WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional spatial memory

  1. Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.

  2. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  3. Two dimensional spatial distortion correction algorithm for scintillation GAMMA cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, R.; Gray, E.; Jih, F.; King, S.E.; Lim, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial distortion in an Anger gamma camera originates fundamentally from the discrete nature of scintillation light sampling with an array of PMT's. Historically digital distortion correction started with the method based on the distortion measurement by using 1-D slit pattern and the subsequent on-line bi-linear approximation with 64 x 64 look-up tables for X and Y. However, the X, Y distortions are inherently two-dimensional in nature, and thus the validity of this 1-D calibration method becomes questionable with the increasing distortion amplitude in association with the effort to get better spatial and energy resolutions. The authors have developed a new accurate 2-D correction algorithm. This method involves the steps of; data collection from 2-D orthogonal hole pattern, 2-D distortion vector measurement, 2-D Lagrangian polynomial interpolation, and transformation to X, Y ADC frame. The impact of numerical precision used in correction and the accuracy of bilinear approximation with varying look-up table size have been carefully examined through computer simulation by using measured single PMT light response function together with Anger positioning logic. Also the accuracy level of different order Lagrangian polynomial interpolations for correction table expansion from hole centroids were investigated. Detailed algorithm and computer simulation are presented along with camera test results

  4. Two-Dimensional Spatial Solitons in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Xie Ruihua; Goong Chen; Belic, Milivoj; Yang Zhengping

    2009-01-01

    We study the propagation of spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals, using the self-similar method. Analytical solutions in the form of self-similar solitons are obtained exactly. We confirm the stability of these solutions by direct numerical simulation, and find that the stable spatial solitons can exist in various forms, such as Gaussian solitons, radially symmetric solitons, multipole solitons, and soliton vortices.

  5. Quantum theory of two-dimensional generalized Toda lattice on bounded spatial interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leznov, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The quantization method of exactly solvable dynamical systems worked out in another paper is applied to a two-dimensional model described by the equations of generalized Toda lattice with a periodicity condition over spatial variable. The Heisenberg operators of the model are finite polynomials over the coupling constant g 2 , whose coefficients functionally depend on operators of noninteracting fields. The model has a direct relation with the string theories and reduces formally when L→infinity to two-dimensional quantum field theory described by the equations of generalized Toda lattice the formal solution of which has been found in Refs

  6. Electroforming free resistive switching memory in two-dimensional VOx nanosheets

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-10-21

    We report two-dimensional VOx nanosheets containing multi-oxidation states (V5+, V4+, and V3+), prepared by a hydrothermal process for potential applications in resistive switching devices. The experimental results demonstrate a highly reproducible, electroforming-free, low SET bias bipolar resistive switching memory performance with endurance for more than 100 cycles maintaining OFF/ON ratio of ∼60 times. These devices show better memory performance as compared to previously reported VOx thin film based devices. The memory mechanism in VOx is proposed to be originated from the migration of oxygen vacancies/ions, an influence of the bottom electrode and existence of multi-oxidation states.

  7. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  8. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokolov, I.V., E-mail: igor.kolokolov@gmail.com [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334, Kosygina 2, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRU Higher School of Economics, 101000, Myasnitskaya 20, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-18

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor–Kraichnan–Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.

  9. Fast Transient And Spatially Non-Homogenous Accident Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khotimah, S. N.; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    The research about fast transient and spatially non-homogenous nuclear reactor accident analysis of two-dimensional nuclear reactor has been done. This research is about prediction of reactor behavior is during accident. In the present study, space-time diffusion equation is solved by using direct methods which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference discretization method is solved by using iterative methods ADI (Alternating Direct Implicit). The indication of accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. Changing of temperature reactor produce a negative Doppler feedback reactivity. The reactivity will reduce excess positive reactivity. Temperature reactor during accident is still in below fuel melting point which is in secure condition.

  10. Energy spectrum of two-dimensional tight-binding electrons in a spatially varying magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, G.Y.; Lee, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic energy spectrum of a two-dimensional lattice in a spatially varying magnetic field is studied within the framework of the tight-binding model by using the scheme of the transfer matrix. It is found that, in comparison with the case of a uniform magnetic field, the energy spectrum exhibits more complicated behavior; band broadening (or gap closing) and band splitting (or gap opening) occur depending on characteristic parameters of the lattice. The origin of these phenomena lies in the existence of direct touching and indirect overlapping between neighboring subbands. Dependence of direct touching and indirect overlapping, and thus the electronic band structure together with the density of states, on characteristic parameters of the lattice is elucidated in detail. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  12. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  13. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2009-10-29

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  14. Critical Behavior of Spatial Evolutionary Game with Altruistic to Spiteful Preferences on Two-Dimensional Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2016-10-01

    Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11504384

  15. The geometry of percolation fronts in two-dimensional lattices with spatially varying densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastner, Michael T; Oborny, Beáta

    2012-01-01

    Percolation theory is usually applied to lattices with a uniform probability p that a site is occupied or that a bond is closed. The more general case, where p is a function of the position x, has received less attention. Previous studies with long-range spatial variations in p(x) have only investigated cases where p has a finite, non-zero gradient at the critical point p c . Here we extend the theory to two-dimensional cases in which the gradient can change from zero to infinity. We present scaling laws for the width and length of the hull (i.e. the boundary of the spanning cluster). We show that the scaling exponents for the width and the length depend on the shape of p(x), but they always have a constant ratio 4/3 so that the hull's fractal dimension D = 7/4 is invariant. On this basis, we derive and verify numerically an asymptotic expression for the probability h(x) that a site at a given distance x from p c is on the hull. (paper)

  16. Critical Behavior of Spatial Evolutionary Game with Altruistic to Spiteful Preferences on Two-Dimensional Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Li Xiao-Teng; Chen Xiao-Song; Chen Wei; Liu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. (paper)

  17. Note: Interpolation for evaluation of a two-dimensional spatial profile of plasma densities at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-01-01

    An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.

  18. Improvement of the efficiency of two-dimensional multigroup transport calculations assuming isotropic reflection with multilevel spatial discretisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Z.; Zmijarevic, I.

    1987-06-01

    This paper presents two approximations used in multigroup two-dimensional transport calculations in large, very homogeneous media: isotropic reflection together with recently proposed group-dependent spatial representations. These approximations are implemented as standard options in APOLLO 2 assembly transport code. Presented example calculations show that significant savings in computational costs are obtained while preserving the overall accuracy

  19. Nonlocality, Correlations, and Magnetotransport in a Spatially Modulated Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that the classical commensurability phenomena in weakly modulated two-dimensional electron systems is a manifestation of the intrinsic properties of the correlation functions describing a homogeneous electron gas in a magnetic field. The theory demonstrates the importance for consideration of nonlocal response and removes the gap between classical and quantum approaches to magnetotransport in such systems.

  20. Development of new two-dimensional spectral/spatial code based on dynamic cyclic shift code for OCDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellali, Nabiha; Najjar, Monia; Ferchichi, Moez; Rezig, Houria

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new two-dimensional spectral/spatial codes family, named two dimensional dynamic cyclic shift codes (2D-DCS) is introduced. The 2D-DCS codes are derived from the dynamic cyclic shift code for the spectral and spatial coding. The proposed system can fully eliminate the multiple access interference (MAI) by using the MAI cancellation property. The effect of shot noise, phase-induced intensity noise and thermal noise are used to analyze the code performance. In comparison with existing two dimensional (2D) codes, such as 2D perfect difference (2D-PD), 2D Extended Enhanced Double Weight (2D-Extended-EDW) and 2D hybrid (2D-FCC/MDW) codes, the numerical results show that our proposed codes have the best performance. By keeping the same code length and increasing the spatial code, the performance of our 2D-DCS system is enhanced: it provides higher data rates while using lower transmitted power and a smaller spectral width.

  1. A new two dimensional spectral/spatial multi-diagonal code for noncoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Rasim Azeez; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Aljunid, S. A.; Razalli, Mohamad Shahrazel

    2014-10-01

    A new two dimensional codes family, namely two dimensional multi-diagonal (2D-MD) codes, is proposed for spectral/spatial non-coherent OCDMA systems based on the one dimensional MD code. Since the MD code has the property of zero cross correlation, the proposed 2D-MD code also has this property. So that, the multi-access interference (MAI) is fully eliminated and the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) is suppressed with the proposed code. Code performance is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) while considering the effect of shot noise, PIIN, and thermal noise. The performance of the proposed code is compared with the related MD, modified quadratic congruence (MQC), two dimensional perfect difference (2D-PD) and two dimensional diluted perfect difference (2D-DPD) codes. The analytical and the simulation results reveal that the proposed 2D-MD code outperforms the other codes. Moreover, a large number of simultaneous users can be accommodated at low BER and high data rate.

  2. Two-dimensional spatial structure of the dissipative trapped-electron mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.; Frieman, E.A.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with the complete two-dimensional structure of the dissipative trapped-electron mode over its full width, which may extend over several mode-rational surfaces. The complete integro-differential equation is studied in the limit k/sub r/rho/sub i/ less than 1, where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius, and k/sub r/, the radial wavenumber, is regarded as a differential operator. This is converted into a matrix equation which is then solved by standard numerical methods

  3. Two-Dimensional Spatial Imaging of Charge Transport in Germanium Crystals at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, Robert [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, two-dimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.

  4. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix

  5. Electroforming free resistive switching memory in two-dimensional VOx nanosheets

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    , electroforming-free, low SET bias bipolar resistive switching memory performance with endurance for more than 100 cycles maintaining OFF/ON ratio of ∼60 times. These devices show better memory performance as compared to previously reported VOx thin film based

  6. Two-dimensional signal processing using a morphological filter for holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yo; Shigaki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2012-03-01

    Today, along with the wider use of high-speed information networks and multimedia, it is increasingly necessary to have higher-density and higher-transfer-rate storage devices. Therefore, research and development into holographic memories with three-dimensional storage areas is being carried out to realize next-generation large-capacity memories. However, in holographic memories, interference between bits, which affect the detection characteristics, occurs as a result of aberrations such as the deviation of a wavefront in an optical system. In this study, we pay particular attention to the nonlinear factors that cause bit errors, where filters with a Volterra equalizer and the morphologies are investigated as a means of signal processing.

