time. For c = O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using...... optimal O(N) bits additional space. For the case where queries can not probe A, we give a data structure of size O(N· min {m,logn}) bits with O(1) query time, assuming m ≤ n. This leaves a gap to the lower bound of Ω(Nlogm) bits for this version of the problem....

  7. STRUCTURE OF KELLER MAPPINGS, TWO-DIMENSIONAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Starkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Keller map is a polynomial mapping ƒ : Rⁿ → Rⁿ (or Cⁿ → Cⁿ with the Jacobian J_ƒ ≡ const ≠ 0. The Jacobian conjecture was first formulated by O. N. Keller in 1939. In the modern form it supposes injectivity of a Keller map. Earlier, in the case n = 2, the author gave a complete description of Keller maps with deg ƒ ≤ 3. This paper is devoted to the description of Keller maps for which deg ƒ ≤ 4. Significant differences between these two cases are revealed, which, in particular, indicate the irregular structure of Keller maps even in the case of n = 2.

  8. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  9. Electronic structure of boron based single and multi-layer two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Itsuki; Takahashi, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Two dimensional nanosheets based on boron and Group VA elements are designed and characterized using first principles calculations. B-N, B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi are found to possess honeycomb structures where formation energies indicate exothermic reactions. Contrary to B-N, the cases of B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi nanosheets are calculated to possess narrow band gaps. In addition, calculations reveal that the electronegativity difference between B and Group VA elements in the designed materials is a good indicator to predict the charge transfer and band gap of the two dimensional materials. Hydrogen adsorption over defect-free B-Sb and B-Bi results in exothermic reactions, while defect-free B-N, B-P, and B-As result in endothermic reactions. The layerability of the designed two dimensional materials is also investigated where the electronic structure of two-layered two dimensional materials is strongly coupled with how the two dimensional materials are layered. Thus, one can consider that the properties of two dimensional materials can be controlled by the composition of two dimensional materials and the structure of layers.

  10. High-Throughput Computational Design of Advanced Functional Materials: Topological Insulators and Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kesong

    As a rapidly growing area of materials science, high-throughput (HT) computational materials design is playing a crucial role in accelerating the discovery and development of novel functional materials. In this presentation, I will first introduce the strategy of HT computational materials design, and take the HT discovery of topological insulators (TIs) as a practical example to show the usage of such an approach. Topological insulators are one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. Here I will show that, by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository aflowlib.org, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. Next, I will talk about our recent research work on the HT computational design of the perovskite-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. The 2DEG formed on the perovskite oxide heterostructure (HS) has potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In order to achieve practical implementation of the 2DEG in the device design, desired physical properties such as high charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. Here I show that, using the same strategy with the HT discovery of TIs, by introducing a series of combinatorial descriptors, we have successfully identified a series of candidate 2DEG systems based on the perovskite oxides. This work provides another exemplar of applying HT computational design approach for the discovery of advanced functional materials.

  11. Topology of large-scale structure. IV - Topology in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Cohen, Alexander P.; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Weinberg, David H.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, an algorithm was developed for quantitatively measuring the topology of the large-scale structure of the universe and this algorithm was applied to numerical models and to three-dimensional observational data sets. In this paper, it is shown that topological information can be derived from a two-dimensional cross section of a density field, and analytic expressions are given for a Gaussian random field. The application of a two-dimensional numerical algorithm for measuring topology to cross sections of three-dimensional models is demonstrated.

  12. Direct experimental visualization of the global Hamiltonian progression of two-dimensional Lagrangian flow topologies from integrable to chaotic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, O; Speetjens, M F M; Metcalfe, G; Clercx, H J H

    2015-10-01

    Countless theoretical/numerical studies on transport and mixing in two-dimensional (2D) unsteady flows lean on the assumption that Hamiltonian mechanisms govern the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers. However, experimental studies specifically investigating said mechanisms are rare. Moreover, they typically concern local behavior in specific states (usually far away from the integrable state) and generally expose this indirectly by dye visualization. Laboratory experiments explicitly addressing the global Hamiltonian progression of the Lagrangian flow topology entirely from integrable to chaotic state, i.e., the fundamental route to efficient transport by chaotic advection, appear non-existent. This motivates our study on experimental visualization of this progression by direct measurement of Poincaré sections of passive tracer particles in a representative 2D time-periodic flow. This admits (i) accurate replication of the experimental initial conditions, facilitating true one-to-one comparison of simulated and measured behavior, and (ii) direct experimental investigation of the ensuing Lagrangian dynamics. The analysis reveals a close agreement between computations and observations and thus experimentally validates the full global Hamiltonian progression at a great level of detail.

  13. Direct experimental visualization of the global Hamiltonian progression of two-dimensional Lagrangian flow topologies from integrable to chaotic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskan, O.; Clercx, H. J. H [Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Speetjens, M. F. M. [Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Metcalfe, G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria 3190 (Australia); Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Countless theoretical/numerical studies on transport and mixing in two-dimensional (2D) unsteady flows lean on the assumption that Hamiltonian mechanisms govern the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers. However, experimental studies specifically investigating said mechanisms are rare. Moreover, they typically concern local behavior in specific states (usually far away from the integrable state) and generally expose this indirectly by dye visualization. Laboratory experiments explicitly addressing the global Hamiltonian progression of the Lagrangian flow topology entirely from integrable to chaotic state, i.e., the fundamental route to efficient transport by chaotic advection, appear non-existent. This motivates our study on experimental visualization of this progression by direct measurement of Poincaré sections of passive tracer particles in a representative 2D time-periodic flow. This admits (i) accurate replication of the experimental initial conditions, facilitating true one-to-one comparison of simulated and measured behavior, and (ii) direct experimental investigation of the ensuing Lagrangian dynamics. The analysis reveals a close agreement between computations and observations and thus experimentally validates the full global Hamiltonian progression at a great level of detail.

  14. Correspondence between the contracted BTZ solution of cosmological topological massive gravity and two-dimensional Galilean conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M R; Kamali, V, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: vkamali1362@gmail.com [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-07

    We show that a BTZ black hole solution of cosmological topological massive gravity has a hidden conformal symmetry. In this regard, we consider the wave equation of a massless scalar field propagating in BTZ spacetime and find that the wave equation could be written in terms of the SL(2, R) quadratic Casimir. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual conformal field theories (CFTs) could be read directly. Moreover, we compute the microscopic entropy of the dual CFT by the Cardy formula and find a perfect match to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a BTZ black hole. Then, we consider Galilean conformal algebras (GCA), which arises as a contraction of relativistic conformal algebras (x {yields} {epsilon}x, t {yields} t, {epsilon} {yields} 0). We show that there is a correspondence between GCA{sub 2} on the boundary and contracted BTZ in the bulk. For this purpose we obtain the central charges and temperatures of GCA{sub 2}. Then, we compute the microscopic entropy of the GCA{sub 2} by the Cardy formula and find a perfect match to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a BTZ black hole in a non-relativistic limit. The absorption cross section of a near-region scalar field also matches the microscopic absorption cross section of the dual GCA{sub 2}. So we find further evidence that shows correspondence between a contracted BTZ black hole and two-dimensional GCA.

  15. Photonic Band Gap Structures with Periodically Arranged Atoms in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Yu; CHEN Fang; ZHOU Jian-Ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ Linear transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for a new two-dimensional photonic crystal with periodically arranged resonant atoms are examined. Numerical results show that a twin-gap structure with forbidden bands displaced from a non-doped bandgap structure can be produced as a result of atomic polarization. The absorption spectrum is also significantly altered compared to the single atom entity.

  16. Direct Measurement of the Band Structure of a Buried Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miwa, Jill; Hofmann, Philip; Simmons, Michelle Y.;

    2013-01-01

    We directly measure the band structure of a buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The buried 2DEG forms 2 nm beneath the surface of p-type silicon, because of a dense delta-type layer of phosphorus n-type dopants which have been placed there. ...

  17. Two-Dimensional Structure of Disulfides and Thiols on Gold(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, Gabriele; Schönherr, Holger; Jaschke, Manfred; Wolf, Heiko; Schaub, Matthias; Kuther, Jörg; Tremel, Wolfgang; Bamberg, Ernst; Ringsdorf, Helmut; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    1998-01-01

    In order to find factors which determine the two-dimensional structure of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), several classes of thiols and disulfides on gold (111) have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). SAMs were formed from a series of symmetrical and asymmetrical diethylalkanoate

  18. Model for ballistic spin-transport in ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas/ferromagnet structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapers, T; Nitta, J; Heersche, HB; Takayanagi, H

    2002-01-01

    The spin dependent conductance of a ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas ferromagnet structure is theoretically examined in the ballistic transport regime. It is shown that the spin signal can be improved considerably by making use of the spin filtering effect of a barrier at the ferromagnet two

  19. Signatures of beta-sheet secondary structures in linear and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheatum, CM; Tokmakoff, A; Knoester, J

    2004-01-01

    Using idealized models for parallel and antiparallel beta sheets, we calculate the linear and two-dimensional infrared spectra of the amide I vibration as a function of size and secondary structure. The model assumes transition-dipole coupling between the amide I oscillators in the sheet and account

  20. Coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: quantitative analysis of protein secondary structure in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiz, Carlos R; Peng, Chunte Sam; Reppert, Mike E; Jones, Kevin C; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2012-04-21

    We present a method to quantitatively determine the secondary structure composition of globular proteins using coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy of backbone amide I vibrations (1550-1720 cm(-1)). Sixteen proteins with known crystal structures were used to construct a library of 2DIR spectra, and the fraction of residues in α-helix, β-sheet, and unassigned conformations was determined by singular value decomposition (SVD) of the measured two-dimensional spectra. The method was benchmarked by removing each individual protein from the set and comparing the composition extracted from 2DIR against the composition determined from the crystal structures. To highlight the increased structural content extracted from 2DIR spectra a similar analysis was also carried out using conventional infrared absorption of the proteins in the library.

  1. Adaptivity techniques for the computation of two-dimensional viscous flows using structured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmelter, J.; Evans, A.; Weatherill, N. P.

    In this paper three different adaptivity techniques have been investigated on the base of structured meshes. All the techniques indicate the significance of using adaptivity for improving computational results. In particular, the technique of combining point enrichment and node movement strategies offers the best compromise. Although, the work presented here used two-dimensional structured meshes, the techniques can be readily applied to hybrid and unstructured meshes. Also, preliminary three-dimensional numerical results have been already obtained by coauthors.

  2. A numerical method for three-dimensional vortical structure of spiral vortex in wind turbine with two-dimensional velocity data at plural azimuthal angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsuyuki; Mizushima, Lucas Dias; Murata, Junsuke; Maeda, Takao

    2016-06-01

    A numerical method is presented to extract three-dimensional vortical structure of a spiral vortex (wing tip vortex) in a wind turbine, from two-dimensional velocity data at several azimuthal angles. This numerical method contributes to analyze a vortex observed in experiment where three-dimensional velocity field is difficult to be measured. This analysis needs two-dimensional velocity data in parallel planes at different azimuthal angles of a rotating blade, which facilitates the experiment since the angle of the plane does not change. The vortical structure is specified in terms of the invariant flow topology derived from eigenvalues and eigenvectors of three-dimensional velocity gradient tensor and corresponding physical properties. In addition, this analysis enables to investigate not only vortical flow topology but also important vortical features such as pressure minimum and vortex stretching that are derived from the three-dimensional velocity gradient tensor.

  3. Optical gaps, mode patterns and dipole radiation in two-dimensional aperiodic photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Gopinath, Ashwin; Negro, Luca Dal

    2009-05-01

    Based on the rigorous generalized Mie theory solution of Maxwell's equations for dielectric cylinders we theoretically investigate the optical properties of two-dimensional deterministic structures based on the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro aperiodic sequences. In particular, we investigate bandgap formation and mode localization properties in aperiodic photonic structures based on the accurate calculation of their local density of states (LDOS). In addition, we explore the potential of photonic structures based on aperiodic order for the engineering of radiative rates and emission patterns in erbium-doped silicon-rich nitride photonic structures.

  4. Structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 刘艳红; 陈雁萍; 杨思泽; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    The structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma have been investigated in detail by molecular dynamics simulation. Pair correlation function, static structure factor, mean square displacement, and bond angle correlation function have been calculated to characterize the structural properties. The variation of internal energy, shear modulus, particle trajectories and structural properties with temperature has been monitored to study the phase transition of the 2D dusty plasma system. The simulation results are in favour of a two-step continuous transition for this kind of plasma.

  5. Structural information in two-dimensional patterns: entropy convergence and excess entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David P; Crutchfield, James P

    2003-05-01

    We develop information-theoretic measures of spatial structure and pattern in more than one dimension. As is well known, the entropy density of a two-dimensional configuration can be efficiently and accurately estimated via a converging sequence of conditional entropies. We show that the manner in which these conditional entropies converge to their asymptotic value serves as a measure of global correlation and structure for spatial systems in any dimension. We compare and contrast entropy convergence with mutual-information and structure-factor techniques for quantifying and detecting spatial structure.

  6. Surface Plasmon Polaritons of Two-Dimensional Three-Order Dendritic Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏凤; 周鲁卫

    2011-01-01

    We study surface plasmon polaritons excited on two-dimensional three-order dendritic structures. Previous studies show that split ring resonators (SRRs) can be used to obtain magnetic resonance, thus sustairdng surface waves behaving like surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). In this paper, we obtain detailed results on surface plasmon polaritons of several different grating structures and theoretically prove that this kind of structures can sustain SPPs. Besides, since dendritic structures can be fabricated by double template-assisted electrochemical deposition, it is worth noting that fabrication of SPP-based materials might be much easier.

  7. Two dimensional structural analysis of reactor fuel element claddings due to local effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, R; Wolf, L

    1978-04-01

    Two dimensional thermoelastic and inelastic stresses and deformation of typical LWR (PWR) and LMFBR (CRBR) claddings are evaluated by utilizing the following codes, for (1) Thermoelastic analysis (a) STRESS Code (b) SEGPIPE Code (2) Thermoinelastic analysis (a) Modified version of the GOGO code (b) One dimensional GRO-II code. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the effect of various local perturbations in the clad temperature field, namely eccentrically mounted fuel pellet, clad ovality, power tilt across the fuel and clad-coolant heat transfer variation on the cladding stress and deformation. In view of the fact that the thermoelastic analysis is always the first logical choice entering the structural field, it was decided to start the analysis with the two dimensional codes such as STRESS and SEGPIPE. Later, in order to assess the validity and compare the thermoelastic results to those obtained for actual reactor conditions, a two dimensional code, namely a modified version of the GOGO code, was used to account for inelastic effects such as irradiation and thermal creep and swelling in the evaluation. The comparison of thermoelastic and inelastic results shows that the former can be used effectively to analyze LWR fuel pin over 350 hours of lifetime under the most adverse condition and 500 hours of lifetime for an LMFBR fuel pin. Beyond that the inelastic solution must be used. The impact of the individual thermal perturbation and combinations thereof upon the structural quantity is also shown. Finally, the effect of rod displacement on the two dimensional thermal and structural quantities of the LMFBR fuel pin cladding is analyzed.

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of two-dimensional hierarchical covellite nano-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Nirupam, E-mail: n.banerjee@utwente.nl [Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Krupanidhi, S.B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2012-12-14

    We report a simple, template free and low-temperature hydrothermal reaction pathway using Cu(II) - thiourea complex (prepared in situ from copper (II) chloride and thiourea as precursors) and citric acid as complexing agent to synthesize two-dimensional hierarchical nano-structures of covellite (CuS). The product was characterized with the help of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The concentration of citric acid in the hydrothermal precursor solution was seen to have a profound effect on the nanostructure of the product generated. Based on the outcoming product nano-architecture at different concentration of the ionic surfactant in the hydrothermal precursor solution a possible mechanism suited for reaction and further nucleation is also discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel reaction scheme is proposed for synthesizing covellite 2D nano-structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanostructures were thoroughly characterized, both structurally and chemically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Through variation of synthetic parameters a general growth mechanism is proposed.

  9. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different dielectric materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E D V Nagesh; G Santosh Babu; V Subramanian; V Sivasubramanian; V R K Murthy

    2005-12-01

    We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The selected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen are PTFE ( = 2.1), PVC ( = 2.38) and glass ( = 5.5). Using the plane-wave expansion method, proper lattice spacing is selected for each structure and material. The observed experimental results are analyzed with the help of the theoretical prediction.

  10. A study of frequency band structure in two-dimensional homogeneous anisotropic phononic K3-metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, V. N.; Navadeh, N.; Fallah, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Phononic metamaterials are synthesised materials in which locally resonant units are arranged in a particular geometry of a substratum lattice and connected in a predefined topology. This study investigates dispersion surfaces in two-dimensional anisotropic acoustic metamaterials involving mass-in-mass units connected by massless springs in K3 topology. The reasons behind the particular choice of this topology are explained. Two sets of solutions for the eigenvalue problem | {\\boldsymbol{D}}({ω }2,{\\boldsymbol{k}})| =0 are obtained and the existence of absolutely different mechanisms of gap formation between acoustic and optical surface frequencies is shown as a bright display of quantum effects like strong coupling, energy splitting, and level crossings in classical mechanical systems. It has been concluded that a single dimensionless parameter i.e. relative mass controls the order of formation of gaps between different frequency surfaces. If the internal mass of the locally resonant mass-in-mass unit, m, increases relative to its external mass, M, then the coupling between the internal and external vibrations in the whole system rises sharply, and a threshold {μ }* is reached so that for m/M> {μ }* the optical vibrations break the continuous spectrum of ‘acoustic phonons’ creating the gap between them for any value of other system parameters. The methods to control gap parameters and polarisation properties of the optical vibrations created over these gaps were investigated. Dependencies of morphology and width of gaps for several anisotropic cases have been expounded and the physical meaning of singularity at the point of tangential contact between two adjacent frequency surfaces has been provided. Repulsion between different frequency band curves, as planar projections of surfaces, has been explained. The limiting case of isotropy has been discussed and it has been shown that, in the isotropic case, the lower gap always forms, irrespective of the value

  11. Two-dimensional dynamics of a free molecular chain with a secondary structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional (2D) model of an isolated (free) molecular chain with primary and secondary structures has been suggested and investigated both analytically and numerically. This model can be considered as the simplest generalization of the well-known Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model...... of an anharmonic chain in order to include transverse degrees of freedom of the chain molecules. Both the structures are provided by the first- and second-neighbor intermolecular bonds, respectively, resulting in a regular zig-zag (''20 helix'') chain on a plane. The set of two coupled nonlinear field equations...

  12. Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-09-15

    We study numerically and experimentally magnetic metamaterials based on cut-wire pairs instead of split-ring resonators. The cut-wire pair planar structure is extended in order to create a truly two-dimensional metamaterial suitable for scaling to optical frequencies. We fabricate the cut-wire metamaterial operating at microwave frequencies with lattice spacing around 10% of the free-space wavelength, and find good agreement with direct numerical simulations. Unlike the structures based on split-ring resonators, the nearest-neighbor coupling in cut-wire pairs can result in a magnetic stop-band with propagation in the transverse direction.

  13. Dirac Cones, Topological Edge States, and Nontrivial Flat Bands in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors with a Honeycomb Nanogeometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalesaki, E.; Delerue, C.; de Morais Smith, C.; Beugeling, W.; Allan, G.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study theoretically two-dimensional single-crystalline sheets of semiconductors that form a honeycomb lattice with a period below 10 nm. These systems could combine the usual semiconductor properties with Dirac bands. Using atomistic tight-binding calculations, we show that both the atomic lattic

  14. Wave transmission through two-dimensional structures by the hybrid FE/WFE approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Giannoula; Ferguson, Neil; Renno, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The knowledge of the wave transmission and reflection characteristics in connected two-dimensional structures provides the necessary background for many engineering prediction methodologies. Extensive efforts have previously been exerted to investigate the propagation of waves in two-dimensional periodic structures. This work focuses on the analysis of the wave propagation and the scattering properties of joined structures comprising of two or more plates. The joint is modelled using the finite element (FE) method whereas each (of the joined) plate(s) is modelled using the wave and finite element (WFE) method. This latter approach is based on post-processing a standard FE model of a small segment of the plate using periodic structure theory; the FE model of the segment can be obtained using any commercial/in-house FE package. Stating the equilibrium and continuity conditions at the interfaces and expressing the motion in the plates in terms of the waves in each plate yield the reflection and transmission matrices of the joint. These can then be used to obtain the response of the whole structure, as well as investigating the frequency and incidence dependence for the flow of power in the system.

  15. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  16. T-shaped polarization beam splitter based on two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlan; Shen, Hongjun; Li, Ting; Liu, Jie; Huang, Xianjian

    2016-12-01

    A T-shaped polarization beam splitter based on two-dimensional photonic crystal is proposed, which is composed of three waveguides: one input and two output. Unpolarized beams incident from the input port will be separated into two different polarization modes and outputted individually by two different coupling structures. Simulation results can be obtained by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In the normalized frequency range of 0.3456 extinction ratio is all 30dB for both modes. The polarization beam splitter attains the requirement we expected by analyzing simulation results.

  17. Flexural vibration band gaps in thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Dian-Long; Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Qiu Jing

    2006-01-01

    The complete flexural vibration band gaps are studied in the thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures, i.e. the composite plate consisting of soft rubber cylindrical inclusions periodically placed in a host material. Numerical simulations show that the low-frequency gaps of flexural wave exist in the thin plates. The width of the first gap decreases monotonically as the matrix density increases. The frequency response of the finite periodic thin plates is simulated by the finite element method, which provides attenuations of over 20dB in the frequency range of the band gaps. The findings will be significant in the application of phononic crystals.

  18. Band gap structures in two-dimensional super porous phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Xiu-zhan; Chen, Shao-ting

    2013-02-01

    As one kind of new linear cellular alloys (LCAs), Kagome honeycombs, which are constituted by triangular and hexagonal cells, attract great attention due to the excellent performance compared to the ordinary ones. Instead of mechanical investigation, the in-plane elastic wave dispersion in Kagome structures are analyzed in this paper aiming to the multi-functional application of the materials. Firstly, the band structures in the common two-dimensional (2D) porous phononic structures (triangular or hexagonal honeycombs) are discussed. Then, based on these results, the wave dispersion in Kagome honeycombs is given. Through the component cell porosity controlling, the effects of component cells on the whole responses of the structures are investigated. The intrinsic relation between the component cell porosity and the critical porosity of Kagome honeycombs is established. These results will provide an important guidance in the band structure design of super porous phononic crystals.

  19. Photodetectors Based on Two-Dimensional Layer-Structured Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiachen; Chu, Yingli; Huang, Jia

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid lead iodide perovskite semiconductors have attracted intense research interests recently because of their easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies in photovoltaic applications. Layer-structured materials have interesting properties such as quantum confinement effect and tunable band gap due to the unique two-dimensional crystalline structures. ⟨100⟩-oriented layer-structured perovskite materials are inherited from three-dimensional ABX3 perovskite materials with a generalized formula of (RNH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1MnX3n+1, and adopt the Ruddlesden-Popper type crystalline structure. Here we report the synthesis and investigation of three layer-structured perovskite materials with different layer numbers: (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1, one-layered perovskite), (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7 (n = 2, two-layered perovskite) and (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)2Pb3I10 (n = 3, three-layered perovskite). Their photoelectronic properties were investigated in related to their molecular structures. Photodetectors based on these two-dimensional (2D) layer-structured perovskite materials showed tunable photoresponse with short response time in milliseconds. The photodetectors based on three-layered perovskite showed better performances than those of the other two devices, in terms of output current, responsivity, Ilight/Idark ratio, and response time, because of its smaller optical band gap and more condensed microstructure comparing the other two materials. These results revealed the relationship between the molecular structures, film microstructures and the photoresponse properties of 2D layer-structured hybrid perovskites, and demonstrated their potentials as flexible, functional, and tunable semiconductors in optoelectronic applications, by taking advantage of their tunable quantum well molecular structure.

  20. Investigating protein structure and folding with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiz, Carlos; Peng, Chunte; Reppert, Michael; Jones, Kevin; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2012-02-01

    We present a new technique to quantitatively determine the secondary structure composition of proteins in solution based on ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. The percentage of residues in alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and unstructured conformations is extracted from a principal component analysis of the measured amide-I 2DIR spectra. We benchmark the method against a library of commercially-available proteins by comparing the predicted structure compositions with the x-ray crystal structures. The new technique offers sub-picosecond time resolution, and can be used to study systems that are difficult to study with conventional methods such as gels, intrinsically disordered peptides, fibers, and aggregates. We use the technique to investigate the structural changes and timescales associated with folding and denaturing of small proteins via equilibrium and transient temperature-jump 2DIR spectroscopy.

  1. Two-dimensional structure in a generic model of triangular proteins and protein trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Philip J; Duncan, Peter D

    2006-04-01

    Motivated by the diversity and complexity of two-dimensional (2D) crystals formed by triangular proteins and protein trimers, we have investigated the structures and phase behavior of hard-disk trimers. In order to mimic specific binding interactions, each trimer possesses an "attractive" disk which can interact with similar disks on other trimers via an attractive square-well potential. At low density and low temperature, the fluid phase mainly consists of tetramers, pentamers, or hexamers. Hexamers provide the structural motif for a high-density, low-temperature periodic solid phase, but we also identify a metastable periodic structure based on a tetramer motif. At high density there is a transition between orientationally ordered and disordered solid phases. The connections between simulated structures and those of 2D protein crystals--as seen in electron microscopy--are briefly discussed.

  2. Dynamics and Structure of Disordered Peptides from Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Mike; Lessing, Joshua; Peng, Chunte; Jones, Kevin; Baiz, Carlos; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2012-02-01

    Two-dimensional infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the ultra-fast dynamics and association of complex biological macromolecules such as proteins and DNA. In addition to the improved spectral discrimination afforded by a two-dimensional spectrum, the ultra-fast time-resolution inherent to the technique provides unique insight (unobtainable by standard linear IR measurements) into the time-scales of macromolecular conformational fluctuations, particularly for intrinsically disordered systems. Here we discuss the use of accurate line shape modeling of peptide amide I vibrations as an advanced method for extracting structural and dynamic information from experimental spectra. The mixed quantum-classical model makes use of standard MD trajectories and a parametrized site energy and coupling map as inputs for excitonic calculations of the delocalized amide I vibrations. We present examples of the application of this method to extract site-specific structural information (such as hydrogen bond number and turn conformation) as well as insight into conformation dynamics and time-scales from experimental data for disordered peptides.

  3. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model. II The triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2016-12-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a triangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  4. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model, III. The hexagonal lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2017-02-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a hexagonal lattice which has the particular feature that need four types of dynamical variables. This example shows additional features to the general procedure and some extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  5. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun IM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  6. The mechanical and acoustic properties of two-dimensional pentamode metamaterials with different structural parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Zhigao; Zhao, Aiguo; Zhang, Xiangdong; Wu, Tao; Chen, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The effective mechanical and acoustic properties of two-dimensional pentamode metamaterials (PMs) with different structural parameters are investigated in this paper. It is found that with varying structural parameters, the effective bulk modulus and density remain constant as the same as those of water, while the figure of merit, i.e., the ratio of the bulk modulus to the shear modulus (B/G) gradually increases due to the decrease of the shear modulus. However, full wave simulations reveal that with the increase of B/G, the acoustic scattering becomes more and more intense, which indicates that the acoustic properties of pentamode metamaterials gradually deviate from those of water. These anomalous acoustic behaviors are proposed to arise from the existence of the bending modes in pentamode microstructures. Our results show that for pentamode metamaterials, the mechanical properties cannot be simply translated to their acoustic properties, and the structural parameters affect the mechanical and acoustic properties in much different ways.

  7. Validating two-dimensional leadership models on three-dimensionally structured fish schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Holbrook, Robert I.; Biro, Dora; Burt de Perera, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Identifying leader–follower interactions is crucial for understanding how a group decides where or when to move, and how this information is transferred between members. Although many animal groups have a three-dimensional structure, previous studies investigating leader–follower interactions have often ignored vertical information. This raises the question of whether commonly used two-dimensional leader–follower analyses can be used justifiably on groups that interact in three dimensions. To address this, we quantified the individual movements of banded tetra fish (Astyanax mexicanus) within shoals by computing the three-dimensional trajectories of all individuals using a stereo-camera technique. We used these data firstly to identify and compare leader–follower interactions in two and three dimensions, and secondly to analyse leadership with respect to an individual's spatial position in three dimensions. We show that for 95% of all pairwise interactions leadership identified through two-dimensional analysis matches that identified through three-dimensional analysis, and we reveal that fish attend to the same shoalmates for vertical information as they do for horizontal information. Our results therefore highlight that three-dimensional analyses are not always required to identify leader–follower relationships in species that move freely in three dimensions. We discuss our results in terms of the importance of taking species' sensory capacities into account when studying interaction networks within groups.

  8. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  9. Linear Two-Dimensional MHD of Accretion Disks: Crystalline structure and Nernst coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Montani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional MHD configurations characterising the steady state of the accretion disk on a highly magnetised neutron star. The model we describe has a local character and represents the extension of the crystalline structure outlined in Coppi (2005), dealing with a local model too, when a specific accretion rate is taken into account. We limit our attention to the linearised MHD formulation of the electromagnetic back-reaction characterising the equilibrium, by fixing the structure of the radial, vertical and azimuthal profiles. Since we deal with toroidal currents only, the consistency of the model is ensured by the presence of a small collisional effect, phenomenologically described by a non-zero constant Nernst coefficient (thermal power of the plasma). Such an effect provides a proper balance of the electron force equation via non zero temperature gradients, related directly to the radial and vertical velocity components. We show that the obtained profile has the typical oscillating feat...

  10. Study on electro-optic properties of two-dimensional PLZT photonic crystal band structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Kai; WU Xiao-gang; WANG Mei-ting

    2011-01-01

    The band characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) photonic cystals are analyzed by finite element method. The electro-optic effect of PLZT can cause the refractive index change when it is imposed by the applied electric field, and the band structure of 2D photonic crystals based on PLZT varies accordingly. The effect of the applied electric field on the structural characteristics of the first and second band gaps in 2D PLZT photonic crystals is analyzed in detail. And the results show that for each band gap, the variations of start wavelength, cut-off wavelength and bandwidth are proportional to quadratic of the electric field.

  11. The Two-dimensional ElectromagneticScattering from Periodic Chiral Structures and Its Finite Element Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德悦; 马富明

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the electromagnetic scattering from periodic chiral structures. The structure is periodic in one direction and invariant in another direction. The electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium are governed by the Maxwell equations together with the Drude-Born-Fedorov equations. We simplify the problem to a two-dimensional scattering problem and we show that for all but possibly a discrete set of wave numbers, there is a unique quasi-periodic weak solution to the diffraction problem. The diffraction problem can be solved by finite element method. We also establish uniform error estimates for the finite element method and the error estimates when the truncation of the nonlocal transparent boundary operators takes place.

  12. Ordered quasi-two-dimensional structure of nanoparticles in semiflexible ring polymer brushes under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yunfeng; Deng, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yangwei; Zhang, Linxi

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead-spring model of ring polymer brushes under compression are presented. Flexible polymer brushes are always disordered during compression, whereas semiflexible polymer brushes tend to be ordered under sufficiently strong compression. Further, the polymer monomer density of the semiflexible polymer brush is very high near the brush surface, inducing a peak value of the free energy near the surface. Therefore, when nanoparticles are compressed in semiflexible ring polymer brushes, they tend to exhibit a closely packed single-layer structure between the brush surface and the impenetrable wall, and a quasi-two-dimensional ordered structure near the brush surface is formed under strong compression. These findings provide a new approach to designing responsive applications.

  13. An Optical Power Divider Based on Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesri, Nazanin; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an optical power divider with one input and four outputs has been proposed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with triangular lattice and simulated using dielectric holes in an air substrate. The dividing properties of the power divider have been numerically simulated and analyzed using the plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The results show that the transmittance of this divider can be as high as 94.22 % for λ=1.55 µm; thus, the proposed structure is suitable for wavelength division multiplexing communication systems. Also, due to the small footprint of the proposed structure, this optical power divider is applicable for optical-integrated circuit design.

  14. Identification of the dynamics of a two-dimensional grid structure using least square lattice filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Sundararajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    The basic theory of least square lattice filters and their use in identification of structural dynamics systems is summarized. Thereafter, this theory is applied to a two-dimensional grid structure made of overlapping bars. Previously, this theory has been applied to an integral beam. System identification results are presented for both simulated and experimental tests and they are compared with those predicted using finite element modelling. The lattice filtering approach works well for simulated data based on finite element modelling. However, considerable discrepancy exists between estimates obtained from experimental data and the finite element analysis. It is believed that this discrepancy is the result of inadequacies in the finite element modelling to represent the damped motion of the laboratory apparatus.

  15. Two-dimensional silica: Structural, mechanical properties, and strain-induced band gap tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Enlai; Xie, Bo [Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Zhiping, E-mail: xuzp@tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Two-dimensional silica is of rising interests not only for its practical applications as insulating layers in nanoelectronics, but also as a model material to understand crystals and glasses. In this study, we examine structural and electronic properties of hexagonal and haeckelite phases of silica bilayers by performing first-principles calculations. We find that the corner-sharing SiO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in these two phases are locally similar. The robustness and resilience of these tetrahedrons under mechanical perturbation allow effective strain engineering of the electronic structures with band gaps covering a very wide range, from of that for insulators, to wide-, and even narrow-gap semiconductors. These findings suggest that the flexible 2D silica holds great promises in developing nanoelectronic devices with strain-tunable performance, and lay the ground for the understanding of crystalline and vitreous phases in 2D, where bilayer silica provides an ideal test-bed.

  16. Flexible Two-Dimensional Square-Grid Coordination Polymers: Structures and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Atsushi; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    Coordination polymers (CPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable attention because of the tunable diversity of structures and functions. A 4,4′-bipyridine molecule, which is a simple, linear, exobidentate, and rigid ligand molecule, can construct two-dimensional (2D) square grid type CPs. Only the 2D-CPs with appropriate metal cations and counter anions exhibit flexibility and adsorb gas with a gate mechanism and these 2D-CPs are called elastic layer-structured metal-organic frameworks (ELMs). Such a unique property can make it possible to overcome the dilemma of strong adsorption and easy desorption, which is one of the ideal properties for practical adsorbents. PMID:21152303

  17. Structures and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Confined Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; LIU Yan-Hong; WANG Long

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the confining potential strength and temperature on the structures and dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma system is investigated through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. The circular symmetric confining potential leads to the nonuniform packing of particles, that is, an inner core with a hexagon lattice surrounded by a few outer circular shells. Under the appropriate confining potential and temperature, the particle trajectories on middle shells form a series of concentric and nested hexagons due to tangential movements of particles.Mean square displacement, self-diffusion constant, pair correlation function, and the nearest bond are used to characterize the structural and dynamical properties of the system. With the increase of the confining potential, the radial and tangential movements of particles have different behaviors. With the increase of temperature, the radial and tangential motions strengthen, particle trajectories gradually become disordered, and the system gradually changes from a crystal or liquid state to a gas state.