  7. The Effect of Two-dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students' Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in terms of response accuracy and task completion time. Results show that response accuracy did not differ between the two types of representations while task completion time was significantly greater with the stereoscopic representations. The completion time increased as the number of mental manipulations of 3D objects increased in the tasks. Post-interviews provide evidence that some students continued to think of stereoscopic representations as two-dimensional. Based on cognitive load and cue theories, we interpret that, in the absence of pictorial depth cues, students may need more time to be familiar with stereoscopic representations for optimal performance. In light of these results, we discuss potential uses of stereoscopic representations for science learning.

  8. Collective excitations in semiconductor superlattices and plasma modes of a two-dimensional electron gas with spatially modulated charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of collective excitations in semiconductor superlattices is formulated by using linear response theory. Different kinds of collective excitations in type I (GaAs-GaAlAs) and type II (GaSb-InAs) superlattices are surveyed. Special attention is paid to the presence of surface and finite-size effects. In calculating the dielectric matrix, the effect of different approximations of the system is discussed. The theory for inelastic length scattering (Raman scattering), and for Electron Energy Loss (EEL) due to collective excitations, is formulated. Calculations for several model systems are presented and the main features of the spectra are discussed. In part II the theory of collective excitations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a spatially periodic equilibrium density is formulated. As a first example a periodic array of two-dimensional electron gas strips with constant equilibrium density is studied. The integral equation that describes the charge fluctuations on the strips is derived and solved numerically. The spatial dependence of the density fluctuation across a single strip can be in the form of either propagating or evanescent waves

  9. Two dimensional microcirculation mapping with real time spatial frequency domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Chen, Xinlin; Lin, Weihao; Cao, Zili; Zhu, Xiuwei; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the human finger cuticle of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing and the forearm of healthy young adults performing normal breathing with our recently developed Real Time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation - Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) system. A two-layer model was used to map the concentrations of deoxy-, oxy-hemoglobin, melanin, epidermal thickness and scattering properties at the subsurface of the forearm and the finger cuticle. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin at the subsurface of the finger cuticle and forearm induced by paced breathing and normal breathing, respectively, were found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing or heartbeat. Our results suggest that the real time SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.

  10. Spatial Rotation of the Fractional Derivative in Two-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformations of the partial fractional derivatives under spatial rotation in R2 are derived for the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo definitions. These transformation properties link the observation of physical quantities, expressed through fractional derivatives, with respect to different coordinate systems (observers. It is the hope that such understanding could shed light on the physical interpretation of fractional derivatives. Also it is necessary to be able to construct interaction terms that are invariant with respect to equivalent observers.

  11. Two-dimensional high spatial-resolution dosimeter using europium doped potassium chloride: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H Harold; Yang, Deshan; Xiao, Zhiyan; Driewer, Joseph P; Han, Zhaohui; Low, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu 2+  has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports the authors’ attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu 2+  storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 µm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had been completely incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl − ) centers were the electron storage centers post x-ray irradiation and that Eu 2+  cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 µm thick casted KCl:Eu 2+  SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial-resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu 2+  and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy-dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu 2+  pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a result of KCl's intrinsic high radiation hardness. Taken together, this work provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu 2+ -based SPF with associated readout apparatus could result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of each detector. (paper)

  12. A low noise ASIC for two dimensional neutron gas detector with performance of high spatial resolution (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Toh, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Sakasai, Kaoru; Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    An ASD-ASIC (Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator ASIC) with fast response and low noise performances has been designed for two-dimensional position sensitive neutron gas detectors (InSPaD). The InSPaD is a 2D neutron detector system with 3 He gas and provides a high spatial resolution by making distinction between proton and triton particles generated in the gas chamber. The new ASD-ASIC is required to have very low noise, a wide dynamic range, good output linearity and high counting rate. The new ASD-ASIC has been designed by using CMOS and consisted of 64-channel ASDs, a 16-channel multiplexer with LVTTL drivers and sum amplifier system for summing all analog signals. The performances were evaluated by the Spice simulation. It was confirmed that the new ASD-ASIC had very low noise performance, wide dynamic range and fast signal processing functions. (author)

  13. A no-go theorem for a two-dimensional self-correcting quantum memory based on stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We study properties of stabilizer codes that permit a local description on a regular D-dimensional lattice. Specifically, we assume that the stabilizer group of a code (the gauge group for subsystem codes) can be generated by local Pauli operators such that the support of any generator is bounded by a hypercube of size O(1). Our first result concerns the optimal scaling of the distance d with the linear size of the lattice L. We prove an upper bound d=O(L D-1 ) which is tight for D=1, 2. This bound applies to both subspace and subsystem stabilizer codes. Secondly, we analyze the suitability of stabilizer codes for building a self-correcting quantum memory. Any stabilizer code with geometrically local generators can be naturally transformed to a local Hamiltonian penalizing states that violate the stabilizer condition. A degenerate ground state of this Hamiltonian corresponds to the logical subspace of the code. We prove that for D=1, 2, different logical states can be mapped into each other by a sequence of single-qubit Pauli errors such that the energy of all intermediate states is upper bounded by a constant independent of the lattice size L. The same result holds if there are unused logical qubits that are treated as 'gauge qubits'. It demonstrates that a self-correcting quantum memory cannot be built using stabilizer codes in dimensions D=1, 2. This result is in sharp contrast with the existence of a classical self-correcting memory in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnet. Our results leave open the possibility for a self-correcting quantum memory based on 2D subsystem codes or on 3D subspace or subsystem codes.

  14. Spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor of two-dimensional selective excitation pulses for MRI of objects containing conductive implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseong Woo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be disturbed by radiofrequency (RF field inhomogeneity induced by the conductive implants. This inhomogeneity causes a local decrease of the signal intensity around the conductor, resulting in a deterioration of the accurate quantification. In a previous study, we developed an MRI imaging method using a two-dimensional selective excitation pulse (2D pulse to mitigate signal inhomogeneity induced by metallic implants. In this paper, the effect of 2D pulse was evaluated quantitatively by numerical simulation and MRI experiments. We introduced two factors for evaluation, spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor. Numerical simulations were performed with two groups. One group was composed of four models with different signal loss width, to evaluate the spatial resolution of the 2D pulse. The other group is also composed of four models with different amounts of signal loss for evaluating maximum compensation factor. In MRI experiments, we prepared phantoms containing conductors, which have different electrical conductivities related with the amounts of signal intensity decrease. The recovery of signal intensity was observed by 2D pulses, in both numerical simulations and experiments.

  15. Spatial distribution of ozone density in pulsed corona discharges observed by two-dimensional laser absorption method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2004-03-07

    The spatial distribution of ozone density is measured in pulsed corona discharges with a 40 {mu}m spatial resolution using a two-dimensional laser absorption method. Discharge occurs in a 13 mm point-to-plane gap in dry air with a pulse duration of 100 ns. The result shows that the ozone density increases for about 100 {mu}s after the discharge pulse. The rate coefficient of the ozone-producing reaction, O + O{sub 2} + M {yields} O{sub 3} + M, is estimated to be 3.5 x 10{sup -34} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It is observed that ozone is mostly distributed in the secondary-streamer channel. This suggests that most of the ozone is produced by the secondary streamer, not the primary streamer. After the discharge pulse, ozone diffuses into the background from the secondary-streamer channel. The diffusion coefficient of ozone is estimated to be approximately 0.1 to 0.2 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}.

  16. Spatial distribution of ozone density in pulsed corona discharges observed by two-dimensional laser absorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2004-01-01

    The spatial distribution of ozone density is measured in pulsed corona discharges with a 40 μm spatial resolution using a two-dimensional laser absorption method. Discharge occurs in a 13 mm point-to-plane gap in dry air with a pulse duration of 100 ns. The result shows that the ozone density increases for about 100 μs after the discharge pulse. The rate coefficient of the ozone-producing reaction, O + O 2 + M → O 3 + M, is estimated to be 3.5 x 10 -34 cm 6 s -1 . It is observed that ozone is mostly distributed in the secondary-streamer channel. This suggests that most of the ozone is produced by the secondary streamer, not the primary streamer. After the discharge pulse, ozone diffuses into the background from the secondary-streamer channel. The diffusion coefficient of ozone is estimated to be approximately 0.1 to 0.2 cm 2 s -1

  17. Algorithm for automatic image dodging of unmanned aerial vehicle images using two-dimensional radiometric spatial attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhuo; Sun, Kaimin; Li, Deren; Bai, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing technology has come into wide use in recent years. The poor stability of the UAV platform, however, produces more inconsistencies in hue and illumination among UAV images than other more stable platforms. Image dodging is a process used to reduce these inconsistencies caused by different imaging conditions. We propose an algorithm for automatic image dodging of UAV images using two-dimensional radiometric spatial attributes. We use object-level image smoothing to smooth foreground objects in images and acquire an overall reference background image by relative radiometric correction. We apply the Contourlet transform to separate high- and low-frequency sections for every single image, and replace the low-frequency section with the low-frequency section extracted from the corresponding region in the overall reference background image. We apply the inverse Contourlet transform to reconstruct the final dodged images. In this process, a single image must be split into reasonable block sizes with overlaps due to large pixel size. Experimental mosaic results show that our proposed method reduces the uneven distribution of hue and illumination. Moreover, it effectively eliminates dark-bright interstrip effects caused by shadows and vignetting in UAV images while maximally protecting image texture information.