  18. Flexible Two-Dimensional Square-Grid Coordination Polymers: Structures and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kajiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coordination polymers (CPs or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have attracted considerable attention because of the tunable diversity of structures and functions. A 4,4'-bipyridine molecule, which is a simple, linear, exobidentate, and rigid ligand molecule, can construct two-dimensional (2D square grid type CPs. Only the 2D-CPs with appropriate metal cations and counter anions exhibit flexibility and adsorb gas with a gate mechanism and these 2D-CPs are called elastic layer-structured metal-organic frameworks (ELMs. Such a unique property can make it possible to overcome the dilemma of strong adsorption and easy desorption, which is one of the ideal properties for practical adsorbents.

  19. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Teat, Simon J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.

  20. Structural analysis of a dipole system in two-dimensional channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgooie, Ramin; Doyle, Patrick S

    2004-12-01

    A system of magnetic dipoles in two-dimensional (2D) channels was studied using Brownian dynamics simulations. The dipoles interact with a purely repulsive r(-3) potential and are confined by two hard walls in one of the dimensions. Solid crystals were annealed in the 2D channels and the structural properties of the crystals were investigated. The long-ranged nature of the purely repulsive dipoles combined with the presence of hard walls led to structural deviations from the unbounded (infinite) 2D dipolar crystal. The structures in the channels were characterized by a high density of particles along the walls. The particles along the wall became increasingly localized as the channel width was increased. The spacing of the walls was important in determining the properties of the structures formed in the channel. Small changes in the width of the channel induced significant structural changes in the crystal. These structural changes were manifested in the density profiles, defect concentrations, and local bond-orientation order of the system. Oscillations in the structural properties were observed as the channel width was increased, indicating the existence of magic-number channel widths for this system. As the channel width was increased the properties of the confined system approached those of the unbounded system surprisingly slowly.

  1. Resolving molecular vibronic structure using high-sensitivity two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizimana, Laurie A.; Brazard, Johanna; Carbery, William P.; Gellen, Tobias; Turner, Daniel B., E-mail: dturner@nyu.edu [Department of Chemistry, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, New York 10003 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy is an emerging technique for resolving structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecules, proteins, semiconductors, and other materials. A current challenge is the quality of kinetics that are examined as a function of waiting time. Inspired by noise-suppression methods of transient absorption, here we incorporate shot-by-shot acquisitions and balanced detection into coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy. We demonstrate that implementing noise-suppression methods in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy not only improves the quality of features in individual spectra but also increases the sensitivity to ultrafast time-dependent changes in the spectral features. Measurements on cresyl violet perchlorate are consistent with the vibronic pattern predicted by theoretical models of a highly displaced harmonic oscillator. The noise-suppression methods should benefit research into coherent electronic dynamics, and they can be adapted to multidimensional spectroscopies across the infrared and ultraviolet frequency ranges.

  2. Synthesis and structure of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yumeng

    2015-07-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which enable them to be used as building blocks in compact and lightweight integrated electronic systems. The controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs is essential for their practical application. Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer TMDCs paves the way for practical production of various 2D TMDC layers. The intrinsic optical and electrical properties of monolayer TMDCs can be defined by stoichiometry during synthesis. By manipulating the lattice structure or layer stacking manner, it is possible to create atomically thin van der Waals materials with unique and unexplored physical properties. In this article, we review recent developments in the synthesis of TMDC monolayers, alloys, and heterostructures, which shine light on the design of novel TMDCs with desired functional properties.

  3. Calculation and analysis of complex band structure in dispersive and dissipative two-dimensional photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Brûlé, Yoann; Gralak, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Numerical calculation of modes in dispersive and absorptive systems is performed using the finite element method. The dispersion is tackled in the frame of an extension of Maxwell's equations where auxiliary fields are added to the electromagnetic field. This method is applied to multi-domain cavities and photonic crystals including Drude and Drude-Lorentz metals. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions for simple cavities and to previous results of the literature for photonic crystals, showing excellent agreement. The advantages of the developed method lie on the versatility of the finite element method regarding geometries, and in sparing the use of tedious complex poles research algorithm. Hence the complex spectrum of resonances of non-hermitian operators and dissipative systems, like two-dimensional photonic crystal made of absorbing Drude metal, can be investigated in detail. The method is used to reveal unexpected features of their complex band structures.

  4. Two-dimensional modeling of electrochemical and transport phenomena in the porous structures of a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraoui, Melik [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (IPEIT) (Tunisia); Kharrat, Chafik; Halouani, Kamel [UR: Micro-Electro-Thermal Systems (METS-ENIS), Industrial Energy Systems Group, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), University of Sfax, B.P: 1172, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-04-15

    A two-dimensional CFD model of PEM fuel cell is developed by taking into account the electrochemical, mass and heat transfer phenomena occurring in all of its regions simultaneously. The catalyst layers and membrane are each considered as distinct regions with finite thickness and calculated properties such as permeability, local protonic conductivity, and local dissolved water diffusion. This finite thickness model enables to model accurately the protonic current in these regions with higher accuracy than using an infinitesimal interface. In addition, this model takes into account the effect of osmotic drag in the membrane and catalyst layers. General boundary conditions are implemented in a way taking into consideration any given species concentration at the fuel cell inlet, such as water vapor which is a very important parameter in determining the efficiency of fuel cells. Other operating parameters such as temperature, pressure and porosity of the porous structure are also investigated to characterize their effect on the fuel cell efficiency. (author)

  5. Transport Properties of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Antiparallel Magnetic-Electric Barrier Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Yun-Xia; CHENG Ze

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically transport properties of two-dimensional electron gases through antiparallel magnetic electric barrier structures. Two kinds of magnetic barrier configurations are employed: one is that the strength of the double δ-function in opposite directions is equal and the other is that the strength is unequal. Similarities and differences of electronic transports are presented. It is found that the transmission and the conductance depend strongly on the shape of the magnetic barrier and the height of the electric barrier. The results indicate that this system does not possess any spin filtering and spin polarization and electron gases can realize perfect resonant tunneling and wave-vector filtering properties. Moreover, the strength of the effect of the inhomogeneous magnetic field on the transport properties is discussed.

  6. Two-dimensional NMR and structure determination of salmon calcitonin in methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, R.P.; Nikonowicz, E.P.; Jones, C.R.; Gorenstein, D.G. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Bastian, J.W.

    1991-02-05

    The structure of the 32-residue peptide salmon calcitonin (sCT) in 90% MeOH-10% H{sub 2}O has been investigated by two-dimensional NMR techniques and molecular modeling. Sequential assignments for nearly all of the 32 spin systems have been obtained, and results indicate that the heptaresidue loop formed by the disulfide bond between Cys-1 and Cys-7 is followed by an {alpha}-helical segment from Val-8 through Tyr-22. A region of conformational heterogeneity is observed for residues 20-25, resulting from the slow isomerism of the cis and trans forms of Pro-23. The C-terminal segment is found to exist in an extended conformation.

  7. Structure of the novel steroidal antibiotic squalamine determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrli, S L; Moore, K S; Roder, H; Durell, S; Zasloff, M

    1993-08-01

    Squalamine is a novel aminosterol recently isolated from the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble steroid exhibits potent antibacterial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. In addition, squalamine is fungicidal and induces osmotic lysis of protozoa. We report here the structural determination of squalamine, 3 beta-N-1-[N(3-[4-aminobutyl])-1,3 diaminopropane]-7 alpha,24 zeta-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestane 24-sulfate, which was deduced from the analysis of fast atom bombardment spectra and a series of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Squalamine is a cationic steroid characterized by a condensation of an anionic bile salt intermediate with the polyamine, spermidine. This molecule is a potential host-defense agent in the shark, and provides insight into a new class of vertebrate antimicrobial molecules.

  8. Poly[bis(N,N-dimethylformamidetris(μ4-trans-stilbene-4,4′-dicarboxylatotricadmium(II]: a two-dimensional network with an unusual 36 topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyungse Park

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cd3(C16H10O43(C3H7NO2]n or [Cd3(SDA3(DMF2]n (H2SDA is trans-stilbene-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid and DMF is dimethylformamide, the linear dicarboxylate ligand forms a two-dimensionally layered metal–organic network with the relatively uncommon 36 topology. The structure reveals trinuclear secondary building units and has an octahedral geometry at a central metal ion (occupying a overline{3} symmetry site and tetrahedral geometries at two surrounding symmetrically equivalent metal ions lying on a threefold axis. The six-connected planar trinuclear CdII centers, Cd3(O2CR6, play a role as potential nodes in generation of the relatively uncommon 36 topology. The coordinated DMF unit is disordered around the threefold axis.

  9. Negative refraction and imaging of acoustic waves in a two-dimensional square chiral lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    The negative refraction behavior and imaging effect for acoustic waves in a kind of two-dimensional square chiral lattice structure are studied in this paper. The unit cell of the proposed structure consists of four zigzag arms connected through a thin circular ring at the central part. The relation of the symmetry of the unit cell and the negative refraction phenomenon is investigated. Using the finite element method, we calculate the band structures and the equi-frequency surfaces of the system, and confirm the frequency range where the negative refraction is present. Due to the rotational symmetry of the unit cell, a phase difference is induced to the waves propagating from a point source through the structure to the other side. The phase difference is related to the width of the structure and the frequency of the source, so we can get a tunable deviated imaging. This kind of phenomenon is also demonstrated by the numerical simulation of two Gaussian beams that are symmetrical about the interface normal with the same incident angle, and the different negative refractive indexes are presented. Based on this special performance, a double-functional mirror-symmetrical slab is proposed for realizing acoustic focusing and beam separation.

  10. Disparate Strain Dependent Thermal Conductivity of Two-dimensional Penta-Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huake; Qin, Guangzhao; Lin, Yuan; Hu, Ming

    2016-06-08

    Two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope called penta-graphene was recently proposed from first-principles calculations and various similar penta-structures emerged. Despite significant effort having been dedicated to electronic structures and mechanical properties, little research has been focused on thermal transport in penta-structures. Motivated by this, we performed a comparative study of thermal transport properties of three representative pentagonal structures, namely penta-graphene, penta-SiC2, and penta-SiN2, by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with interatomic force constants extracted from first-principles calculations. Unexpectedly, the thermal conductivity of the three penta-structures exhibits diverse strain dependence, despite their very similar geometry structures. While the thermal conductivity of penta-graphene exhibits standard monotonic reduction by stretching, penta-SiC2 possesses an unusual nonmonotonic up-and-down behavior. More interestingly, the thermal conductivity of penta-SiN2 has 1 order of magnitude enhancement due to the strain induced buckled to planar structure transition. The mechanism governing the diverse strain dependence is identified as the competition between the change of phonon group velocity and phonon lifetime of acoustic phonon modes with combined effect from the unique structure transition for penta-SiN2. The disparate thermal transport behavior is further correlated to the fundamentally different bonding nature in the atomic structures with solid evidence from the distribution of deformation charge density and more in-depth molecular orbital analysis. The reported giant and robust tunability of thermal conductivity may inspire intensive research on other derivatives of penta-structures as potential materials for emerging nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study also solidifies the strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of broad 2D materials by simple mechanical

  11. Stability and electronic structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group-IV materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusalem, Filipe; Marques, Marcelo; Teles, Lara K.; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2015-07-01

    We study six different two-dimensional (2D) allotropes of carbon, silicon, germanium, and tin by means of the ab initio density functional theory for the ground state and approximate methods to calculate their electronic structures, including quasiparticle effects. Four of the investigated allotropes are based on dumbbell geometries, one on a kagome lattice, and one on the graphenelike hexagonal structure for comparison. Concerning carbon, our calculations of the cohesive energies clearly show that the hexagonal structure (graphene) is most stable. However, in the case of Si and Ge, the dumbbell structures, particularly the large honeycomb dumbbell (LHD) geometries, are energetically favored compared to the s p2/s p3 -bonded hexagonal lattice (i.e., silicene and germanene). The main reason for this is the opening of a band gap in the honeycomb dumbbell arrangements. The LHD sheet crystals represent indirect semiconductors with a K →Γ gap of about 0.5 eV. In the Sn case we predict the MoS2-like symmetry to be more stable, in contrast to the stanene and LHD geometries predicted in literature. Our results for freestanding group-IV layers shine new light on recent experimental studies of group-IV overlayers on various substrates.

  12. Two-dimensional colloidal crystal assisted formation of conductive porous gold films with flexible structural controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhicheng; Liu, Chen; Han, Heyou

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal crystals of polystyrene (PS) particles were used as a structure-controlling template to fabricate conductive Au films with an ordered array of nanoholes. The fabrication mainly involved the functionalization of the supporting substrate with polyelectrolyte (PE) functional layers, self-assembly of Au nanoparticles, and electroless deposition of gold. The self-assembly of Au nanoparticles and electroless deposition of gold were macroscopically monitored using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy based on the changes in both the extinction spectra of Au nanoparticles and the optical responses of ordered arrays of PS particles. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization, it was found that Au nanoparticles were assembled into a film structure with orderly dispersed nanoholes and the deposition of gold was confined to the preformed Au nanoparticle films. During the formation of Au films, PE layer structure, Au nanoparticle size and heating treatment applied to the PS template could influence the structures of conductive porous Au films such as the hole diameter, film thickness, and hole diameter/wall thickness ratio (D/W). In addition, this paper also described electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) employed to demonstrate the porosity of the ultimate Au films.

  13. Structural semiconductor-to-semimetal phase transition in two-dimensional materials induced by electrostatic gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Duerloo, Karel-Alexander N; Wauson, Kerry; Reed, Evan J

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic control of conductivity and optical properties via atomic structure changes is of technological importance in information storage. Energy consumption considerations provide a driving force towards employing thin materials in devices. Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are nearly atomically thin materials that can exist in multiple crystal structures, each with distinct electrical properties. By developing new density functional-based methods, we discover that electrostatic gating device configurations have the potential to drive structural semiconductor-to-semimetal phase transitions in some monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Here we show that the semiconductor-to-semimetal phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 can be driven by a gate voltage of several volts with appropriate choice of dielectric. We find that the transition gate voltage can be reduced arbitrarily by alloying, for example, for Mo(x)W(1-x)Te2 monolayers. Our findings identify a new physical mechanism, not existing in bulk materials, to dynamically control structural phase transitions in two-dimensional materials, enabling potential applications in phase-change electronic devices.

  14. A novel approach for structure analysis of two-dimensional membrane protein crystals using x-ray powder diffraction data

    CERN Document Server

    Dilanian, Ruben A; Varghese, Jose N; Wilkins, Steve W; Oka, Toshihiko; Yagi, Naoto; Quiney, Harry M; Nugent, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    The application of powder diffraction methods in two-dimensional crystallography is regarded as intractable because of the uncertainties associated with overlapping reflections. Here, we report an approach that resolves these ambiguities and provides reliable low-resolution phase information directly from powder diffraction data. We apply our method to the recovery of the structure of the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) molecule to a resolution of 7 angstroms using only powder diffraction data obtained from two-dimensional purple membrane (PM) crystals.

  15. The band gap variation of a two dimensional binary locally resonant structure in thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xian; Li, Yue-ming

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the numerical investigation of thermal effect on band gap dynamical characteristic for a two-dimensional binary structure composed of aluminum plate periodically filled with nitrile rubber cylinder is presented. Initially, the band gap of the binary structure variation trend with increasing temperature is studied by taking the softening effect of thermal stress into account. A breakthrough is made which found the band gap being narrower and shifting to lower frequency in thermal environment. The complete band gap which in higher frequency is more sensitive to temperature that it disappears with temperature increasing. Then some new transformed models are created by changing the height of nitrile rubber cylinder from 1mm to 7mm. Simulations show that transformed model can produce a wider band gap (either flexure or complete band gap). A proper forbidden gap of elastic wave can be utilized in thermal environment although both flexure and complete band gaps become narrower with temperature. Besides that, there is a zero-frequency flat band appearing in the first flexure band, and it becomes broader with temperature increasing. The band gap width decreases trend in thermal environment, as well as the wider band gap induced by the transformed model with higher nitrile rubber cylinder is useful for the design and application of phononic crystal structures in thermal environment.

  16. Valence and conduction band structure of the quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor Sn S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racke, David A.; Neupane, Mahesh R.; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of both the valence and the conduction band region in the quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals-layered indirect band gap semiconductor Sn S2 . Using a combination of angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (AR-2PPE) spectroscopy, we characterize the band structure of bulk Sn S2 . Comparison with density functional theory calculations shows excellent quantitative agreement in the valence band region and reveals several localized bands that likely originate from defects such as sulfur vacancies. Evidence for a moderate density of defects is also observed by AR-2PPE in the conduction band region, leading to localized bands not present in the computational results. The energetic structure and dispersion of the conduction bands is captured well by the computational treatment, with some quantitative discrepancies remaining. Our results provide a broader understanding of the electronic structure of Sn S2 in particular and van der Waals-layered semiconductors in general.

  17. The band gap variation of a two dimensional binary locally resonant structure in thermal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the numerical investigation of thermal effect on band gap dynamical characteristic for a two-dimensional binary structure composed of aluminum plate periodically filled with nitrile rubber cylinder is presented. Initially, the band gap of the binary structure variation trend with increasing temperature is studied by taking the softening effect of thermal stress into account. A breakthrough is made which found the band gap being narrower and shifting to lower frequency in thermal environment. The complete band gap which in higher frequency is more sensitive to temperature that it disappears with temperature increasing. Then some new transformed models are created by changing the height of nitrile rubber cylinder from 1mm to 7mm. Simulations show that transformed model can produce a wider band gap (either flexure or complete band gap. A proper forbidden gap of elastic wave can be utilized in thermal environment although both flexure and complete band gaps become narrower with temperature. Besides that, there is a zero-frequency flat band appearing in the first flexure band, and it becomes broader with temperature increasing. The band gap width decreases trend in thermal environment, as well as the wider band gap induced by the transformed model with higher nitrile rubber cylinder is useful for the design and application of phononic crystal structures in thermal environment.

  18. A two-dimensional mutate-and-map strategy for non-coding RNA structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladwang, Wipapat; Vanlang, Christopher C.; Cordero, Pablo; Das, Rhiju

    2011-12-01

    Non-coding RNAs fold into precise base-pairing patterns to carry out critical roles in genetic regulation and protein synthesis, but determining RNA structure remains difficult. Here, we show that coupling systematic mutagenesis with high-throughput chemical mapping enables accurate base-pair inference of domains from ribosomal RNA, ribozymes and riboswitches. For a six-RNA benchmark that has challenged previous chemical/computational methods, this ‘mutate-and-map’ strategy gives secondary structures that are in agreement with crystallography (helix error rates, 2%), including a blind test on a double-glycine riboswitch. Through modelling of partially ordered states, the method enables the first test of an interdomain helix-swap hypothesis for ligand-binding cooperativity in a glycine riboswitch. Finally, the data report on tertiary contacts within non-coding RNAs, and coupling to the Rosetta/FARFAR algorithm gives nucleotide-resolution three-dimensional models (helix root-mean-squared deviation, 5.7 Å) of an adenine riboswitch. These results establish a promising two-dimensional chemical strategy for inferring the secondary and tertiary structures that underlie non-coding RNA behaviour.

  19. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the spongy medullary keratin of structurally coloured feather barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, R. O.; Torres, R.; Williamson, S.; Dyck, J.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted two-dimensional (2D) discrete Fourier analyses of the spatial variation in refractive index of the spongy medullary keratin from four different colours of structurally coloured feather barbs from three species of bird: the rose-faced lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis (Psittacidae), the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittacidae), and the Gouldian finch, Poephila guttata (Estrildidae). These results indicate that the spongy medullary keratin is a nanostructured tissue that functions as an array of coherent scatterers. The nanostructure of the medullary keratin is nearly uniform in all directions. The largest Fourier components of spatial variation in refractive index in the tissue are of the appropriate size to produce the observed colours by constructive interference alone. The peaks of the predicted reflectance spectra calculated from the 2D Fourier power spectra are congruent with the reflectance spectra measured by using microspectrophotometry. The alternative physical models for the production of these colours, the Rayleigh and Mie theories, hypothesize that medullary keratin is an incoherent array and that scattered waves are independent in phase. This assumption is falsified by the ring-like Fourier power spectra of these feathers, and the spacing of the scattering air vacuoles in the medullary keratin. Structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by constructive interference of coherently scattered light waves from the optically heterogeneous matrix of keratin and air in the spongy medullary layer.

  20. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Electrospun Nanofibrous Structures: Connection of Experimental and Simulated Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Danwanichakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrous mats were obtained from electrospinning Nylon-6 solutions with concentrations of 30 and 35 wt% and were tested for filtration of polystyrene particles in suspension. Some experimental results were compared with the simulated ones. In the simulation, the two-dimensional structures were constructed by randomly depositing a nanofiber, which was assumed as an ellipse with an aspect ratio of 100, one by one. The nanofiber size is assumed to be polydisperse. The results showed that simulated configurations resembled real nanofibers with polydisperse diameters. Fibers from higher solution concentration were larger, resulting in larger pore size, which was confirmed with simulations. Varying the size distribution around the same average value did not make any difference to the surface coverage but it affected 2D pore areas for the systems at low fiber density. In addition, the probability for a particle to pass through the porous structure was less when the fiber density was higher and the particle diameter was larger, which was consistent with the filtration test. Lastly, water flux measurement could yield the void volume fraction as well as the volume-averaged pore diameter, which was found to be greater than the averaged 2D pore diameter from SEM micrographs by the quantity related to the fiber size.

  1. Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.

  2. Three Dimensional Topological Field Theory induced from Generalized Complex Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, N

    2004-01-01

    We construct a three-dimensional topological sigma model which is induced from a generalized complex structure on a target generalized complex manifold. This model is constructed from maps from a three-dimensional manifold $X$ to an arbitrary generalized complex manifold $M$. The theory is invariant under the diffeomorphism on the world volume and the $b$-transformation on the generalized complex structure. Moreover the model is manifestly invariant under the mirror symmetry. We derive from this model the Zucchini's two dimensional topological sigma model with a generalized complex structure as a boundary action on $\\partial X$. As a special case, we obtain three dimensional realization of a WZ-Poisson manifold.

  3. Reconstruction of two-dimensional magnetopause structures from Cluster observations: verification of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasegawa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed technique for reconstructing approximately two-dimensional (∂/∂z≈0, time-stationary magnetic field structures in space is applied to two magnetopause traversals on the dawnside flank by the four Cluster spacecraft, when the spacecraft separation was about 2000km. The method consists of solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for magnetohydrostatic structures, using plasma and magnetic field data measured along a single spacecraft trajectory as spatial initial values. We assess the usefulness of this single-spacecraft-based technique by comparing the magnetic field maps produced from one spacecraft with the field vectors that other spacecraft actually observed. For an optimally selected invariant (z-axis, the correlation between the field components predicted from the reconstructed map and the corresponding measured components reaches more than 0.97. This result indicates that the reconstruction technique predicts conditions at the other spacecraft locations quite well.

    The optimal invariant axis is relatively close to the intermediate variance direction, computed from minimum variance analysis of the measured magnetic field, and is generally well determined with respect to rotations about the maximum variance direction but less well with respect to rotations about the minimum variance direction. In one of the events, field maps recovered individually for two of the spacecraft, which crossed the magnetopause with an interval of a few tens of seconds, show substantial differences in configuration. By comparing these field maps, time evolution of the magnetopause structures, such as the formation of magnetic islands, motion of the structures, and thickening of the magnetopause current layer, is discussed.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers – Space plasma physics (Experimental and mathematical techniques, Magnetic reconnection

  4. Hydrogen Bonding and Multiphonon Structure in One- and Two-Dimensional Polymeric Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musfeldt, J. L.; Brown, S.; Cao, J.; Conner, M. M.; McConnell, A. C.; Southerland, H. I.; Manson, J. L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Phillips, M. D.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the temperature dependent infrared vibrational spectra of a family of chemically related coordination polymeric magnets based upon two different bridging anions, fluoride (F^-) and bifluoride (HF2^-), in copper-pyrazine complexes including Cu(HF2)(pyz)2BF4, Cu(HF2)(pyz)2ClO4, and CuF2(H2O)(pyz)). We compare our results with several one- and two-dimensional prototype materials including Cu(NO3)2(pyz) and Cu(ClO4)(pyz) 2. Unusual low temperature hydrogen bonding, local structural transitions associated with stronger low-temperature hydrogen bonding, and striking multiphonon effects that derive from coupling of an infrared-active fundamental with strong Raman-active modes of the pyrazine building-block molecule are observed. Based on the spectroscopic evidence, these interactions are common to this family of coordination polymers and work to stabilize the low temperature magnetic state. Similar interactions are likely to be present in other molecule-based magnets.

  5. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2009-10-29

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  6. Interfacial engineering of two-dimensional nano-structured materials by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Hai, Zhenyin; Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad; Heynderickx, Philippe M.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an enabling technology which provides coating and material features with significant advantages compared to other existing techniques for depositing precise nanometer-thin two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. It is a cyclic process which relies on sequential self-terminating reactions between gas phase precursor molecules and a solid surface. ALD is especially advantageous when the film quality or thickness is critical, offering ultra-high aspect ratios. ALD provides digital thickness control to the atomic level by depositing film one atomic layer at a time, as well as pinhole-free films even over a very large and complex areas. Digital control extends to sandwiches, hetero-structures, nano-laminates, metal oxides, graded index layers and doping, and it is perfect for conformal coating and challenging 2D electrodes for various functional devices. The technique's capabilities are presented on the example of ALD-developed ultra-thin 2D tungsten oxide (WO3) over the large area of standard 4" Si substrates. The discussed advantages of ALD enable and endorse the employment of this technique for the development of hetero-nanostructure 2D semiconductors with unique properties.

  7. Experimental Observation of Exact Coherent Structures in a Weakly Turbulent Quasi-Two-Dimensional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Balachandra; Tithof, Jeffrey; Pallantla, Ravi Kumar; Grigoriev, Roman; Schatz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The dynamical systems approach to fluid turbulence relies on understanding the role of unstable, non-chaotic solutions - such as equilibria, traveling waves, and periodic orbits - of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions, called Exact Coherent Structures, exist in the same parameter regime as turbulence, but being unstable, are observed in experiments only as short transients. In this talk, we present experimental evidence for the existence and dynamical relevance of unstable equilibria in a weakly turbulent quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) Kolmogorov flow. In the experiment, this Q2D flow is generated in an electromagnetically driven shallow layer of electrolyte. The numerical simulations, however, use a strictly 2D model which incorporates the effects of the finite thickness of the fluid layer in the experiment. During its evolution, there are instances when the dynamics of a weakly turbulent flow slow down, rather dramatically. Using experimental flow fields from such instances, and by means of a Newton-Solver, we numerically compute several unstable equilibria. Additionally, using numerical simulations, we show that the dynamics of a turbulent flow in the neighbourhood of an equilibrium are accurately described by the unstable manifold of the equilibrium. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grants CBET-0900018, and CMMI-1234436.

  8. Hamiltonian structure for two-dimensional extended Green-Naghdi equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yoshimasa

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional Green-Naghdi (GN) shallow-water model for surface gravity waves is extended to incorporate the arbitrary higher-order dispersive effects. This can be achieved by developing a novel asymptotic analysis applied to the basic nonlinear water wave problem. The linear dispersion relation for the extended GN system is then explored in detail. In particular, we use its characteristics to discuss the well-posedness of the linearized problem. As illustrative examples of approximate model equations, we derive a higher-order model that is accurate to the fourth power of the dispersion parameter in the case of a flat bottom topography, and address the related issues such as the linear dispersion relation, conservation laws and the pressure distribution at the fluid bottom on the basis of this model. The original Green-Naghdi (GN) model is then briefly described in the case of an uneven bottom topography. Subsequently, the extended GN system presented here is shown to have the same Hamiltonian structure as that of the original GN system. Last, we demonstrate that Zakharov's Hamiltonian formulation of surface gravity waves is equivalent to that of the extended GN system by rewriting the former system in terms of the momentum density instead of the velocity potential at the free surface.

  9. Coherent Structures in Turbulent Flow over Two-Dimensional River Dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    We performed large-eddy simulations of the flow over a typical two-dimensional dune geometry at laboratory scale (the Reynolds number based on the average channel height and mean velocity is 18,900) using the Lagrangian dynamic eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model. The flow separates at the dune crest and reattaches downstream on the bed (at x=5.7h). A favorable pressure gradient accelerates the flow over the stoss-side (the upward-sloping region for x > 8h) and an unfavorable gradient for x < 8h decelerates the flow over the lee-side of the dune. Due to the separation of the flow, a shear layer is generated after the crest that expands in the wake region towards the next dune. The outer-layer turbulence structures are visualized through isosurfaces of pressure fluctuations colored by distance to the surface. Spanwise vortices are generated in the shear layer separating from the crest due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. They are convected downstream and either interact with the wall or rise to the surfa...

  10. Two-dimensional iron oxide bi-and trilayer structures on Pd(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhness, D.; Pomp, S.; Mankad, V.; Barcaro, G.; Sementa, L.; Fortunelli, A.; Netzer, F. P.; Surnev, S.

    2016-03-01

    The growth morphology and structure of iron oxide films, prepared by postoxidation of Fe monolayers on a Pd(100) surface, have been investigated in a multitechnique study, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both using synchrotron radiation, and comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) analysis. A two-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal O-Fe-O trilayer phase has been generated at submonolayer Fe coverages, which converges into two different 2-D hexagonal Fe-O bilayer structures at one monolayer. One phase exhibits a c(8 × 2) coincidence structure and is associated with a stoichiometric FeO(111) bilayer. The second phase displays a superstructure of triangular loops, which is understood from DFT modeling as excess O ad-atoms in the terminating oxygen layer, thus corresponding to a FeO bilayer with a formal FeO1.125 stoichiometry. Annealing the latter in ultrahigh vacuum to 770 K results in the pure c(8 × 2) wetting layer. The thermodynamic stability of the O-Fe-O trilayer and FeO bilayer phases is analyzed in the DFT framework and is found to be in good agreement with the experiment. The absence of a c(4 × 2)-Fe3O4 phase in the experimental phase diagram, which is found to be stable by DFT and is experimentally encountered for other transition metal oxide films, such as Ni-, Co-, and Mn-oxide on Pd(100), is ascribed to kinetic reasons.

  11. Synthesizing topological structures containing RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Shao, Yaming; Chen, Gang; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Weizmann, Yossi

    2017-03-01

    Though knotting and entanglement have been observed in DNA and proteins, their existence in RNA remains an enigma. Synthetic RNA topological structures are significant for understanding the physical and biological properties pertaining to RNA topology, and these properties in turn could facilitate identifying naturally occurring topologically nontrivial RNA molecules. Here we show that topological structures containing single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) free of strong base pairing interactions can be created either by configuring RNA-DNA hybrid four-way junctions or by template-directed synthesis with a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) topological structure. By using a constructed ssRNA knot as a highly sensitive topological probe, we find that Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I has low RNA topoisomerase activity and that the R173A point mutation abolishes the unknotting activity for ssRNA, but not for ssDNA. Furthermore, we discover the topological inhibition of reverse transcription (RT) and obtain different RT-PCR patterns for an ssRNA knot and circle of the same sequence.

  12. Resistive MHD reconstruction of two-dimensional coherent structures in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-L. Teh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction technique to solve the steady resistive MHD equations in two dimensions with initial inputs of field and plasma data from a single spacecraft as it passes through a coherent structure in space. At least two components of directly measured electric fields (the spacecraft spin-plane components are required for the reconstruction, to produce two-dimensional (2-D field and plasma maps of the cross section of the structure. For convenience, the resistivity tensor η is assumed diagonal in the reconstruction coordinates, which allows its values to be estimated from Ohm's law, E+v×B=η·j. In the present paper, all three components of the electric field are used. We benchmark our numerical code by use of an exact, axi-symmetric solution of the resistive MHD equations and then apply it to synthetic data from a 3-D, resistive, MHD numerical simulation of reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, in a phase of the event where time dependence and deviations from 2-D are both weak. The resistivity used in the simulation is time-independent and localized around the reconnection site in an ellipsoidal region. For the magnetic field, plasma density, and pressure, we find very good agreement between the reconstruction results and the simulation, but the electric field and plasma velocity are not predicted with the same high accuracy.

  13. White-Light Emission and Structural Distortion in New Corrugated Two-Dimensional Lead Bromide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-03-29

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P21/c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr6" octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τavg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.

  14. Structuring Au nanoparticles on two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets for electrochemical glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Onur; İncel, Anıl; Uzun, Lokman; Turner, Anthony P F; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2017-03-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) bioelectronics is an emerging field of research which fuses the advantages of 2D nanomaterials with those of nanobiotechnology. Due to the various physical and chemical properties present in layered counterparts of 2D materials, including high charge density, large surface area, remarkable electron mobility, ready electron transport, sizeable band gaps and ease of hybridisation, they are set to become a versatile tool to fabricate sensitive and selective novel biodevices, which might offer an unique advantages to tackle key energy, medical and environmental issues. Current 2D bioelectronics research is focused on the design of simple-to-use and cheaper biodevices, while improving their selectivity, sensitivity and stability. However, current designs generally suffer from a lack of efficiency, relatively low sensitivity, slow electron transfer kinetics, high background charging current and low current density arising from poor mass transport. Here, we report a nanoparticle-structured MoS2 nanosheet as an ideal semiconductor interface, which is able to form a homogenous layer on the electrode surface for the assembly of gold nanoparticles. This not only enhances electrocatalytic reactions, but also provides excellent electrochemical properties such as high faradic-to-capacitive current ratios, high current density and electron mobility, and faster mass transport, due to the dominance of radial diffusion. The MoS2/Au NPs/GOx bioelectrode exhibits a linear response to glucose from 0.25 to 13.2mM, with a detection limit of 0.042µM (S/N=3) and sensitivity of 13.80µA/µM/cm(2).

  15. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  16. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  17. Free energy and structure of dislocation cores in two-dimensional crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladon, P.B.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the melting transition in two dimensions is critically dependent on the core energy of dislocations. In this paper, we report calculations of the core free energy and the core size of dislocations in two-dimensional solids of systems interacting via square well, hard disk, and r-12

  18. Two-dimensional crystal CuS—electronic and structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio L., Jr.; Dos Santos, Egon C.; Morales-García, A.; Heine, Thomas; De Abreu, Heitor A.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2017-03-01

    Covellite is a metallic layered mineral with rather strong interlayer interaction. Recently, synthesis of covellite nanosheets of 3.2 nm thickness was reported (Du et al 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 1177), which raises the question: ‘What is the thinnest possible covellite nanosheet?’ Based on density functional/plane waves calculations, we have shown that graphene-like structure CuS (1L-CuS) is unstable but can be stabilized on a support. Here, however, we demonstrate that the three layered CuS (3L-CuS) with thickness of 0.773 nm (including the atomic radius of the outer plans atoms) is predicted to be intrinsically stable, as confirmed by phonon analysis and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, with 3L-CuS about 0.15 eV per CuS less stable than the bulk. Interestingly, the electronic band structure shows metallic character with four bands crossing the Fermi level. The nature of chemical bonding is confirmed by a detailed topological analysis of the electron density.