  18. Estimation of the two-dimensional power spectral density of spatial fluctuation in terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu

    2000-01-01

    The multiple regression analysis done for 50 sets of data of natural terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates collected from different sites of the world led to an empirical formula for the variance of the data as a function of mean value and area. The mean values and areas studied in this paper range from 10 to 100 (nGy/h) and from 10 -3 to 10 7 (km 2 ), respectively. For an isotropic field of fluctuation, a two-dimensional power spectral density (2D PSD) was derived theoretically from the above mentioned empirical formula in a form of S(k)=0.952 x 10 -3 m 2.02 k -2.36 , where k (cycles/km) and m (nGy/h) are the wave number and the mean, respectively. The validity of the estimated 2D PSD was confirmed by comparing with PSDs obtained by the following two methods. One is the spatial auto-correlation analysis for several sets of randomly distributed 2D data consisting of more than 170 samples taken through ground surveys. The other is the direct 2D Fourier transform for two sets of 100 x 100 data matrix picked up from a dose rate map produced through airborne surveys. (author)

  19. Two-dimensional spatial survey of the plasma potential and electric field in a pulsed bipolar magnetron discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetushka, A.; Karkari, S.K.; Bradley, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emissive and Langmuir probe techniques have been used to obtain two-dimensional (2D) spatial maps of the plasma potential V p , electric field E, and ion trajectories in a pulsed bipolar magnetron discharge. The magnetron was pulsed at a frequency of 100 kHz, with a 50% duty cycle and operated at an argon pressure of 0.74 Pa. The pulse wave form was characterized by three distinct phases: the 'overshoot', 'reverse', and 'on' phases. In the 'on' phase of the pulse, when the cathode voltage is driven to -670 V, the 2D spatial distribution of V p has a similar form to that in dc magnetron, with significant axial and radial electric fields in the bulk plasma, accelerating ions to the sheath edge above the cathode racetrack region. During the 'overshoot' phase (duration 200 ns), V p is raised to values greater than +330 V, more than 100 V above the cathode potential, with E pointing away from the target. In the 'reverse' phase V p has a value of +45 V at all measured positions, 2 V more positive than the target potential. In this phase there is no electric field present in the plasma. In the bulk of the plasma, the results from Langmuir probe and the emissive probe are in good agreement, however, in one particular region of the plasma outside the radius of the cathode, the emissive probe measurements are consistently more positive (up to 45 V in the 'on' time). This discrepancy is discussed in terms of the different frequency response of the probes and their perturbation of the plasma. A simple circuit model of the plasma-probe system has been proposed to explain our results. A brief discussion of the effect of the changing plasma potential distribution on the operation of the magnetron is given

  20. Differentiating Spatial Memory from Spatial Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Whitney N.; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2014-01-01

    The perspective-taking task is one of the most common paradigms used to study the nature of spatial memory, and better performance for certain orientations is generally interpreted as evidence of spatial representations using these reference directions. However, performance advantages can also result from the relative ease in certain…

  1. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic Model of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Allen, P.

    1998-03-01

    We develop and test a thermodynamic model of spatial memory. Our model is an application of statistical thermodynamics to cognitive science. It is related to applications of the statistical mechanics framework in parallel distributed processes research. Our macroscopic model allows us to evaluate an entropy associated with spatial memory tasks. We find that older adults exhibit higher levels of entropy than younger adults. Thurstone's Law of Categorical Judgment, according to which the discriminal processes along the psychological continuum produced by presentations of a single stimulus are normally distributed, is explained by using a Hooke spring model of spatial memory. We have also analyzed a nonlinear modification of the ideal spring model of spatial memory. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

  3. Characterization of Spatial Memory Reconsolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Xavier; Courtey, Julie; Brus, Maïna; Artinian, Julien; Villain, Hélène; Bacquié, Elodie; Roullet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Reconsolidation is necessary for the restabilization of reactivated memory traces. However, experimental parameters have been suggested as boundary conditions for this process. Here we investigated the role of a spatial memory trace's age, strength, and update on the reconsolidation process in mice. We first found that protein synthesis is…

  4. Sexual orientation and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Ma Rosa; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed at determining the influence of sexual orientation in human spatial learning and memory. Participants performed the Boxes Room, a virtual reality version of the Holeboard. In Experiment I, a reference memory task, the position of the hidden rewards remained constant during the whole experiment. In Experiment II, a working memory task, the position of rewards changed between blocks. Each block consisted of two trials: One trial for acquisition and another for retrieval. The results of Experiment I showed that heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and heterosexual women. They found the rewarded boxes faster. Moreover, homosexual participants committed more errors than heterosexuals. Experiment II showed that working memory abilities are the same in groups of different sexual orientation. These results suggest that sexual orientation is related to spatial navigation abilities, but mostly in men, and limited to reference memory, which depends more on the function of the hippocampal system.

  5. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazco, Julio G.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P.; Jordan, David R.; Eilers, Paul H.C.; Malosetti, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Abstract: Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and

  6. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Velazco (Julio G.); M.X. Rodríguez-Álvarez (María Xosé); M.P. Boer (Martin); D.R. Jordan (David R.); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); M. Malosetti (Marcos); F. van Eeuwijk (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials._ __Abstract:__ Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for

  7. Normal versus anomalous self-diffusion in two-dimensional fluids: Memory function approach and generalized asymptotic Einstein relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Bongsik; Talkner, Peter; Lee, Eok Kyun

    2014-12-01

    Based on the generalized Langevin equation for the momentum of a Brownian particle a generalized asymptotic Einstein relation is derived. It agrees with the well-known Einstein relation in the case of normal diffusion but continues to hold for sub- and super-diffusive spreading of the Brownian particle's mean square displacement. The generalized asymptotic Einstein relation is used to analyze data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional soft disk fluid. We mainly concentrated on medium densities for which we found super-diffusive behavior of a tagged fluid particle. At higher densities a range of normal diffusion can be identified. The motion presumably changes to sub-diffusion for even higher densities.

  8. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Many complicated systems of practical interest consist basically of a well-defined outer shell-like master structure and a complicated internal structure with uncertain dynamic properties. Using the "fuzzy structure theory" for predicting audible frequency vibration, the internal structure......-dimensional continuous boundary. Additionally, a simple method for determining the so-called equivalent coupling factor is presented. The validity of this method is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the vibration response of a master plate structure with fuzzy attachments. It is revealed that the method performs...

  9. Geometrical modeling of a two-dimensional sensor array for determining spatial position of a passive object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an active sensor array which can determine the spatial position of a passive object by illuminating the object via a small set of emitters and measure the intensity of the reflection by means of a small set of receivers. All emitters and receivers are located...

  10. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory.

  11. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  12. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  13. TH-C-19A-12: Two-Dimensional High Spatial-Resolution Dosimeter Using Europium Doped Potassium Chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Yang, D; Xiao, Z; Driewer, J; Han, Z; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports our attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. Methods: A thin layer of KCl:Eu2+ was deposited on a substrate of borosilicate glass (e.g., laboratory slides) with a PVD system. For tape casting, a homogenous suspension containing storage phosphor particles, liquid vehicle and polymer binder was formed and subsequently cast by doctor-blade onto a polyethylene terephthalate substrate to form a 150 μm thick SPF. Results: X ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 μm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had completed been incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl−) centers were the electron storage centers post x ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 μm thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a Result of its intrinsic high radiation hardness. Conclusions: This discovery research provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+ based SPF with associated readout apparatus could Result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of

  14. TH-C-19A-12: Two-Dimensional High Spatial-Resolution Dosimeter Using Europium Doped Potassium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H; Yang, D; Xiao, Z [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Driewer, J [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Han, Z [Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. This work reports our attempts to fabricate 2D KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor films (SPFs) using both a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method and a tape casting method. Methods: A thin layer of KCl:Eu2+ was deposited on a substrate of borosilicate glass (e.g., laboratory slides) with a PVD system. For tape casting, a homogenous suspension containing storage phosphor particles, liquid vehicle and polymer binder was formed and subsequently cast by doctor-blade onto a polyethylene terephthalate substrate to form a 150 μm thick SPF. Results: X ray diffraction analysis showed that a 10 μm thick PVD sample was composed of highly crystalline KCl. No additional phases were observed, suggesting that the europium activator had completed been incorporated into the KCl matrix. Photostimulated luminescence and photoluminescence spectra suggested that F (Cl−) centers were the electron storage centers post x ray irradiation and that Eu2+ cations acted as luminescence centers in the photostimulation process. The 150 μm thick casted KCl:Eu2+ SPF showed sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations further demonstrated that the admixture of 20% KCl:Eu2+ and 80% low Z polymer binder exhibited almost no energy dependence in a 6 MV beam. KCl:Eu2+ pellet samples showed a large dynamic range from 0.01 cGy to 60 Gy dose-to-water, and saturated at approximately 500 Gy as a Result of its intrinsic high radiation hardness. Conclusions: This discovery research provides strong evidence that KCl:Eu2+ based SPF with associated readout apparatus could Result in a novel electronic film system that has all the desirable features associated with classic radiographic film and, importantly, water equivalence and the capability of permanent identification of

  15. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  16. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Spatial-Temporal Behaviors About Period Doubling Bifurcation in an Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen; Zhuang Juan

    2014-01-01

    As a spatially extended dissipated system, atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) could in principle possess complex nonlinear behaviors. In order to improve the stability and uniformity of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges, studies on temporal behaviors and radial structure of discharges with strong nonlinear behaviors under different controlling parameters are much desirable. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the radial discharge structure of period-doubling bifurcation, chaos, and inverse period-doubling bifurcation in an atmospheric-pressure DBD. The results show that the period-2n (n = 1, 2…) and chaotic discharges exhibit nonuniform discharge structure. In period-2n or chaos, not only the shape of current pulses doesn't remains exactly the same from one cycle to another, but also the radial structures, such as discharge spatial evolution process and the strongest breakdown region, are different in each neighboring discharge event. Current-voltage characteristics of the discharge system are studied for further understanding of the radial structure. (low temperature plasma)

  17. Investigation of the spatial structure of des-Gly9-[Arg8]vasopressin by the methods of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and theoretical conformational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenderovich, M.D.; Sekatsis, I.P.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Nikiforovich, G.V.; Papsuevich, O.S.