  19. Coupling between Fano and Bragg bands in photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallic photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Markos, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and transmission spectrum of two-dimensional array of metallic rods is investigated numerically. Based on the recent analysis of the band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystal with dielectric rods [P. Marko\\v{s}, Phys. Rev. A 92 043814 (2015)] we identify two types of bands in the frequency spectrum: Bragg (P) bands resulting from a periodicity and Fano (F) bands which arise from Fano resonances associated with each of the cylinders within the periodic structure. It is shown that the existence of Fano band in a certain frequency range is manifested by a Fano resonance in the transmittance. In particular, we re-examine the symmetry properties of the H- polarized band structure in the frequency range where the spectrum consists of the localized modes associated with the single scatterer resonances and we explore process of formation of Fano bands by identifying individual terms in the expansion of the LCAO states. We demonstrate how the interplay between the two scattering mechanisms affects p...

  20. Indirect exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in the two-dimensional topological insulator based on CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovich, P. D.; Kurilovich, V. D.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study indirect exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in the (001) CdTe/HgTe/CdTe symmetric quantum well. We consider low temperatures and the case of the chemical potential placed in the energy gap of the two-dimensional quasiparticle spectrum. We find that the indirect exchange interaction is suppressed exponentially with the distance between magnetic impurities. The presence of inversion asymmetry results in oscillations of the indirect exchange interaction with the distance and generates additional terms which are noninvariant under rotations in the (001) plane. The indirect exchange interaction matrix has complicated structure with some terms proportional to the sign of the energy gap.

  1. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-07-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

  2. Branched polymers characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional separations with fully orthogonal mechanisms: molecular-topology fractionation×size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edam, Rob; Mes, Edwin P C; Meunier, David M; Van Damme, Freddy A; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-10-31

    Polymer separations under non-conventional conditions have been explored to obtain a separation of long-chain branched polymers from linear polymers with identical hydrodynamic size. In separation media with flow-through channels of the same order as the size of the analyte molecules in solution, the separation and the elution order of polymers are strongly affected by the flow rate. At low flow rates, the largest polymers are eluted last. At high flow rates, they are eluted first. By tuning the channel size and flow rate, conditions can be found where separation becomes independent of molar mass or size of linear polymers. Long-chain branched polymers did experience lower migration rates under these conditions and can be separated from linear polymers. This type of separation is referred to as molecular-topology fractionation (MTF) at critical conditions. Separation by comprehensive two-dimensional molecular-topology fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography (MTF×SEC) was used to study the retention characteristics of MTF. Branching selectivity was demonstrated for three- and four-arm "star" polystyrenes of 3-5×10(6)g/mol molar mass. Baseline separation could be obtained between linear polymer, Y-shaped molecules, and X-shaped molecules in a single experiment at constant flow rate. For randomly branched polymers, the branching selectivity inevitably results in an envelope of peaks, because it is not possible to fully resolve the huge numbers of different branched and linear polymers of varying molar mass. It was concluded that MTF involves partial deformation of polymer coils in solution. The increased coil density and resistance to deformation can explain the different retention behavior of branched molecules.

  3. Analysis of bandgap characteristics of two-dimensional periodic structures by using the source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Alon; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2003-08-01

    We introduce a solution based on the source-model technique for periodic structures for the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a two-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal slab illuminated by a transverse-magnetic plane wave. The proposed technique takes advantage of the periodicity of the slab by solving the problem within the unit cell of the periodic structure. The results imply the existence of a frequency bandgap and provide a valuable insight into the relationship between the dimensions of a finite periodic structure and its frequency bandgap characteristics. A comparison shows a discrepancy between the frequency bandgap obtained for a very thick slab and the bandgap obtained by solving the corresponding two-dimensionally infinite periodic structure. The final part of the paper is devoted to explaining in detail this apparent discrepancy.

  4. Identification of the dynamics of a two-dimensional grid structure using least square lattice filters. [for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Sundararajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is doubtful whether the dynamics of large space structures (LSS) can be predicted well enough for control system design applications. Hence, dynamic modeling from on-orbit measurements followed by a modification of the control system is of interest, taking into account the utilization of adaptive control concepts. The present paper is concerned with the model determination phase of the adaptive control problem. Using spectral decoupling to determine mode shapes, mode frequency and damping data can be obtained with the aid of an equation error parameter identification method. This method employs a second-order auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model to represent the natural mode amplitudes. The discussed procedure involves an extension of the application of the least square lattice filter in system identification to a nonintegral, two-dimensional grid structure made of overlapping bars.

  5. A compact chaotic laser device with a two-dimensional external cavity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, Satoshi, E-mail: sunada@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Masaaki [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fukushima, Takehiro [Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Shinohara, Susumu; Arai, Kenichi [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Harayama, Takahisa [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    We propose a compact chaotic laser device, which consists of a semiconductor laser and a two-dimensional (2D) external cavity for delayed optical feedback. The overall size of the device is within 230 μm × 1 mm. A long time delay sufficient for chaos generation can be achieved with the small area by the multiple reflections at the 2D cavity boundary, and the feedback strength is controlled by the injection current to the external cavity. We experimentally demonstrate that a variety of output properties, including chaotic output, can be selectively generated by controlling the injection current to the external cavity.

  6. On the algebraic structure of rotationally invariant two-dimensional Hamiltonians on the noncommutative phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, H.; Pisani, P. A. G.; Vega, F.; Cárcamo, D.; Méndez, F.; Loewe, M.

    2016-02-01

    We study two-dimensional Hamiltonians in phase space with noncommutativity both in coordinates and momenta. We consider the generator of rotations on the noncommutative plane and the Lie algebra generated by Hermitian rotationally invariant quadratic forms of noncommutative dynamical variables. We show that two quantum phases are possible, characterized by the Lie algebras {sl}(2,{{R}}) or su(2) according to the relation between the noncommutativity parameters, with the rotation generator related with the Casimir operator. From this algebraic perspective, we analyze the spectrum of some simple models with nonrelativistic rotationally invariant Hamiltonians in this noncommutative phase space, such as the isotropic harmonic oscillator, the Landau problem and the cylindrical well potential.

  7. On the algebraic structure of rotationally invariant two-dimensional Hamiltonians on the noncommutative phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Falomir, H; Vega, F; Cárcamo, D; Méndez, F; Loewe, M

    2015-01-01

    We study two-dimensional Hamiltonians in phase space with noncommutativity both in coordinates and momenta. We consider the generator of rotations on the noncommutative plane and the Lie algebra generated by Hermitian rotationally invariant quadratic forms of noncommutative dynamical variables. We show that two quantum phases are possible, characterized by the Lie algebras $sl(2,\\mathbb{R})$ or $su(2)$ according to the relation between the noncommutativity parameters. From this perspective, we analyze the spectrum of some simple models with nonrelativistic rotationally invariant Hamiltonians in this noncommutative phase space, as the isotropic harmonic oscillator, the Landau problem and the cylindrical well potential.

  8. Synchronization of radiation in an oversized coaxial Ka-band backward wave oscillator using two-dimensional Bragg structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ginzburg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A coaxial Ka-band backward wave oscillator with a two-dimensional Bragg structure located at the output of the interaction space has been studied. This structure has a double-period corrugation and provides azimuthal electromagnetic energy fluxes, which act on the synchronized radiation of an oversized tubular electron beam. Proof-of-principle experiments were conducted based on the Saturn thermionic accelerator (300  keV/200  A/2  μs. In accordance with simulations, narrow-band generation was obtained at a frequency of 30 GHz and a power level of 1.5–2 MW. As a result, the possibility of using a two-dimensional distributed feedback mechanism in oscillators of the Cherenkov type has been demonstrated.

  9. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate a spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90{\\deg} bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  10. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@physics.iitd.ac.in; Joseph, Joby, E-mail: joby@physics.iitd.ac.in [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  11. A molecular dynamics study on the structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional icosahedral B12 cluster based structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Cherno Baba; Yu, M.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Our previous study on one-dimensional icosahedral B12 cluster (α-B12) based chain [Bulletin of APS Annual Meeting, p265 (2013)] and ring structures has prompted us to study the two-dimensional (2D) α-B12 based structures. Recently, we have carried out a systematic molecular dynamics study on the structural stabilities and electronic properties of the 2D α-B12 based structures using the SCED-LCAO method [PRB 74, 15540 (2006)]. We have considered several types of symmetry for these 2D structures such as δ3, δ4, δ6 (flat triangular), and α' types. We have found that the optimized structures are energetically in the order of δ6 < α' < δ3 < δ4 which is different from the energy order of α'< δ6 < δ4 < δ3 found in the 2D boron monolayer sheets [ACS Nano 6, 7443 (2012)]. A detailed discussion of this study will be presented. The first author acknowledges the McSweeny Fellowship for supporting his research in this work.

  12. Selective cleavage of periodic mesoscale structures: two-dimensional replication of binary colloidal crystals into dimpled gold nanoplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2012-05-23

    Specific crystallographic planes of binary colloidal crystals consisting of silica nanoparticles are two-dimensionally replicated on the surface of gold nanoplates. The selectivity of the surface patterns is explained by the geometrical characteristics of the binary colloidal crystals as templates. The binary colloidal crystals with the AlB(2)- and NaZn(13)-type structures are fabricated from aqueous dispersions of stoichiometrically mixed silica nanoparticles with different sizes. The stoichiometry is precisely controlled on the basis of a seed growth of silica nanoparticles. Dimpled gold nanoplates are formed by the two-dimensional growth of gold between partially cleaved surfaces of templates. The selectivity of the surface patterns is explained using the AlB(2)-type binary colloidal crystal as a template. The surface pattern is determined by the preferential cleavage of the plane with the lowest density of particle-particle connections. The tendency to form well-defined cleavage in binary colloidal crystals is crucial to formation of dimpled gold nanoplates, which is explained using the NaZn(13)-type binary colloidal crystal as a template. Its complex structure does not show well-defined cleavage, and only distorted nanoplates are obtained. Therefore, the mechanism of the two-dimensional replication of binary colloidal crystals is reasonably explained on the basis of their periodic mesoscale structures and crystal-like properties.

  13. Structural Transformations in Two-Dimensional Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide MoS2 under an Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretschmer, Silvan; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Bøggild, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The polymorphism of two-dimensional (w2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and different electronic properties of the polymorphs make TMDs particularly promising materials in the context of applications in electronics. Recently, local transformations from the semiconducting trigonal prisma...... development and optimization of electron-beam-mediated engineering of the atomic structure and electronic properties of 2D TMDs with subnanometer resolution.......The polymorphism of two-dimensional (w2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and different electronic properties of the polymorphs make TMDs particularly promising materials in the context of applications in electronics. Recently, local transformations from the semiconducting trigonal...... prismatic H phase to the metallic octahedral T phase in 2D MoS2 have been induced by electron irradiation [Nat. Nanotech. 2014, 9, 391], but the mechanism of the transformations remains elusive. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the energetics of the stable and metastable phases of 2D...

  14. Two-dimensional artificial light-harvesting antennae with predesigned high-order structure and robust photosensitising activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao; Ding, Xuesong; Chen, Long; Wu, Yang; Liu, Lili; Addicoat, Matthew; Irle, Stephan; Dong, Yuping; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-09-01

    Highly ordered discrete assemblies of chlorophylls that are found in natural light-harvesting antennae are key to photosynthesis, which converts light energy to chemical energy and is the principal producer of organic matter on Earth. Porphyrins and phthalocyanines, which are analogues of chlorophylls, exhibit a strong absorbance of visible and near-infrared light, respectively. A highly ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae would harvest photons over the entire solar spectrum for chemical transformation. However, such a robust antennae has not yet been synthesised. Herein, we report a strategy that merges covalent bonds and noncovalent forces to produce highly ordered two-dimensional porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae. This methodology enables control over the stoichiometry and order of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine units; more importantly, this approach is compatible with various metalloporphyrin and metallophthalocyanine derivatives and thus may lead to the generation of a broad structural diversity of two-dimensional artificial antennae. These ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine two-dimensional antennae exhibit unique optical properties and catalytic functions that are not available with single-component or non-structured materials. These 2D artificial antennae exhibit exceptional light-harvesting capacity over the entire solar spectrum as a result of a synergistic light-absorption effect. In addition, they exhibit outstanding photosensitising activities in using both visible and near-infrared photons for producing singlet oxygen.

  15. Observation of mesoscopic crystalline structures in a two-dimensional Rydberg gas

    CERN Document Server

    Schauß, Peter; Endres, Manuel; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Hild, Sebastian; Omran, Ahmed; Pohl, Thomas; Gross, Christian; Kuhr, Stefan; Bloch, Immanuel

    2012-01-01

    The ability to control and tune interactions in ultracold atomic gases has paved the way towards the realization of new phases of matter. Whereas experiments have so far achieved a high degree of control over short-ranged interactions, the realization of long-range interactions would open up a whole new realm of many-body physics and has become a central focus of research. Rydberg atoms are very well-suited to achieve this goal, as the van der Waals forces between them are many orders of magnitude larger than for ground state atoms. Consequently, the mere laser excitation of ultracold gases can cause strongly correlated many-body states to emerge directly when atoms are transferred to Rydberg states. A key example are quantum crystals, composed of coherent superpositions of different spatially ordered configurations of collective excitations. Here we report on the direct measurement of strong correlations in a laser excited two-dimensional atomic Mott insulator using high-resolution, in-situ Rydberg atom imag...

  16. Quantifying Resonant Structure in NGC 6946 from Two-dimensional Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Kambiz; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Beckman, John E; Hernandez, Olivier; Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional kinematics of the H-alpha-emitting gas in the nearby barred Scd galaxy, NGC 6946, in order to determine the pattern speed of the primary m=2 perturbation mode. The pattern speed is a crucial parameter for constraining the internal dynamics, estimating the impact velocities of the gravitational perturbation at the resonance radii, and to set up an evolutionary scenario for NGC 6946. Our data allows us to derive the best fitting kinematic position angle and the geometry of the underlying gaseous disk, which we use to derive the pattern speed using the Tremaine-Weinberg method. We find a main pattern speed Omega_p=22 km/s/kpc, but our data clearly reveal the presence of an additional pattern speed Omega_p=47 km/s/kpc in a zone within 1.25 kpc of the nucleus. Using the epicyclic approximation, we deduce the location of the resonance radii and confirm that inside the outer Inner Lindblad Resonance radius of the main oval, a primary bar has formed rotating at more than twice the outer p...

  17. Quantifying Resonant Structure in NGC 6946 from Two-dimensional Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Kambiz; Toonen, Silvia; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Beckman, John E.; Hernandez, Olivier; Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2007-10-01

    We study the two-dimensional kinematics of the Hα-emitting gas in the nearby barred Scd galaxy NGC 6946, in order to determine the pattern speed of the primary m=2 perturbation mode. The pattern speed is a crucial parameter for constraining the internal dynamics, estimating the impact velocities of the gravitational perturbation at the resonance radii, and setting up an evolutionary scenario for NGC 6946. Our data allow us to derive the best-fitting kinematic position angle and the geometry of the underlying gaseous disk, which we use to derive the pattern speed using the Tremaine-Weinberg method. We find a main pattern speed ΩPp=22+4-1 km s-1 kpc-1, but our data clearly reveal the presence of an additional pattern speed ΩSp=47+3-2 km s-1 kpc-1 in a zone within 1.25 kpc of the nucleus. Using the epicyclic approximation, we deduce the location of the resonance radii and confirm that inside the outer inner Lindblad resonance radius of the main oval, a primary bar has formed rotating at more than twice the outer pattern speed. We further confirm that a nuclear bar has formed inside the inner Lindblad resonance radius of the primary bar, coinciding with the inner inner Lindblad resonance radius of the large-scale m=2 mode oval.

  18. The octamer motif in immunoglobulin genes: extraction of structural constraints from two-dimensional NMR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, K; Shafer, R H; Egan, W; James, T L

    1992-08-25

    Phase-sensitive two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement (2D NOE) and double-quantum-filtered correlated (2QF-COSY) spectra were recorded at 500 MHz for the DNA duplex d(CATTTGCATC).d(GATGCAAATG), which contains the octamer element of immunoglobulin genes. Exchangeable and nonexchangeable proton resonances including those of the H5' and H5" protons were assigned. Overall, the decamer duplex adopts a B-type DNA conformation. Scalar coupling constants for the sugar protons were determined by quantitative simulations of 2QF-COSY cross-peaks. These couplings are consistent with a two-state dynamic equilibrium between a minor N- and a major S-type conformer for all residues. The pseudorotation phase angle P of the major conformer is in the range 117-135 degrees for nonterminal pyrimidine nucleotides and 153-162 degrees for nonterminal purine nucleotides. Except for the terminal residues, the minor conformer comprises less than 25% of the population. Distance constraints obtained by a complete relaxation matrix analysis of the 2D NOE intensities with the MARDIGRAS algorithm confirm the dependence of the sugar pucker on pyrimidine and purine bases. Averaging by fast local motions has at most small effects on the NOE-derived interproton distances.

  19. Reconstruction of two-dimensional molecular structure with laser-induced electron diffraction from laser-aligned polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh-Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. With picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement. PMID:26503116

  20. A Pseudospectral Time-Domain Algorithm for Calculating the Band Structure of a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何江平; 沈林放; 张全; 何赛灵

    2002-01-01

    A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for calculating the band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Maxwell's equations are rewritten in terms of period fields by using the Bloch theorem. Instead of spatial finite differences, the fast Fourier transform is used to calculate the spatial derivatives. To reach a similar accuracy, fewer sample points are required in the present PSTD method as compared to the conventional finite-difference time-domain methods. Our numerical simulation shows that the present PSTD method is an efficient and accurate method for calculating the band structure of a photonic crystal.

  1. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-12-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus (LML) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of LML were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the LML has complex structural colors from blue to orange in the wet state from ventral to dorsal, which are derived from the aragonite fiber diameter increases continuously from ventral to dorsal of the ligament. The reflection peak wavelength of the wet LML can blue-shift from 522 nm to 480 nm with the air drying time increased from 0 to 60 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and only a weak reflection peak at last, relevant color changes from green to light blue. The structural color in the LML is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consists of aligned aragonite fibers and proteins, in which the diameters of the aragonite fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 104±11 nm and 126±16 nm, respectively. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tune the degree of order and lattice constant of the ligament in the different wet states.

  2. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index.

  3. Atomic structure and electronic properties of the two-dimensional (Au ,Al )/Si (111 )2 ×2 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Chukurov, E. N.; Hsing, C. R.; Wei, C. M.; Eremeev, S. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, ab initio random structure searching, and density functional theory electronic structure calculations was applied to elucidate the atomic arrangement and electron band structure of the (Au ,Al )/Si (111 )2 ×2 two-dimensional compound formed upon Al deposition onto the mixed 5 ×2 /√{3 }×√{3 } Au/Si(111) surface. It was found that the most stable 2 ×2 -(Au, Al) compound incorporates four Au atoms, three Al atoms, and two Si atoms per 2 ×2 unit cell. Its atomic arrangement can be visualized as an array of meandering Au atomic chains with two-thirds of the Al atoms incorporated into the chains and one-third of the Al atoms interconnecting the chains. The compound is metallic and its electronic properties can be controlled by appropriate Al dosing since energetic location of the bands varies by ˜0.5 eV during increasing of Al contents. The 2 ×2 -(Au, Al) structure appears to be lacking the C3 v symmetry typical for the hexagonal lattices. The consequence of the peculiar atomic structure of the two-dimensional alloy is spin splitting of the metallic states, which should lead to anisotropy of the current-induced in-plane spin polarization.

  4. Topological phases of a three-dimensional topological insulator with structure inversion asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Wang, Zaijun; Zheng, Qiang; Peng, Jie

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the topological phases of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) without the top-bottom inversion symmetry. We calculate the momentum depended spin Chern number to extract the phase diagram. Various phases are found and we address the dependence of phase boundaries on the strength of inversion asymmetry. Opposite to the quasi-two-dimensional thin film TI, in our 3D system the TI state is stabilized by the structure inversion asymmetry (SIA). With a strong SIA the 3D TI phase can exist even under a large Zeeman field. In a tight-binding form, the surface modes are discussed to confirm with the phase diagram. Particularly we find that the SIA cannot destroy the surface states but open a gap on its spectrum.

  5. Synthesis of two-dimensional TlxBi1−x compounds and Archimedean encoding of their atomic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, Dimitry V.; Bondarenko, Leonid V.; Matetskiy, Andrey V.; Mihalyuk, Alexey N.; Tupchaya, Alexandra Y.; Utas, Oleg A.; Eremeev, Sergey V.; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Wei, Ching-Ming; Zotov, Andrey V.; Saranin, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline atomic layers on solid surfaces are composed of a single building block, unit cell, that is copied and stacked together to form the entire two-dimensional crystal structure. However, it appears that this is not an unique possibility. We report here on synthesis and characterization of the one-atomic-layer-thick TlxBi1−x compounds which display quite a different arrangement. It represents a quasi-periodic tiling structures that are built by a set of tiling elements as building blocks. Though the layer is lacking strict periodicity, it shows up as an ideally-packed tiling of basic elements without any skips or halting. The two-dimensional TlxBi1−x compounds were formed by depositing Bi onto the Tl-covered Si(111) surface where Bi atoms substitute appropriate amount of Tl atoms. Atomic structure of each tiling element as well as arrangement of TlxBi1−x compounds were established in a detail. Electronic properties and spin texture of the selected compounds having periodic structures were characterized. The shown example demonstrates possibility for the formation of the exotic low-dimensional materials via unusual growth mechanisms. PMID:26781340

  6. Synthesis of two-dimensional TlxBi1-x compounds and Archimedean encoding of their atomic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, Dimitry V.; Bondarenko, Leonid V.; Matetskiy, Andrey V.; Mihalyuk, Alexey N.; Tupchaya, Alexandra Y.; Utas, Oleg A.; Eremeev, Sergey V.; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Wei, Ching-Ming; Zotov, Andrey V.; Saranin, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline atomic layers on solid surfaces are composed of a single building block, unit cell, that is copied and stacked together to form the entire two-dimensional crystal structure. However, it appears that this is not an unique possibility. We report here on synthesis and characterization of the one-atomic-layer-thick TlxBi1-x compounds which display quite a different arrangement. It represents a quasi-periodic tiling structures that are built by a set of tiling elements as building blocks. Though the layer is lacking strict periodicity, it shows up as an ideally-packed tiling of basic elements without any skips or halting. The two-dimensional TlxBi1-x compounds were formed by depositing Bi onto the Tl-covered Si(111) surface where Bi atoms substitute appropriate amount of Tl atoms. Atomic structure of each tiling element as well as arrangement of TlxBi1-x compounds were established in a detail. Electronic properties and spin texture of the selected compounds having periodic structures were characterized. The shown example demonstrates possibility for the formation of the exotic low-dimensional materials via unusual growth mechanisms.

  7. Synthesis of two-dimensional Tl(x)Bi(1-x) compounds and Archimedean encoding of their atomic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, Dimitry V; Bondarenko, Leonid V; Matetskiy, Andrey V; Mihalyuk, Alexey N; Tupchaya, Alexandra Y; Utas, Oleg A; Eremeev, Sergey V; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Wei, Ching-Ming; Zotov, Andrey V; Saranin, Alexander A

    2016-01-19

    Crystalline atomic layers on solid surfaces are composed of a single building block, unit cell, that is copied and stacked together to form the entire two-dimensional crystal structure. However, it appears that this is not an unique possibility. We report here on synthesis and characterization of the one-atomic-layer-thick Tl(x)Bi(1-x) compounds which display quite a different arrangement. It represents a quasi-periodic tiling structures that are built by a set of tiling elements as building blocks. Though the layer is lacking strict periodicity, it shows up as an ideally-packed tiling of basic elements without any skips or halting. The two-dimensional Tl(x)Bi(1-x) compounds were formed by depositing Bi onto the Tl-covered Si(111) surface where Bi atoms substitute appropriate amount of Tl atoms. Atomic structure of each tiling element as well as arrangement of Tl(x)Bi(1-x) compounds were established in a detail. Electronic properties and spin texture of the selected compounds having periodic structures were characterized. The shown example demonstrates possibility for the formation of the exotic low-dimensional materials via unusual growth mechanisms.

  8. The spin structure of the proton at low $x$ and low $Q^2$ in two-dimensional bins from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal double spin asymmetries $A_1^p$ and the spin dependent structure function of the proton $g_1^p$ were extracted from COMPASS data in the region of low Bjorken scaling variable $x$ and low photon virtuality $Q^2$. The data were taken in 2007 and 2011 from scattering of polarised muons off polarised protons, resulting in a sample that is 150 times larger than the one from the previous experiment SMC that pioneered studies in this kinematic region. For the first time, $A_1^p$ and $g_1^p$ were evaluated in this region in two-dimensional bins of kinematic variables: $(x,Q^2)$, $(\

  9. Structure analysis of aromatic medicines containing nitrogen using near-infrared spectroscopy and generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, Hongbin; Qu, Lingbo; Huang, Yanping; Xiang, Bingren

    2008-12-01

    Four aromatic medicines (acetaminophen; niacinamide; p-aminophenol; nicotinic acid) containing nitrogen were investigated by FT-NIR (Fourier transform near-infrared) spectroscopy and generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. The FT-NIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 30-130 °C. By combining near-infrared spectroscopy, generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and references, the molecular structures (especially the hydrogen bond related with nitrogen) were analyzed and the NIR band assignments were performed. The results will be helpful to the understanding of aromatic medicines containing nitrogen and the utility of these substances.

  10. Design of a Photonic-Crystal Channel-Drop Filter Based on the Two-Dimensional Triangular-Lattice Hole Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu; Hwan; Hwang; G.; Hugh; Song; Chanmook; Lim; Soan; Kim; Kyung-Won; Chun; Mahn; Yong; Park

    2003-01-01

    A channel-drop filter has been designed based on the two-dimensional triangular-lattice hole photonic-crystal structure, which consists of two line defects and two point defects, by a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation.

  11. A new two-dimensional approach to quantitative prediction for collision cross-section of more than 110 singly protonated peptides by a novel moecular electronegativity-interaction vector through quantitative structure-spectrometry relationship studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; MEI Hu; TIAN Feifei; WANG Jiaona; WU Shirong; LI Zhiliang

    2007-01-01

    Based on two-dimensional topological characters,a novel method called molecular electronegativityinteraction vector(MEIV)is proposed to parameterize molecular structures.Applying MEIV into quantitative structure-spectrometry relationship studies on ion mobility spectrometry collision cross-sections of 113 singly protonated peptides,three models were strictly obtained,with correlative coefficient r and leave-one-out cross-validation q of 0.983,0.979,0.981,0.979 and 0.980,0.978,respectively.Thus,the MEIV is confirmed to be potent to structural characterizations and property predictions for organic and biologic molecules.

  12. Effect of solvent evaporation temperature on the structure of two-dimensional melamine networks on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Arifumi; Nakata, Yohei; Minou, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Kadono, Kohei

    2016-12-01

    By scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we investigated two-dimensional (2D) structures of melamine formed on Au(111) surfaces by solvent evaporation. By increasing the evaporation temperature, the well-known ordered honeycomb 2D molecular phase, in which all molecules are linked by hydrogen bonding, changes to four coexisting phases, i.e., a 2D network consisting of linear segments, 1D molecular rows, and hexagonal and distorted hexagonal structures. The first two phases are sometimes observed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) on metallic substrates other than Au. The last two phases have lattice parameters close to those of the well-known honeycomb structure. The structural change observed in this study is attributed to local temperature and concentration distributions of the solution and substrate surface during solvent evaporation. From the results, we found that the molecular nanostructures can be tailored by the solvent evaporation method with small changes in temperature.

  13. Design, fabrication, and characterization of lightweight and broadband microwave absorbing structure reinforced by two dimensional composite lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingji; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2012-07-01

    Microwave absorbing structures (MASs) reinforced by two dimensional (2D) composite lattice elements have been designed and fabricated. The density of these MASs is lower than 0.5 g/cm3. Experimental measurements show that the sandwich structure with glass fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) lattice core can serve as a broadband MAS with its reflectivity below -10 dB over the frequency range of 4-18 GHz. The low permittivity GFRC is indicated to be the proper material for both the structural element of the core and the transparent face sheet. Calculations by the periodic moment method (PMM) demonstrate that the 2D Kagome lattice performs better for microwave absorbing than the square one at relatively low frequencies. The volume fraction and cell size of the structural element are also revealed to be key factors for microwave absorbing performance.

  14. One- and Two-Dimensional Maximum Softening Indicators for Reinforced Concrete Structures under Seismic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Köyüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.

    The maximum softening concept is based on the variation of the vibrational periods of a structure during a seismic event. Maximum softening damage indicators, which measure the maximum relative stiffness reduction caused by stiffness and strength deterioration of the actual structure, are calcula......The maximum softening concept is based on the variation of the vibrational periods of a structure during a seismic event. Maximum softening damage indicators, which measure the maximum relative stiffness reduction caused by stiffness and strength deterioration of the actual structure...

  15. Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous dampin...

  16. Quantum ratchet effects induced by terahertz radiation in GaN-based two-dimensional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, W.; Golub, L. E.; Danilov, S. N.; Karch, J.; Reitmaier, C.; Wittmann, B.; Bel' kov, V. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Kvon, Z. D.; Vinh, N. Q.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Murdin, B.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Photogalvanic effects are observed and investigated in wurtzite (0001)-oriented GaN/AlGaN low-dimensional structures excited by terahertz radiation. The structures are shown to represent linear quantum ratchets. Experimental and theoretical analysis exhibits that the observed photocurrents are relat

  17. Quantum ratchet effects induced by terahertz radiation in GaN-based two-dimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W.; Golub, L. E.; Danilov, S. N.; Karch, J.; Reitmaier, C.; Wittmann, B.; Bel'Kov, V. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Kvon, Z. D.; Vinh, N. Q.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Murdin, B.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2008-06-01

    Photogalvanic effects are observed and investigated in wurtzite (0001)-oriented GaN/AlGaN low-dimensional structures excited by terahertz radiation. The structures are shown to represent linear quantum ratchets. Experimental and theoretical analysis exhibits that the observed photocurrents are related to the lack of an inversion center in the GaN-based heterojunctions.

  18. Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous dampin...

  19. Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. S.

    2003-10-01

    The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous damping, and imperfections are studied by analyzing two examples; a 1-D filter and a 2-D wave guide. In 1-D the structural response in the band gap is shown to be insensitive to damping and small imperfections. In 2-D the similar effect of damping is noted for one type of periodic structure, whereas for another type the band gap effect is nearly eliminated by damping. In both 1-D and 2-D it is demonstrated how the free structural boundaries affect the response in the band gap due to local resonances. Finally, 2-D wave guides are considered by replacing the periodic structure with a homogeneous structure in a straight and a 90° bent path, and it is shown how the vibrational response is confined to the paths in the band gap frequency ranges.

  20. Axis and velocity determination for quasi two-dimensional plasma/field structures from Faraday's law: A second look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ö.; Denton, Richard E.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Swisdak, M.

    2013-05-01

    We re-examine the basic premises of a single-spacecraft data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2005), for determining the axis orientation and proper frame velocity of quasi two-dimensional, quasi-steady structures of magnetic field and plasma. The method, which is based on Faraday's law, makes use of magnetic and electric field data measured by a single spacecraft traversing the structure, although in many circumstances the convection electric field, - v × B, can serve as a proxy for E. It has been used with success for flux ropes observed at the magnetopause but has usually failed to provide acceptable results when applied to real space data from reconnection events as well as to virtual data from numerical MHD simulations of such events. In the present paper, the reasons for these shortcomings are identified, analyzed, and discussed in detail. Certain basic properties of the method are presented in the form of five theorems, the last of which makes use of singular value decomposition to treat the special case where the magnetic variance matrix is non-invertible. These theorems are illustrated using data from analytical models of flux ropes and also from MHD simulations as well as a 2-D kinetic simulation of reconnection. The results make clear that the method requires the presence of a significant, non-removable electric field distribution in the plane transverse to the invariant direction and that it is sensitive to deviations from strict two-dimensionality and strict time stationarity.

  1. When is high-dimensional scattering chaos essentially two dimensional? Measuring the product structure of singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drótos, G; Jung, C; Tél, T

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate how the area of the enveloping surface of the scattering singularities in a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-dof) system depends on a perturbation parameter controlling the distance from a reducible case. This dependence is monotonic and approximately linear. Therefore it serves as a measure for this distance, which can be extracted from an investigation of the fractal structure. These features are a consequence of the dynamics being governed by normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds. We conclude that typical n-dof chaotic scattering exhibits either structures developing out of a stack of chaotic structures of 2-dof type or hardly any chaotic effects.

  2. Photonic Band Gaps in Two-Dimensional Crystals with Fractal Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘征; 徐建军; 林志方

    2003-01-01

    We simulate the changes of the photonic band structure of the crystal in two dimensions with a quasi-fractal structure when it is fined to a fractal. The result shows that when the dielectric distribution is fined, the photonic band structure will be compressed on the whole and the ground photonic band gap (PBG) closed while the next PBGs shrunk, in conjunction with their position declining in the frequency spectrum. Furthermore, the PBGs in the high zone are much more sensitive than those in low zones.

  3. Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Stability of Two-dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C S; Yasin, E

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic structures have been observed in many regions of space plasmas, including the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the auroral acceleration region, and in association with shocks, turbulence, and magnetic reconnection. Due to potentially large amplitude of electric fields within these structures, their effects on particle heating, scattering, or acceleration can be important. One possible theoretical description of some of these structures is the concept of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes, which are exact nonlinear solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in collisionless kinetic theory. BGK modes have been studied extensively for many decades, predominately in one dimension (1D), although there have been observations showing that some of these structures have clear 3D features. While there have been approximate solutions of higher dimensional BGK modes, an exact 3D BGK mode solution in a finite magnetic field has not been found yet. Recently we have constructed exact solutions of 2D B...

  4. Study on two-dimensional equilibrium structure of magnetized complex plasmas based on a Langevin dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Yang, Fang; Liu, Songfen; Shi, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin dynamics simulation method is used to study the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium structure of complex plasmas while considering an external magnetic field. The traditional Yukawa potential and a modified Yukawa potential according to Shukla et al. [Phys. Lett. A 291, 413 (2001); Shukla and Mendonca, Phys. Scr. T113 82 (2004)] and Salimullah et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3047 (2003)] respectively, are employed to account for the interaction of the charged dust particles. It is found that the collisions between neutral gas and charged dust particles have minor effects on the 2D equilibrium structure of the system. Based on the modified Yukawa potential, studies on the 2D equilibrium structure show that the traditional Yukawa potential is still suitable for describing the magnetized complex plasmas, even if the shielding distance of charged dust particles is affected by the strong external magnetic field.

  5. Extracting structural information from the polarization dependence of one- and two-dimensional sum frequency generation spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Jennifer E; Zanni, Martin T

    2013-07-25

    We present ways in which pulse sequences and polarizations can be used to extract structural information from one- and two-dimensional vibrational sum frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra. We derive analytic expressions for the polarization dependence of systems containing coupled vibrational modes, and we present simulated spectra to identify the features of different molecular geometries. We discuss several useful polarization combinations for suppressing strong diagonal peaks and emphasizing weaker cross-peaks. We investigate unique capabilities of 2D SFG spectra for obtaining structural information about SFG-inactive modes and for identifying coupled achiral chromophores. This work builds on techniques that have been developed for extracting structural information from 2D IR spectra. This paper discusses how to utilize these concepts in 2D SFG experiments to probe multioscillator systems at interfaces. The sample code for calculating polarization dependence of 1D and 2D SFG spectra is provided in the Supporting Information .