    1986-01-01

    An assignment of the 1 H NMR signals of des-Gly 9 -[Arg 8 ]vasopressin in dimethyl sulfoxide has been made by 2D spectroscopy. The SSCCs and temperature coefficients Δδ/Δ T have been obtained for the amide protons and the system of NOE cross-peaks in the two-dimensional NOESY spectrum has been analyzed. The most important information on the spatial structure of des-Gly 9 -[Arg 8 ]vasopressin is given by the low value of the temperature coefficient Δδ/Δ T of the Asn 5 amide proton and the NOE between the α-protons of Cys 1 and Cys 6 . It is assumed that the screening of the NH proton of the Asn 5 residue from the solvent is connected with a β-bend of the backbone in the 2-5 sequence, and the distance between the C/sup α/H atoms of the Cys 1 and Cys 6 residues does not exceed 4 A. Bearing these limitations in mind, a theoretical conformational analysis of the molecule has been made. The group of low-energy conformations of the backbone obtained has been compared with the complete set of NMR characteristics

  18. One- and two-dimensional gap solitons and dynamics in the PT-symmetric lattice potential and spatially-periodic momentum modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Li, Xin

    2018-02-01

    The influence of spatially-periodic momentum modulation on beam dynamics in parity-time (PT) symmetric optical lattice is systematically investigated in the one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations. In the linear regime, we demonstrate that the momentum modulation can alter the first and second PT thresholds of the classical lattice, periodically or regularly change the shapes of the band structure, rotate and split the diffraction patterns of beams leading to multiple refraction and emissions. In the Kerr-nonlinear regime for one-dimension (1D) case, a large family of fundamental solitons within the semi-infinite gap can be found to be stable, even beyond the second PT threshold; it is shown that the momentum modulation can shrink the existing range of fundamental solitons and not change their stability. For two-dimension (2D) case, most solitons with higher intensities are relatively unstable in their existing regions which are narrower than those in 1D case, but we also find stable fundamental solitons corroborated by linear stability analysis and direct beam propagation. More importantly, the momentum modulation can also utterly change the direction of the transverse power flow and control the energy exchange among gain or loss regions.

  19. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  20. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  1. Spatial Memory in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontag, Thomas-A.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory.

  2. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Central executive involvement in children's spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Su Yin; Lee, Kerry

    2008-11-01

    Previous research with adults found that spatial short-term and working memory tasks impose similar demands on executive resources. We administered spatial short-term and working memory tasks to 8- and 11-year-olds in three separate experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2 an executive suppression task (random number generation) was found to impair performances on a short-term memory task (Corsi blocks), a working memory task (letter rotation), and a spatial visualisation task (paper folding). In Experiment 3 an articulatory suppression task only impaired performance on the working memory task. These results suggest that short-term and working memory performances are dependent on executive resources. The degree to which the short-term memory task was dependent on executive resources was expected to be related to the amount of experience children have had with such tasks. Yet we found no significant age-related suppression effects. This was attributed to differences in employment of cognitive strategies by the older children.

  5. Spatial working memory maintenance: does attention play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, L.K.; Hayward, W.G.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that a common mechanism may underlie spatial attention and spatial working memory. One proposal is that spatial working memory is maintained by attention-based rehearsal [Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in spatial working memory. Journal of

  6. Topographic Anterograde and Retrograde Memory for Spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was on the effects of haloperidol injection on anterograde and retrograde topographic memories for spatial behaviours in Long Evan rats. Twelve Long Evan albino rats weighing 0.5 – 0.8 kg (6 males, 6 females) were used for the study. Complex Maze Box of 14 unit T Alley from the Royal Institute of ...

  7. The (Spatial) Memory Game: Testing the Relationship Between Spatial Language, Object Knowledge, and Spatial Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R

    2018-02-19

    The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.

  8. Spatial memory deficits in patients after unilateral selective amygdalohippocampectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schouten, J.A.; Asselen, M. van; Postma, A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the differential involvement of the right and left hippocampus in various forms of spatial memory: spatial search, positional memory versus object-location binding, and coordinate versus categorical processing. Twenty-five epilepsy patients with selective

  9. Cortical oscillatory activity during spatial echoic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Walker, Florian; Leiberg, Susanne; Lutzenberger, Werner

    2005-01-01

    In human magnetoencephalogram, we have found gamma-band activity (GBA), a putative measure of cortical network synchronization, during both bottom-up and top-down auditory processing. When sound positions had to be retained in short-term memory for 800 ms, enhanced GBA was detected over posterior parietal cortex, possibly reflecting the activation of higher sensory storage systems along the hypothesized auditory dorsal space processing stream. Additional prefrontal GBA increases suggested an involvement of central executive networks in stimulus maintenance. The present study assessed spatial echoic memory with the same stimuli but a shorter memorization interval of 200 ms. Statistical probability mapping revealed posterior parietal GBA increases at 80 Hz near the end of the memory phase and both gamma and theta enhancements in response to the test stimulus. In contrast to the previous short-term memory study, no prefrontal gamma or theta enhancements were detected. This suggests that spatial echoic memory is performed by networks along the putative auditory dorsal stream, without requiring an involvement of prefrontal executive regions.

  10. Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem

  11. Remaking memories: reconsolidation updates positively motivated spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-02-17

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a human list-learning paradigm. On Day 1, rats were trained to run to three feeders (List 1) for rewards. On Day 2, rats were trained to run to three different feeders (List 2) in either the same (Reminder condition) or a different (No Reminder condition) experimental context than on Day 1. On Day 3, rats were cued to recall List 1. Rats in the Reminder condition made significantly more visits to List 2 feeders (intrusions) during List 1 recall than rats in the No Reminder condition, indicating that the reminder triggered reactivation and allowed integration of List 2 items into List 1. This reminder effect was selective for the reactivated List 1 memory, as no intrusions occurred when List 2 was recalled on Day 3. No intrusions occurred when retrieval took place in a different context from the one used at encoding, indicating that the expression of the updated memory is dependent upon the retrieval context. Finally, the level of intrusions was highest when retrieval took place immediately after List 2 learning, and generally declined when retrieval occurred 1-4 h later, indicating that the List 2 memory competed with short-term retrieval of List 1. These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of memory over time and the impact of environmental context at different stages of memory processing.

  12. Inhibition of connexin43 hemichannels impairs spatial short-term memory without affecting spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Walrave

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are active players in higher brain function as they can release gliotransmitters, which are essential for synaptic plasticity. Various mechanisms have been proposed for gliotransmission, including vesicular mechanisms as well as non-vesicular ones, for example by passive diffusion via connexin hemichannels (HCs. We here investigated whether interfering with connexin43 (Cx43 HCs influenced hippocampal spatial memory. We made use of the peptide Gap19 that blocks HCs but not gap junction channels and is specific for Cx43. To this end, we microinfused transactivator of transcription linked Gap19 (TAT-Gap19 into the brain ventricle of male NMRI mice and assessed spatial memory in a Y maze. We found that the in vivo blockade of Cx43 HCs did not affect the locomotor activity or spatial working memory in a spontaneous alternation Y maze task. Cx43 blockade did however significantly impair the spatial short-term memory in a delayed spontaneous alternation Y maze task. These results indicate that Cx43 HCs play a role in spatial short-term memory.

  13. Spatial Working Memory Interferes with Explicit, but Not Probabilistic Cuing of Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical work has depicted a close relationship between visual attention and visual working memory. For example, rehearsal in spatial working memory depends on spatial attention, whereas adding a secondary spatial working memory task impairs attentional deployment in visual search. These findings have led to the proposal…

  14. Implicit and explicit memory for spatial information in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, R P C; Feijen, J; Postma, A

    2005-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that memory impairment in dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to explicit, conscious forms of memory, whereas implicit, unconscious forms of memory function remain relatively intact or are less severely affected. Only a few studies have been performed on spatial memory function in AD, showing that AD patients' explicit spatial memory is impaired, possibly related to hippocampal dysfunction. However, studies on implicit spatial memory in AD are lacking. The current study set out to investigate implicit and explicit spatial memory in AD patients (n=18) using an ecologically valid computer task, in which participants had to remember the locations of various objects in common rooms. The contribution of implicit and explicit memory functions was estimated by means of the process dissociation procedure. The results show that explicit spatial memory is impaired in AD patients compared with a control group (n=21). However, no group difference was found on implicit spatial function. This indicates that spared implicit memory in AD extends to the spatial domain, while the explicit spatial memory function deteriorates. Clinically, this finding might be relevant, in that an intact implicit memory function might be helpful in overcoming problems in explicit processing. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  16. Multiple Systems of Spatial Memory: Evidence from Described Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, Marios N.; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent models in spatial cognition posit that distinct memory systems are responsible for maintaining transient and enduring spatial relations. The authors used perspective-taking performance to assess the presence of these enduring and transient spatial memories for locations encoded through verbal descriptions. Across 3 experiments, spatial…

  17. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  18. Spatial memory tasks in rodents: what do they model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellini, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of spatial learning and memory in rodents is commonly used to investigate the mechanisms underlying certain forms of human cognition and to model their dysfunction in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Proper interpretation of rodent behavior in terms of spatial memory and as a model of human cognitive functions is only possible if various navigation strategies and factors controlling the performance of the animal in a spatial task are taken into consideration. The aim of this review is to describe the experimental approaches that are being used for the study of spatial memory in rats and mice and the way that they can be interpreted in terms of general memory functions. After an introduction to the classification of memory into various categories and respective underlying neuroanatomical substrates, I explain the concept of spatial memory and its measurement in rats and mice by analysis of their navigation strategies. Subsequently, I describe the most common paradigms for spatial memory assessment with specific focus on methodological issues relevant for the correct interpretation of the results in terms of cognitive function. Finally, I present recent advances in the use of spatial memory tasks to investigate episodic-like memory in mice.