  6. Analytical and Numerical Calculations of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Photonic Band Gap Structures and Cavities for Laser Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Samokhvalova, Ksenia R; Liang Qian, Bao

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structures have many promising applications in laser acceleration. For these applications, accurate determination of fundamental and high order band gaps is critical. We present the results of our recent work on analytical calculations of two-dimensional (2D) PBG structures in rectangular geometry. We compare the analytical results with computer simulation results from the MIT Photonic Band Gap Structure Simulator (PBGSS) code, and discuss the convergence of the computer simulation results to the analytical results. Using the accurate analytical results, we design a mode-selective 2D dielectric cylindrical PBG cavity with the first global band gap in the frequency range of 8.8812 THz to 9.2654 THz. In this frequency range, the TM01-like mode is shown to be well confined.

  7. Detailed study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar [Islamic Azad University, Shabestar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiaghaie, Soma [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi [Islamic Azad University, Sufian (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  8. Detailed Study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Valiaghaie, Soma; Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  9. Structured mirror array for two-dimensional collimation of a chromium beam in atom lithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wan-Jing; Ma Yan; Li Tong-Bao; Zhang Ping-Ping; Deng Xiao; Chen Sheng; Xiao Sheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Direct-write atom lithography,one of the potential nanofabrication techniques,is restricted by some difficulties in producing optical masks for the deposition of complex structures.In order to make further progress,a structured mirror array is developed to transversely collimate the chromium atomic beam in two dimensions.The best collimation is obtained when the laser red detunes by natural line-width of transition 7S3 → 7P40 of the chromium atom.The collimation ratio is 0.45 vertically (in x axis),and it is 0.55 horizontally (in y axis).The theoretical model is also simulated,and success of our structured mirror array is achieved.

  10. Unusual onset of p-element magnetization in a two dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Samir F.

    2016-10-01

    Based on density functional theory electronic and magnetic structure characterizations an unusual onset of spin polarization of p states is demonstrated leading to a stable ferromagnetic order within a carbon layered honeycomb-like compound. Specifically structural relaxation of formerly studied C2N in 3D network and devised here in 2D layered AlB2-type derived structure shows that the resulting ordered compound maintains the hexagonal crystal symmetry with an exceptionally large c/a ratio leading to strong localization of N states along c and letting magnetization develop within N-pz orbitals with 1.1 μB per formula unit. Anisotropic antibonding interactions between C and N layers allow interpreting the results. The compound is energetically characterized in ferromagnetic ground state versus less stable anti-ferromagnetic order.

  11. Crystal structure and photoluminescence of a new two-dimensional Cd(II) coordination polymer based on 3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-naphthoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zhi-Guo; Guo, Sheng-Nan; Miao, Jia-Qi; An, Miao [Jilin Normal Univ., College of Chemistry, Siping (China); Ministry of Education, Siping (China). Key Lab. of Preparation and Applications of Enviromental Friendly Materials

    2015-11-01

    A new Cd(II) coordination polymer, [Cd(CNA)]{sub n} (1) (H{sub 2}CNA = 3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-naphthoic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P{sub 2}1/c with a = 16.9698(18), b = 7.8314(8), c = 8.9553(10) Aa, β = 100.657(2) {sup circle}, V = 1169.6(2) Aa{sup 3}, Z = 4, D{sub calcd.} = 2.03 g cm{sup -3}, μ(MoK{sub α}) = 1.9 mm{sup -1}, F(000) = 696 e, R = 0.0305, wR = 0.0784 for 172 refined parameters and 2285 data. Each CNA anion bridges three Cd(II) cations to give rise to a two-dimensional network structure. Topologically, if each CNA anion is regarded as a linker, and each Cd(II) atom considered as a 4-connected node, the structure is simplified as a 4-connected (4,4) network. The solid state photoluminescent properties of the compound were also studied at room temperature.

  12. Modeling and process design for laser interference lithography used in fabricating two-dimensional periodic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostan, C.G.; Ridder, de R.M.; Dorssen, van I.; Wolferen, van H.A.G.M.; Kuipers, L.; Hulst, van N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Laser interference lithography (LIL) is a technique that can be successfully used for realization of 2D periodic structures, with excellent uniformity over large areas. However, detailed modeling is needed in order to extract the optimum design parameters. In this paper, we refer to a design procedu

  13. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    -dimensional continuous boundary. Additionally, a simple method for determining the so-called equivalent coupling factor is presented. The validity of this method is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the vibration response of a master plate structure with fuzzy attachments. It is revealed that the method performs...

  14. Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1991-01-01

    in the vorticity-stream function representation for bounded geometries. Fundamental processes connected to vorticity detachment from the boundary layers caused by the proximity of vortical structures are described. These processes include enstrophy enhancement of the main flow during bursting events, and pinning...

  15. Health Assessment of Large Two Dimensional Structures Using Limited Information: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some recent advances of a recently developed structural health assessment procedure proposed by the research team at the University of Arizona, commonly known as generalized iterative least-squares extended Kalman filter with unknown input (GILS-EKF-UI are presented. The procedure is a finite elements-based time-domain system-identification technique. It can assess structural health at the element level using only limited number of noise-contaminated responses. With the help of examples, it is demonstrated that the structure can be excited by multiple loadings simultaneously. The method can identify defects in various stages of degradation in single or multiple members and also relatively less severe defect. The defective element(s need not be in the substructure, but the defect detection capability increases if the defect spot is close to the substructure. Two alternatives are suggested to locate defect spot more accurately within a defective element. The paper advances several areas of GILS-EKF-UI to assess health of large structural systems.

  16. Study on the crystalline structure transition of syndiotactic polystyrene film during heat treatment by two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weizhen; Wu, Peiyi

    2009-08-01

    The crystal structure transition of syndiotactic polystyrene film from the helical conformation to the more stable planar zigzag conformation during a heating process was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis and perturbation-correlation moving-window 2D analysis. The sequence of different conformations during the transition was investigated by analyzing two-dimensional FT-IR correlation spectra in the spectral ranges of 800-700 cm(-1) and 600-500 cm(-1). It was observed that the conformation of delta helical changes prior to gamma helical, and the gamma helical phase is faster than the alpha' planar zigzag phase. By utilizing the 2D asynchronous correlation spectra, the 744 cm(-1) band, which is usually incorporated in the broad 750 cm(-1) band, can now be uniquely attributed as the alpha' zigzag configuration for the first time. Furthermore, by employing thermal perturbation, the shorter helical segments consisting of m = 7-12 and m = 12-20 monomeric units were disturbed in a shorter time than the longer helical segments m = 20-30 during the heating process.

  17. Two-dimensional simulations of temperature and current-density distribution in electromigrated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kießig, Birgit; Schäfer, Roland; von Löhneysen, Hilbert

    2014-01-01

    We report on the application of a feedback-controlled electromigration technique for the formation of nanometre-sized gaps in mesoscopic gold wires and rings. The effect of current density and temperature, linked via Joule heating, on the resulting gap size is investigated. Our experiments include in situ measurements of the evolution of the electrical resistance and of the structure of the device during electromigration. Experimentally, a good thermal coupling to the substrate turned out to be crucial to reach electrode spacings below 10 nm and to avoid overall melting of the nanostructures. This finding is supported by numerical calculations of the current-density and temperature profiles for structure layouts subjected to electromigration. The numerical method can be used for optimizing the layout so as to predetermine the location where electromigration leads to the formation of a gap.

  18. Transition from two-dimensional photonic crystals to dielectric metasurfaces in the optical diffraction with a fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Samusev, Kirill B; Lukashenko, Stanislav Yu; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2016-08-05

    We study experimentally a fine structure of the optical Laue diffraction from two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices. The periodic photonic lattices with the C4v square symmetry, orthogonal C2v symmetry, and hexagonal C6v symmetry are composed of submicron dielectric elements fabricated by the direct laser writing technique. We observe surprisingly strong optical diffraction from a finite number of elements that provides an excellent tool to determine not only the symmetry but also exact number of particles in the finite-length structure and the sample shape. Using different samples with orthogonal C2v symmetry and varying the lattice spacing, we observe experimentally a transition between the regime of multi-order diffraction, being typical for photonic crystals to the regime where only the zero-order diffraction can be observed, being is a clear fingerprint of dielectric metasurfaces characterized by effective parameters.

  19. Transition from two-dimensional photonic crystals to dielectric metasurfaces in the optical diffraction with a fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Lukashenko, Stanislav Yu.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Limonov, Mikhail F.

    2016-08-01

    We study experimentally a fine structure of the optical Laue diffraction from two-dimensional periodic photonic lattices. The periodic photonic lattices with the C4v square symmetry, orthogonal C2v symmetry, and hexagonal C6v symmetry are composed of submicron dielectric elements fabricated by the direct laser writing technique. We observe surprisingly strong optical diffraction from a finite number of elements that provides an excellent tool to determine not only the symmetry but also exact number of particles in the finite-length structure and the sample shape. Using different samples with orthogonal C2v symmetry and varying the lattice spacing, we observe experimentally a transition between the regime of multi-order diffraction, being typical for photonic crystals to the regime where only the zero-order diffraction can be observed, being is a clear fingerprint of dielectric metasurfaces characterized by effective parameters.

  20. Structural analysis of lime wood biodegraded by white rot fungi through infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The action of the white rot fungi Phanerochaete crisosporium on the structure of lime wood (Tilia cordata) has been studied. The degree of decay was determined by weight loss, which was of 37% after 110 days. The samples were further analyzed by infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The recorded spectra for different intervals of decay indicate variations in the intensities and width or wavenumber shifts of the bands assigned, both, for lignin and carbohydrates. An increase in the intensities of the bands from the carbonyl region due to formation of new structures, accompanied by the reduction of the methoxyl and methyl/methylene groups in lignin was evidenced. Further, the differences between reference and decayed wood spectra were examined in detail using 2DCOS spectroscopy and the second derivative analysis and the sequential order of modifications were established.

  1. Fabrication of two-dimensional visible wavelength nanoscale plasmonic structures using hydrogen silsesquioxane based resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle Z.; Gadde, Akshitha; Kadiyala, Anand; Dawson, Jeremy M.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the global market for biosensors has continued to increase in combination with their expanding use in areas such as biodefense/detection, home diagnostics, biometric identification, etc. A constant necessity for inexpensive, portable bio-sensing methods, while still remaining simple to understand and operate, is the motivation behind novel concepts and designs. Labeled visible spectrum bio-sensing systems provide instant feedback that is both simple and easy to work with, but are limited by the light intensity thresholds required by the imaging systems. In comparison, label-free bio-sensing systems and other detection modalities like electrochemical, frequency resonance, thermal change, etc., can require additional technical processing steps to convey the final result, increasing the system's complexity and possibly the time required for analysis. Further decrease in the detection limit can be achieved through the addition of plasmonic structures into labeled bio-sensing systems. Nano-structures that operate in the visible spectrum have feature sizes typically in the order of the operating wavelength, calling for high aspect ratio nanoscale fabrication capabilities. In order to achieve these dimensions, electron beam lithography (EBL) is used due to its accurate feature production. Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) based electron beam resist is chosen for one of its benefits, which is after exposure to oxygen plasma, the patterned resist cures into silicon dioxide (SiO2). These cured features in conjunction with nanoscale gold particles help in producing a high electric field through dipole generation. In this work, a detailed process flow of the fabrication of square lattice of plasmonic structures comprising of gold coated silicon dioxide pillars designed to operate at 560 nm wavelength and produce an intensity increase of roughly 100 percent will be presented.

  2. On the two-dimensional metallic state in silicon-on-insulator structures

    OpenAIRE

    Brunthaler, G.; Prinz, A.; Pillwein, G.; Lindelof, P. E.; Ahopelto, J.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the electronic conduction in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layers exhibits a metallic regime which is very similar to that in high-mobility Si-metal oxide semiconductor structures (MOS). The peak in the electron mobility versus density, the strong drop in resistivity and the critical concentration for the metal-insulator transition are all consistent. On the basis of our SOI data for the temperature and in-plane magnetic field dependence of the resistivity, we discuss several mo...

  3. Photonic band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xiang-Hua; Zheng Wan-Hua; Ma Xiao-Tao; Ren Gang; Xia Jian-Bai

    2005-01-01

    Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.

  4. Analysis of two-dimensional photonic band gap structure with a rhombus lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limei Qi; Ziqiang Yang; Xi Gao; Zheng Liang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The relative band gap for a rhombus lattice photonic crystal is studied by plane wave expansion method and high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) simulation. General wave vectors in the first Briliouin zone are derived. The relative band gap as a function of air-filling factor and background material is investigated, respectively, and the nature of photonic band gap for different lattice angles is analyzed by the distribution of electric energy. These results would provide theoretical instruction for designing optical integrated devices using photonic crystal with a rhombus lattice.

  5. Two-dimensional analysis of coupled heat and moisture transport in masonry structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Reconstruction and maintenance of historical buildings and bridges require good knowledge of temperature and moisture distribution. Sharp changes in the temperature and moisture can lead to damage. This paper describes analysis of coupled heat and moisture transfer in masonry based on two-level approach. Macro-scale level describes the whole structure while meso-scale level takes into account detailed composition of the masonry. The two-level approach is very computationally demanding and it was implemented in parallel. The two-level approach was used in analysis of temperature and moisture distribution in Charles bridge in Prague, Czech Republic.

  6. Simulations of super-structure domain walls in two dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Beleggia, Marco; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    taking the role of the atomic spins. The coupling is, however, different. The superspins interact only by dipolar interactions as exchange coupling between individual nanoparticles may be neglected due to interparticle spacing. We observe that it is energetically favorable to introduce domain walls...... oriented along the long dimension of nanoparticle assemblies rather than along the short dimension. This is unlike what is typically observed in continuous magnetic materials, where the exchange interaction introduces an energetic cost proportional to the area of the domain walls. Structural disorder...

  7. Solution of the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on embedded structured multiblock meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmelter, J.; Marchant, M. J.; Evans, A.; Weatherill, N. P.

    A cell vertex finite volume Jameson scheme is used to solve the 2D compressible, laminar, viscous fluid flow equations on locally embedded multiblock meshes. The proposed algorithm is applicable to both the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. It is concluded that the adaptivity method is very successful in efficiently improving the accuracy of the solution. Both the mesh generator and the flow equation solver which are based on a quadtree data structure offer good flexibility in the treatment of interfaces. It is concluded that methods under consideration lead to accurate flow solutions.

  8. Experimental investigation of the structure of supersonic two-dimensional air microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Ivan; Aniskin, Vladimir; Mironov, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    We have experimentally studied the structure of supersonic underexpanded room-temperature air jets escaping from micronozzles with characteristic heights from 47 to 175 µm and widths within 2410-3900 µm in a range of Reynolds numbers of 1280-9460. The dimensions of the first shock cell are established. The supersonic core length of supersonic underexpanded air jets has been determined for the first time. A flow regime with a large supersonic core length has observed for air jets escaping from a 47µm high nozzle.

  9. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukś, Henryk; Krzemiński, Mark

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers—that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 103 and 104. A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

  10. Two-dimensional imaging detectors for structural biology with X-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Peter

    2014-07-17

    Our ability to harness the advances in microelectronics over the past decade(s) for X-ray detection has resulted in significant improvements in the state of the art. Biology with X-ray free-electron lasers present daunting detector challenges: all of the photons arrive at the same time, and individual high peak power pulses must be read out shot-by-shot. Direct X-ray detection in silicon pixel detectors--monolithic or hybrid--are the standard for XFELs today. For structural biology, improvements are needed for today's 10-100 Hz XFELs, and further improvements are required for tomorrow's 10+ kHz XFELs. This article will discuss detector challenges, why they arise and ways to overcome them, along with the current state of the art. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural soil crust development from raindrop impacts using two-dimensional discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seungcheol; Sjoblom, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    The mechanical nature of crust formation as a result of raindrop impacts was simulated within a discrete element modeling environment. Simulations were conducted in two-dimensions (2D) using both linear and non-linear elastic contact models. The 2D approach was found to minimize the computational effort required and maximize the number of particles in the soil profile. For the non-linear model, the effect of the coefficient of restitution (COR) for soil-rain and soil-soil was investigated. Finally, the comparison between the linear and nonlinear elastic contact model was presented. The simulation indicated that the COR for rain-soil had negligible effect on the crust development but the computational time was exponentially increased with increasing coefficient value. In contrast, the COR for soil-soil had a dominant influence on the crust development. To validate the numerical results, a micro computerized tomography (microCT) technique was applied to characterize the changes in pore structure to a USCS SP soil after exposure under a rainfall simulator. Additionally, the effect of cyclic wetting and drying (without rainfall) on the changes in porosity was investigated. The experimental results showed that the rainfall simulator sufficiently densified the soil but the effect of cyclic wetting and drying was negligible. The numerical simulations showed similar changes in porosity along the depth of the soil profile as compared with the experimental results thus validating the DEM technique to simulate crust development.

  12. BASIN STRUCTURE FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA, CRAZY MOUNTAINS BASIN, MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Taylor

    2003-08-01

    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  13. Two Dimensional LIF Measurements and Potential Structure of Ion Beam Formation in an Argon Helicon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Evan; Scime, Earl; Good, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    We report 2-dimensional, spatially resolved observations of ion beam formation in an expanding helicon plasma. Previous studies found that a current free double layer (CFDL) spontaneously arises at low pressure, below 1 mT. We use Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), a non-perturbative diagnostic to measure the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) of argon ions both parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field. We report ion beam formation as a function of the expansion chamber magnetic field (0-108 G). The ion beam appears peaked in the center of the expansion chamber and decays over a few centimeters radially. We also report the potential structure of the plasma obtained with a planar Langmuir probe. To obtain meaningful Langmuir probe measurements, averages of tens of current-voltage are needed to reduce the effects of large electrostatic fluctuations that arise in plasmas that generate ion beams. We report the dependence of density, electron temperature, and floating potential on radial and axial position in the expansion plume. NSF Award PHYS-1360278.

  14. Structure of growing microtubule ends: two-dimensional sheets close into tubes at variable rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, D; Fuller, S D; Karsenti, E

    1995-06-01

    Observation of microtubule growth at different rates by cryo-electron microscopy reveals that the ends range from blunt to long, gently curved sheets. The mean sheet length increases with the growth rate while the width of the distributions increases with the extent of assembly. The combination of a concentration dependent growth rate of the tubulin sheet with a variable closure rate of the microtubule cylinder, results in a model in which stochastic fluctuations in sheet length and tubulin conformation confine GTP-tubulins to microtubule ends. We propose that the variability of microtubule growth rate observed by video microscopy (Gildersleeve, R. F., A. R. Cross, K. E. Cullen, A. P. Fagen, and R. C. Williams. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 7995-8006, and this study) is due to the variation in the rate of cylinder closure. The curvature of the sheets at the end of growing microtubules and the small oligomeric structures observed at the end of disassembling microtubules, indicate that tubulin molecules undergo conformational changes both during assembly and disassembly.

  15. Topological spin-singlet superconductors with underlying sublattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreix, C.

    2017-07-01

    Majorana boundary quasiparticles may naturally emerge in a spin-singlet superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit interactions when a Zeeman magnetic field breaks time-reversal symmetry. Their existence and robustness against adiabatic changes is deeply related, via a bulk-edge correspondence, to topological properties of the band structure. The present paper shows that the spin-orbit may be responsible for topological transitions when the superconducting system has an underlying sublattice structure, as it appears in a dimerized Peierls chain, graphene, and phosphorene. These systems, which belong to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes class D, are found to have an extra symmetry that plays the role of the parity. It enables the characterization of the topology of the particle-hole symmetric band structure in terms of band inversions. The topological phase diagrams this leads to are then obtained analytically and exactly. They reveal that, because of the underlying sublattice structure, the existence of topological superconducting phases requires a minimum doping fixed by the strength of the Rashba spin orbit. Majorana boundary quasiparticles are finally predicted to emerge when the Fermi level lies in the vicinity of the bottom (top) of the conduction (valence) band in semiconductors such as the dimerized Peierls chain and phosphorene. In a two-dimensional topological superconductor based on (stretched) graphene, which is semimetallic, Majorana quasiparticles cannot emerge at zero and low doping, that is, when the Fermi level is close to the Dirac points. Nevertheless, they are likely to appear in the vicinity of the van Hove singularities.

  16. Band structure of magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystals with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ayona, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Halevi, P. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    We calculate the band structure of a magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystal (PC) with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity. Namely, the permittivity (permeability) is periodic in a plane (single direction). The metallic and magnetic properties are described, respectively, by means of the Drude model and a specific permeability model for Barium-M ferrite. Because of the dispersion of both the permeability and the permittivity, we obtain a non-standard eigenvalue problem which is possible to solve by means of a linearization technique. We found that the first band of this PC is very sensitive to the filling fraction of the magnetic component: by changing this fraction from 0.20 to 0.16 the slope - and effective index of refraction - changes from positive to negative. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Tuning the electronic structures and magnetism of two-dimensional porous C2N via transition metal embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Xiong, Wenqi; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Jia, Yu

    2016-08-10

    Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetism are investigated in 3d transition metal (TM)-embedded porous two-dimensional (2D) C2N monolayers. Numerical results indicate that except Mn and Co atoms, other TM atoms can be embedded stably in the 2D C2N monolayer. Moreover, the magnetic moments of the TM-embedded C2N monolayer depend highly on the atomic number of the TM atoms. The Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni atom-embedded C2N monolayers possess a ferromagnetic ground state, while embedding Cu can induce paramagnetic characteristics in the 2D C2N monolayer. Meanwhile, the Zn-embedded C2N monolayer exhibits a nonmagnetic ground state. These results indicate that the magnetism of 2D C2N monolayers can be tuned via embedding TM atoms.

  18. Geometrical approach in physical understanding of the Goos-Haenchen shift in one- and two-dimensional periodic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mehdi; Naqavi, Ali; Khavasi, Amin; Mehrany, Khashayar; Khorasani, Sina; Rashidian, Bizhan

    2008-12-15

    The Goos-Haenchen shift of a totally reflected beam at the planar interface of two dielectric media, as if the incident beam is reflected from beneath the interface between the incident and transmitted media, has been geometrically associated with the penetration of the incident photons in the less-dense forbidden transmission region. This geometrical approach is here generalized to analytically calculate the Goos-Haenchen shift in one- and two-dimensional periodic structures. Several numerical examples are presented, and the obtained results are successfully tested against the well-known Artman's formula. The proposed approach is shown to be a fast, simple, and efficient method that can provide good physical insight to the nature of the phenomenon.

  19. Generalized two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis of the structures of methanol and ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Liquid state methanol and ethanol under different temperatures have been investigated by FT-NIR(Fourier transform nearinfrared) spectroscopy,generalized two-dimensional(2D) correlation spectroscopy,and PCA(principal component analysis) . First,the FT-NIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 30-64(or 30-71) °C,and then the 2D correlation spectra were computed.Combining near-infrared spectroscopy,generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy,and references,we analyzed the molecular structures(especially the hydrogen bond) of methanol and ethanol,and performed the NIR band assignments. The PCA method was employed to verify the results of the 2D analysis.This study will be helpful to the understanding of these reagents.

  20. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-01

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  1. Topological structures in computer science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Khalimsky

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Topologies of finite spaces and spaces with countably many points are investigated. It is proven, using the theory of ordered topological spaces, that any topology in connected ordered spaces, with finitely many points or in spaces similar to the set of all integers, is an interval-alternating topology. Integer and digital lines, arcs, and curves are considered. Topology of N-dimensional digital spaces is described. A digital analog of the intermediate value theorem is proven. The equivalence of connectedness and pathconnectedness in digital and integer spaces is also proven. It is shown here how methods of continuous mathematics, for example, topological methods, can be applied to objects, that used to be investigated only by methods of discrete mathematics. The significance of methods and ideas in digital image and picture processing, robotic vision, computer tomography and system's sciences presented here is well known.

  2. Visualization of Structured Packing with Laser Induced Fluorescence Technique:Two-Dimensional Measurement of Liquid Concentration Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伯潭; 申言同; 张会书; 刘春江; 唐忠利; 袁希钢

    2016-01-01

    A method of using laser induced fluorescence(LIF)technique was applied to two-dimensional meas-urement of the liquid concentration distribution in the 250Y structured packing sheet. The experimental structured packing sheet was made of perspex so that the laser could pass through it. The visualization of the distribution of the liquid concentration in the structured packing sheet was realized. The calibration of the thickness and liquid concentration was carried out firstly and the regression formulaI=kcd was acquired, in which concentrationc and the liquid film thicknessd were both considered. Then the liquid feed of uniform tracer(rhodamine)concentration entered the perspex structured packing from the top under different spraying densities. The corresponding thickness of liquid film on the packing was calculated. Finally, tracer(rhodamine)with a high concentration was injected only at one fixed point of the structured packing under different spraying densities of the liquid. With the known liquid film thickness, the concentration distribution of the tracer can be calculated inside the structured packing sheet.

  3. Two-dimensional deterministic photonic band gap structures based on the quasiperiodic sequences at millimeter wave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Trabelsi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional quasi-periodic band gap structures were investigated theoretically in microwave frequency range. Quasiperiodic photonic crystal based on the square range, arranged in a quasi-periodical fashion which follows Thue Morse or Fibonaci period substitutional sequences were obtained by the inflation rules emerging from the quasi-periodic sequence. The introduction of 2D quasi-periodicity distribution like Thue Morse or Fibonacci order and deterministic aperiodicity give some interesting microwave properties and offers amultitude of adjacent pseudo-band gap in different frequency range. The potential of photonic structures are explored by varying the structural parameters. The photonic band gap formation was explored as function of geometries of the structures such as pillar radius and parameters of quasi-periodical sequences. The electromagnetic field distribution can be described as a quasi-localized state varied by some defect carried by Thue Morse order. These structures provide interesting properties, which could be used to design novelmicrowave devices.

  4. Simultaneous topology optimization of structures and supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a method for and the benefits of simultaneously designing structure and support distribution using topology optimization. The support conditions are included in the topology optimization by introducing, a new set of design variables that represents...... cost of supports in a design domain. Other examples show that more efficient mechanisms are obtained by introducing the support conditions in the topology optimization problem....

  5. Efficient Two-Dimensional Direction Finding via Auxiliary-Variable Manifold Separation Technique for Arbitrary Array Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A polynomial rooting direction of arrival (DOA algorithm for multiple plane waves incident on an arbitrary array structure that combines the multipolynomial resultants and matrix computations is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new auxiliary-variable manifold separation technique (AV-MST is used to model the steering vector of arbitrary array structure as the product of a sampling matrix (dependent only on the array structure and two Vandermonde-structured wavefield coefficient vectors (dependent on the wavefield. Then the propagator operator is calculated and used to form a system of bivariate polynomial equations. Finally, the automatically paired azimuth and elevation estimates are derived by polynomial rooting. The presented algorithm employs the concept of auxiliary-variable manifold separation technique which requires no sector by sector array interpolation and thus does not suffer from any mapping errors. In addition, the new algorithm does not need any eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix and exhausted search over the two-dimensional parameter space. Moreover, the algorithm gives automatically paired estimates, thus avoiding the complex pairing procedure. Therefore, the proposed algorithm shows low computational complexity and high robustness performance. Simulation results are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Topology optimization for simplified structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Lange, Nis P.; Giuliani, Luisa;

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is applied in an idealized structural fire safety model, where the minimum compliance problem is constrained by temperature-controlled structural degradation. The constraint ensures a certain structural stiffness after a prescribed time. As this time period is extended......, resulting optimized topologies tend to become thicker or introduce redundant members that can take over when structural parts near the origin of the fire lose their load carrying capability. Hence, the structural degradation model acts as an erosion operator on the topology and indirectly enforces a minimum...

  7. Real-space and plane-wave hybrid method for electronic structure calculations for two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, V. Nam; Le, H. Anh; Vu, V. Thieu

    2017-04-01

    We propose a computational approach to combining the plane-wave method and the real-space treatment to describe the periodic variation in the material plane and the decay of wave functions from the material surfaces. The proposed approach is natural for two-dimensional material systems and thus may circumvent some intrinsic limitations involving the artificial replication of material layers in traditional supercell methods. In particular, we show that the proposed method is easy to implement and, especially, computationally effective since low-cost computational algorithms, such as iterative and recursive techniques, can be used to treat matrices with block tridiagonal structure. Using this approach we show first-principles features that supplement the current knowledge of some fundamental issues in bilayer graphene systems, including the coupling between the two graphene layers, the preservation of the σ band of monolayer graphene in the electronic structure of the bilayer system, and the differences in low-energy band structure between the AA- and AB-stacked configurations.

  8. Magnetic and Structural Studies on Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Co, Cr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Masakazu; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Ueda, Yutaka; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We report magnetic and structural studies on the two-dimensional antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Cr, Co), prepared by topochemical reactions of a layered perovskite RbLaNb2O7. Electron diffraction of these oxyhalides revealed a superstructure with a √{2}a × √{2}a cell for M = Mn and Co, and a 2a × 2a cell for M = Cr, indicating that the MCl networks are distorted from an ideal square lattice. Neutron diffraction experiments showed that M = Mn and Co exhibit a (π 0 π ) antiferromagnetic order as observed for the S = 1/2 counterparts. (CoCl)LaNb2O7 with a strong spin anisotropy shows an antiferro to weak-ferromagnetic transition at low field, followed by novel two-step metamagnetic transitions likely associated with a 1/2 plateau for 27-54 T. Possible spin structures under magnetic field are discussed in terms of an Ising-type model. By contrast, (CrCl)LaNb2O7 exhibits a (π π π ) order, which is the first observation among related oxyhalides, and a spin-flop transition at 12 T due to a weak spin anisotropy. These results suggest that a slight difference in the MCl structure and spin anisotropy provides a crucial influence on the magnetic properties.

  9. Two-dimensional magnetotelluric model of deep resistivity structure in the Bodie-Aurora district of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Magnetotelluric data were acquired during October 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of a study to examine the structural nature of basins in the transition zone between the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Magnetotelluric (MT) geophysical studies assist the mapping of geologic structure and the inference of lithologic packages that are concealed beneath the Earth's surface. The Basin and Range province has a complicated geologic history, which includes extension and compression of the Earth's crust to form the basins and ranges that blanket much of Nevada. The basins and ranges in the vicinity of this study trend northeastward and are bounded by steeply dipping strike slip faults. Interestingly, deep east-west magnetic trends occur in the aeromagnetic data of this study area indicating that the northeast-trending basins and ranges represent only thin-skinned deformation at the surface with an underlying east-west structure. To investigate this issue, MT data were acquired at seven stations in eastern California, 20 km east of Mono Lake. The purpose of this report is to present a two-dimensional apparent resistivity model of the MT data acquired for this study.

  10. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  11. Reduction of Z classification of a two-dimensional weak topological insulator: Real-space dynamical mean-field theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tsuneya; Kawakami, Norio

    2017-01-01

    One of the remarkable interaction effects on topological insulators is the reduction of topological classification in free-fermion systems. We address this issue in a bilayer honeycomb lattice model by taking into account temperature effects on the reduction. Our analysis, based on the real-space dynamical mean-field theory, elucidates the following results. (i) Even when the reduction occurs, the winding number defined by the Green's function can take a nontrivial value at zero temperature. (ii) The winding number taking the nontrivial value becomes consistent with the absence of gapless edge modes due to Mott behaviors emerging only at the edges. (iii) Temperature effects can restore the gapless edge modes, provided that the energy scale of interactions is smaller than the bulk gap. In addition, we observe the topological edge Mott behavior only in some finite-temperature region.

  12. The topological filtration of $\\gamma$-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Thomas J X

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study $\\gamma$-structures filtered by topological genus. $\\gamma$-structures are a class of RNA pseudoknot structures that plays a key role in the context of polynomial time folding of RNA pseudoknot structures. A $\\gamma$-structure is composed by specific building blocks, that have topological genus less than or equal to $\\gamma$, where composition means concatenation and nesting of such blocks. Our main results are the derivation of a new bivariate generating function for $\\gamma$-structures via symbolic methods, the singularity analysis of the solutions and a central limit theorem for the distribution of topological genus in $\\gamma$-structures of given length. In our derivation specific bivariate polynomials play a central role. Their coefficients count particular motifs of fixed topological genus and they are of relevance in the context of genus recursion and novel folding algorithms.

  13. Onset of quantum criticality in the topological-to-nematic transition in a two-dimensional electron gas at filling factor ν =5 /2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, K. A.; Samkharadze, N.; Gardner, G. C.; Biswas, Rudro R.; Manfra, M. J.; Csáthy, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    Under hydrostatic pressure, the ground state of a two-dimensional electron gas at ν =5 /2 changes from a fractional quantum Hall state to the stripe phase. By measuring the energy gap of the fractional quantum Hall state and of the onset temperature of the stripe phase, we mapped out a phase diagram of these competing phases in the pressure-temperature plane. Our data highlight the dichotomy of two descriptions of the half-filled Landau level near the quantum critical point: one based on electrons and another on composite fermions.

  14. Structural and Topology Optimization of Complex Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the use of topology optimization for finding an optimized form for civil engineering structures. Today topology optimization and shape optimization have been integrated in several commercial finite element codes. Here, the topology of two complex civil engineering structures...

  15. Integral field optical spectroscopy of a representative sample of ULIRGs: II. Two-dimensional kpc-scale extinction structure

    CERN Document Server

    García-Marín, M; Arribas, S

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional kpc-scale structure of the extinction in a representative sample of local ULIRGs using the Halpha/Hbeta line ratio.We use optical integral field spectroscopy obtained with the INTEGRAL instrument at the William Herschel Telescope. Complementary optical and near-IR high angular resolution HST images have also been used. The extinction exhibits a very complex and patchy structure in ULIRGs on kpc scales, from basically transparent regions to others deeply embedded in dust (Av~0.0 to Av~8.0 mag). Nuclear extinction covers a broad range in Av from 0.6 to 6 mag, 69% of the nuclei having Av>2.0 mag. Extinction in the external regions is substantially lower than in the nuclei with 64% of the ULIRGs in the sample having median Av of less than 2 mag for the entire galaxy. While post-coalescence nuclei tend to cluster around Av values of 2 to 3 mag, pre-coalescence nuclei appear more homogeneously distributed over the entire 0.4 mag

  16. Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopic study on the thermally induced structural changes of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Wu, Kun; Liu, Wentao; Shen, Lirui; Li, Guoying

    2015-04-05

    The thermal stability of collagen solution (5 mg/mL) crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GTA) [GTA/collagen (w/w)=0.5] was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the thermally induced structural changes were analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectra. The denaturation temperature (Td) and enthalpy change (ΔH) of crosslinked collagen were respectively about 27°C and 88 J/g higher than those of native collagen, illuminating the thermal stability increased. With the increase of temperature, the red-shift of absorption bands and the decreased AIII/A1455 value obtained from FTIR spectra indicated that hydrogen bonds were weakened and the unwinding of triple helix occurred for both native and crosslinked collagens; whereas the less changes in red-shifting and AIII/A1455 values for crosslinked collagen also confirmed the increase in thermal stability. Additionally, the 2D correlation analysis provided information about the thermally induced structural changes. In the 2D synchronous spectra, the intensities of auto-peaks at 1655 and 1555 cm(-1), respectively assigned to amide I band (CO stretching vibration) and amide II band (combination of NH bending and CN stretching vibrations) in helical conformation were weaker for crosslinked collagen than those for native collagen, indicating that the helical structure of crosslinked collagen was less sensitive to temperature. Moreover, the sequence of the band intensity variations showed that the band at 1555 cm(-1) moved backwards owing to the addition of GTA, demonstrating that the response of helical structure of crosslinked collagen to the increased temperature lagged. It was speculated that the stabilization of collagen by GTA was due to the reinforcement of triple helical structure.

  17. Effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Poel, Erwin P; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-07-01

    The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free, and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between 10(8) and 10(11) the heat transport is lower for Γ=0.33 than for Γ=1 in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is, surprisingly, the opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for a lower aspect ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for Ra ≥ 10(10). Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall simulations with a no-slip boundary condition on the plates also exhibit zonal flow. In all the other cases, the flow is roll like. In two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the velocity boundary conditions thus have large implications on both roll-like and zonal flow that have to be taken into consideration before the boundary conditions are imposed.

  18. Two-dimensional wide-band-gap II-V semiconductors with a dilated graphene-like structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Jing; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2016-12-01

    Since the advent of graphene, two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very attractive and there is growing interest in exploring new 2D materials beyond graphene. Here, through density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predict 2D wide-band-gap II-V semiconductor materials of M3X2 (M = Zn, Cd and X = N, P, As) with a dilated graphene-like honeycomb structure. In this structure the group-V X atoms form two X-atomic planes symmetrically astride the centering group-IIB M atomic plane. Our DFT calculation shows that 2D Zn3N2, Zn3P2 and Zn3As2 have direct band gaps of 2.87, 3.81 and 3.55 eV, respectively, and 2D Cd3N2, Cd3P2 and Cd3As2 exhibit indirect band gaps of 2.74, 3.51 and 3.29 eV, respectively. Each of the six 2D materials is shown to have effective carrier (either hole or electron) masses down to 0.03m 0-0.05m 0. The structural stability and feasibility of experimental realization of these 2D materials has been shown in terms of DFT phonon spectra and total energy comparison with related existing bulk materials. On the experimental side, there already are many similar two-coordinate structures of Zn and other transition metals in various organic materials. Therefore, these 2D semiconductors can enrich the family of 2D electronic materials and may have promising potential for achieving novel transistors and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Global Structure of Three Distinct Accretion Flows and Outflows around Black Holes through Two-Dimensional Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsuga, Ken

    2011-01-01

    We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, rho_0, we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A with the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of the mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is ~22L_E (where L_E is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B with a moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than ~7R_S (where R_S is the S...

  20. Impact of Radii Ratios on a Two-Dimensional Cloaking Structure and Corresponding Analysis for Practical Design at Optical Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Anam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension to the evaluation and analysis of a two-dimensional cylindrical cloak in the Terahertz or visible range spectrum using Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method. It was concluded that it is possible to expand the frequency range of a cylindrical cloaking model by careful scaling of the inner and outer radius of the simulation geometry with respect to cell size and/or number of time steps in the simulation grid while maintaining appropriate stability conditions. Analysis in this study is based on a change in the radii ratio, that is, outer radius to inner radius, of the cloaking structure for an array of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Corresponding outputs show inconsistency in the cloaking pattern with respect to frequency. The inconsistency is further increased as the radii ratio is decreased. The results also help to establish a linear relationship between the transmission coefficient and the real component of refractive index with respect to different radii ratios which may simplify the selection of the material for practical design purposes. Additional performance analysis is carried out such that the dimensions of the cloak are held constant at an average value and the frequency varied to determine how a cloaked object may be perceived by the human eye which considers different wavelengths to be superimposed on each other simultaneously.

  1. Two-dimensional MoS2 under ion irradiation: from controlled defect production to electronic structure engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Kretschmer, Silvan; Spearot, Douglas E.; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), like MoS2, have unique electronic and optical properties, which can further be tuned using ion bombardment and post-synthesis ion-beam mediated methods combined with exposure of the irradiated sample to precursor gases. The optimization of these techniques requires a complete understanding of the response of 2D TMDs to ion irradiation, which is affected by the reduced dimensionality of the system. By combining analytical potential molecular dynamics with first-principles calculations, we study the production of defects in free-standing MoS2 sheets under noble gas ion irradiation for a wide range of ion energies when nuclear stopping dominates, and assess the probabilities for different defects to appear. We show that depending on the incident angle, ion type and energy, sulfur atoms can be sputtered away predominantly from the top or bottom layers, creating unique opportunities for engineering mixed MoSX compounds where X are chemical elements from group V or VII. We study the electronic structure of such systems, demonstrate that they can be metals, and finally discuss how metal/semiconductor/metal junctions, which exhibit negative differential resistance, can be designed using focused ion beams combined with the exposure of the system to fluorine.

  2. Investigation of polarization-selective InGaAs sensor with elliptical two-dimensional holes array structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Fu, Dong; Hu, Xiaobin; Xu, Yun; Song, Guofeng; Wei, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths have attracted more and more attention for broad applications in meteorological observations, medicine, remote sensing and many other fields. Metal metamaterial structures are used in nanophotonics in order to localize and enhance the incident electromagnetic field. Here we develop an elliptical gold Two-Dimensional Holes Array (2DHA) in which photons can be manipulated by surface plasmon resonance, and the ellipse introduce the asymmetry to realize a polarization selective function. Strong polarization dependence is observed in the simulated transmission spectra. To further understand the coupling mechanism between gold holes array and InP, the different parameters of the 2DHA are analyzed. It is shown that the polarization axis is perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse, and the degree of polarization is determined by the aspect ratio of the ellipse. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of the 2DHA shows a linear dependence on the array period, the bandwidth of transmission spectra closely related to duty cycle of the ellipse in each period. This result will establish a basis for the development of innovative polarization selective infrared sensor.

  3. Defining RNA motif-aminoglycoside interactions via two-dimensional combinatorial screening and structure-activity relationships through sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2013-10-15

    RNA is an extremely important target for the development of chemical probes of function or small molecule therapeutics. Aminoglycosides are the most well studied class of small molecules to target RNA. However, the RNA motifs outside of the bacterial rRNA A-site that are likely to be bound by these compounds in biological systems is largely unknown. If such information were known, it could allow for aminoglycosides to be exploited to target other RNAs and, in addition, could provide invaluable insights into potential bystander targets of these clinically used drugs. We utilized two-dimensional combinatorial screening (2DCS), a library-versus-library screening approach, to select the motifs displayed in a 3×3 nucleotide internal loop library and in a 6-nucleotide hairpin library that bind with high affinity and selectivity to six aminoglycoside derivatives. The selected RNA motifs were then analyzed using structure-activity relationships through sequencing (StARTS), a statistical approach that defines the privileged RNA motif space that binds a small molecule. StARTS allowed for the facile annotation of the selected RNA motif-aminoglycoside interactions in terms of affinity and selectivity. The interactions selected by 2DCS generally have nanomolar affinities, which is higher affinity than the binding of aminoglycosides to a mimic of their therapeutic target, the bacterial rRNA A-site.

  4. Magnetic breakdown phenomenon in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors: A quantum model inspired by a realistic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju H.; Han, S. Y.; Brooks, J. S.

    1999-08-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 by constructing a tight-binding model based on a realistic band structure which is derived from the crystallographic data. We solve the model numerically to compute the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and show that the present model accounts naturally for the experimentally observed magnetization oscillation frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. The computed values of the fundamental and magnetic breakdown frequencies with no adjustable parameters are close to the experimentally measured values. For completeness, we carry out the computation for both canonical (fixed number of particles) and grand canonical (fixed chemical potential) ensembles, and show that the forbidden frequencies appear in both cases. Hence, the appearance of anomalous frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen effect has a quantum-mechanical origin and arises from the interplay of electronic states from two partially occupied bands near the Fermi energy as a function of magnetic field. We also compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization and apply ad hoc the Lifshitz-Kosevich analysis to the amplitudes of the Fourier components at moderately high temperatures. This yields effective mass values for α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 in good agreement with experimental values.

  5. Development and optimization of scanning spreading resistance microscopy for measuring the two-dimensional carrier profile in solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyben, Pierre; Hantschel, Thomas; Lorenz, Anne; Gestel, Dries van; John, Joachim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Seidel, Felix [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Elektronik- und Sensormaterialien, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schulze, Andreas; Vandervorst, Wilfried [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Castro, Angel Uruena de [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oude Markt, 13, Bus 5005, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Horzel, Joerg [SCHOTT Solar AG, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Within this work, we have explored the use of scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) on advanced solar cell structures. Three main topics, corresponding to three important needs, were targeted. First, we have analyzed the highly doped regions at the frontside of solar cells. The influence of the surface roughness, hindering the use of other techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS), and the phosphorus diffusion along grains for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) have been studied quantitatively as they may affect substantially the electrical properties of solar cells. Secondly, we have explored local backside contacts manufactured using new techniques like laser ablation followed by dopant diffusion. Having a better knowledge of the two-dimensional (2D)-dopant distribution is a subject of growing interest. Finally, we have studied electrical properties of grain-boundary and intragrain defects in polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) layers as they may play a major role in the electrical performances of the solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Hierarchical on-surface synthesis and electronic structure of carbonyl-functionalized one- and two-dimensional covalent nanoarchitectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Christian; Gebhardt, Julian; Ammon, Maximilian; Yang, Zechao; Heidenreich, Alexander; Hammer, Natalie; Görling, Andreas; Kivala, Milan; Maier, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    The fabrication of nanostructures in a bottom-up approach from specific molecular precursors offers the opportunity to create tailored materials for applications in nanoelectronics. However, the formation of defect-free two-dimensional (2D) covalent networks remains a challenge, which makes it difficult to unveil their electronic structure. Here we report on the hierarchical on-surface synthesis of nearly defect-free 2D covalent architectures with carbonyl-functionalized pores on Au(111), which is investigated by low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. The carbonyl-bridged triphenylamine precursors form six-membered macrocycles and one-dimensional (1D) chains as intermediates in an Ullmann-type coupling reaction that are subsequently interlinked to 2D networks. The electronic band gap is narrowed when going from the monomer to 1D and 2D surface-confined π-conjugated organic polymers comprising the same building block. The significant drop of the electronic gap from the monomer to the polymer confirms an efficient conjugation along the triphenylamine units within the nanostructures.

  7. Lennard-Jones fluids in two-dimensional nano-pores. Multi-phase coexistence and fluid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    We present a number of fundamental findings on the wetting behaviour of nano-pores. A popular model for fluid confinement is a one-dimensional (1D) slit pore formed by two parallel planar walls and it exhibits capillary condensation (CC): a first-order phase transition from vapour to capillary-liquid (Kelvin shift). Capping such a pore at one end by a third orthogonal wall forms a prototypical two-dimensional (2D) pore. We show that 2D pores possess a wetting temperature such that below this temperature CC remains of first order, above it becomes a continuous phase transition manifested by a slab of capillary-liquid filling the pore from the capping wall. Continuous CC exhibits hysteresis and can be preceded by a first-order capillary prewetting transition. Additionally, liquid drops can form in the corners of the 2D pore (remnant of 2D wedge prewetting). The three fluid phases, vapour, capillary-liquid slab and corner drops, can coexist at the pore triple point. Our model is based on the statistical mechanics of fluids in the density functional formulation. The fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions are dispersive. We analyze in detail the microscopic fluid structure, isotherms and full phase diagrams. Our findings also suggest novel ways to control wetting of nano-pores. We are grateful to the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 for support.

  8. Estimates of the statistical two-dimensional spatial structure in rain over a small network of disdrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, A. R.; Larsen, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    Microphysical understanding of the variability in rain requires a statistical characterization of different drop sizes both in time and in all dimensions of space. Temporally, there have been several statistical characterizations of raindrop counts. However, temporal and spatial structures are neither equivalent nor readily translatable. While there are recent reports of the one-dimensional spatial correlation functions in rain, they can only be assumed to represent the two-dimensional (2D) correlation function under the assumption of spatial isotropy. To date, however, there are no actual observations of the (2D) spatial correlation function in rain over areas. Two reasons for this deficiency are the fiscal and the physical impossibilities of assembling a dense network of instruments over even hundreds of meters much less over kilometers. Consequently, all measurements over areas will necessarily be sparsely sampled. A dense network of data must then be estimated using interpolations from the available observations. In this work, a network of 19 optical disdrometers over a 100 m by 71 m area yield observations of drop spectra every minute. These are then interpolated to a 1 m resolution grid. Fourier techniques then yield estimates of the 2D spatial correlation functions. Preliminary examples using this technique found that steadier, light rain decorrelates spatially faster than does the convective rain, but in both cases the 2D spatial correlation functions are anisotropic, reflecting an asymmetry in the physical processes influencing the rain reaching the ground not accounted for in numerical microphysical models.

  9. Aluminum-based one- and two-dimensional micro fin array structures: high-throughput fabrication and heat transfer testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Philip A.; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Miller, Jacob; Meng, W. J.; KC, Pratik; Moore, Arden L.

    2017-02-01

    Microscale fin array structures were replicated onto surfaces of aluminum 1100 and aluminum 6061 alloy (Al1100/Al6061) sheet metals through room-temperature instrumented roll molding. Aluminum-based micro fin arrays were replicated at room temperature, and the fabrication process is one with high throughput and low cost. One-dimensional (1D) micro fin arrays were made through one-pass rolling, while two-dimensional (2D) micro fin arrays were made by sequential 90° cross rolling with the same roller sleeve. For roll molding of 1D micro fins, fin heights greater than 600 µm were achieved and were shown to be proportional to the normal load force per feature width. At a given normal load force, the fin height was further shown to scale inversely with the hardness of the sheet metal. For sequential 90° cross rolling, morphologies of roll molded 2D micro fin arrays were examined, which provided clues to understand how plastic deformation occurred under cross rolling conditions. A series of pool boiling experiments on low profile Al micro fin array structures were performed within Novec 7100, a widely used commercial dielectric coolant. Results for both horizontal and vertical surface orientations show that roll molded Al micro fin arrays can increase heat flux at fixed surface temperature as compared to un-patterned Al sheet. The present results further suggest that many factors beyond just increased surface area can influence heat transfer performance, including surface finish and the important multiphase transport mechanisms in and around the fin geometry. These factors must also be considered when designing and optimizing micro fin array structures for heat transfer applications.

  10. The topological filtration of gamma-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, T. J.; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study gamma-structures filtered by topological genus. gamma-structures are a class of RNA pseudoknot structures that plays a key role in the context of polynomial time folding of RNA pseudoknot structures. A gamma-structure is composed by specific building blocks, that have topol...

  11. The topological filtration of γ -structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Thomas; Reidys, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study $\\gamma$-structures filtered by topological genus. $\\gamma$-structures are a class of RNA pseudoknot structures that plays a key role in the context of polynomial time folding of RNA pseudoknot structures. A $\\gamma$-structure is composed by specific building blocks, that h...

  12. Topology optimization of flexoelectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2017-08-01

    We present a mixed finite element formulation for flexoelectric nanostructures that is coupled with topology optimization to maximize their intrinsic material performance with regards to their energy conversion potential. Using Barium Titanate (BTO) as the model flexoelectric material, we demonstrate the significant enhancement in energy conversion that can be obtained using topology optimization. We also demonstrate that non-smooth surfaces can play a key role in the energy conversion enhancements obtained through topology optimization. Finally, we examine the relative benefits of flexoelectricity, and surface piezoelectricity on the energy conversion efficiency of nanobeams. We find that the energy conversion efficiency of flexoelectric nanobeams is comparable to the energy conversion efficiency obtained from nanobeams whose electromechanical coupling occurs through surface piezoelectricity, but are ten times thinner. Overall, our results not only demonstrate the utility and efficiency of flexoelectricity as a nanoscale energy conversion mechanism, but also its relative superiority as compared to piezoelectric or surface piezoelectric effects.

  13. Topology optimization of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded

    Recent advances regarding topology optimization procedures of reinforced concrete structures are presented. We discuss several approaches to the challenging problem of optimizing the distribution of concrete and steel reinforcement. In particular, the consideration of complex nonlinear constitutive...

  14. Uncovering Topological Structures in Unstructured Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-20

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0091 Uncovering Topological Structures in Unstructured Data Keith Bowman ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 04/20/2015...COVERED (From - To)      01-05-2012 to 30-04-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Uncovering Topological Structures in Unstructured Data 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...scanned point-cloud data . It has two stages. In the first stage, we analyzed scan data and extracted topologically critical points. We used these critical

  15. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  16. Turbulent pair separation due to multi scale stagnation point structure and its time asymmetry in two-dimensional turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Tristan; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The pair separation model of Goto and Vassilicos (S Goto and J C Vassilicos, 2004, New J.Phys., 6, p.65) is revisited and placed on a sound mathematical foundation. A DNS of two dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with an inverse energy cascade and a k^{-5/3} power law is used to investigate properties of pair separation in two dimensional turbulence. A special focus lies on the time asymmetry observed between forward and backward separation. Application of the present model to this ...

  17. Coherent structures and flow topology of transitional separated-reattached flow over two and three dimensional geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabil, Hayder Azeez; Li, Xin Kai; Abdalla, Ibrahim Elrayah

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale organized motions (commonly referred to coherent structures) and flow topology of a transitional separated-reattached flow have been visualised and investigated using flow visualisation techniques. Two geometrical shapes including two-dimensional flat plate with rectangular leading edge and three-dimensional square cylinder are chosen to shed a light on the flow topology and present coherent structures of the flow over these shapes. For both geometries and in the early stage of the transition, two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls are formed downstream of the leading edge. They are observed to be twisting around the square cylinder while they stay flat in the case of the two-dimensional flat plate. For both geometrical shapes, the two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls move downstream of the leading edge and they are subjected to distortion to form three-dimensional hairpin structures. The flow topology in the flat plate is different from that in the square cylinder. For the flat plate, there is a merging process by a pairing of the Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls to form a large structure that breaks down directly into many hairpin structures. For the squire cylinder case, the Kelvin-Helmholtz roll evolves topologically to form a hairpin structure. In the squire cylinder case, the reattachment length is much shorter and a forming of the three-dimensional structures is closer to the leading edge than that in the flat plate case.

  18. Assessing two-dimensional crystallization trials of small membrane proteins for structural biology studies by electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Rudolph, Frederik; Dreaden, Tina M; Zhao, Gengxiang; Barry, Bridgette A; Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg

    2010-10-29

    Electron crystallography has evolved as a method that can be used either alternatively or in combination with three-dimensional crystallization and X-ray crystallography to study structure-function questions of membrane proteins, as well as soluble proteins. Screening for two-dimensional (2D) crystals by transmission electron microscopy (EM) is the critical step in finding, optimizing, and selecting samples for high-resolution data collection by cryo-EM. Here we describe the fundamental steps in identifying both large and ordered, as well as small 2D arrays, that can potentially supply critical information for optimization of crystallization conditions. By working with different magnifications at the EM, data on a range of critical parameters is obtained. Lower magnification supplies valuable data on the morphology and membrane size. At higher magnifications, possible order and 2D crystal dimensions are determined. In this context, it is described how CCD cameras and online-Fourier Transforms are used at higher magnifications to assess proteoliposomes for order and size. While 2D crystals of membrane proteins are most commonly grown by reconstitution by dialysis, the screening technique is equally applicable for crystals produced with the help of monolayers, native 2D crystals, and ordered arrays of soluble proteins. In addition, the methods described here are applicable to the screening for 2D crystals of even smaller as well as larger membrane proteins, where smaller proteins require the same amount of care in identification as our examples and the lattice of larger proteins might be more easily identifiable at earlier stages of the screening.

  19. The effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection

    CERN Document Server

    van der Poel, Erwin P; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between $10^8$ and $10^{11}$ the heat transport is lower for $\\Gamma = 0.33$ than for $\\Gamma = 1$ in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is surprisingly opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for lower aspect-ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for $\\text{Ra} \\ge 10^{10}$. Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and horizontal zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall s...

  20. On the large-scale structure and spectral dynamics of two-dimensional turbulence in a periodic channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.; Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a numerical study of forced two-dimensional turbulence in a periodic channel with flat no-slip walls. Since corners or curved domain boundaries, which are met in the standard rectangular, square, or circular geometries, are absent in this geometry, the (statistical) analysis of

  1. Structure of two-dimensional and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers with sparsely distributed roughness elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jacob

    The present study deals with the effects of sparsely distributed three-dimensional elements on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) such as those that occur on submarines, ship hulls, etc. This study was achieved in three parts: Part 1 dealt with the cylinders when placed individually in the turbulent boundary layers, thereby considering the effect of a single perturbation on the TBL; Part 2 considered the effects when the same individual elements were placed in a sparse and regular distribution, thus studying the response of the flow to a sequence of perturbations; and in Part 3, the distributions were subjected to 3-D turbulent boundary layers, thus examining the effects of streamwise and spanwise pressure gradients on the same perturbed flows as considered in Part 2. The 3-D turbulent boundary layers were generated by an idealized wing-body junction flow. Detailed 3-velocity-component Laser-Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and other measurements were carried out to understand and describe the rough-wall flow structure. The measurements include mean velocities, turbulence quantities (Reynolds stresses and triple products), skin friction, surface pressure and oil flow visualizations in 2-D and 3-D rough-wall flows for Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, greater than 7000. Very uniform circular cylindrical roughness elements of 0.38mm, 0.76mm and 1.52mm height (k) were used in square and diagonal patterns, yielding six different roughness geometries of rough-wall surface. For the 2-D rough-wall flows, the roughness Reynolds numbers, k +, based on the element height (k) and the friction velocity (Utau), range from 26 to 131. Results for the 2-D rough-wall flows reveal that the velocity-defect law is similar for both smooth and rough surfaces, and the semi-logarithmic velocity-distribution curve is shifted by an amount DeltaU/U, depending on the height of the roughness element, showing that Delta U/Utau is a function

  2. Topology of RNA-RNA interaction structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Huang, Fenix Wenda; Penner, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The topological filtration of interacting RNA complexes is studied, and the role is analyzed of certain diagrams called irreducible shadows, which form suitable building blocks for more general structures. We prove that, for two interacting RNAs, called interaction structures, there exist...

  3. Topology Optimization of Structure Using Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yin Wu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The population-based evolutionary algorithms have emerged as powerful mechanism for finding optimum solutions of complex optimization problems. A promising new evolutionary algorithm, differential evolution, has garnered significant attention in the engineering optimization research. Differential evolution has the advantage of incorporating a relatively simple and efficient form of mutation and crossover. This paper aims at introducing differential evolution as an alternative approach for topology optimization of truss and continuous structure with stress and displacement constraints. In comparison the results with other studies, it shows that differential evolution algorithms are very effective and efficient in solving topology optimization problem of structure.

  4. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy links structural moieties of soil organic matter to the temperature sensitivity of its decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a huge carbon pool, specifically in boreal ecosystems. Warming-induced release of large amounts of CO2 from the soil carbon pool might become a significant exacerbating feedback to global warming, if decomposition rates of boreal soils were more sensitive to increased temperatures. Despite a large number of studies dedicated to the topic, it has proven difficult to elucidate how the organo-chemical composition of SOM influences its decomposition, or its quality as a substrate for microbial metabolism. A great part of this challenge results from our inability to achieve a detailed characterization of the complex composition of SOM on the level of molecular structural moieties. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a common tool to characterize SOM. However, SOM is a very complex mixture and the chemical shift regions distinguished in the 13C NMR spectra often represent many different molecular fragments. For example, in the carbohydrates region, signals of all monosaccharides present in many different polymers overlap. This overlap thwarts attempts to identify molecular moieties, resulting in insufficient information to characterize SOM composition. We applied two-dimensional (2D) NMR to characterize SOM with highly increased resolution. We directly dissolved finely ground litters and forest floors'fibric and humic horizons'of both coniferous and deciduous boreal forests in dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed the resulting solution with a 2D 1H-13C NMR experiment. In the 2D planes of these spectra, signals of CH groups can be resolved based on their 13C and 1H chemical shifts, hence the resolving power and information content of these NMR spectra is hugely increased. The 2D spectra indeed resolved overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra, so that hundreds of distinct CH groups could be observed and many molecular fragments could be identified. For instance, in the aromatics region, signals from individual lignin units could

  5. Identifying Turbulent Structures through Topological Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Peer-Timo; Gruber, Andrea; Bennett, Janine C.; Gyulassy, Attila; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Grout, Ray W.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of extracting vortical structures from a turbulent flow is proposed whereby topological segmentation of an indicator function scalar field is used to identify the regions of influence of the individual vortices. This addresses a long-standing challenge in vector field topological analysis: indicator functions commonly used produce a scalar field based on the local velocity vector field; reconstructing regions of influence for a particular structure requires selecting a threshold to define vortex extent. In practice, the same threshold is rarely meaningful throughout a given flow. By also considering the topology of the indicator field function, the characteristics of vortex strength and extent can be separated and the ambiguity in the choice of the threshold reduced. The proposed approach is able to identify several types of vortices observed in a jet in cross-flow configuration simultaneously where no single threshold value for a selection of common indicator functions appears able to identify all of these vortex types.

  6. Quantifying the topology of porous structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Computerized x-ray tomography, with microscopic resolution, has been used to volumetrically visualize the evolution of porosity in a ceramic matrix composite during processing. The topological variables describing the porosity have been measured. The evolution of the porosity exhibits critical scaling behavior near final consolidation, and appears to be independent of the structure (universality).

  7. Polynomial Structure of Topological String Partition Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We review the polynomial structure of the topological string partition functions as solutions to the holomorphic anomaly equations. We also explain the connection between the ring of propagators defined from special K\\"ahler geometry and the ring of almost-holomorphic modular forms defined on modular curves.

  8. Topological phase structure of entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, A. Z.; Oxman, L. E.

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the appearance of fractional topological phases on cyclic evolutions of entangled qudits. The original result reported by Oxman and Khoury [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240503 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.240503] is detailed and extended to qudits of different dimensions. The topological nature of the phase evolution and its restriction to fractional values are related to both the structure of the projective space of states and entanglement. For maximally entangled states of qudits with the same Hilbert-space dimension, the fractional geometric phases are the only ones attainable under local SU(d) operations, an effect that can be experimentally observed through conditional interference.

  9. Time-domain analysis of bandgap characteristics of two-dimensional periodic structures by use of a source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Alon; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2008-02-01

    We introduce a time-domain source-model technique for analysis of two-dimensional, transverse-magnetic, plane-wave scattering by a photonic crystal slab composed of a finite number of identical layers, each comprising a linear periodic array of dielectric cylinders. The proposed technique takes advantage of the periodicity of the slab by solving the problem within a unit cell of the periodic structure. A spectral analysis of the temporal behavior of the fields scattered by the slab shows a clear agreement between frequency bands where the spectral density of the transmitted energy is low and the bandgaps of the corresponding two-dimensionally infinite periodic structure. The effect of the bandwidth of the incident pulse and its center frequency on the manner it is transmitted through and reflected by the slab is studied via numerical examples.

  10. Aerosol assisted fabrication of two dimensional ZnO island arrays and honeycomb patterns with identical lattice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Numata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional island arrays and honeycomb patterns consisting of ZnO nanocrystal clusters were fabricated on predefined TiO2 seed patterns prepared by vacuum free, aerosol assisted wet-chemical synthesis. The TiO2 seed patterns were prepared by applying an aerosol of a water soluble titanium complex on hexagonally close-packed polystyrene bead arrays for different lengths of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a dot array grows into a honeycomb shape as increasing amounts of the precursor were deposited. ZnO nucleation on substrates with a dot array and honeycomb patterns resulted in the formation of two discrete patterns with contrasting fill fractions of the materials.

  11. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H6O3−, (I, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H5FO3−, (II, and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, NH4+·C9H8ClO3−·0.5H2O, (III have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I and (II are isomorphous with the core comprising R12(5, R12(4 and centrosymmetric R42(8 ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. In (III, the water molecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R44(12 hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R43(10 rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R42(8 ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  12. Efficient Reanalysis Procedures in Structural Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded

    of the analysis equations. For demonstrative purposes, the discussion is limited to topology optimization problems within the field of structural mechanics. Nevertheless, the results can be relevant for a wide range of problems in structural and topology optimization. The main focus of the thesis...... effort invested in the solution of the nested problem is even more dominant since nonlinear equation systems are to be solved repeatedly. Efficient procedures for nonlinear structural analysis are proposed, based on transferring solutions and factorized tangent stiffnesses from one design cycle...... to the following one. This approach is demonstrated on several design problems involving either geometric or material nonlinearities. The suggested procedures are shown to be effective mainly for problems that do not involve path-dependent solutions....

  13. Topology optimization in structural and continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewiński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The book covers new developments in structural topology optimization. Basic features and limitations of Michell’s truss theory, its extension to a broader class of support conditions, generalizations of truss topology optimization, and Michell continua are reviewed. For elastic bodies, the layout problems in linear elasticity are discussed and the method of relaxation by homogenization is outlined. The classical problem of free material design is shown to be reducible to a locking material problem, even in the multiload case. For structures subjected to dynamic loads, it is explained how they can be designed so that the structural eigenfrequencies of vibration are as far away as possible from a prescribed external excitation frequency (or a band of excitation frequencies) in order to avoid resonance phenomena with high vibration and noise levels. For diffusive and convective transport processes and multiphysics problems, applications of the density method are discussed. In order to take uncertainty in mater...

  14. Electronic structure and optical properties of the single crystal and two-dimensional structure of CdWO{sub 4} from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babamoradi, Mohsen, E-mail: babamoradi@iust.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Liyai, Mohammad Reza [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimirad, Rouhollah, E-mail: azimirad@yahoo.com [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Hamdollah, E-mail: salehi_h@scu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the electronic structure and optical properties of the single crystal and two-dimensional (2D) structure of cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}). This investigation includes calculation of the density of states (DOS), dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity. All the calculations have been done by full potential augmented plane waves plus local orbitals (FP-APW+lo) with Wien2k code. The calculated band gaps for the single crystal and 2D structure along [010] direction are 4.2 and 5.02 eV, respectively. The results show that in the 2D structure of CdWO{sub 4}, the electron density of the surface oxygen atoms is much more than the electron density of the inside oxygen atoms. This difference in the density has the main role in the optical properties. The results of the dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity for the single crystal are in good agreement with the experimental values. The results of the dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity for the 2D structure in comparison with the single crystal have shown that the intensity and place of the calculated peaks reduced and shifted, respectively. These results can be related to the surface oxygen atoms and thickness of the 2D structure.

  15. A further characteristic of abstract convexity structures on topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shu-Wen; Xia, Shunyou

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we give a characteristic of abstract convexity structures on topological spaces with selection property. We show that if a convexity structure defined on a topological space has the weak selection property then satisfies H0-condition. Moreover, in a compact convex subset of a topological space with convexity structure, the weak selection property implies the fixed point property.

  16. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  17. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  18. Two-dimensionally stacked heterometallic layers hosting a discrete chair dodecameric ring of water clusters: synthesis and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Wenger, Emmanuel; Biache, Coralie; Lambi Ngolui, John; Ponou, Siméon; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2014-10-01

    The stacked two-dimensional supramolecular compound catena-{Co(amp)3Cr(ox)3·6H2O} (amp = 2-picolylamine, ox = oxalate) has been synthesized from the bimolecular approach using hydrogen bonds. It is built from layers in which both Co(amp)(3+) (D) and Cr(ox)(3-) (A) ions are bonded in a repeating DADADA… pattern along the a and c axes by multiple hydrogen bonds. These layers host a well resolved R12 dodecameric discrete ring of water clusters built by six independent molecules located around the 2c centrosymmetric Wyckoff positions of the P21/n space group in which the compound crystallizes. These clusters are ranged along the [001] direction, occupy 733.5 Å(3) (22.0%) of the unit cell and have a chair conformation via 12 hydrogen bonds. The water molecules of the cluster are linked with stronger hydrogen bonds than those between the cluster and its host, which explains the single continuous step of the dehydration process of the compound.

  19. Tunability of band structures in a two-dimensional magnetostrictive phononic crystal plate with stress and magnetic loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Shi, Yang [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-26

    Considering the magneto-mechanical coupling of magnetostrictive material, the tunability of in-plane wave propagation in two-dimensional Terfenol-D/epoxy phononic crystal (PC) plate is investigated theoretically by the plane wave expansion method. Two Schemes, i.e. magnetic field is rotated in x–y plane and x–z plane, are studied, respectively. The effects of amplitude and direction of magnetic field, pre-stress and geometric parameters are discussed. For Scheme-I, band gap reaches the maximum at an optimal angle 45° of magnetic field. However, the optimal angle is 0° for Scheme-II, because band gap decreases monotonically until disappears with the increasing angle. For both cases, higher-order band gaps generate and become stronger as magnetic field amplitude increases, while increasing compressive pre-stress has the opposite effect. Meanwhile, filling fraction plays a key role in controlling band gaps. These results provide possibility for intelligent regulation and optimal design of PC plates. - Highlights: • The in-plane wave propagation in phononic crystal thin plate is tuned theoretically. • Magnetostrictive material is introduced in the study. • The effects of magnetic field and pre-stress are considered. • The variations of band gaps with external stimuli are discussed.

  20. On Topological Indices of Certain Dendrimer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Adnan; Bashir, Yasir; Ahmad, Safyan; Gao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    A topological index can be considered as transformation of chemical structure in to real number. In QSAR/QSPR study, physicochemical properties and topological indices such as Randić, Zagreb, atom-bond connectivity ABC, and geometric-arithmetic GA index are used to predict the bioactivity of chemical compounds. Dendrimers are highly branched, star-shaped macromolecules with nanometer-scale dimensions. Dendrimers are defined by three components: a central core, an interior dendritic structure (the branches), and an exterior surface with functional surface groups. In this paper we determine generalised Randić, general Zagreb, general sum-connectivity indices of poly(propyl) ether imine, porphyrin, and zinc-Porphyrin dendrimers. We also compute ABC and GA indices of these families of dendrimers.

  1. Benchmarking optimization solvers for structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to benchmark different optimization solvers when applied to various finite element based structural topology optimization problems. An extensive and representative library of minimum compliance, minimum volume, and mechanism design problem instances for different...... sizes is developed for this benchmarking. The problems are based on a material interpolation scheme combined with a density filter. Different optimization solvers including Optimality Criteria (OC), the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) and its globally convergent version GCMMA, the interior point...... profiles conclude that general solvers are as efficient and reliable as classical structural topology optimization solvers. Moreover, the use of the exact Hessians in SAND formulations, generally produce designs with better objective function values. However, with the benchmarked implementations solving...