  19. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  20. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  1. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  2. A Principal Components Analysis of Dynamic Spatial Memory Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Michael A.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Courtney, Jon R.; Rypma, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that spatial memory for moving targets is often biased in the direction of implied momentum and implied gravity, suggesting that representations of the subjective experiences of these physical principles contribute to such biases. The present study examined the association between these spatial memory biases. Observers viewed…

  3. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  4. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  5. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  6. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  8. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  10. Spared unconscious influences of spatial memory in diencephalic amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Rémy; Wester, Arie J.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial memory is crucial to our daily lives and in part strongly depends on automatic, implicit memory processes. This study investigates the neurocognitive basis of conscious and unconscious influences of object–location memory in amnesic patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (N = 23) and healthy controls (N = 18) using a process-dissociation procedure in a computerized spatial memory task. As expected, the patients performed substantially worse on the conscious memory measures but showed even slightly stronger effects of unconscious influences than the controls. Moreover, a delayed test administered after 1 week revealed a strong decline in conscious influences in the patients, while unconscious influences were not affected. The presented results suggest that conscious and unconscious influences of spatial memory can be clearly dissociated in Korsakoff’s syndrome. PMID:18560813

  11. The role of gestures in spatial working memory and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    Co-speech gestures traditionally have been considered communicative, but they may also serve other functions. For example, hand-arm movements seem to facilitate both spatial working memory and speech production. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate speech indirectly by sustaining spatial representations in working memory. Alternatively, gestures may affect speech production directly by activating embodied semantic representations involved in lexical search. Consistent with the first hypothesis, we found participants gestured more when describing visual objects from memory and when describing objects that were difficult to remember and encode verbally. However, they also gestured when describing a visually accessible object, and gesture restriction produced dysfluent speech even when spatial memory was untaxed, suggesting that gestures can directly affect both spatial memory and lexical retrieval.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  13. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  14. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  16. Multisensory Integration Affects Visuo-Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabiano; Santangelo, Valerio; Raffone, Antonino; Sanabria, Daniel; Lupianez, Juan; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate how spatial attention, driven by unisensory and multisensory cues, can bias the access of information into visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). In a series of four experiments, we compared the effectiveness of spatially-nonpredictive visual, auditory, or audiovisual cues in capturing participants' spatial…

  17. Multiple spatial frequency channels in human visual perceptual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, V A; Whitaker, D; Heron, J; McKeefry, D J

    2011-12-08

    Current models of short-term visual perceptual memory invoke mechanisms that are closely allied to low-level perceptual discrimination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which human visual perceptual memory for spatial frequency is based upon multiple, spatially tuned channels similar to those found in the earliest stages of visual processing. To this end we measured how performance on a delayed spatial frequency discrimination paradigm was affected by the introduction of interfering or 'memory masking' stimuli of variable spatial frequency during the delay period. Masking stimuli were shown to induce shifts in the points of subjective equality (PSE) when their spatial frequencies were within a bandwidth of 1.2 octaves of the reference spatial frequency. When mask spatial frequencies differed by more than this value, there was no change in the PSE from baseline levels. This selective pattern of masking was observed for different spatial frequencies and demonstrates the existence of multiple, spatially tuned mechanisms in visual perceptual memory. Memory masking effects were also found to occur for horizontal separations of up to 6 deg between the masking and test stimuli and lacked any orientation selectivity. These findings add further support to the view that low-level sensory processing mechanisms form the basis for the retention of spatial frequency information in perceptual memory. However, the broad range of transfer of memory masking effects across spatial location and other dimensions indicates more long range, long duration interactions between spatial frequency channels that are likely to rely contributions from neural processes located in higher visual areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Spatial Scaffold: The Effects of Spatial Context on Memory for Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Wynn, Jordana; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Events always unfold in a spatial context, leading to the claim that it serves as a scaffold for encoding and retrieving episodic memories. The ubiquitous co-occurrence of spatial context with events may induce participants to generate a spatial context when hearing scenarios of events in which it is absent. Spatial context should also serve as an…

  19. How does the sparse memory "engram" neurons encode the memory of a spatial-temporal event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Song Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory in human brain is not a fixed 2-D picture but a highly dynamic movie serial, integrating information at both the temporal and the spatial domains. Recent studies in neuroscience reveal that memory storage and recall are closely related to the activities in discrete memory engram (trace neurons within the dentate gyrus region of hippocampus and the layer 2/3 of neocortex. More strikingly, optogenetic reactivation of those memory trace neurons is able to trigger the recall of naturally encoded memory. It is still unknown how the discrete memory traces encode and reactivate the memory. Considering a particular memory normally represents a natural event, which consists of information at both the temporal and spatial domains, it is unknown how the discrete trace neurons could reconstitute such enriched information in the brain. Furthermore, as the optogenetic-stimuli induced recall of memory did not depend on firing pattern of the memory traces, it is most likely that the spatial activation pattern, but not the temporal activation pattern of the discrete memory trace neurons encodes the memory in the brain. How does the neural circuit convert the activities in the spatial domain into the temporal domain to reconstitute memory of a natural event? By reviewing the literature, here we present how the memory engram (trace neurons are selected and consolidated in the brain. Then, we will discuss the main challenges in the memory trace theory. In the end, we will provide a plausible model of memory trace cell network, underlying the conversion of neural activities between the spatial domain and the temporal domain. We will also discuss on how the activation of sparse memory trace neurons might trigger the replay of neural activities in specific temporal patterns.

  20. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  1. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  3. Ontogeny of neural circuits underlying spatial memory in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alexander Ainge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory is a well characterised psychological function in both humans and rodents. The combined computations of a network of systems including place cells in the hippocampus, grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and head direction cells found in numerous structures in the brain have been suggested to form the neural instantiation of the cognitive map as first described by Tolman in 1948. However, while our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying spatial representations in adults is relatively sophisticated, we know substantially less about how this network develops in young animals. In this article we review studies examining the developmental timescale that these systems follow. Electrophysiological recordings from very young rats show that directional information is at adult levels at the outset of navigational experience. The systems supporting allocentric memory, however, take longer to mature. This is consistent with behavioural studies of young rats which show that spatial memory based on head direction develops very early but that allocentric spatial memory takes longer to mature. We go on to report new data demonstrating that memory for associations between objects and their spatial locations is slower to develop than memory for objects alone. This is again consistent with previous reports suggesting that adult like spatial representations have a protracted development in rats and also suggests that the systems involved in processing non-spatial stimuli come online earlier.

  4. Sex effects on spatial learning but not on spatial memory retrieval in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piber, Dominique; Nowacki, Jan; Mueller, Sven C; Wingenfeld, Katja; Otte, Christian

    2018-01-15

    Sex differences have been found in spatial learning and spatial memory, with several studies indicating that males outperform females. We tested in the virtual Morris Water Maze (vMWM) task, whether sex differences in spatial cognitive processes are attributable to differences in spatial learning or spatial memory retrieval in a large student sample. We tested 90 healthy students (45 women and 45 men) with a mean age of 23.5 years (SD=3.5). Spatial learning and spatial memory retrieval were measured by using the vMWM task, during which participants had to search a virtual pool for a hidden platform, facilitated by visual cues surrounding the pool. Several learning trials assessed spatial learning, while a separate probe trial assessed spatial memory retrieval. We found a significant sex effect during spatial learning, with males showing shorter latency and shorter path length, as compared to females (all pretrieval (p=0.615). Furthermore, post-hoc analyses revealed significant sex differences in spatial search strategies (pretrieval. Our study raises the question, whether men and women use different learning strategies, which nevertheless result in equal performances of spatial memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial Memory for Patterns of Taps on the Fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing development of haptic technology has the potential to provide significant improvement in safety and performance in demanding environments where vision and hearing are compromised. Research regarding the cognitive psychology of touch is lacking and could be beneficial in the development of expectations about human performance for the refinement and implementation of haptic technology. This study examines haptic-spatial memory using a novel assessment method based on finger anatomy. In addition, evidence is presented for a serial-position effect for haptic-spatial memory that is analogous to the classic serial-position effect demonstrated in the verbal recall of word lists. Finally, haptic-spatial memory is compared with short- and long-term memory for visual-spatial tasks.

  6. Episodic memory for spatial context biases spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Lin, Olivia; Moscovitch, Morris

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the bottom-up attentional consequences of episodic memory retrieval. Individuals studied words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2) presented on the left or on the right of the screen. They then viewed studied and new stimuli in the centre of the screen. One-second after the appearance of each stimulus, participants had to respond to a dot presented on the left or on the right of the screen. The dot could follow a stimulus that had been presented, during the study phase, on the same side as the dot (congruent condition), a stimulus that had been presented on the opposite side (incongruent condition), or a new stimulus (neutral condition). Subjects were faster to respond to the dot in the congruent compared to the incongruent condition, with an overall right visual field advantage in Experiment 1. The memory-driven facilitation effect correlated with subjects' re-experiencing of the encoding context (R responses; Experiment 1), but not with their explicit memory for the side of items' presentation (source memory; Experiment 2). The results indicate that memory contents are attended automatically and can bias the deployment of attention. The degree to which memory and attention interact appears related to subjective but not objective indicators of memory strength.

  7. Eye and hand movements during reconstruction of spatial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, MR; Allen, RJ; Gonzalez, C

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 a Pion publication Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (e.g., Awh et al, 2006 Neuroscience 139 201-208). This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change) from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time de...

  8. Eye and Hand Movements during Reconstruction of Spatial Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Rose Burke; Richard Allen; Matilda Webster; Claudia Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (eg, Awh et al 2006, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 124–130). This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change) from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time delay between tar...