  2. Topological phase transition of decoupling quasi-two-dimensional vortex pairs in La1- y Sm y MnO3 + δ ( y = 0.85, 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhanko, F. N.; Bukhanko, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    Characteristic signs of the universal Nelson-Kosterlitz jump of the superconducting liquid density in the temperature dependences of the magnetization of La1- y Sm y MnO3 + δ samples with samarium concentrations y = 0.85 and 1.0, which are measured in magnetic fields 100 Oe ≤ H ≤ 3.5 kOe, are detected. As the temperature increases, the sample with y = 0.85 exhibits a crescent-shaped singularity in the dc magnetization curve near the critical temperature of decoupling vortex-antivortex pairs ( T KT ≡ T c ≈ 43 K), which is independent of measuring magnetic field H and is characteristic of the dissociation of 2D vortex pairs. A similar singularity is also detected in the sample with a samarium concentration y = 1.0 at a significantly lower temperature ( T KT ≈ 12 K). The obtained experimental results are explained in terms of the topological Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition of dissociation of 2D vortex pairs in a quasi-two-dimensional weak Josephson coupling network.

  3. Electronic structure studies of topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuyun

    Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac fermions are a new class of topological quantum materials. In 3D Dirac semimetals, the conduction and valence bands touch each other at discrete points in the momentum space and show linear dispersions along all momentum directions, forming 3D Dirac cones which are protected by the crystal symmetry. Here I will present our recent studies of the electronic structures of novel materials which host 3D Dirac fermions by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  4. Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Lu, Ling; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological photonic states, inspired by robust chiral edge states in topological insulators, have recently been demonstrated in a few photonic systems, including an array of coupled on-chip ring resonators at communication wavelengths. However, the intrinsic difference between electrons and photons determines that the ‘topological protection' in time-reversal-invariant photonic systems does not share the same robustness as its counterpart in electronic topological insulators. Here in a designer surface plasmon platform consisting of tunable metallic sub-wavelength structures, we construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can break the topological protection, but do not exist in electronic topological insulators. This is also an experimental realization of anomalous Floquet topological edge states, whose topological phase cannot be predicted by the usual Chern number topological invariants. PMID:27197877

  5. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  6. Visualization of scalar topology for structural enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, C.L.; Pascucci, V.; Schikore, D.R.

    1998-09-22

    Scalar fields arise in every scientific application. Existing scalar visualization techniques require that the user infer the global scalar structure from what is frequently an insufficient display of information. We present a visualization technique which numerically detects the structure at all scales, removing from the user the responsibility of extracting information implicit in the data, and presenting the structure explicitly for analysis. We further demonstrate how scalar topology detection proves useful for correct visualization and image processing applications such as image co-registration, isocontouring, and mesh compression.

  7. Design and fabrication of topologically optimized structures;

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Integral structural optimization and fabrication seeks the synthesis of two original approaches; that of topological optimization (TO) and robotic hotwire cutting (HWC) (Mcgee 2011). TO allows for the reduction of up to 70% of the volume of concrete to support a given structure (Sondergaard...... & Dombernowsky 2011). A strength of the method is that it allows to come up with structural designs that lie beyond the grasp of traditional means of design. A design space is a discretized volume, delimiting where the optimization will take place. The number of cells used to discretize the design space thus...

  8. Thermodynamic versus kinetic control in self-assembly of zero-, one-, quasi-two-, and two-dimensional metal-organic coordination structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Wu, Qi; Liu, Jun; Shi, Ziliang; Liu, Pei Nian; Lin, Nian

    2015-03-14

    Four types of metal-organic structures exhibiting specific dimensionality were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. The four structures were self-assembled out of specifically designed molecular building blocks via the same coordination motif on an Au(111) surface. We found that the four structures behaved differently in response to thermal annealing treatments: The two-dimensional structure was under thermodynamic control while the structures of lower dimension were under kinetic control. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the self-assembly pathways of the four structures are associated with the characteristic features of their specific heat. These findings provide insights into how the dimensionality of supramolecular coordination structures affects their thermodynamic properties.

  9. Mixing biases: Structural changes in the as topology evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, H.; Fay, D.; Uhlig, S.; Moore, A.; Mortier, R.; Jamakovic, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the structural evolution of the AS topology as inferred from two different datasets over a period of seven years. We use a variety of topological metrics to analyze the structural differences revealed in the AS topologies inferred from the two different datasets. In particular

  10. AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas structures studied by photo reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Cervantes, A; Rivera Alvarez, Z; Hernandez, F; Huerta, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendez Garcia, V. H.; Lastras Martinez, A.; Zamora, L.; Saucedo, N. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Melendez Lira, M; Lopez, M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) heterostructures were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy in three different laboratories. The samples were characterized by room temperature Photo reflectance (PR) spectroscopy and measurements at 77 K. Internal electric fields were detected by the presence of Franz-Keldysh (FK) oscillations in the PR spectra. >From a FK analysis we obtained the GaAs band-gap energy and the built-in electric field strength in each sample. On the other hand, in the energy region corresponding to Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As a broad PR signal was registered typical of a highly doped material. Using the third derivative theory we obtained the Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As band-gap energy, and from this value the Al concentration in the samples. Results showed that the sample with highest electron mobility exhibited the lowest internal electric field strength. [Spanish] Se fabricaron heteroestructuras del tipo Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs con un gas de electrones en dos dimensiones por medio de epitaxia de haces moleculares en tres laboratorios diferentes. Las muestras se caracterizaron por fotorreflectancia (FR) a temperatura ambiente y por mediciones del efecto mayor a 77 K. Campos electricos internos se detectaron por la presencia de oscilaciones Franz-Leldysh (FK) en los espectros de FR. Del analisis de las oscilaciones FK obtuvimos la energia de la brecha prohibida del GaAs y la intensidad del campo electrico interno en cada muestra. Por otra parte, en la region de energia correspondiente al Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As observamos una senal de FR ancha, tipica de un material altamente impurificado. Usando la teoria de la tercera derivada, obtuvimos el valor de la brecha de energia del Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1}-xAs, y de este valor la concentracion de Al en las muestras. Los resultados mostraron que la estructura con el valor de movilidad electronica mas alto tiene la intensidad de campo electrico interno mas baja.

  11. STUDY OF TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION FOR THERMO-STRUCTURAL COUPLING FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Kongtian; Qian Qin; Zhao Yudong; Chen Liping

    2005-01-01

    A number of critical problems of topology optimization concerning the thermostructural coupling field are studied at length. The governing equations and topology optimization model for the thermal-structural coupling field are derived, with an adjoint method for sensitivity analysis of the thermo-structural coupling field proposed. The optimization algorithm for coupling field topology optimization is investigated and a flowchart of coupling field topology optimization presented. The theory and algorithms are implemented and verified by two numerical examples.

  12. Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy and segmental 13C labeling reveals the domain structure of human γD-crystallin amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean D; Woys, Ann Marie; Buchanan, Lauren E; Bixby, Eli; Decatur, Sean M; Zanni, Martin T

    2012-02-28

    The structural eye lens protein γD-crystallin is a major component of cataracts, but its conformation when aggregated is unknown. Using expressed protein ligation, we uniformly (13)C labeled one of the two Greek key domains so that they are individually resolved in two-dimensional (2D) IR spectra for structural and kinetic analysis. Upon acid-induced amyloid fibril formation, the 2D IR spectra reveal that the C-terminal domain forms amyloid β-sheets, whereas the N-terminal domain becomes extremely disordered but lies in close proximity to the β-sheets. Two-dimensional IR kinetics experiments show that fibril nucleation and extension occur exclusively in the C-terminal domain. These results are unexpected because the N-terminal domain is less stable in the monomer form. Isotope dilution experiments reveal that each C-terminal domain contributes two or fewer adjacent β-strands to each β-sheet. From these observations, we propose an initial structural model for γD-crystallin amyloid fibrils. Because only 1 μg of protein is required for a 2D IR spectrum, even poorly expressing proteins can be studied under many conditions using this approach. Thus, we believe that 2D IR and protein ligation will be useful for structural and kinetic studies of many protein systems for which IR spectroscopy can be straightforwardly applied, such as membrane and amyloidogenic proteins.

  13. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  14. Two-dimensional Network Crown Ether Complex. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 18-Crown-6 Complex: [K(18-C-6) ]2[Cd-(mnt)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Da-Qi(王大奇); YU,Qing-Jiang(于清江); DOU,Jian-Min(窦建民)

    2002-01-01

    The novel complex [K(18-C-6)]2[Cd(mnt)2] [18-C-6=18-crown-6, mnt= 1, 2-dicyanoethen-1, 2-dithiolate, C2S2-(CN)2- 2] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis,IR spectrum and X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex displays two-dimensional network structure of [ K(18-C-6)] complex segments and [Cd(mnt)2] complex segment bridged by S-K-S, S-K-N and N-K-N interactions between adjacent [K(18-C-6)] and [Cd(mnt)2] units.

  15. Structural and Topology Optimization of Complex Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    will be optimized using the commercial code Abaqus CAE. The structures are: a bucket foundation for an off-shore submarine structure for a wind turbine, and a pedestrian footbridge over a freeway. The topology optimization method used is the SIMP method, based on minimizing the structures' compliance. Complex load...

  16. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Two Two-dimensional Coordination Polymers with 2,3-Dimethylpyrazine-1,4-dioxide and Thiocyanate as Mixed Bridge Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing-Min; LI Wei-Nan; ZHANG Feng-Xia; ZHANG Xia; LIU Lian-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Two two-dimensional coordination polymers,[Cd(μ1,3-SCN-)2(μ1,6-L)]n 1 and [Co(μ1,3-SCN-)2(μ1,6-L)]n 2,have been synthesized with 2,3-dimethylpyrazine-1,4-dioxide (L) and thiocyanate as mixed bridging ligands,and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray crystallography.Both crystals belong to monoclinic system,space group C2/c.The other crystal parameters are as follows:for complex 1:a = 9.732(3),b = 14.658(5),c = 8.811(3) (A),β =102.935(4)°,Z = 4,V = 1225.1(7)(A)3,CsHsCdN4O2S2,Mr = 368.71,Dc.-- 1.999 g/cm3,F(000) =720 andμ = 2.117 mm-1;for complex 2:a = 9.528(7),b = 14.563(11),c = 8.415(6) (A),β =102.195(9)°,V= 1141.3(14) (A)3,Z = 4,C8H8CoN4O2S2,Mr = 315.23,Dc = 1.835 g/cm3,F(000) =636 andμ = 1.863 mm-1.The two complexes show similar two-dimensional sheet structures.Along the c axis one-dimensional chains are constructed by the coordination of Cd(Ⅱ) (or Co(Ⅱ))ions with μ1,6-L bridging ligand,and the μ1,3-SCN- bridging ligands make the chains connect to each other,resulting in the formation of a two-dimensional sheet on the ac plane.

  17. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  18. Three-dimensional structural damage localization system and method using layered two-dimensional array of capacitance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Mark A (Inventor); Senibi, Simon D (Inventor); Banks, David L (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for detecting damage to a structure is provided. The system includes a voltage source and at least one capacitor formed as a layer within the structure and responsive to the voltage source. The system also includes at least one sensor responsive to the capacitor to sense a voltage of the capacitor. A controller responsive to the sensor determines if damage to the structure has occurred based on the variance of the voltage of the capacitor from a known reference value. A method for sensing damage to a structure involves providing a plurality of capacitors and a controller, and coupling the capacitors to at least one surface of the structure. A voltage of the capacitors is sensed using the controller, and the controller calculates a change in the voltage of the capacitors. The method can include signaling a display system if a change in the voltage occurs.

  19. Smooth Neighborhood Structures in a Smooth Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ramadan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various concepts related to a smooth topological spaces have been introduced and relations among them studied by several authors (Chattopadhyay, Ramadan, etc. In this study, we presented the notions of three sorts of neighborhood structures of a smooth topological spaces and give some of their properties which are results by Ying extended to smooth topological spaces.

  20. Multilocality and fusion rules on the generalized structure functions in two-dimensional and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2016-09-01

    Using the fusion-rules hypothesis for three-dimensional and two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence, we generalize a previous nonperturbative locality proof to multiple applications of the nonlinear interactions operator on generalized structure functions of velocity differences. We call this generalization of nonperturbative locality to multiple applications of the nonlinear interactions operator "multilocality." The resulting cross terms pose a new challenge requiring a new argument and the introduction of a new fusion rule that takes advantage of rotational symmetry. Our main result is that the fusion-rules hypothesis implies both locality and multilocality in both the IR and UV limits for the downscale energy cascade of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence and the downscale enstrophy cascade and inverse energy cascade of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence. We stress that these claims relate to nonperturbative locality of generalized structure functions on all orders and not the term-by-term perturbative locality of diagrammatic theories or closure models that involve only two-point correlation and response functions.

  1. Focusing and imaging properties of diffractive optical elements with star-ring topological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Sun, Meizhi

    2015-08-01

    A kind of diffractive optical elements (DOE) with star-ring topological structure is proposed and their focusing and imaging properties are studied in detail. The so-called star-ring topological structure denotes that a large number of pinholes distributed in many specific zone orbits. In two dimensional plane, this structure can be constructed by two constrains, one is a mapping function, which yields total potential zone orbits, corresponding to the optical path difference (OPD); the other is a switching sequence based on the given encoded seed elements and recursion relation to operate the valid zone orbits. The focusing and imaging properties of DOE with star-ring topological structure are only determined by the aperiodic sequence, and not relevant to the concrete geometry structure. In this way, we can not only complete the traditional symmetrical DOE, such as circular Dammam grating, Fresnel zone plates, photon sieves, and their derivatives, but also construct asymmetrical elements with anisotropic diffraction pattern. Similarly, free-form surface or three dimensional DOE with star-ring topological structure can be constructed by the same method proposed. In consequence of smaller size, lighter weight, more flexible design, these elements may allow for some new applications in micro and nanphotonics.

  2. Topological Quantum Information Processing Mediated Via Hybrid Topological Insulator Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    Matthew J. Gilbert, and Benjamin L. Lev, "Imaging Topologically Protected Transport with Quantum Degenerate Gases," Physical Review B 85 205422...from the Entanglement Spectrum," Physical Review B: Rapid Communications 86, 041401 (2012). 3 Qinglei Meng, Taylor L. Hughes, Matthew J. Gilbert...34 Physical Review B 86, 155110 (2012). 4 Qinglei Meng, Vasudha Shivamoggi, Taylor L. Hughes, Matthew J. Gilbert and S. Vishveshwara, "Fractional Spin

  3. Topological Structures in Rotating Stratified Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, J. M.; Carrillo, A.; Perez, E.

    2003-04-01

    Detailled 2D Particle traking and PIV visualizations performed on a series of large scale laboratory experiments at the Coriolis Platform of the SINTEF in Trondheim have revealed several resonances which scale on the Strouhal, the Rossby and the Richardson numbers. More than 100 experiments spanned a wide range of Rossby Deformation Radii and the topological structures (Parabolic /Eliptic /Hyperbolic) of the quasi-balanced stratified-rotating flows were studied when stirring (akin to coastal mixing) occured at a side of the tank. The strong asymetry favored by the total vorticity produces a wealth of mixing patterns.

  4. A theoretical model for the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒; 马良

    1995-01-01

    By a proper combination of the modified weakly nonlinear theory of hydrodynamic stability and the energy method, the spatial evolution of the large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer has been calculated. The results are satisfactory.

  5. SINGER: A Computer Code for General Analysis of Two-Dimensional Reinforced Concrete Structures. Volume 1. Solution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    34 Journal of the Structural Division. ASCE, Vol. 99, St. 6, June 1973, pp. 1091-1187. 2. Bogner, F. K., Malletr, R. H., Minich , M. D., and Schmit, L. A...201. 6. Bogner, F. K., Mallett, R. H., Minich , M. D., and Schmit, L. A., "Development and Evaluation of Energy Search Methods of Non- linear... Minich , -1. ü., "An linergy Search Method for Nonlinear Structural Analysis," Case Institute of Technology, EDC Report 2-64-5, January

  6. Topological Structure in ${\\hat c}=1$ Fermionic String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Shinji; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    $\\chat=1$ fermionic string theory, which is considered as a fermionic string theory in two dimension, is shown to decompose into two mutually independent parts, one of which can be viewed as a topological model and the other is irrelevant for the theory. The physical contents of the theory is largely governed by this topological structure, and the discrete physical spectrum of $\\chat=1$ string theory is naturally explained as the physical spectrum of the topological model. This topological st...

  7. Topological structural classes of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    We use theoretical principles to study how complex networks are topologically organized at large scale. Using spectral graph theory we predict the existence of four different topological structural classes of networks. These classes correspond, respectively, to highly homogenous networks lacking structural bottlenecks, networks organized into highly interconnected modules with low inter-community connectivity, networks with a highly connected central core surrounded by a sparser periphery, and networks displaying a combination of highly connected groups (quasicliques) and groups of nodes partitioned into disjoint subsets (quasibipartites). Here we show by means of the spectral scaling method that these classes really exist in real-world ecological, biological, informational, technological, and social networks. We show that neither of three network growth mechanisms—random with uniform distribution, preferential attachment, and random with the same degree sequence as real network—is able to reproduce the four structural classes of complex networks. These models reproduce two of the network classes as a function of the average degree but completely fail in reproducing the other two classes of networks.

  8. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  9. Flat Chern band in a two-dimensional organometallic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng

    2013-03-01

    By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band structure, namely, the flat Chern band, has recently been proposed to spawn high-temperature fractional quantum Hall states. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains doubtful whether such a "romance of flatland" could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design of a two-dimensional indium-phenylene organometallic framework that realizes a nearly flat Chern band right around the Fermi level by combining lattice geometry, spin-orbit coupling, and ferromagnetism. An effective four-band model is constructed to reproduce the first-principles results. Our design, in addition, provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials by virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology.

  10. Spin from defects in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We build two-dimensional quantum field theories on spin surfaces starting from theories on oriented surfaces with networks of topological defect lines and junctions. The construction uses a combinatorial description of the spin structure in terms of a triangulation equipped with extra data. The amplitude for the spin surfaces is defined to be the amplitude for the underlying oriented surface together with a defect network dual to the triangulation. Independence of the triangulation and of the other choices follows if the line defect and junctions are obtained from a Delta-separable Frobenius algebra with involutive Nakayama automorphism in the monoidal category of topological defects. For rational conformal field theory we can give a more explicit description of the defect category, and we work out two examples related to free fermions in detail: the Ising model and the so(n) WZW model at level 1.

  11. Effects of electric field on structures and dynamics in a two-dimensional dust dipole particle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. N.; Liu, Y. H.; Huang, F.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Effects of radial electric field on the structures and dynamics of dust dipoles are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The dipoles' configuration and mean distance to the system center are used to illustrate the structures of the whole system. It is shown that the dipole particles can arrange themselves into ring-like structures in the absence of external electric field, which can gradually transform to vortex, and then to radial arrangement with the increase of the strength of electric field. The trajectories, mean square displacement, and the mean speed in radial and tangential directions of dipoles are investigated to depict the effects of the radial electric filed on the collective motion of dust dipolar particles, which are closely associated with the growth of dust particle, especially for the formation of rod-like and some other complex fractal dust particles.

  12. Ultrafast Structural Fluctuations of Myoglobin-Bound Thiocyanate and Selenocyanate Ions Measured with Two-Dimensional Infrared Photon Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Michał; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-11-16

    Structural dynamics within the distal cavity of myoglobin protein is investigated using 2D-IR and IR pump-probe spectroscopy of the N≡C stretch modes of heme-bound thiocyanate and selenocyanate ions. Although myoglobin-bound thiocyanate group shows a doublet in its IR absorption spectrum, no cross peaks originating from chemical exchange between the two components are observed in the time-resolved 2D IR spectra within the experimental time window. Frequency-frequency correlation functions of the two studied anionic ligands are obtained by means of a few different analysis approaches; these functions were then used to elucidate the differences in structural fluctuation around ligand, ligand-protein interactions, and the degree of structural heterogeneity within the hydrophobic pocket of these myoglobin complexes.

  13. Intercomparison of ion beam analysis software for the simulation of backscattering spectra from two-dimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Malinský, P.; Schiettekatte, F.; Zolnai, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The codes RBS-MAST, STRUCTNRA, F95-Rough and CORTEO are simulation codes for ion beam analysis spectra from two- or three-dimensional sample structures. The codes were intercompared in a code-code comparison using an idealized grating structure and by comparison to experimental data from a silicon grating on tantalum interlayer. All codes are in excellent agreement at higher incident energies and not too large energy losses. At lower incident energies, grazing angles of incidence and/or larger energy losses plural scattering effects play an increasing role. Simulation codes with plural scattering capabilities offer higher accuracy and better agreement to experimental results in this regime.

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular structures in normotensive and hypertensive subjects by two-dimensional echocardiography: Anthropometric correlates in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Agbo Julius Amaechi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective to establish a nomogram for some left ventricular structures and their alterations in hypertension. Correlations between left ventricular structures and anthropometric variables in hypertension were also established. A sample of 320 normotensive and 80 hypertensive subjects were studied. Echocardiograhic end diastolic diameter, posterior wall thickness and septal wall thickness were obtained. Subject height, weight, age and blood pressures were obtained. Blood pressures were measured in sitting position. The values of left ventricular mass (LVM, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and left relative wall thickness (RWT were computed. Parametric tests were conducted. Tests were two tailed with P < 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Normal values of left ventricular structures were established; LVM: 63.72g – 336.18g, LVMI: 38.16g/m – 222.64g/m, and RWT: 0.25 – 0.52. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were established in LVM, LVMI and RWT between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Positive and significant correlations were noted between these variables and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A simple linear regression of RWT on Body surface area gives RWT = - 0.058 BSA + 0.475 in normotensive subjects. Normal values of left ventricular structures and a linear regression model have been established which could be used in the assessment of morbidity in hypertension.

  15. Two dimensional Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) model for banded structure prediction in friction stir welding with trigonal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongne, A.; Robe, H.; Desrayaud, C.; Jahazi, M.; Feulvarch, E.

    2016-10-01

    A finite element model has been developed by means of a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The banded structure which is related to the periodical material deposition is predicted in two dimensions as the experimental investigation shows that, during FSW with trigonal tool, the material flow operates mainly in the welded plates plan.

  16. One and Two-dimensional Structures of a New Oxamido Copper(Ⅱ) Complex with Phthalato Bridged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; JIANG Zong-Hui; LIAO Dai-Zheng; YAN Shi-Ping

    2005-01-01

    A new o-phthalato-bridged oxamide copper(Ⅱ) complex 1, {[Cu2(oxap)](pht)4H2O}n (oxap = N, N'-bis(2-aminopropyl)oxamide, pht = phthalate dianion), has been prepared and structurally characterized. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 23.424(4), b = 7.9696(14), c = 15.727(3) (A), β = 129.617(2)°, C16H28Cu2N4O10, Mr = 563.50, V = 2261.6(7) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.655 g/cm3,μ(MoKα) = 1.939 mm 1, F(000) = 1160, the final R = 0.0393 and wR = 0.0928 for 1707 observed reflections with I > 2σ(Ⅰ). Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals that 1 displays a one-dimensional zigzag chain structure, in which each Cu(oxap) moiety adopting trans-conformation is connected by μ1,6-phthalate anion bridges, and these zigzag chains are further linked by anotherμ1,6-phthalate anion bridge to form a 2D sheet structure. The polar guest water molecules reside in the inter- and intrasheets to stabilize the whole crystal structure.

  17. Level of the orbit’s topological structure and topological semi-conjugacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周作领; 何伟弘

    1995-01-01

    For a discrete system, the idea that the orbit’s topological structure possesses three levels is proposed and the notions of the quasi-weakly almost periodic point and the minimal covering of a topological semi-conjugacy are introduced. The relationship between the three levels and the recurrence of points and some properties kept under the topological semi-conjugacy is also discussed.

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of the two-dimensional ferrimagnet (NEt4)[[Mn(salen)]2Fe(CN)6]: investigation of magnetic anisotropy on a single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Ieda, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Naohide; Sugiura, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2003-06-02

    The title compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(salen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (1), was synthesized via a 1:1 reaction of [Mn(salen)(H(2)O)]ClO(4) with (NEt(4))(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] in a methanol/ethanol medium (NEt(4)(+) = tetraethylammonium cation, salen(2)(-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylidene)iminate). The two-dimensional layered structure of 1 was revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis: 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with cell dimensions of a = 12.3660(8) A, b = 15.311(1) A, c = 12.918(1) A, beta = 110.971(4) degrees, Z = 2 and is isostructural to the previously synthesized compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(5-Clsalen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (5-Clsalen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylidene)iminate; Miyasaka, H.; Matsumoto, N.; Re, N.; Gallo, E.; Floriani, C. Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 670). The Mn ion is surrounded by an equatorial salen quadridentate ligand and two axial nitrogen atoms from the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) unit, the four Fe[bond]CN groups of which coordinate to the Mn ions of [Mn(salen)](+) units, forming a two-dimensional network having [[bond]Mn[bond]NC[bond]Fe[bond]CN[bond

  19. A two-dimensional Riemann solver with self-similar sub-structure - Alternative formulation based on least squares projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Vides, Jeaniffer; Gurski, Katharine; Nkonga, Boniface; Dumbser, Michael; Garain, Sudip; Audit, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Just as the quality of a one-dimensional approximate Riemann solver is improved by the inclusion of internal sub-structure, the quality of a multidimensional Riemann solver is also similarly improved. Such multidimensional Riemann problems arise when multiple states come together at the vertex of a mesh. The interaction of the resulting one-dimensional Riemann problems gives rise to a strongly-interacting state. We wish to endow this strongly-interacting state with physically-motivated sub-structure. The self-similar formulation of Balsara [16] proves especially useful for this purpose. While that work is based on a Galerkin projection, in this paper we present an analogous self-similar formulation that is based on a different interpretation. In the present formulation, we interpret the shock jumps at the boundary of the strongly-interacting state quite literally. The enforcement of the shock jump conditions is done with a least squares projection (Vides, Nkonga and Audit [67]). With that interpretation, we again show that the multidimensional Riemann solver can be endowed with sub-structure. However, we find that the most efficient implementation arises when we use a flux vector splitting and a least squares projection. An alternative formulation that is based on the full characteristic matrices is also presented. The multidimensional Riemann solvers that are demonstrated here use one-dimensional HLLC Riemann solvers as building blocks. Several stringent test problems drawn from hydrodynamics and MHD are presented to show that the method works. Results from structured and unstructured meshes demonstrate the versatility of our method. The reader is also invited to watch a video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers on http://www.nd.edu/~dbalsara/Numerical-PDE-Course.

  20. Topology Mining for Optimization of Framed Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagishita, Takao; Ohsaki, Makoto

    A new heuristic method called Topology Mining (TM) is proposed for topology optimization of framed structures, where the problem is formulated as 0-1 mixed-integer optimization problem. TM uses the apriori algorithm, developed in the field of data mining, to efficiently extract the bar sets that frequently appears among superior solutions, and proceeds so as to preserve the sets. Hence, the process of optimization can be investigated by tracing the frequent bar sets, accordingly, the parameters for optimization can easily be adjusted. It is pointed out that the ground structure method based on nonlinear programming is not effective for finding optimal placement of braces for a given frame under local buckling constraints. We propose an integrated approach to obtain an accurate solution of this problem, where optimal placement of braces is searched by TM, and the sizing optimization is performed by nonlinear programming. Three numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the performance of TM in comparison with another heuristic method called tabu search.

  1. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  2. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-11-01

    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  3. Crystallization of a Two-Dimensional Hydrogen-Bonded Molecular Assembly: Evolution of the Local Structure Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patera, Laerte L; Liu, Xunshan; Mosso, Nico; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Repp, Jascha

    2017-08-28

    Structures of the aromatic N-heterocyclic hexaazatriphenylene (HAT) molecular synthon obtained by surface-assisted self-assembly were analyzed with sub-Å resolution by means of noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM), both in the kinetically trapped amorphous state and in the thermodynamically stable crystalline phase. These results reveal how the crystallization governs the length scale of the network order for non-flexible molecular species without affecting the local bonding schemes. The capability of nc-AFM to accurately resolve structural relaxations will be highly relevant for the characterization of vitreous two-dimensional supramolecular materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cancellation exponent and multifractal structure in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics: direct numerical simulations and Lagrangian averaged modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Mininni, Pablo D; Pouquet, Annick

    2005-10-01

    We present direct numerical simulations and Lagrangian averaged (also known as alpha model) simulations of forced and free decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in two dimensions. The statistics of sign cancellations of the current at small scales is studied using both the cancellation exponent and the fractal dimension of the structures. The alpha model is found to have the same scaling behavior between positive and negative contributions as the direct numerical simulations. The alpha model is also able to reproduce the time evolution of these quantities in free decaying turbulence. At large Reynolds numbers, an independence of the cancellation exponent with the Reynolds numbers is observed.

  5. 基于FPGA快速二维DCT图像编码结构%FPGA Rapid Two-dimensional DCT Image Coding Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙飞; 李良荣; 李绪诚

    2012-01-01

    本文提出了一种二维DCT快速算法的FPGA实现结构,采用行列分解算法将二维DCT分解成两个一维DCT和一个转置缓冲器组成的结构,其中一雏DCT借鉴Arai DCT算法,并采取了FPGA特有的并行的流水线技术,该结构极大减少了加法器和乘法器的数量,节省了计算时间.该结构的特点是高数据吞吐率、硬件资源消耗少,功耗低.实验结果证明了二维DCT核设计的正确性,适合图像的实时处理.%In this paper, a two-dimensional DCT fast algorithm for FPGA implementation structure. Decomposition algorithm using the line-column, 2D-DCT is broken down into the structure of two 1D-DCT and a transpose buffer, and 1D-DCT is learn from Arai DCT algorithm, and mining is indeed a unique parallel pipeline technique in FPGA. The structure greatly reduces the adder and multiplier is the number, to save calculation time. The structure is characterized by high data throughput, the hardware resource consumption, low power consumption. The experimental results show the correctness of the two-dimensional DCT core design, suitable for real-time processing of the image.

  6. Two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductors composed of double-layered ZnS and monoamines with aromatic and heterocyclic aliphatic rings: Syntheses, structures, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sujing; Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu

    2015-04-15

    As an addition to the II–VI based inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor family, five new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structures have been synthesized employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings. Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(bza) (1), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(mbza) (2), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(fbza) (3), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(pca) (4), and Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(thfa) (5) (bza=benzylamine, mbza=4-methoxybenzylamine, fbza=4-flurobenzylamine, pca=3-picolylamine, and thfa=tetrahydrofurfurylamine) are prepared by solvothermal reactions and characterized by different analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical diffuse reflection, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all five compounds adopt 2D double-layered structures. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds suggest that they have notably lower band gaps than those of the similar compounds composed of aliphatic alkyl amines. Their photoluminescence properties and thermal stability are also analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Five new members of two-dimensional double-layered 2D-Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(L) (L=Ligand) structures employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. - Highlights: • A new sub-family of II-VI based hybrid semiconductors are designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized using amines with aromatic or aliphatic cyclic rings. • These compounds have notably lower band gaps than those made of aliphatic alkyl amines, greatly broadening the range of band gaps of this material family. • They emit strongly with systematically tunable emission intensity and energy.

  7. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  8. Topology of RNA-RNA interaction structures

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen E; Penner, Robert C; Reidys, Christian M

    2011-01-01

    The topological filtration of interacting RNA complexes is studied and the role is analyzed of certain diagrams called irreducible shadows, which form suitable building blocks for more general structures. We prove that for two interacting RNAs, called interaction structures, there exist for fixed genus only finitely many irreducible shadows. This implies that for fixed genus there are only finitely many classes of interaction structures. In particular the simplest case of genus zero already provides the formalism for certain types of structures that occur in nature and are not covered by other filtrations. This case of genus zero interaction structures is already of practical interest, is studied here in detail and found to be expressed by a multiple context-free grammar extending the usual one for RNA secondary structures. We show that in $O(n^6)$ time and $O(n^4)$ space complexity, this grammar for genus zero interaction structures provides not only minimum free energy solutions but also the complete partit...

  9. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Colina, Luis; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogerio; Riffel, Rogemar A; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the 2D excitation structure of the ISM in a sample of LIRGs and Seyferts using near-IR IFS. This study extends to the near-IR the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64/Br$\\gamma$ - H_2 1-0S(1)/Br$\\gamma$ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. AGNs, young MS massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Br$\\gamma$ and H_2/Br$\\gamma$ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Br$\\gamma$ and H_2/Br$\\gamma$ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by ...

  10. A new integral representation for quasiperiodic fields and its application to two-dimensional band structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, Alex H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider band-structure calculations governed by the Helmholtz or Maxwell equations in piecewise homogeneous periodic materials. Methods based on boundary integral equations are natural in this context, since they discretize the interface alone and can achieve high order accuracy in complicated geometries. In order to handle the quasi-periodic conditions which are imposed on the unit cell, the free-space Green's function is typically replaced by its quasi-periodic cousin. Unfortunately, the quasi-periodic Green's function diverges for families of parameter values that correspond to resonances of the empty unit cell. Here, we bypass this problem by means of a new integral representation that relies on the free-space Green's function alone, adding auxiliary layer potentials on the boundary of the unit cell itself. An important aspect of our method is that by carefully including a few neighboring images, the densities may be kept smooth and convergence rapid. This framework results in an integr...

  11. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Philip M., E-mail: philip.campbell@gatech.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Vogel, Eric M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Ready, W. Jud [Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  12. First-principles investigation of the effect of charged unit cell on the electronic structure of two-dimensional MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaari, Ashkan; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza; Lashgari, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Density-functional theory has been applied to investigate the effect of charged unit cell on the structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional MoS2 within PBE-GGA. The charge of the unit cell of the monolayer changes from zero to n = ± 4 e with e the absolute value of the elementary electric charge. Variations of the lattice constant, Mo-S bond length, S-Mo-S bond angle, total energy, exchange and correlation contributions, and the Fermi level versus n have been calculated quantitatively, indicating decrease in the stability of the atomic structure of the monolayer with increase in the absolute value of n. It is found that the Fermi level for two-dimensional MoS2 is a function of both the number of electrons in allowed states and the inverse of the volume of the unit cell. The electronic properties of each monolayer have been also calculated via examining the related electronic band structure and density of states. Results broadly support the view that the effect of charged unit cell (n =+ e to - 4 e) on the electronic properties of MoS2 monolayer is manifested in the form of semiconductor-to-metal transition in addition to the Fermi level shift. It is also verified that as the negative charge of the unit cell increases from n = - e to - 4 e , there is an ever-increasing trend in the total number of allowed electronic states at the Fermi level, implying a direct correlation between electrical conductivity and the value of n in a way that the more negative the charge of the unit cell, the higher the electrical conductivity of the monolayer.

  13. A two-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer based on mixed dimethyl succinate and bipyridine ligands: synthesis, structure, thermostability and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Yong Lan; Fu, Wei Wei

    2016-04-01

    From the viewpoint of crystal engineering, the construction of crystalline polymeric materials requires a rational choice of organic bridging ligands for the self-assembly process. Multicarboxylate ligands are of particular interest due to their strong coordination activity towards metal ions, as well as their various coordination modes and versatile conformations. The structural chemistry of dicarboxylate-based coordination polymers of transition metals has been developed through the grafting of N-containing organic linkers into carboxylate-bridged transition metal networks. A new luminescent two-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer containing bridging 2,2-dimethylsuccinate and 4,4'-bipyridine ligands, namely poly[[aqua(μ2-4,4'-bipyridine-κ(2)N:N')bis(μ3-2,2-dimethylbutanedioato)-κ(4)O(1),O(1'):O(4):O(4');κ(5)O(1):O(1),O(4):O(4),O(4')-dizinc(II)] dihydrate], {[Zn2(C6H8O4)2(C10H8N2)(H2O)]·2H2O}n, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and elemental, IR and thermogravimetric analyses. In the structure, the 2,2-dimethylsuccinate ligands link linear tetranuclear Zn(II) subunits into one-dimensional chains along the c axis. 4,4'-Bipyridine acts as a tethering ligand expanding these one-dimensional chains into a two-dimensional layered structure. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between the water molecules (both coordinated and free) and carboxylate O atoms strengthen the packing of the layers. Furthermore, the luminescence properties of the complex were investigated. The compound exhibits a blue photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature and may be a good candidate for potential hybrid inorganic-organic photoactive materials.

  14. Development and testing of a two-dimensional ultrasonic laboratory model system for seismic imaging of heterogeneous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yike; Karaman, Hakki; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    To tackle the challenges and imaging problems of complex structures, we have recently assembled within the Wave Propagation Lab at ETH Zürich a simple 2D ultrasonic model facility in which the simulated geological structures are constructed from thin (2 mm thickness) metal and plastic sheets, cut and bonded together. The models were used, in full recognition of the similitude relations, to investigate reflections from beneath a low velocity distorting overburden. Besides uniform and irregular near surface layers, flat and dipping interfaces as well as rectangular high and low velocity block inserts were investigated. The experiments entailed the use of a piezoelectric source driven by a pulse amplifier at ultrasonic frequencies (20-300 kHz) to generate Lamb waves in the plate, which are detected by piezoelectric receivers and recorded digitally on a National Instruments recording system, under SignalExpress software control. In the lab system, a single cycle sinusoidal pulse with a negative onset (5 μs pulse width and 600 V pulse voltage) was selected as the optimized source pulse. Transducers can be placed along the thin edges of the plate in reflection mode (same edge) or transmission mode (opposite edges, or perpendicular edges). Alternatively they can be mounted on the flat planar surface of the plate to simulate a crosshole survey. Data were originally collected in all different recording geometries over a homogenous aluminium model for calibration purposes and to examine wave modes and propagation characteristics. The two dominant Lamb waves recorded are the fundamental symmetric mode (non-dispersive) and the fundamental antisymmetric (flexural) dispersive mode, which is normally absent when the source transducer is located on a model edge but dominant when it is on the flat planar surface of the plate. Only the symmetric Lamb mode can be used as a proxy for 2D propagation in an extended medium (the field situation). Experimental group and phase velocity

  15. Structural Transitions in Topologically Constrained DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J.; Romano, G.; Sarkar, A.; Robert, J.; Bourdieu, L.; Chatenay, D.; Marko, J. F.

    2000-03-01

    We propose a theoretical explanation for results of recent single molecule micromanipulation experiments (Leger et al, PRL 83, 1066, 1999) on double-stranded DNA with fixed linking number. The topological constraint leads to novel structural transitions, including a shift of the usual 60 pN B-form to S-form transition force plateau up to a force of 100 pN when linking is fixed at zero. Our model needs five distinct states to explain the four different observed transitions. The various constant-force plateaus observed for different fixed values of linking correspond to a mixture of different pairs of states, weighted to satisfy the topological constraint. Our model allows us to conclude that sufficiently overtwisted DNA (positive linkage number) undergoes a transition from B-form DNA to a mixture of S-form and P-form DNA at a force plateau near 45 pN, and then to homogeneous P-form DNA at a force plateau near 110 pN. A similar two-step transition occurs for undertwisted DNA, and by analysing the twisting necessary to produce pure S-form DNA we conclude that the S-state has helix repeat of 38 bp. Support from the Whitaker Foundation, the NSF, the ACS-PRF and Research Corporation is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Topological Quantization in Units of the Fine Structure Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejko, Joseph; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Station Q, UCSB /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC; Drew, H.Dennis; /Maryland U.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-11-11

    Fundamental topological phenomena in condensed matter physics are associated with a quantized electromagnetic response in units of fundamental constants. Recently, it has been predicted theoretically that the time-reversal invariant topological insulator in three dimensions exhibits a topological magnetoelectric effect quantized in units of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/{h_bar}c. In this Letter, we propose an optical experiment to directly measure this topological quantization phenomenon, independent of material details. Our proposal also provides a way to measure the half-quantized Hall conductances on the two surfaces of the topological insulator independently of each other.

  17. The structures and properties of the new two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on the molybdate chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Cao, Xinyu; Huang, Rudan, E-mail: huangrd@bit.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    A series of inorganic organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalates(POMs), namely, [M{sup II}(HL){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Mo{sup VI}{sub 6}O{sub 20}] [M=Co (1), Ni (2), Cu (3), Zn (4)], [Mn{sup IV}L{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Mo{sup VI}{sub 6}O{sub 20}] (5), and (HL){sub 3}PMO{sub 12}O{sub 40} (6) [L=3-(4-pyridyl)pyrazole], have been synthesized. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results from single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicate that 1–5 are isostructural. It is worth noting that the polyanions are bridged by Mo–O–Mo to form 1D inorganic chains, which are further connected via M ions to form 2D nets. In compound 6, the ligands are used as the positive ions to balance the charge of the compound. Moreover, the magnetic properties of compound 5 have also been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: In complex 1, The Co ion is six coordinated by four oxygen atoms from two Mo{sub 6}O{sub 20} and two water molecules, and two N atoms from two different ligand. It is noticeable that there is an one-dimensional chain molybdate, which is combined by O–Mo–O, then the chain parallel with each other, the Mo{sub 6} anion acts as a bidentate ligand providing O7 atoms to bridge CoII ions to form a 2D inorganic layer. Finally every nets become 3D structure by hydrogen bond. - Highlights: • Novel inorganic–organic hybrid materials have been prepared. • Compounds 1–5 contain the 1D molybdate chains composed of (MoO{sub 6}) octahedra. • The 1D chains parallel with each other to form a 2D inorganic layer.

  18. Existence of shocklets in a two-dimensional supersonic mixing layer and its influence on the flow structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Wei

    2001-01-01

    gravitational lens sys-tem 2016 + 112, Astrophys. J. , 1985, 294: 66.[39]Aldcroft, T. L. , Bechtold, J. , Elvis, M. , MglI absorption in a sample of 56 steep-spectrum quasars, Astrophys. J. Sup-pl., 1994, 93: 1.[40]Verib-Getty, M. P., Veron, P., A catalogue of quasars and active nuclei, ESO Scientific Report, 1996, 17: 1.[41]Hewitt, A., Burbidge, G., A revised and updated catalog of quas-stellar objects, Astrophys, J. Suppl., 1993, 87: 451.[42]Rudy, R. J., Cohan, R. D., Ake, T. B., Ultraviolet and optical spectrophyotometry of the seyfert 1.8 galaxy Markarian 609, Astrophys. J., 1988, 332: 172.[43]Bregrmamn, T. S. , Pastoriza, M. G. , On the metal abundance of low-activity galactic nuclei, Astrophys. J. , 1989, 347:195.[44]Malkan, M. A., Oke, J. B., IUE observations of Markarian 3 and 6: reddening and nonstellar continuum, Astrophys. J. ,1983, 265: 92.[45]Oke, J. B., Goodrich, R. W., IUE and VISUAl spectrophotometry of Markarian 9, Markarian 10, and 3C 390.3, Astro-phys. J., 1981, 243: 445.[46]Crenshaw, D. M. , Peterson, B. M. , Korista, K. , Ultraviolet and optical spectra of high-ionization Seyfert galaxies with nar-row lines, AJ, 1991, 101: 1202.[47]Voit, G. M. , Shull, J. M. , Begelman, M. C. , Broad, variable absorption lines in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516-probing the structure of the emission-line regions, Astrophys. J., 1987, 316: 573.[48]Reichert, G. A., Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M. , Alloin, D. et al., Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic, Astrophys. J., 1994, 425: 582.[49]Setti, G., Woltjer, L., Hubble Diagram for Quasars, Astrophys. J., 1973, 181: L61.[50]Baldwin, J. A. , Burke, W. L. , Gaskell, M. G. et al. , Relative quasar luminosities determined from emission line strengths, Nature, 1978, 273: 431.[51]Bressan, A., Chiosi, C., Fagotto, F., Spectrophotometric evolution of elliptical galaxies, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1994, 94:63.[52]Scappa, R. , Urry, C. M

  19. Observation of the variations of the domain structure of a spontaneous electric field in a two-dimensional electron system under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    It has been found on a sample of the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with the two-dimensional electron system that different configurations of domains of a spontaneous electric field are possible within one microwave- induced state with the resistance tending to zero. Transitions between such configurations are observed at the variation of the radiation power and magnetic field. In the general case, the configuration of domains is more complicated than existing models. The fragment of the distribution of the electric field in the sample for one of the observed configurations is in agreement with the rhombic domain structure considered by I. G. Finkler and B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085315 (2009).

  20. Electronic band structure and Fermi surfaces of the quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze, P4W12O44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sato, T.; Sarma, D. D.; Takahashi, T.; Wang, E.; Greenblatt, M.; Raj, S.

    2014-02-01

    The electronic structure of quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze, P4W12O44, has been investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. Experimental electron-like bands around \\Gamma point and Fermi surfaces have similar shapes as predicted by calculations. Fermi surface mapping at different temperatures shows a depletion of density of states at low temperature in certain flat portions of the Fermi surfaces. These flat portions of the Fermi surfaces satisfy the partial nesting condition with incommensurate nesting vectors q_1 and q_2 , which leads to the formation of charge density waves in this phosphate tungsten bronzes. The setting up of charge density wave in these bronzes can well explain the anomaly observed in its transport properties.

  1. Acousto-optical interaction of surface acoustic and optical waves in a two-dimensional phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Xue; Zou, Kui; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Su, Xiao-Xing

    2014-11-17

    Phoxonic crystal is a promising material for manipulating sound and light simultaneously. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate the propagation of acoustic and optical waves along the truncated surface of a two-dimensional square-latticed phoxonic crystal. Further, a phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity is proposed, which can simultaneously confine surface acoustic and optical waves. The interface motion and photoelastic effects are taken into account in the acousto-optical coupling. The results show obvious shifts in eigenfrequencies of the photonic cavity modes induced by different phononic cavity modes. The symmetry of the phononic cavity modes plays a more important role in the single-phonon exchange process than in the case of the multi-phonon exchange. Under the same deformation, the frequency shift of the photonic transverse electric mode is larger than that of the transverse magnetic mode.

  2. Patterning the two dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by structured Al capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Wang, P.; Luan, Z. Z.; Shi, Y. J.; Jiang, S. W.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate an approach for patterning a quasi-two dimensional electron gas (q-2DEG) at the interface of LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) utilizing a structured Al capping layer. The capping of Al enables the formation of q-2DEG at the interface of 1-3 unit cells (uc) of LAO on STO, which was originally insulating before capping. The properties of the q-2DEG induced by the Al capping layer are essentially the same as those of q-2DEG without Al. Therefore, we can pattern q-2DEG by simply patterning the Al film on LAO (2 or 3 uc)/STO using a one-step liftoff process. Our approach circumvents the difficulty of direct patterning of oxide materials and provides a simple and robust patterning method for future device applications based on complex oxide interfaces.

  3. Subband Structure of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Formed at the Polar Surface of the Strong Spin-Orbit Perovskite KTaO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, P.D.C.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the (100) surface of the 5d transition-metal oxide KTaO{sub 3}. From angle-resolved photoemission, we find that quantum confinement lifts the orbital degeneracy of the bulk band structure and leads to a 2DEG composed of ladders of subband states of both light and heavy carriers. Despite the strong spin-orbit coupling, we find no experimental signatures of a Rashba spin splitting, which has important implications for the interpretation of transport measurements in both KTaO{sub 3}- and SrTiO{sub 3}-based 2DEGs. The polar nature of the KTaO{sub 3}(100) surface appears to help mediate formation of the 2DEG as compared to non-polar SrTiO{sub 3}(100).

  4. Formation of proto-cluster: a virialized structure from gravo-turbulent collapse II. A two-dimensional analytical model for rotating and accreting system

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yueh-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Most stars are born in the gaseous proto-cluster environment. The knowledge of this intermediate stage gives more accurate constraints on star formation characteristics. We demonstrate that a virialized globally supported structure, in which star formation happens, is formed out of a collapsing molecular cloud, and derive a mapping from the parent cloud parameters to the proto-cluster to predict its properties, with a view to confront analytical calculations with observations and simulations. The virial theorem is decomposed into two dimensions to account for the rotation and the flattened geometry. Equilibrium is found by balancing rotation, turbulence and self-gravity, while turbulence is maintained by accretion driving and dissipates in one crossing time. The angular momentum and the accretion rate of the proto-cluster are estimated from the parent cloud properties. The two-dimensional virial model predicts the size and velocity dispersion given the mass of the proto-cluster and that of the parent cloud. T...

  5. Analysis of the horizontal two-dimensional near-surface structure of a winter tornadic vortex using high-resolution in situ wind and pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryohei; Kusunoki, Kenichi; Sato, Eiichi; Mashiko, Wataru; Inoue, Hanako Y.; Fujiwara, Chusei; Arai, Ken-ichiro; Nishihashi, Masahide; Saito, Sadao; Hayashi, Syugo; Suzuki, Hiroto

    2015-06-01

    The horizontal two-dimensional near-surface structure of a tornadic vortex within a winter storm was analyzed. The tornadic vortex was observed on 10 December 2012 by the high-resolution in situ observational linear array of wind and pressure sensors (LAWPS) system in conjunction with a high-resolution Doppler radar. The 0.1 s maximum wind speed and pressure deficit near the ground were recorded as 35.3 m s-1 and -3.8 hPa, respectively. The horizontal two-dimensional distributions of the tornadic vortex wind and pressure were retrieved by the LAWPS data, which provided unprecedented observational detail on the following important features of the near-surface structure of the tornadic vortex. Asymmetric convergent inflow toward the vortex center existed. Total wind speed was strong to the right and rear side of the translational direction of the vortex and weak in the forward part of the vortex possibly because of the strong convergent inflow in that region. The tangential wind speed profile of the vortex was better approximated using a modified Rankine vortex rather than the Rankine vortex both at 5 m above ground level (agl) and 100 m agl, and other vortex models (Burgers-Rott vortex and Wood-White vortex) were also compared. The cyclostrophic wind balance was violated in the core radius R0 and outside the core radius in the forward sector; however, it was held with a relatively high accuracy of approximately 14% outside the core of the vortex in the rearward sector (from 2 R0 to 5 R0) near the ground.

  6. Application of a quantitative structure retention relationship approach for the prediction of the two-dimensional gas chromatography retention times of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Heshka, Nicole E

    2016-03-11

    Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure.

  7. Topological Optimization of Continuum Structure based on ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue-ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topology optimization is at the phase of structural concept design and the result of it is foundation for succeeding design, therefore, structural topology optimization is more important to engineering design. in this thesis, in order to seek the optimal structure shape of the winch’s mounting bracket of ROV simulator, topology optimization design of it by finite element analysis software ANSYS was carried out. the results show that the topology optimization method is an effective optimization method and indicate that the method is correct and effective, it has a certain engineering application prospect.

  8. A new topology optimization scheme for nonlinear structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eim, Young Sup; Han, Seog Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A new topology optimization algorithm based on artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) was developed and applied to geometrically nonlinear structures. A finite element method and the Newton-Raphson technique were adopted for the nonlinear topology optimization. The distribution of material is expressed by the density of each element and a filter scheme was implemented to prevent a checkerboard pattern in the optimized layouts. In the application of ABCA for long structures or structures with small volume constraints, optimized topologies may be obtained differently for the same problem at each trial. The calculation speed is also very slow since topology optimization based on the roulette-wheel method requires many finite element analyses. To improve the calculation speed and stability of ABCA, a rank-based method was used. By optimizing several examples, it was verified that the developed topology scheme based on ABCA is very effective and applicable in geometrically nonlinear topology optimization problems.

  9. A Method to Formulate the Unit Cell for Density Functional Theory (DFT) Calculations of the Electronic Band Structure of Heterostructures of Two-dimensional Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    distribution is unlimited. i CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Two-dimensional Material Geometry and Analogs with Close-packed Systems 1 Matching...distribution is unlimited. 1 INTRODUCTION Two-dimensional (2D) material heterostructures offer novel and compelling electronic and optical...methods have undoubtedly been created for matching lattice constants of dissimilar nanomaterials , very few are actually covered explicitly in literature

  10. Topological grid structure - A data structure for earth science modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.; Hallada, W. A.; Marcell, R. F.; Lindboe, W.

    1984-01-01

    The automated analysis of land surface features is increasingly important to earth scientists. User-friendly algorithms for studying these features can be integrated into geographic information systems through the use of topological grid structure, which maintains the simplicity and transportability of standard grid structure while providing the essential capability to treat groups of contiguous, identically-classified pixels (corresponding to lakes, forests, fields, etc.) as distinct spatial entities.

  11. New structural information on a humic acid from two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J D; Xing, B; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2001-05-15

    New information on the chemical structure of a peat humic acid has been obtained using a series of two-dimensional 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR (HETCOR) experiments with different contact times and with spectral editing by dipolar dephasing and 13C transverse relaxation filtering. Carbon-bonded methyl groups (C-CH3) are found to be near both aliphatic and O-alkyl but not aromatic groups. The spectra prove that most OCH3 groups are connected directly with the aromatic rings, as is typical in lignin. As a result, about one-third of the aromatic C-O groups is not phenolic C-OH but C-OCH3. Both protonated and unprotonated anomeric O-C-O carbons are identified in the one- and two-dimensional spectra. COO groups are found predominantly in OCHn-COO environments, but some are also bonded to aromatic rings and aliphatic groups. All models of humic acids in the literature lack at least some of the features observed here. Compositional heterogeneity was studied by introducing 1H spin diffusion into the HETCOR experiment. Comparison with data for a synthetic polymer, polycarbonate, indicates that the separation between O-alkyl and aromatic groups in the humic acid is less than 1.5 nm. However, transverse 13C relaxation filtering under 1H decoupling reveals heterogeneity on a nanometer scale, with the slow-relaxing component being rich in lignin-like aromatic-C-O-CH3 moieties and poor in COO groups.

  12. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  13. A novel approach to topological defects in a vector order parameter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Ji-Rong; Rong Shu-Jun; Zhu Tao

    2009-01-01

    Based on Duan's topological current theory, we propose a novel approach to study the topological properties of topological defects in a two-dimensional complex vector order parameter system. This method shows explicitly the fine topological structure of defects. The branch processes of defects in the vector order parameter system have also been investigated with this method.

  14. Design of an LED chip structure with an integrated two-dimensional photonic crystal to enhance the light-extraction efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won-Sik; Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We numerically simulated the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an integrated two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) structure on the top surface in order to enhance light extraction. We considered InGaN-based LED chips with a typical emission wavelength of λ{sub o} = 460 nm and an emission wavelength inside the LED chip of λ = λ{sub 0}/n{sub GaN} , where n{sub GaN} is the refractive index of GaN. We used positive (relief) and negative (intaglio) patterns for the PC structures with square arrangements. The pattern period (Λ), width (d), and height (h) of the PC structure were varied systematically in the PC-LEDs; then the light-extraction efficiency of each PC-LED was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to optimize the PC structure in terms of light extraction. The PC LED with a square pillar pattern with Λ ∼ 1.4λ, d ∼ 0.75Λ, and h ∼ 0.75Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for positive patterns while the cylindrical hole pattern with Λ ∼ 1.2λ, d ∼ 0.5Λ, and h ∼ 0.5Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for negative patterns.

  15. Synthesis and Structure of A Novel Quasi-Two Dimensional Organic-inorganic Hybrid Coordination Polymer:{[Cu(en)2][Ag2I4]}n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ling-Guo; LI Hao-Hong; CHEN Zhi-Rong; HUANG Chang-Cang; ZHAO Bin; LI Jun-Qian

    2006-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer {[Cu(en)2][Ag2I4]}n (en = ethylenediamine) was synthesized by the reaction of NaAgI2 and Cu(en)2(NO3)2·2H2O at room temperature with pH = 6.0, and the structure was characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/m, with a=10.646(2), b = 13.304(3), c = 6.8445(14)(A), β = 118.95(3)°, C4H16N4CuAg2I4, Mr = 907.10, V = 848.3(4)(A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 3.551 g/cm3, F(000) = 806, μ(MoKα) = 10.787 mm(1, the final R1 = 0.0256 and wR2 = 0.0654 for 900 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). According to structural analysis, the title compound consists of template cation [Cu(en)2]2+ and inorganic chain [Ag2I4]n2-. The polymeric negative chain [Ag2I4]n2- is built up from pairs of AgI4 tetrahedron by sharing one edge. Through N-H…I hydrogen-bonding interactions, the whole structure represents a quasi-two dimensional arrangement. Electrostatic attraction exists between organic cations and inorganic chains, leading to a so-called organic-inorganic hybrid structure.

  16. On-Surface Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Structures versus Halogen-Bonded Self-Assembly: Competing Formation of Organic Nanoarchitectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, David; Silly, Fabien

    2016-05-24

    The competition between the on-surface synthesis of covalent nanoarchitectures and the self-assembly of star-shaped 1,3,5-Tris(4-iodophenyl)benzene molecules on Au(111) in vacuum is investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy above room temperature. The molecules form covalent polygonal nanoachitectures at the gold surface step edges and at the elbows of the gold reconstruction at low coverage. With coverage increasing two-dimensional halogen-bonded structures appear and grow on the surface terraces. Two different halogen-bonded nanoarchitectures are coexisting on the surface and hybrid covalent-halogen bonded structures are locally observed. At high coverage covalent nanoarchitectures are squeezed at the domain boundary of the halogen-bonded structures. The competitive growth between the covalent and halogen-bonded nanoarchitectures leads to formation of a two-layer film above one monolayer deposition. For this coverage, the covalent nanoarchitectures are propelled on top of the halogen-bonded first layer. These observations open up new opportunities for decoupling covalent nanoarchitectures from catalytically active and metal surfaces in vacuum.

  17. Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-OlsonPhotosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-DimensionalElectronic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago; Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry, Washington University; Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-05-26

    Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequencesto separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways.

  18. Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-OlsonPhotosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-DimensionalElectronic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago; Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry, Washington University; Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-05-26

    Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequencesto separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways.

  19. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  20. A matrix-exponential decomposition based time-domain method for calculating the defect states of scalar waves in two-dimensional periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-05-01

    A time-domain method for calculating the defect states of scalar waves in two-dimensional (2D) periodic structures is proposed. In the time-stepping process of the proposed method, the column vector containing the spatially sampled field values is updated by multiplying it with an iteration matrix, which is written in a matrix-exponential form. The matrix-exponential is first computed by using the Suzuki's decomposition based technique of the fourth order, in which the Floquet-Bloch boundary conditions are incorporated. The obtained iteration matrix is then squared to enlarge the time-step that can be used in the time-stepping process (namely, the squaring technique), and the small nonzero elements in the iteration matrix is finally pruned to improve the sparse structure of the matrix (namely, the pruning technique). The numerical examples of the super-cell calculations for 2D defect-containing phononic crystal structures show that, the fourth order decomposition based technique for the matrix-exponential computation is much more efficient than the frequently used precise integration technique (PIT) if the PIT is of an order greater than 2. Although it is not unconditionally stable, the proposed time-domain method is particularly efficient for the super-cell calculations of the defect states in a 2D periodic structure containing a defect with a wave speed much higher than those of the background materials. For this kind of defect-containing structures, the time-stepping process can run stably for a sufficiently large number of the time-steps with a time-step much larger than the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) upper limit, and consequently the overall efficiency of the proposed time-domain method can be significantly higher than that of the conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Some physical interpretations on the properties of the band structures and the defect states of the calculated periodic structures are also presented.

  1. On the string actions for the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sugawara, Y

    1996-01-01

    We study the structures of partition functions of the large N generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) by recasting the higher Casimirs. We clarify the appropriate interpretations of them and try to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam's topological string model describing the ordinary YM_2 \\cite{CMR} to those describing gYM_2. The concept of ''deformed gravitational descendants'' will be introduced for this purpose.

  2. The gauging of two-dimensional bosonic sigma models on world-sheets with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    We extend our analysis of the gauging of rigid symmetries in bosonic two-dimensional sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms in the action to the case of world-sheets with defects. A structure that permits a non-anomalous coupling of such sigma models to world-sheet gauge fields of arbitrary topology is analysed, together with obstructions to its existence, and the classification of its inequivalent choices.

  3. Two-dimensional incommensurately modulated structure of (Sr0.13Ca0. 87)2CoSi2O7 crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, B; Hagiya, K; Kusaka, K; Ohmasa, M; Iishi, K

    2000-10-01

    The incommensurate structure of (Sr(0.13)Ca(0.87))(2)CoSi(2)O(7) at room temperature has been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound has a non-centrosymmetric tetragonal basic cell of a = 7.8743 (4) and c = 5.0417 (2) A with the space group P4;2(1)m. The refinements of the basic structure converged to R = 0.038 for 757 main reflections. The two-dimensional incommensurate structure is characterized by the wavevectors q(1) = 0.286 (3)(a* + b*) and q(2) = 0.286 (3)(-a* + b*), where a*, b* are the reciprocal lattice vectors of the basic structure. With the (3 + 2)-dimensional superspace group P(p4mg)(P4;2(1)(m)), the refinements converged to R = 0.071 for 1697 observed reflections (757 main and 940 satellite reflections). The structure is described in terms of displacement of the atoms, rotation, distortion of CoO(4) and SiO(4) tetrahedra, and the partial ordering of the Sr and Ca atoms accompanied with the modulation. Correlated evolution of these features throughout the crystal gives rise to various oxygen coordination around Ca/Sr. Comparison of the derived modulated structure to that of Ca(2)CoSi(2)O(7) clarified that the partial substitution of Ca by large alkaline-earth atoms such as Sr should decrease the distortion of the polyhedra around the cations.

  4. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs under a transverse-magnetic (TM wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  5. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  6. Ripple-modulated electronic structure of a 3D topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Zhou, Wenwen; Walkup, D; Dhital, Chetan; Wilson, Stephen D; Madhavan, V

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators host linearly dispersing states with unique properties and a strong potential for applications. An important ingredient in realizing some of the more exotic states in topological insulators is the ability to manipulate local electronic properties. Direct analogy to the Dirac material graphene suggests that a possible avenue for controlling local properties is via a controlled structural deformation such as the formation of ripples. However, the influence of such ripples on topological insulators is yet to be explored. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine the effects of one-dimensional buckling on the electronic properties of Bi(2)Te(3.) By tracking spatial variations of the interference patterns generated by the Dirac electrons we show that buckling imposes a periodic potential, which locally modulates the surface-state dispersion. This suggests that forming one- and two-dimensional ripples is a viable method for creating nanoscale potential landscapes that can be used to control the properties of Dirac electrons in topological insulators.

  7. Topological lasing in resonant photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilozzi, Laura; Conti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We exploit topological edge states in resonant photonic crystals to attain strongly localized resonances and demonstrate lasing in these modes upon optical excitation. The use of virtually lossless topologically isolated edge states may lead to a class of thresholdless lasers operating without inversion. One needs, however, to understand whether topological states may be coupled to external radiation and act as active cavities. We study a two-level topological insulator and show that self-induced transparency pulses can directly excite edge states. We simulate laser emission by a suitably designed topological cavity and show that it can emit tunable radiation. For a configuration of sites following the off-diagonal Aubry-André-Harper model, we solve the Maxwell-Bloch equations in the time domain and provide a first-principles confirmation of topological lasers. Our results open the road to a class of light emitters with topological protection for applications ranging from low-cost energetically effective integrated laser sources, also including silicon photonics, to strong-coupling devices for studying ultrafast quantum processes with engineered vacuum.

  8. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Manna Kumari [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India); Sharma, Rajesh K., E-mail: rksharma@sspl.drdo.in; Manchanda, Rachna; Bag, Rajesh K.; Muralidharan, Rangarajan [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Thakur, Om Prakash [Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness.

  9. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Kumari Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness.

  10. Generation of eye field/optic vesicle-like structures from human embryonic stem cells under two-dimensional and chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Maryam; Parivar, Kazem; Safari, Fatemeh; Tondar, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying retinal cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a cost-effective eye field cells with the capability to further differentiate into retinal derivatives. In this study, by drawing chemicals on our four-step differentiation strategy, we demonstrated the ability of hESCs in assembling such qualifications to follow human retinogenesis in a serum- and feeder-free adherent condition. Two-dimensional (2D) populations of eye field cells arose within early forebrain progeny upon hESCs differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that the treatment of hESCs with a combination of selected small molecules (SMs) gave rise to the higher expressions of eye field-specific genes, PAX6, RX, and SIX3. Thereafter, a subset of cells gained the transient features of advancing retinal differentiation, including optic vesicle (OV)-like structures, which expressed MITF and CHX10 in a manner imitated in vivo human retinal development. The competency of derived cells in differentiation to retinal derivatives was further investigated. The gene analysis of the cells showed more propensity for generating retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) than neural retina (NR). The generation of OV-like structures in 2D cultures can shed light on molecular events governing retinal specification. It can also facilitate the study of human retinal development.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra, optical properties and theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Hajer; Elleuch, Slim; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material of formula (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Infrared absorption, Raman scattering, UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence measurements. The molecule crystallizes as an organic-inorganic two-dimensional (2D) structure built up from infinite PbI6 octahedra surrounded by organic cations. Such a structure may be regarded as quantum wells system in which the inorganic layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic cations act as insulator barriers. Room temperature IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the 520-3500 and 10-3500 cm-1 frequency range, respectively. Optical absorption measurements performed on thin films of (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] revealed three distinct bands at 2.4, 2.66 and 3.25 eV. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), the static first hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound investigated by GAUSSIAN 09 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 11.46 × 10-31 esu.

  12. Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan

    2002-05-01

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.

  13. Ranking beta sheet topologies with applications to protein structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    One reason why ab initio protein structure predictors do not perform very well is their inability to reliably identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To achieve reliable long-range interactions, all potential pairings of ß-strands (ß-topologies) of a given protein are enumerated......, including the native ß-topology. Two very different ß-topology scoring methods from the literature are then used to rank all potential ß-topologies. This has not previously been attempted for any scoring method. The main result of this paper is a justification that one of the scoring methods, in particular...... of this paper is a method to deal with the inaccuracies of secondary structure predictors when enumerating potential ß-topologies. The results reported in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. They indicate that decoy generation can...

  14. Supersymmetric structures in topological field models

    CERN Document Server

    Pisar, T

    2000-01-01

    formalism with the latter proposed method. Besides the calculation of the vector supersymmetry the formalism admits the derivation of another scalar supersymmetry which is present in some particular models. The work is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we give the technical details, Chapter 3 presents a review of the relevant aspects of topological field theories, in Chapter 4 we introduce a formalism which admits the calculation of the vectorial supersymmetry of the basic fields, and the following Chapter 5 demonstrates its application in the case of a six-dimensional Witten type model. Chapter 6 combines this method with the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, also including the BRST doublets and Chapter 7 gives three different applications of the latter procedure. During the eighties topological quantum field theory appears the first time as a new link between topology and quantum field theory. In the actual understanding we distinguish two types of topological field theories, the first one originally introduce...

  15. Identifying important structural features of ionic liquid stationary phases for the selective separation of nonpolar analytes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ingram, Isaiah C; Hantao, Leandro W; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-03-20

    A series of dicationic ionic liquid (IL)-based stationary phases were evaluated as secondary columns in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons from kerosene. In order to understand the role that structural features of ILs play on the selectivity of nonpolar analytes, the solvation parameter model was used to probe the solvation properties of the IL-based stationary phases. It was observed that room temperature ILs containing long free alkyl side chain substituents and long linker chains between the two cations possess less cohesive forces and exhibited the highest resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The anion component of the IL did not contribute significantly to the overall separation, as similar selectivities toward aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed when examining ILs with identical cations and different anions. In an attempt to further examine the separation capabilities of the IL-based GC stationary phases, columns of the best performing stationary phases were prepared with higher film thickness and resulted in enhanced selectivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property of a Two-dimensional Manganese Compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; WANG Wen-Guo; MA Cheng-Bing; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian; LIAO Dai-Zheng; LI Li-Cun

    2007-01-01

    A new two-dimensional polymeric manganese compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n 1 has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in space group Pbcn with a = 18.7158(2), b = 11.6919(3), c = 9.4799(2)(A), V = 2074.42(7)(A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 453.34, Dc = 1.452 g/cm3, μ = 0.670 mm-1 and F(000) = 932. The final refinement gave R = 0.0458 and wR = 0.1439 for 1358 observed reflections with Ⅰ> 2σ(Ⅰ). The complex consists of repeating units of Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine). Each Mn center is sixcoordinated by four carboxylate O atoms of four benzoate anions and two pyridyl N atoms from bipy ligands to furnish a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The two adjacent Mn atoms are connected by a pair of μ1,3-carboxylate groups to form infinite chains, which are further interlinked by bipy to complete a 2D grid network. The magnetic property of the polymeric complex has also been investigated.

  17. Improving resource utilization in hierarchy network by optimizing topological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. L.; Peng, H. P.; Li, L. X.; Sun, F.; Yang, Y. X.

    2012-02-01

    We study the performance of peer-to-peer (P2P) network built on the top of hierarchy topological structure of local area networks (LAN). We find that the topological structure of the underlying physical network has significant impacts on the resource utilization of the P2P overlay network. The larger size of the physical network is, the lower resource utilization of the overlay network is. Through optimizing the topological structure of physical network, we propose two novel schemes to improve the resource utilization. The experimental results show that in any case the resource utilization of P2P network can always achieve 100% by these two schemes.

  18. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-pressure crystal structure of the non-linear optical compound BiB(3)O(6) from two-dimensional powder diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, R E; Hinrichsen, B; Lennie, A; Jansen, M

    2009-02-01

    Our recently proposed method for automatic detection, calibration and evaluation of Debye-Scherrer ellipses using pattern-recognition techniques and advanced signal filtering was applied to the two-dimensional powder diffraction data of the non-ferroelectric, non-centrosymmetric non-linear optical (NLO) compound alpha-BiB(3)O(6) as a function of pressure. At ambient conditions, alpha-BiB(3)O(6) crystallizes in the space group C2 (phase I). In the pressure range between P = 6.09 and 6.86 GPa, it exhibits a first-order phase transition into a structure with the space group C1 (P1) [phase II at P = 8.34 GPa: a = 7.4781 (6), b = 3.9340 (4), c = 6.2321 (6) A, alpha = 93.73 (1), beta = 102.93 (1), gamma = 90.76 (1) degrees , and V = 178.24 (3) A(3)]. Non-linear compression behaviour over the entire pressure range is observed, which can be described by two Vinet relations in the ranges from P = 0.0 to 6.09 GPa, and from P = 6.86 to 11.6 GPa. The extrapolated bulk moduli of the high-pressure phases were determined to be K(0) = 38 (1) GPa for phase I, and K(0) = 114 (10) GPa for phase II. The crystal structures of both phases were refined against X-ray powder diffraction data measured at several pressures between 0.0 and 11.6 GPa. The structural phase transition of alpha-BiB(3)O(6) is mainly characterized by a reorientation of the [BO(3)](3-) triangles, the [BO(4)](5-) tetrahedra and the lone electron pair which is localized at Bi(3+), in order to optimize crystal packing.