  9. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  10. Spatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Bias in Estimates of Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L. Elizabeth; Landy, David; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial memory research has attributed systematic bias in location estimates to a combination of a noisy memory trace with a prior structure that people impose on the space. Little is known about intraindividual stability and interindividual variation in these patterns of bias. In the current work, we align recent empirical and theoretical work on…

  11. Long-Term Memory Biases Auditory Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F.; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants…

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibition abolishes stress-induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Acute stress induced before spatial training impairs memory consolidation. Although non-epigenetic underpinning of such effect has been described, the epigenetic mechanisms involved have not yet been studied. Since spatial training and intense stress have opposite effects on histone acetylation balance, it is conceivable that disruption of such balance may underlie acute stress-induced spatial memory consolidation impairment and that inhibiting histone deacetylases prevents such effect. Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) was used to test its effectiveness in preventing stress' deleterious effect on memory. Male Wistar rats were trained in a spatial task in the Barnes maze; 1-h movement restraint was applied to half of them before training. Immediately after training, stressed and non-stressed animals were randomly assigned to receive either TSA (1mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after training, long-term spatial memory was tested; plasma and brain tissue were collected immediately after the memory test to evaluate corticosterone levels and histone H3 acetylation in several brain areas. Stressed animals receiving vehicle displayed memory impairment, increased plasma corticosterone levels and markedly reduced histone H3 acetylation in prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Such effects did not occur in stressed animals treated with TSA. The aforementioned results support the hypothesis that acute stress induced-memory impairment is related to histone deacetylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oculomotor preparation as a rehearsal mechanism in spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G; Ball, Keira; Smith, Daniel T

    2014-09-01

    There is little consensus regarding the specific processes responsible for encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). One influential theory is that VSWM may involve activation of the eye-movement (oculomotor) system. In this study we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or executing saccadic eye-movements during the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval stages of visual and spatial working memory tasks. Participants experienced a significant reduction in spatial memory span only when oculomotor preparation was prevented during encoding or maintenance. In contrast there was no reduction when oculomotor preparation was prevented only during retrieval. These results show that (a) involvement of the oculomotor system is necessary for optimal maintenance of directly-indicated locations in spatial working memory and (b) oculomotor preparation is not necessary during retrieval from spatial working memory. We propose that this study is the first to unambiguously demonstrate that the oculomotor system contributes to the maintenance of spatial locations in working memory independently from the involvement of covert attention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  15. Is attention based on spatial contextual memory preferentially guided by low spatial frequency signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Buckley, Alice; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    A popular model of visual perception states that coarse information (carried by low spatial frequencies) along the dorsal stream is rapidly transmitted to prefrontal and medial temporal areas, activating contextual information from memory, which can in turn constrain detailed input carried by high spatial frequencies arriving at a slower rate along the ventral visual stream, thus facilitating the processing of ambiguous visual stimuli. We were interested in testing whether this model contributes to memory-guided orienting of attention. In particular, we asked whether global, low-spatial frequency (LSF) inputs play a dominant role in triggering contextual memories in order to facilitate the processing of the upcoming target stimulus. We explored this question over four experiments. The first experiment replicated the LSF advantage reported in perceptual discrimination tasks by showing that participants were faster and more accurate at matching a low spatial frequency version of a scene, compared to a high spatial frequency version, to its original counterpart in a forced-choice task. The subsequent three experiments tested the relative contributions of low versus high spatial frequencies during memory-guided covert spatial attention orienting tasks. Replicating the effects of memory-guided attention, pre-exposure to scenes associated with specific spatial memories for target locations (memory cues) led to higher perceptual discrimination and faster response times to identify targets embedded in the scenes. However, either high or low spatial frequency cues were equally effective; LSF signals did not selectively or preferentially contribute to the memory-driven attention benefits to performance. Our results challenge a generalized model that LSFs activate contextual memories, which in turn bias attention and facilitate perception.

  16. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  17. Forgetting, reminding, and remembering: the retrieval of lost spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Hoz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde amnesia can occur after brain damage because this disrupts sites of storage, interrupts memory consolidation, or interferes with memory retrieval. While the retrieval failure account has been considered in several animal studies, recent work has focused mainly on memory consolidation, and the neural mechanisms responsible for reactivating memory from stored traces remain poorly understood. We now describe a new retrieval phenomenon in which rats' memory for a spatial location in a watermaze was first weakened by partial lesions of the hippocampus to a level at which it could not be detected. The animals were then reminded by the provision of incomplete and potentially misleading information-an escape platform in a novel location. Paradoxically, both incorrect and correct place information reactivated dormant memory traces equally, such that the previously trained spatial memory was now expressed. It was also established that the reminding procedure could not itself generate new learning in either the original environment, or in a new training situation. The key finding is the development of a protocol that definitively distinguishes reminding from new place learning and thereby reveals that a failure of memory during watermaze testing can arise, at least in part, from a disruption of memory retrieval.

  18. Spatial working memory interferes with explicit, but not probabilistic cuing of spatial attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical work has depicted a close relationship between visual attention and visual working memory. For example, rehearsal in spatial working memory depends on spatial attention, whereas adding a secondary spatial working memory task impairs attentional deployment in visual search. These findings have led to the proposal that working memory is attention directed toward internal representations. Here we show that the close relationship between these two constructs is limited to some but not all forms of spatial attention. In five experiments, participants held color arrays, dot locations, or a sequence of dots in working memory. During the memory retention interval they performed a T-among-L visual search task. Crucially, the probable target location was cued either implicitly through location probability learning, or explicitly with a central arrow or verbal instruction. Our results showed that whereas imposing a visual working memory load diminished the effectiveness of explicit cuing, it did not interfere with probability cuing. We conclude that spatial working memory shares similar mechanisms with explicit, goal-driven attention but is dissociated from implicitly learned attention. PMID:25401460

  19. Emotional state and local versus global spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Augustyn, Jason S; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-02-01

    The present work investigated the effects of participant emotional state on global versus local memory for map-based information. Participants were placed into one of four emotion induction groups, crossing high and low arousal with positive and negative valence, or a control group. They then studied a university campus map and completed two memory tests, free recall and spatial statement verification. Converging evidence from these two tasks demonstrated that arousal amplifies symbolic distance effects and leads to a globally-focused spatial mental representation, partially at the expense of local knowledge. These results were found for both positively- and negatively-valenced affective states. The present study is the first investigation of emotional effects on spatial memory, and has implications for theories of emotion and spatial cognition.

  20. Dissociation of spatial memory systems in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Mathilde; Fragnière, Emilie; Costanzo, Floriana; Di Vara, Silvia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic deletion syndrome, is characterized by severe visuospatial deficits affecting performance on both tabletop spatial tasks and on tasks which assess orientation and navigation. Nevertheless, previous studies of WS spatial capacities have ignored the fact that two different spatial memory systems are believed to contribute parallel spatial representations supporting navigation. The place learning system depends on the hippocampal formation and creates flexible relational representations of the environment, also known as cognitive maps. The spatial response learning system depends on the striatum and creates fixed stimulus-response representations, also known as habits. Indeed, no study assessing WS spatial competence has used tasks which selectively target these two spatial memory systems. Here, we report that individuals with WS exhibit a dissociation in their spatial abilities subserved by these two memory systems. As compared to typically developing (TD) children in the same mental age range, place learning performance was impaired in individuals with WS. In contrast, their spatial response learning performance was facilitated. Our findings in individuals with WS and TD children suggest that place learning and response learning interact competitively to control the behavioral strategies normally used to support human spatial navigation. Our findings further suggest that the neural pathways supporting place learning may be affected by the genetic deletion that characterizes WS, whereas those supporting response learning may be relatively preserved. The dissociation observed between these two spatial memory systems provides a coherent theoretical framework to characterize the spatial abilities of individuals with WS, and may lead to the development of new learning strategies based on their facilitated response learning abilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cognitive neuroscience of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, Morris; Nadel, Lynn; Winocur, Gordon; Gilboa, Asaf; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2006-04-01

    The processes and mechanisms implicated in retention and retrieval of memories as they age is an enduring problem in cognitive neuroscience. Research from lesion and functional neuroimaging studies on remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory in humans is crucial for evaluating three theories of hippocampal and/or medial temporal lobe-neocortical interaction in memory retention and retrieval: cognitive map theory, standard consolidation theory and multiple trace theory. Each theory makes different predictions regarding first, the severity and extent of retrograde amnesia following lesions to some or all of the structures mentioned; second, the extent of activation of these structures to retrieval of memory across time; and third, the type of memory being retrieved. Each of these theories has strengths and weaknesses, and there are various unresolved issues. We propose a unified account based on multiple trace theory. This theory states that the hippocampus is needed for re-experiencing detailed episodic and spatial memories no matter how old they are, and that it contributes to the formation and assimilation of semantic memories and schematic spatial maps.

  3. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of a spatial orientation memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuser, Kirsa; Triphan, Tilman; Mronz, Markus; Poeck, Burkhard; Strauss, Roland

    2008-06-26

    Flexible goal-driven orientation requires that the position of a target be stored, especially in case the target moves out of sight. The capability to retain, recall and integrate such positional information into guiding behaviour has been summarized under the term spatial working memory. This kind of memory contains specific details of the presence that are not necessarily part of a long-term memory. Neurophysiological studies in primates indicate that sustained activity of neurons encodes the sensory information even though the object is no longer present. Furthermore they suggest that dopamine transmits the respective input to the prefrontal cortex, and simultaneous suppression by GABA spatially restricts this neuronal activity. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster possesses a similar spatial memory during locomotion. Using a new detour setup, we show that flies can remember the position of an object for several seconds after it has been removed from their environment. In this setup, flies are temporarily lured away from the direction towards their hidden target, yet they are thereafter able to aim for their former target. Furthermore, we find that the GABAergic (stainable with antibodies against GABA) ring neurons of the ellipsoid body in the central brain are necessary and their plasticity is sufficient for a functional spatial orientation memory in flies. We also find that the protein kinase S6KII (ignorant) is required in a distinct subset of ring neurons to display this memory. Conditional expression of S6KII in these neurons only in adults can restore the loss of the orientation memory of the ignorant mutant. The S6KII signalling pathway therefore seems to be acutely required in the ring neurons for spatial orientation memory in flies.

  5. Emotion's influence on memory for spatial and temporal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katherine; Patnaik, Pooja; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    Individuals report remembering emotional items vividly. It is debated whether this report reflects enhanced memory accuracy or a bias to believe emotional memories are vivid. We hypothesized emotion would enhance memory accuracy, improving memory for contextual details. The hallmark of episodic memory is that items are remembered in a spatial and temporal context, so we examined whether an item's valence (positive, negative) or arousal (high, low) would influence its ability to be remembered with those contextual details. Across two experiments, high-arousal items were remembered with spatial and temporal context more often than low-arousal items. Item valence did not influence memory for those details, although positive high-arousal items were recognized or recalled more often than negative items. These data suggest that emotion does not just bias participants to believe they have a vivid memory; rather, the arousal elicited by an event can benefit memory for some types of contextual details. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  6. Spatial Memory by Blind and Sighted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Susanna

    1975-01-01

    Non-verbal recall of haptically presented spatial positions by three age groups of blind and sighted children was tested under conditions varying cuing, recall type and stimulus position in a within-subject design. (Editor)

  7. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  8. Selective memory generalization by spatial patterning of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Cian; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2014-04-16

    Protein synthesis is crucial for both persistent synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. De novo protein expression can be restricted to specific neurons within a population, and to specific dendrites within a single neuron. Despite its ubiquity, the functional benefits of spatial protein regulation for learning are unknown. We used computational modeling to study this problem. We found that spatially patterned protein synthesis can enable selective consolidation of some memories but forgetting of others, even for simultaneous events that are represented by the same neural population. Key factors regulating selectivity include the functional clustering of synapses on dendrites, and the sparsity and overlap of neural activity patterns at the circuit level. Based on these findings, we proposed a two-step model for selective memory generalization during REM and slow-wave sleep. The pattern-matching framework we propose may be broadly applicable to spatial protein signaling throughout cortex and hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial memory and hippocampal function: Where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Good

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current debates concerning the role of the mammalian hippocampus in learning with a particular emphasis on spatial learning. The review discusses recent debates on (1 the role of the primate hippocampus in recognition memory and object-in-place memory, (2 the role of the hippocampus in spatial navigation in both rats and humans, and (3 the effects of hippocampal damage on processing contextual information. Evidence from these lines of research have led many current theories to posit a function for the hippocampus that has as its organizing principle the association or binding of stimulus representations. Based on this principle, recent theories of hippocampal function have extended their application beyond the spatial domain to capture features of declarative and episodic memory processes.

  10. Implied motion language can influence visual spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Engelen, Jan; Zwaan, Rolf A; Matlock, Teenie; Dale, Rick

    2017-07-01

    How do language and vision interact? Specifically, what impact can language have on visual processing, especially related to spatial memory? What are typically considered errors in visual processing, such as remembering the location of an object to be farther along its motion trajectory than it actually is, can be explained as perceptual achievements that are driven by our ability to anticipate future events. In two experiments, we tested whether the prior presentation of motion language influences visual spatial memory in ways that afford greater perceptual prediction. Experiment 1 showed that motion language influenced judgments for the spatial memory of an object beyond the known effects of implied motion present in the image itself. Experiment 2 replicated this finding. Our findings support a theory of perception as prediction.

  11. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  12. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  13. Allocentric spatial learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Banta Lavenex

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that persons with Down Syndrome (DS exhibit relatively poor language capacities, and impaired verbal and visuoperceptual memory, whereas their visuospatial memory capacities appear comparatively spared. Individuals with DS recall better where an object was previously seen than what object was previously seen. However, most of the evidence concerning preserved visuospatial memory comes from tabletop or computerized experiments which are biased towards testing egocentric (viewpoint-dependent spatial representations. Accordingly, allocentric (viewpoint-independent spatial learning and memory capacities may not be necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, in order to more fully characterize the spatial capacities of individuals with DS, allocentric processes underlying real-world navigation must also be investigated. We tested 20 participants with DS and 16 mental age-matched, typically developing (TD children in a real-world, allocentric spatial memory task. During local cue (LC trials, participants had to locate three rewards marked by local color cues, among 12 locations distributed in a 4 m X 4 m arena. During allocentric spatial (AS trials, participants had to locate the same three rewards, in absence of local cues, based on their relations to distal environmental cues. All TD participants chose rewarded locations in LC and AS trials at above chance level. In contrast, although all but one of the participants with DS exhibited a preference for the rewarded locations in LC trials, only 50% of participants with DS chose the rewarded locations at above chance level in AS trials. As a group, participants with DS performed worse than TD children on all measures of task performance. These findings demonstrate that individuals with DS are impaired at using an allocentric spatial representation to learn and remember discrete locations in a controlled environment, suggesting persistent and pervasive deficits in hippocampus

  14. Eye and Hand Movements during Reconstruction of Spatial Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Rose Burke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (eg, Awh et al 2006, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 124–130. This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time delay between target presentation and recall (0, 5, or 10s and the number of locations to be remembered (2–5 were also manipulated. Analysis of the response phase revealed subjects were less accurate (touch data and fixated longer (eye data when responding to sequentially presented targets. Fixation duration was also influenced by whether spatial location was initially signalled by colour or shape change. We conclude that attention and temporal delays during retention of a target play a minor role in motor behaviour during a corsi spatial memory task. In contrast, the type of memory required (ie, location and/or memory and number of items plays a key role on subject performance and behaviour.

  15. The floor effect: impoverished spatial memory for elevator buttons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael; Castel, Alan D; Holyoak, Keith J

    2013-05-01

    People typically remember objects to which they have frequently been exposed, suggesting that memory is a by-product of perception. However, prior research has shown that people have exceptionally poor memory for the features of some objects (e.g., coins) to which they have been exposed over the course of many years. Here, we examined how people remember the spatial layout of the buttons on a frequently used elevator panel, to determine whether physical interaction (rather than simple exposure) would ensure the incidental encoding of spatial information. Participants who worked in an eight-story office building displayed very poor recall for the elevator panel but above-chance performance on a recognition test. Performance was related to how often and how recently the person had used the elevator. In contrast to their poor memory for the spatial layout of the elevator buttons, most people readily recalled small distinctive graffiti on the elevator walls. In a more implicit test, the majority were able to locate their office floor and the eighth floor button when asked to point toward these buttons when in the actual elevator, with the button labels covered. However, identification was very poor for other floors (including the first floor), suggesting that even frequent interaction with information does not always lead to accurate spatial memory. These findings have implications for understanding the complex relationships among attention, expertise, and memory.

  16. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  17. Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1971-01-01

    The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.

  18. Spatial memory impairment in Morris water maze after electroconvulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria; Hallin, Thord; Broms, Jonas; Ekstrand, Joakim; Tingström, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS. We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment. A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM. The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.

  19. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Winston, Jenna; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1), or a minimal (Experiment 2) influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  20. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Golob

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1, or a minimal (Experiment 2 influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  1. Spatial-Sequential and Spatial-Simultaneous Working Memory in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Silvia; De Mori, Letizia; Mammarella, Irene C.; Carretti, Barbara; Vianello, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare visuospatial working memory performance in 18 individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and 18 typically developing (TD) children matched for nonverbal mental age. Two aspects were considered: task presentation format (i.e., spatial-sequential or spatial-simultaneous), and level of attentional control…

  2. Differences in Spatial Memory Recognition Due to Cognitive Style

    OpenAIRE

    Tasc?n, Laura; Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cimadevilla, Jos? M.

    2017-01-01

    Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displa...

  3. Finite element solution of two dimensional time dependent heat equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaz

    1999-01-01

    A Microsoft Windows based computer code, named FHEAT, has been developed for solving two dimensional heat problems in Cartesian and Cylindrical geometries. The programming language is Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. The code makes use of Finite element formulation for spatial domain and Finite difference formulation for time domain. Presently the code is capable of solving two dimensional steady state and transient problems in xy- and rz-geometries. The code is capable excepting both triangular and rectangular elements. Validation and benchmarking was done against hand calculations and published results. (author)

  4. Semantic elaboration in auditory and visual spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevs, Meghan; Dahmani, Louisa; Zatorre, Robert J; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that semantic information facilitates auditory and visual spatial learning and memory. An auditory spatial task was administered, whereby healthy participants were placed in the center of a semi-circle that contained an array of speakers where the locations of nameable and non-nameable sounds were learned. In the visual spatial task, locations of pictures of abstract art intermixed with nameable objects were learned by presenting these items in specific locations on a computer screen. Participants took part in both the auditory and visual spatial tasks, which were counterbalanced for order and were learned at the same rate. Results showed that learning and memory for the spatial locations of nameable sounds and pictures was significantly better than for non-nameable stimuli. Interestingly, there was a cross-modal learning effect such that the auditory task facilitated learning of the visual task and vice versa. In conclusion, our results support the hypotheses that the semantic representation of items, as well as the presentation of items in different modalities, facilitate spatial learning and memory.

  5. Differences in Spatial Memory Recognition Due to Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cimadevilla, José M

    2017-01-01

    Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity. Forty young healthy individuals took part in this study. Participants performed the Embedded Figures Test for field independence or dependence assessment and a new spatial memory recognition test. The spatial memory recognition test demanded to memorize a green box location in a virtual room picture. Thereafter, during ten trials participants had to decide if a green box was located in the same position as in the sample picture. Five of the pictures were correct. The information available in the virtual room was manipulated. Hence, two different experimental conditions were tested: a virtual room containing all landmarks and a virtual room with only two cues. Accuracy and reaction time were registered. Analyses demonstrated that higher field independent individuals were related to better spatial memory performance in two landmarks condition and were faster in all landmark condition. In addition, men and women did not differ in their performance. These results suggested that cognitive style affects spatial memory performance and this phenomenon is modulated by environment complexity. This does not affect accuracy but time spent. Moreover, field dependent individuals are unable to organize the navigational field by relying on internal reference frames when few landmarks are available, and this causes them to commit more errors.

  6. Differences in Spatial Memory Recognition Due to Cognitive Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tascón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity. Forty young healthy individuals took part in this study. Participants performed the Embedded Figures Test for field independence or dependence assessment and a new spatial memory recognition test. The spatial memory recognition test demanded to memorize a green box location in a virtual room picture. Thereafter, during ten trials participants had to decide if a green box was located in the same position as in the sample picture. Five of the pictures were correct. The information available in the virtual room was manipulated. Hence, two different experimental conditions were tested: a virtual room containing all landmarks and a virtual room with only two cues. Accuracy and reaction time were registered. Analyses demonstrated that higher field independent individuals were related to better spatial memory performance in two landmarks condition and were faster in all landmark condition. In addition, men and women did not differ in their performance. These results suggested that cognitive style affects spatial memory performance and this phenomenon is modulated by environment complexity. This does not affect accuracy but time spent. Moreover, field dependent individuals are unable to organize the navigational field by relying on internal reference frames when few landmarks are available, and this causes them to commit more errors.