  20. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    1930-01-01

    Lefschetz's Topology was written in the period in between the beginning of topology, by Poincaré, and the establishment of algebraic topology as a well-formed subject, separate from point-set or geometric topology. At this time, Lefschetz had already proved his first fixed-point theorems. In some sense, the present book is a description of the broad subject of topology into which Lefschetz's theory of fixed points fits. Lefschetz takes the opportunity to describe some of the important applications of his theory, particularly in algebraic geometry, to problems such as counting intersections of

  1. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Hocking, John G

    1988-01-01

    ""As textbook and reference work, this is a valuable addition to the topological literature."" - Mathematical ReviewsDesigned as a text for a one-year first course in topology, this authoritative volume offers an excellent general treatment of the main ideas of topology. It includes a large number and variety of topics from classical topology as well as newer areas of research activity.There are four set-theoretic chapters, followed by four primarily algebraic chapters. Chapter I covers the fundamentals of topological and metrical spaces, mappings, compactness, product spaces, the Tychonoff t

  2. Topological signatures in the electronic structure of graphene spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdoshenko, Stas M; Koskinen, Pekka; Sevinçli, Haldun; Popov, Alexey A; Rocha, Claudia G

    2013-01-01

    Topology is familiar mostly from mathematics, but also natural sciences have found its concepts useful. Those concepts have been used to explain several natural phenomena in biology and physics, and they are particularly relevant for the electronic structure description of topological insulators and graphene systems. Here, we introduce topologically distinct graphene forms - graphene spirals - and employ density-functional theory to investigate their geometric and electronic properties. We found that the spiral topology gives rise to an intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit splitting. Through a Hamiltonian constrained by space curvature, graphene spirals have topologically protected states due to time-reversal symmetry. In addition, we argue that the synthesis of such graphene spirals is feasible and can be achieved through advanced bottom-up experimental routes that we indicate in this work.

  3. Independent continuous mapping for topological optimization of frame structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunkang Sui; Jiazheng Du; Yingqiao Guo

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Independent Continuous Mapping method (ICM),a topological optimization model with continuous topological variables is built by introducing three filter functions for element weight,element allowable stress and element stiffness,which transform the 0-1 type discrete topological variables into continuous topological variables between 0 and 1.Two methods for the filter functions are adopted to avoid the structural singularity and recover falsely deleted elements: the weak material element method and the tiny section element method.Three criteria (no structural singularity,no violated constraints and no change of structural weight) are introduced to judge iteration convergence.These criteria allow finding an appropriate threshold by adjusting a discount factor in the iteration procedure.To improve the efficiency,the original optimization model is transformed into a dual problem according to the dual theory and solved in its dual space.By using MSC/Nastran as the structural solver and MSC/Patran as the developing platform.A topological optimization software of frame structures is accomplished.Numerical examples show that the ICM method is very efficient for the topological optimization of frame structures.

  4. Observation of topological structures in photonic quantum walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Graciana; Gerhardt, Ilja; Katzschmann, Fabian; Silberhorn, Christine; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2014-03-28

    Phases of matter with nontrivial topological order are predicted to exhibit a variety of exotic phenomena, such as robust localized bound states in 1D systems, and edge states in 2D systems, which are expected to display spin helicity, immunity to backscattering, and weak antilocalization. In this Letter, we present an experimental observation of topological structures generated via the controlled implementation of two consecutive noncommuting rotations in photonic discrete-time quantum walks. The second rotation introduces valleylike Dirac points in the system, allowing us to create the nontrivial topological pattern. By choosing specific values for the rotations, it is possible to coherently drive the system between topological sectors characterized by different topological invariants. We probe the full topological landscape, demonstrating the emergence of localized bound states hosted at the topological boundaries, and the existence of extremely localized or delocalized non-Gaussian quantum states. Our results pave the way for the study of valley polarization and applications of topological mechanisms in robust optical-device engineering.

  5. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-04-01

    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column.

  6. Complete photonic band gaps and tunable self-collimation in the two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with a new structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Ding, Guo-Wen; Li, Hai-Ming; Liu, Shao-Bin [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, the properties of complete photonic band gaps (CPBGs) and tunable self-collimation in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) with a new structure in square lattices, whose dielectric fillers (GaAs) are inserted into homogeneous and nomagnetized plasma background are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method with a novel technique. The novel PWE method can be utilized to compute the dispersion curves of 2D PPCs with arbitrary-shaped cross section in any lattices. As a comparison, CPBGs of PPCs for four different configurations are numerically calculated. The computed results show that the proposed design has the advantages of achieving the larger CPBGs compared to the other three configurations. The influences of geometric parameters of filled unit cell and plasma frequency on the properties of CPBGs are studied in detail. The calculated results demonstrate that CPBGs of the proposed 2D PPCs can be easily engineered by changing those parameters, and the larger CPBGs also can be obtained by optimization. The self-collimation in such 2D PPCs also is discussed in theory under TM wave. The theoretical simulations reveal that the self-collimation phenomena can be found in the TM bands, and both the frequency range of self-collimation and the equifrequency surface contours can be tuned by the parameters as mentioned above. It means that the frequency range and direction of electromagnetic wave can be manipulated by designing, as it propagates in the proposed PPCs without diffraction. Those results can hold promise for designing the tunable applications based on the proposed PPCs.

  7. Energetic, spatial, and momentum character of the electronic structure at a buried interface: The two-dimensional electron gas between two metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemšák, S.; Conti, G.; Gray, A. X.; Palsson, G. K.; Conlon, C.; Eiteneer, D.; Keqi, A.; Rattanachata, A.; Saw, A. Y.; Bostwick, A.; Moreschini, L.; Rotenberg, E.; Strocov, V. N.; Kobayashi, M.; Schmitt, T.; Stolte, W.; Ueda, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Jackson, C. A.; Moetakef, P.; Janotti, A.; Bjaalie, L.; Himmetoglu, B.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Borek, S.; Minar, J.; Braun, J.; Ebert, H.; Plucinski, L.; Kortright, J. B.; Schneider, C. M.; Balents, L.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Stemmer, S.; Fadley, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    The interfaces between two condensed phases often exhibit emergent physical properties that can lead to new physics and novel device applications and are the subject of intense study in many disciplines. We here apply experimental and theoretical techniques to the characterization of one such interesting interface system: the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in multilayers consisting of SrTi O3 (STO) and GdTi O3 (GTO). This system has been the subject of multiple studies recently and shown to exhibit very high carrier charge densities and ferromagnetic effects, among other intriguing properties. We have studied a 2DEG-forming multilayer of the form [6unit cells (u .c .) STO /3 u .c .of GTO ] 20 using a unique array of photoemission techniques including soft and hard x-ray excitation, soft x-ray angle-resolved photoemission, core-level spectroscopy, resonant excitation, and standing-wave effects, as well as theoretical calculations of the electronic structure at several levels and of the actual photoemission process. Standing-wave measurements below and above a strong resonance have been exploited as a powerful method for studying the 2DEG depth distribution. We have thus characterized the spatial and momentum properties of this 2DEG in detail, determining via depth-distribution measurements that it is spread throughout the 6 u.c. layer of STO and measuring the momentum dispersion of its states. The experimental results are supported in several ways by theory, leading to a much more complete picture of the nature of this 2DEG and suggesting that oxygen vacancies are not the origin of it. Similar multitechnique photoemission studies of such states at buried interfaces, combined with comparable theory, will be a very fruitful future approach for exploring and modifying the fascinating world of buried-interface physics and chemistry.

  8. Formation of a protocluster: A virialized structure from gravoturbulent collapse. II. A two-dimensional analytical model for a rotating and accreting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Context. Most stars are born in the gaseous protocluster environment where the gas is reprocessed after the global collapse from the diffuse molecular cloud. The knowledge of this intermediate step gives more accurate constraints on star formation characteristics. Aims: We demonstrate that a virialized globally supported structure, in which star formation happens, is formed out of a collapsing molecular cloud, and we derive a mapping from the parent cloud parameters to the protocluster to predict its properties with a view to confront analytical calculations with observations and simulations. Methods: We decomposed the virial theorem into two dimensions to account for the rotation and the flattened geometry. Equilibrium was found by balancing rotation, turbulence, and self-gravity, while turbulence was maintained through accretion driving and it dissipates in one crossing time. We estimated the angular momentum and the accretion rate of the protocluster from the parent cloud properties. Results: The two-dimensional virial model predicts the size and velocity dispersion given the mass of the protocluster and that of the parent cloud. The gaseous protoclusters lie on a sequence of equilibrium with the trend R ~ M0.5 with limited variations, depending on the evolutionary stage, parent cloud, and parameters that are not well known, such as turbulence driving efficiency by accretion and turbulence anisotropy. The model reproduces observations and simulation results successfully. Conclusions: The properties of protoclusters follow universal relations and they can be derived from that of the parent cloud. The gaseous protocluster is an important primary stage of stellar cluster formation, and should be taken into account when studying star formation. Using simple estimates to infer the peak position of the core mass function (CMF) we find a weak dependence on the cluster mass, suggesting that the physical conditions inside protoclusters may contribute to set a CMF, and by

  9. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  10. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuratowski, Kazimierz

    1966-01-01

    Topology, Volume I deals with topology and covers topics ranging from operations in logic and set theory to Cartesian products, mappings, and orderings. Cardinal and ordinal numbers are also discussed, along with topological, metric, and complete spaces. Great use is made of closure algebra. Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on general topological spaces as well as their specialized aspects, including regular, completely regular, and normal spaces. Fundamental notions such as base, subbase, cover, and continuous mapping, are considered, together with operations

  11. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuratowski, Kazimierz

    1968-01-01

    Topology, Volume II deals with topology and covers topics ranging from compact spaces and connected spaces to locally connected spaces, retracts, and neighborhood retracts. Group theory and some cutting problems are also discussed, along with the topology of the plane. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the compactness of a topological space, paying particular attention to Borel, Lebesgue, Riesz, Cantor, and Bolzano-Weierstrass conditions. Semi-continuity and topics in dimension theory are also considered. The reader is then introduced to the connecte

  12. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  13. Topology optimization of support structure of telescope skin based on bit-matrix representation NSGA-II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weidong; Zhu Hua; Wang Yiping; Zhou Shengqiang; Bai Yalei; Zhao Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) with multiple constraints han-dling is employed for multi-objective optimization of the topological structure of telescope skin, in which a bit-matrix is used as the representation of a chromosome, and genetic algorithm (GA) operators are introduced based on the matrix. Objectives including mass, in-plane performance, and out-of-plane load-bearing ability of the individuals are obtained by finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS, and the matrix-based optimization algorithm is realized in MATLAB by han-dling multiple constraints such as structural connectivity and in-plane strain requirements. Feasible configurations of the support structure are achieved. The results confirm that the matrix-based NSGA-II with multiple constraints handling provides an effective method for two-dimensional multi-objective topology optimization.

  14. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  15. Topological Structure of Knotted Vortex Lines in Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; ZHAO Li; ZHANG Xin-Hui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decomposition expression for the U(1) gauge field in liquid crystals (LCs) is derived.Using this decomposition expression and the φ-mapping topological current theory,.we investigate the topological structure of the vortex lines in LCs in detail. A topological invariant, i.e., the Chern-Simons (CS) action for the knotted vortex lines is presented, and the CS action is shown to be the total sum of all the self-linking and linking numbers of the knot family. Moreover, it is pointed out that the CS action is preserved in the branch processes of the knotted vortex lines.

  16. Symplectic structures from topological Fukaya categories

    OpenAIRE

    Shende, Vivek; Takeda, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The topological Fukaya category is the global sections of a certain sheaf of categories on a Lagrangian skeleton. Nadler has given a combinatorial description of this sheaf in the case of generic singularities. We show here that restriction to the boundary of this sheaf of categories determines a shifted Lagrangian morphism on the corresponding moduli spaces. Examples of such moduli spaces include wild character varieties, certain cluster varieties, multiplicative Nakajima varieties, and the ...

  17. Nanoparticle Controlled Soft Complex Structures with Topological Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    4) Soft Matter 9, 3956-3964 (2013); 5) Adv. Cond. Matter Phys. 2013, 505219-1-505219-10 (2013); 6) J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, Special Issue on...Curvature control of valence on nematic shells, Soft Matter 7, 670 (2011). [14] F.C. MacKintosh, T.C. Lubensky, Orientational order, topology, and...Zidansek, Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles, Soft Matter 9, 3956 (2013). [20

  18. Topological Structure and Topological Tensor Current of Gauss-Bonnet-Chern Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; WU Shao-Feng; ZHANG Peng-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We offer an intrinsic theoretical framework to reveal the inner relationships among three theories for Euler we consider the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern (GBC) form imbedded in arbitrary higher-dimensional manifold, which suggests a Hodge dual tensor current. We show the brane structure inherent in the GBC tensor current and obtain the generalized Nambu action for the multi branes with quantized topological charge.

  19. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  20. Exploring the stability of dimers through protein structure topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Luisa; Mei, Giampiero; Di Venere, Almerinda; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Protein homodimers pose some intriguing questions about the relation between structure and stability. We approached the problem by means of a topological methodology based on protein contact networks. We correlated local interface descriptors with structure and energy global properties of the systems under analysis. We demonstrated that the graph energy, formerly applied to the analysis of unconjugated hydrocarbons structures, is the bridge between the topological and energetic description of protein complexes. This is a first step for the generation of a "protein structural formula", analogous to the molecular graphs in organic chemistry.

  1. Topology optimization of 3D shell structures with porous infill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D topology optimization approach for designing shell structures with a porous or void interior. It is shown that the resulting structures are significantly more robust towards load perturbations than completely solid structures optimized under the same conditions. The study...... indicates that the potential benefit of using porous structures is higher for lower total volume fractions. Compared to earlier work dealing with 2D topology optimization, we found several new effects in 3D problems. Most notably, the opportunity for designing closed shells significantly improves...

  2. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Flow and Evaluation of Bridge Scour at Structure A-1700 on Interstate 155 over the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of scour at bridges throughout the State of Missouri has been ongoing since 1991, and most of these evaluations have used one-dimensional hydraulic analysis and application of conventional scour depth prediction equations. Occasionally, the complex conditions of a site dictate a more thorough assessment of the stream hydraulics beyond a one-dimensional model. This was the case for structure A-1700, the Interstate 155 bridge crossing the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri. To assess the complex hydraulics at this site, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow model was used to simulate flow conditions on the Mississippi River in the vicinity of the Interstate 155 structure A-1700. The model was used to simulate flow conditions for three discharges: a flood that occurred on April 4, 1975 (the calibration flood), which had a discharge of 1,658,000 cubic feet per second; the 100-year flood, which has a discharge of 1,960,000 cubic feet per second; and the project design flood, which has a discharge of 1,974,000 cubic feet per second. The project design flood was essentially equivalent to the flood that would cause impending overtopping of the mainline levees along the Mississippi River in the vicinity of structure A-1700. Discharge and river-stage readings from the flood of April 4, 1975, were used to calibrate the flow model. The model was then used to simulate the 100-year and project design floods. Hydraulic flow parameters obtained from the three flow simulations were applied to scour depth prediction equations to determine contraction, local pier, and abutment scour depths at structure A-1700. Contraction scour and local pier scour depths computed for the project design discharge generally were the greatest, whereas the depths computed for the calibration flood were the least. The maximum predicted total scour depth (contraction and local pier scour) for the calibration flood was 66.1 feet; for the 100-year flood, the maximum predicted total

  3. Terahertz optical-Hall effect characterization of two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöche, S.; Shi, Junxia; Boosalis, A.; Kühne, P.; Herzinger, C. M.; Woollam, J. A.; Schaff, W. J.; Eastman, L. F.; Schubert, M.; Hofmann, T.

    2011-02-01

    The free-charge carrier mobility, sheet density, and effective mass of a two-dimensional electron gas are exemplarily determined in the spectral range from 640 GHz to 1 THz in a AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using the optical-Hall effect at room temperature. Complementary midinfrared spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are performed for analysis of heterostructure constituents layer thickness, phonon mode, and free-charge carrier parameters. The electron effective mass is determined to be (0.22±0.04)m0. The high-frequency sheet density and carrier mobility parameters are in good agreement with results from dc electrical Hall effect measurements, indicative for frequency-independent carrier scattering mechanisms of the two-dimensional carrier distribution.

  4. Structure of the lithosphere of the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean according to results of two-dimensional structural-density modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulychev, A. A.; Gilod, D. A.; Dubinin, E. P.

    2016-05-01

    From a gravitational field analysis, the lithosphere was regionalized and a structural schematic map of the eastern part of the Indian Ocean was compiled. The area adjacent to the western margin of Australia was studied. The region is characterized by a complex lithospheric structure. It includes heterogeneous blocks of varying age, framed by structures with different morphological and geophysical expression and varying genesis. To clarify the peculiarities of tectonic structures of various genetic types, structural-density modeling was performed. This made it possible to establish certain gravimetric indicators characteristic of structures of various genesis.

  5. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  6. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  7. Topological quantum field theory structure on symplectic cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Alexander F

    2010-01-01

    We prove that symplectic cohomology has the structure of a topological quantum field theory, and that this also holds for the twisted symplectic cohomology. This structure is compatible with the isomorphism between the symplectic cohomology of a cotangent bundle and the homology of the free loop space. Indeed it recovers the TQFT structure arising in string topology. The TQFT structure is also compatible with Viterbo functoriality, which yields concrete applications in symplectic topology. For example, we obtain new obstructions to the existence of exact contact hypersurfaces in cotangent bundles. We also prove that if the boundary of M is Hamiltonian displaceable in the symplectization of M then the symplectic cohomology of M vanishes, in particular M does not contain any exact Lagrangian submanifolds.

  8. On Forgotten Topological Indices of Some Dendrimers Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Yasir; Aslam, Adnan; Kamran, Muhammad; Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Jahangir, Adnan; Rafiq, Muhammad; Bibi, Nargis; Muhammad, Nazeer

    2017-05-24

    A series of previously conducted experiments pertaining to various chemicals and drugs uncover a natural linkage between the molecular structures and the bio-medical and pharmacological characteristics. The forgotten topological index computed for the molecular structures of various chemical compounds and drugs has proven significant in medical and pharmaceutical fields by predicting biological features of new chemical compounds and drugs. A topological index can be considered as the transformation of chemical structure into a real number. Dendrimers are highly-branched star-shaped macromolecules with nanometer-scale dimensions. Dendrimers are defined by three components: a central core, an interior dendritic structure (the branches), and an exterior surface with functional surface groups. In this paper, we determine forgotten topological indices of poly(propyl) ether imine, porphyrin, and zinc-porphyrin dendrimers.

  9. Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Manetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is an introductory textbook on general and algebraic topology, aimed at anyone with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. It provides full proofs and includes many examples and exercises. The covered topics include: set theory and cardinal arithmetic; axiom of choice and Zorn's lemma; topological spaces and continuous functions; connectedness and compactness; Alexandrov compactification; quotient topologies; countability and separation axioms; prebasis and Alexander's theorem; the Tychonoff theorem and paracompactness; complete metric spaces and function spaces; Baire spaces; homotopy of maps; the fundamental group; the van Kampen theorem; covering spaces; Brouwer and Borsuk's theorems; free groups and free product of groups; and basic category theory. While it is very concrete at the beginning, abstract concepts are gradually introduced. It is suitable for anyone needing a basic, comprehensive introduction to general and algebraic topology and its applications.

  10. Combined shape and topology optimization of 3D structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for automatic generation of 3D models based on shape and topology optimization. The optimization procedure, or model generation process, is initialized by a set of boundary conditions, an objective function, constraints and an initial structure. Using this input, the method...... will automatically deform and change the topology of the initial structure such that the objective function is optimized subject to the specified constraints and boundary conditions. For example, this tool can be used to improve the stiffness of a structure before printing, reduce the amount of material needed...

  11. Topological Indices Study of Molecular Structure in Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies indicate that there is strong inherent relationship between the chemical characteristics of chemical compounds and drugs (e.g., boiling point and melting point and their molecular structures. Topological indices defined on these chemical molecular structures can help researchers better understand the physical features, chemical reactivity, and biological activity. Thus, the study of the topological indices on chemical structure of chemical materials and drugs can make up for lack of chemical experiments and can provide a theoretical basis for the manufacturing of drugs and chemical materials. In this paper, we focus on the family of smart polymer which is widely used in anticancer drugs manufacturing. Several topological indices are determined in view of edge dividing methods, and these results remedy the lack of chemical and medicine experiments thus providing the theoretical basis for pharmaceutical engineering.

  12. Systematic design of photonic crystal structures using topology optimization: Low-loss waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Topology optimization is a promising method for systematic design of optical devices. As an example, we demonstrate how the method can be used to design a 90degrees bend in a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide with a transmission loss of less than 0.3% in almost the entire frequency range...

  13. Electrically tunable topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The external controllability of topological superconductors and Majorana fermions would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of Majorana fermions in two-dimensional topological superconductors utilizing a topological insulator thin-film proximity coupled to a conventional s -wave superconductor. With ferromagnetic ordering, the tunable structure inversion asymmetry by vertical electric field could induce topological quantum phase transition and realize a chiral topological superconductor state. A zero-energy Majorana bound state appears at the boundary of an applied electric-field spot, which can be observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Furthermore, the structure inversion asymmetry could also enlarge the helical topological superconductor state in the phase diagram, making the realization of such an exotic state more feasible. The electrical control of topological phases could further apply to van der Waals materials such as two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  14. Topological characterization of crystalline ice structures from coordination sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, Carlos P

    2013-01-01

    Topological properties of crystalline ice structures are studied by considering ring statistics, coordination sequences, and topological density of different ice phases. The coordination sequences (number of sites at topological distance k from a reference site) have been obtained by direct enumeration until at least 40 coordination spheres for different ice polymorphs. This allows us to study the asymptotic behavior of the mean number of sites in the k-th shell, M_k, for high values of k: M_k ~ a k^2, a being a structure-dependent parameter. Small departures from a strict parabolic dependence have been studied by considering first and second differences of the series {M_k} for each structure. The parameter a ranges from 2.00 for ice VI to 4.27 for ice XII, and is used to define a topological density for these solid phases of water. Correlations between such topological density and the actual volume of ice phases are discussed. Ices Ih and Ic are found to depart from the general trend in this correlation due ...

  15. D-branes and coherent topological charge structure in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Hank

    2006-12-01

    Monte Carlo studies of pure glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based topological charge operator have revealed a laminar structure in the QCD vacuum consisting of extended, thin, co- herent, locally 3-dimensional sheets of topological charge embedded in 4D space, with opposite sign sheets interleaved. Studies of localization properties of Dirac eigenmodes have also shown evidence for the delocalization of low-lying modes on effectively 3-dimensional surfaces. In this talk, I review some theoretical ideas which suggest the possibility of 3-dimensionally coherent topological charge structure in 4-dimensional gauge theory and provide a possible interpretation of the observed structure. I begin with Luscher's "Wilson bag" integral over the 3-index Chern- Simons tensor. The analogy with a Wilson loop as a charged world line in 2-dimensional CP N-1 sigma models suggests that the Wilson bag surface represents the world volume of a physical membrane. The large-N chiral Lagrangian arguments of Witten also indicate the existence of multiple "k-vacuum" states with discontinuous transitions between k-vacua at θ = odd multi- ples of π. The domain walls between these vacua have the properties of a Wilson bag surface. Finally, I review the AdS/CFT duality view of θ dependence in QCD. The dual realtionship be- tween topological charge in gauge theory and Ramond-Ramond charge in type IIA string theory suggests that the coherent topological charge sheets observed on the lattice are the holographic image of wrapped D6 branes.

  16. Synthesis, Structure and Characterization of Two-dimensional Network Copper Complex [ Cu3 (nta) 2(azpy) 2(H2O)2]· 6H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Bao-Long(李宝龙); XU,Yan(徐艳); LIU,Qi(刘琦); WANG,Hua-Qin(王化勤); XU,Zheng(徐正)

    2002-01-01

    The copper(Ⅱ) complex [Cu3(nta)2(azpy)2(H2O)2] @6H2O(nta= nitrilotriacetate, azpy= 4,4'-azobispyridine) has been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray analysis reveals that there are two kinds of copper(Ⅱ) coordination environments.Cu(1) has a distorted square plane symmetry and Cu(2) has a distorted octahedral symmetry. Cu(1)is linked to Cu(2)through nta and bound to Cu(1C) by azpy, and Cu(2) islinked to Cu(2A) through azpy, which extends to two-dimensional network with large rhombus 1.2 nm× 1.7 nm.

  17. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  18. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  19. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  20. Homogenization and structural topology optimization theory, practice and software

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Behrooz

    1999-01-01

    Structural topology optimization is a fast growing field that is finding numerous applications in automotive, aerospace and mechanical design processes. Homogenization is a mathematical theory with applications in several engineering problems that are governed by partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization brings the two concepts together and successfully bridges the previously overlooked gap between the mathematical theory and the practical implementation of the homogenization method. The book is presented in a unique self-teaching style that includes numerous illustrative examples, figures and detailed explanations of concepts. The text is divided into three parts which maintains the book's reader-friendly appeal.

  1. The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    De, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.

  2. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  3. Complex band structure of topological insulator Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.; Li, S.; Dang, X.; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Velev, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    Topological insulators are very interesting from a fundamental point of view, and their unique properties may be useful for electronic and spintronic device applications. From the point of view of applications it is important to understand the decay behavior of carriers injected in the band gap of the topological insulator, which is determined by its complex band structure (CBS). Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the dispersion and symmetry of the complex bands of Bi2Se3 family of three-dimensional topological insulators. We compare the CBS of a band insulator and a topological insulator and follow the CBS evolution in both when the spin-orbit interaction is turned on. We find significant differences in the CBS linked to the topological band structure. In particular, our results demonstrate that the evanescent states in Bi2Se3 are non-trivially complex, i.e. contain both the real and imaginary contributions. This explains quantitatively the oscillatory behavior of the band gap obtained from Bi2Se3 (0 0 0 1) slab calculations.

  4. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  5. Photonic Weyl point in a two-dimensional resonator lattice with a synthetic frequency dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Xiao, Meng; Yuan, Luqi; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-01

    Weyl points, as a signature of 3D topological states, have been extensively studied in condensed matter systems. Recently, the physics of Weyl points has also been explored in electromagnetic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. These structures typically have complex three-dimensional geometries, which limits the potential for exploring Weyl point physics in on-chip integrated systems. Here we show that Weyl point physics emerges in a system of two-dimensional arrays of resonators undergoing dynamic modulation of refractive index. In addition, the phase of modulation can be controlled to explore Weyl points under different symmetries. Furthermore, unlike static structures, in this system the non-trivial topology of the Weyl point manifests in terms of surface state arcs in the synthetic space that exhibit one-way frequency conversion. Our system therefore provides a versatile platform to explore and exploit Weyl point physics on chip.

  6. Topological microfluidic structures for rapid mixing of emulsions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, KJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available without structures often coalesce or break up showing that they are not completely cross linked. As noted earlier, the application chosen to test these struc- tures was for the immobilisation of enzymes. Of particu- lar importance for this application... for Advanced Studies, FRIAS, University of Freiburg Abstract A novel use for topological structures inside microfluidic channels is presented. These structures have been success- fully utilised to aid in mixing of two water-in-oil emulsions in order...

  7. Infrared Topological Plasmons in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dafei; Christensen, Thomas; Soljačić, Marin; Fang, Nicholas X.; Lu, Ling; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    We propose a two-dimensional plasmonic platform—periodically patterned monolayer graphene—which hosts topological one-way edge states operable up to infrared frequencies. We classify the band topology of this plasmonic system under time-reversal-symmetry breaking induced by a static magnetic field. At finite doping, the system supports topologically nontrivial band gaps with mid-gap frequencies up to tens of terahertz. By the bulk-edge correspondence, these band gaps host topologically protected one-way edge plasmons, which are immune to backscattering from structural defects and subject only to intrinsic material and radiation loss. Our findings reveal a promising approach to engineer topologically robust chiral plasmonic devices and demonstrate a realistic example of high-frequency topological edge states.

  8. Wind load modeling for topology optimization of continuum structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakhama, R.; Abdalla, M.M.; Gürdal, Z.; Smaoui, H.

    2010-01-01

    Topology optimization of two and three dimensional structures subject to dead and wind loading is considered. The wind loading is introduced into the formulation by using standard expressions for the drag force, and a strategy is devised so that wind pressure is ignored where there is no surface obs

  9. Topology optimization for transient response of photonic crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, René; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    An optimization scheme based on topology optimization for transient response of photonic crystal structures is developed. The system response is obtained by a finite-element time-domain analysis employing perfectly matched layers as an absorbing boundary condition. As an example a waveguide...

  10. Topology, structures, and energy landscapes of human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G

    2015-05-12

    Chromosome conformation capture experiments provide a rich set of data concerning the spatial organization of the genome. We use these data along with a maximum entropy approach to derive a least-biased effective energy landscape for the chromosome. Simulations of the ensemble of chromosome conformations based on the resulting information theoretic landscape not only accurately reproduce experimental contact probabilities, but also provide a picture of chromosome dynamics and topology. The topology of the simulated chromosomes is probed by computing the distribution of their knot invariants. The simulated chromosome structures are largely free of knots. Topologically associating domains are shown to be crucial for establishing these knotless structures. The simulated chromosome conformations exhibit a tendency to form fibril-like structures like those observed via light microscopy. The topologically associating domains of the interphase chromosome exhibit multistability with varying liquid crystalline ordering that may allow discrete unfolding events and the landscape is locally funneled toward "ideal" chromosome structures that represent hierarchical fibrils of fibrils.

  11. Exploratory Topology Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Pauly, Mark; Tamke, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) is impeded by a lack of modelling tools that allow for exploratory topology modelling of shaped assemblies. We present a flexible and real-time computational design modelling pipeline developed for the exploratory modelling of FAHS tha...

  12. Design, Analysis And Realization Of Topology Optimized Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of topology optimisation as a constitutive design tool for design and form-finding of architectural concrete structures, and realisation of these designs using large scale CNCmilling of polystyrene form-work for in situ casting....

  13. Radiation-Induced Topological Disorder in Irradiated Network Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Linn W.

    2002-12-21

    This report summarizes results of a research program investigating the fundamental principles underlying the phenomenon of topological disordering in a radiation environment. This phenomenon is known popularly as amorphization, but is more formally described as a process of radiation-induced structural arrangement that leads in crystals to loss of long-range translational and orientational correlations and in glasses to analogous alteration of connectivity topologies. The program focus has been on a set compound ceramic solids with directed bonding exhibiting structures that can be described as networks. Such solids include SiO2, Si3N4, SiC, which are of interest to applications in fusion energy production, nuclear waste storage, and device manufacture involving ion implantation or use in radiation fields. The principal investigative tools comprise a combination of experimental diffraction-based techniques, topological modeling, and molecular-dynamics simulations that have proven a rich source of information in the preceding support period. The results from the present support period fall into three task areas. The first comprises enumeration of the rigidity constraints applying to (1) more complex ceramic structures (such as rutile, corundum, spinel and olivine structures) that exhibit multiply polytopic coordination units or multiple modes of connecting such units, (2) elemental solids (such as graphite, silicon and diamond) for which a correct choice of polytope is necessary to achieve correct representation of the constraints, and (3) compounds (such as spinel and silicon carbide) that exhibit chemical disorder on one or several sublattices. With correct identification of the topological constraints, a unique correlation is shown to exist between constraint and amorphizability which demonstrates that amorphization occurs at a critical constraint loss. The second task involves the application of molecular dynamics (MD) methods to topologically-generated models

  14. Multiscale topology optimization of solid and fluid structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    This thesis considers the application of the topology optimization method to multiscale problems, specifically the fluid-structure interaction problem. By multiple-scale methods the governing equations, the Navier-Cauchy and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are expanded and separated......, it is shown that the material microstructure can be optimized with respect to application scale properties. A poroelastic actuator consisting of two saturated porous materials is optimized using this approach. Based on the homogenization of a fixed microstructure topology, material design interpolation...... designs a new explicit parametrization is proposed. It allows for casting/milling type manufacturing and ensures a binary design. The method is successfully applied to micromixer design....

  15. Topology optimization of 3D shell structures with porous infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a 3D topology optimization approach for designing shell structures with a porous or void interior. It is shown that the resulting structures are significantly more robust towards load perturbations than completely solid structures optimized under the same conditions. The study indicates that the potential benefit of using porous structures is higher for lower total volume fractions. Compared to earlier work dealing with 2D topology optimization, we found several new effects in 3D problems. Most notably, the opportunity for designing closed shells significantly improves the performance of porous structures due to the sandwich effect. Furthermore, the paper introduces improved filter boundary conditions to ensure a completely uniform coating thickness at the design domain boundary.

  16. Accurate Classification of RNA Structures Using Topological Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejie; Gribskov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While RNAs are well known to possess complex structures, functionally similar RNAs often have little sequence similarity. While the exact size and spacing of base-paired regions vary, functionally similar RNAs have pronounced similarity in the arrangement, or topology, of base-paired stems. Furthermore, predicted RNA structures often lack pseudoknots (a crucial aspect of biological activity), and are only partially correct, or incomplete. A topological approach addresses all of these difficulties. In this work we describe each RNA structure as a graph that can be converted to a topological spectrum (RNA fingerprint). The set of subgraphs in an RNA structure, its RNA fingerprint, can be compared with the fingerprints of other RNA structures to identify and correctly classify functionally related RNAs. Topologically similar RNAs can be identified even when a large fraction, up to 30%, of the stems are omitted, indicating that highly accurate structures are not necessary. We investigate the performance of the RNA fingerprint approach on a set of eight highly curated RNA families, with diverse sizes and functions, containing pseudoknots, and with little sequence similarity–an especially difficult test set. In spite of the difficult test set, the RNA fingerprint approach is very successful (ROC AUC > 0.95). Due to the inclusion of pseudoknots, the RNA fingerprint approach both covers a wider range of possible structures than methods based only on secondary structure, and its tolerance for incomplete structures suggests that it can be applied even to predicted structures. Source code is freely available at https://github.rcac.purdue.edu/mgribsko/XIOS_RNA_fingerprint. PMID:27755571

  17. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  18. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  19. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  20. Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Yang, Jianke; Musslimani, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optically induced waveguide array are reported. In the strong localization regime, the fundamental soliton is largely confined to one lattice site, while the vortex state comprises of four fundamental modes superimposed in a square configuration with a phase structure that is topologically equivalent to the conventional vortex. However, in the weak localization regime, both the fundamental and vortex solitons spread over many lattice sites. We further show that fundamental and vortex solitons are stable against small perturbations in the strong localization regime.