  7. A potential spatial working memory training task to improve both episodic memory and fluid intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Rudebeck

    Full Text Available One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm. Participants' episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain scores, we found that the trainers, compared to non-trainers, exhibited a significant improvement in fluid intelligence after 20 days. Interestingly, pre-training fluid intelligence performance, but not training task improvement, was a significant predictor of post-training fluid intelligence improvement, with lower pre-training fluid intelligence associated with greater post-training gain. Crucially, trainers who improved the most on the training task also showed an improvement in recognition memory as captured by d-prime scores and estimates of recollection and familiarity memory. Training task improvement was a significant predictor of gains in recognition and familiarity memory performance, with greater training improvement leading to more marked gains. In contrast, lower pre-training recollection memory scores, and not training task improvement, led to greater recollection memory performance after training. Our findings demonstrate that practice

  8. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  9. Spatial Working Memory Is Necessary for Actions to Guide Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Directed actions can play a causal role in cognition, shaping thought processes. What drives this cross-talk between action and thought? I investigated the hypothesis that representations in spatial working memory mediate interactions between directed actions and problem solving. Participants attempted to solve an insight problem while…

  10. Spatial memory extinction: a c-Fos protein mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, M; Conejo, N M; Vallejo, G; Arias, J L

    2014-03-01

    While the neuronal basis of spatial memory consolidation has been thoroughly studied, the substrates mediating the process of extinction remain largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the functional contribution of selected brain regions during the extinction of a previously acquired spatial memory task in the Morris water maze. For that purpose, we used adult male Wistar rats trained in a spatial reference memory task. Learning-related changes in c-Fos inmunoreactive cells after training were evaluated in cortical and subcortical regions. Results show that removal of the hidden platform in the water maze induced extinction of the previously reinforced escape behavior after 16 trials, without spontaneous recovery 24h later. Extinction was related with significantly higher numbers of c-Fos positive nuclei in amygdala nuclei and prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, the lateral mammillary bodies showed higher number of c-Fos positive cells than the control group. Therefore, in contrast with the results obtained in studies of classical conditioning, we show the involvement of diencephalic structures mediating this kind of learning. In summary, our findings suggest that medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala complex and diencephalic structures like the lateral mammillary nuclei are relevant for the extinction of spatial memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asymmetric binding in serial memory for verbal and spatial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerard, Katherine; Morey, Candice C.; Lagace, Sebastien; Tremblay, Sebastien

    As the number of studies showing that items can be retained as bound representations in memory increases, researchers are beginning to investigate how the different features are bound together. In the present study, we examined the relative importances of the verbal and spatial features in serial

  12. Implied motion language can influence visual spatial memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinson, David; Engelen, Jan; Zwaan, Rolf A; Matlock, Teenie; Dale, Rick

    How do language and vision interact? Specifically, what impact can language have on visual processing, especially related to spatial memory? What are typically considered errors in visual processing, such as remembering the location of an object to be farther along its motion trajectory than it

  13. Eye and hand movements during reconstruction of spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Melanie R; Allen, Richard J; Gonzalez, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Recent behavioural and biological evidence indicates common mechanisms serving working memory and attention (e.g., Awh et al, 2006 Neuroscience 139 201-208). This study explored the role of spatial attention and visual search in an adapted Corsi spatial memory task. Eye movements and touch responses were recorded from participants who recalled locations (signalled by colour or shape change) from an array presented either simultaneously or sequentially. The time delay between target presentation and recall (0, 5, or 10 s) and the number of locations to be remembered (2-5) were also manipulated. Analysis of the response phase revealed subjects were less accurate (touch data) and fixated longer (eye data) when responding to sequentially presented targets suggesting higher cognitive effort. Fixation duration on target at recall was also influenced by whether spatial location was initially signalled by colour or shape change. Finally, we found that the sequence tasks encouraged longer fixations on the signalled targets than simultaneous viewing during encoding, but no difference was observed during recall. We conclude that the attentional manipulations (colour/shape) mainly affected the eye movement parameters, whereas the memory manipulation (sequential versus simultaneous, number of items) mainly affected the performance of the hand during recall, and thus the latter is more important for ascertaining if an item is remembered or forgotten. In summary, the nature of the stimuli that is used and how it is presented play key roles in determining subject performance and behaviour during spatial memory tasks.

  14. Single Canonical Model of Reflexive Memory and Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumil S.; Red, Stuart; Lin, Eric; Sereno, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Many neurons in the dorsal and ventral visual stream have the property that after a brief visual stimulus presentation in their receptive field, the spiking activity in these neurons persists above their baseline levels for several seconds. This maintained activity is not always correlated with the monkey’s task and its origin is unknown. We have previously proposed a simple neural network model, based on shape selective neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal cortex, which predicts the valence and time course of reflexive (bottom-up) spatial attention. In the same simple model, we demonstrate here that passive maintained activity or short-term memory of specific visual events can result without need for an external or top-down modulatory signal. Mutual inhibition and neuronal adaptation play distinct roles in reflexive attention and memory. This modest 4-cell model provides the first simple and unified physiologically plausible mechanism of reflexive spatial attention and passive short-term memory processes. PMID:26493949

  15. Single Canonical Model of Reflexive Memory and Spatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumil S; Red, Stuart; Lin, Eric; Sereno, Anne B

    2015-10-23

    Many neurons in the dorsal and ventral visual stream have the property that after a brief visual stimulus presentation in their receptive field, the spiking activity in these neurons persists above their baseline levels for several seconds. This maintained activity is not always correlated with the monkey's task and its origin is unknown. We have previously proposed a simple neural network model, based on shape selective neurons in monkey lateral intraparietal cortex, which predicts the valence and time course of reflexive (bottom-up) spatial attention. In the same simple model, we demonstrate here that passive maintained activity or short-term memory of specific visual events can result without need for an external or top-down modulatory signal. Mutual inhibition and neuronal adaptation play distinct roles in reflexive attention and memory. This modest 4-cell model provides the first simple and unified physiologically plausible mechanism of reflexive spatial attention and passive short-term memory processes.

  16. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  17. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial EPR entanglement in atomic vapor quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniak, Michal; Dabrowski, Michal; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    Spatially-structured quantum states of light are staring to play a key role in modern quantum science with the rapid development of single-photon sensitive cameras. In particular, spatial degree of freedom holds a promise to enhance continous-variable quantum memories. Here we present the first demonstration of spatial entanglement between an atomic spin-wave and a photon measured with an I-sCMOS camera. The system is realized in a warm atomic vapor quantum memory based on rubidium atoms immersed in inert buffer gas. In the experiment we create and characterize a 12-dimensional entangled state exhibiting quantum correlations between a photon and an atomic ensemble in position and momentum bases. This state allows us to demonstrate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in its original version, with an unprecedented delay time of 6 μs between generation of entanglement and detection of the atomic state.

  19. Human Parahippocampal Cortex Supports Spatial Binding in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Neil Michael; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Harry, Bronson; Roberts, Daniel; Leek, E Charles; Downing, Paul; Sapir, Ayelet; Roberts, Craig; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2017-09-15

    Studies investigating the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) suggest that parahippocampal cortex (PHC) generates representations of spatial and contextual information used by the hippocampus in the formation of episodic memories. However, evidence from animal studies also implicates PHC in spatial binding of visual information held in short term, working memory. Here we examined a 46-year-old man (P.J.), after he had recovered from bilateral medial occipitotemporal cortex strokes resulting in ischemic lesions of PHC and hippocampal atrophy, and a group of age-matched healthy controls. When recalling the color of 1 of 2 objects, P.J. misidentified the target when cued by its location, but not shape. When recalling the position of 1 of 3 objects, he frequently misidentified the target, which was cued by its color. Increasing the duration of the memory delay had no impact on the proportion of binding errors, but did significantly worsen recall precision in both P.J. and controls. We conclude that PHC may play a crucial role in spatial binding during encoding of visual information in working memory. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of treadmill exercise intensity on spatial working memory and long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Gong-Wu

    2016-03-15

    Moderate exercise promotes learning and memory. Most studies mainly focused on memory exercise effects of in the ageing and patients. There is lack of quantitative research about effect of regular exercise intensity on different memory types in normal subjects. Present study investigated the effects of different intensities of treadmill exercise on working memory and long-term memory. Fifty female Wistar rats were trained by T-maze delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task with 3 delays (10s, 60s and 300s). Then they got a 30min treadmill exercise for 30days in 4 intensities (control, 0m/min; lower, 15m/min; middle, 20m/min, and higher, 30m/min). Then animals were tested in DSA, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. 1. Exercise increased the neuronal density of hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus) vs. naïve/control. 2. In DSA task, all groups have similar baseline, lower intensity improved 10s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control; middle and higher intensities improved 300s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control. 3. In water maze learning, all groups successfully found the platform, but middle intensity improved platform field crossing times vs. control in test phase. Present results suggested that treadmill exercise can improve long-term spatial memory and working memory; lower intensity benefits to short-term delayed working memory, and middle or higher intensity benefits to long-term delayed working memory. There was an inverted U dose-effect relationship between exercise intensity and memory performance, but exercise -working memory effect was impacted by delay duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hilar GABAergic Interneuron Activity Controls Spatial Learning and Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Zwilling, Yaisa; Gillespie, Anna K.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Nelson, Alexandra B.; Devidze, Nino; Lo, Iris; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Bien-Ly, Nga; Ring, Karen; Zwilling, Daniel; Potter, Gregory B.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Huang, Yadong

    2012-01-01

    Background Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0)—a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity. Conclusions and Significance Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD. PMID:22792368

  2. Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisa Andrews-Zwilling

    Full Text Available Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear.We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0--a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity.Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD.

  3. Prefrontal cortical GABA modulation of spatial reference and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Meagan L; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-10-31

    Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1-2 min intervals). Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  4. Long-term memory biases auditory spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2017-10-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants heard audio clips, some of which included a lateralized target (p = 50%). On each trial participants indicated whether the target was presented from the left, right, or was absent. Following a 1 hr retention interval, participants were presented with the same audio clips, which now all included a target. In Experiment 1, participants showed memory-based gains in response time and d'. Experiment 2 showed that temporal expectations modulate attention, with greater memory-guided attention effects on performance when temporal context was reinstated from learning (i.e., when timing of the target within audio clips was not changed from initially learned timing). Experiment 3 showed that while conscious recall of target locations was modulated by exposure to target-context associations during learning (i.e., better recall with higher number of learning blocks), the influence of LTM associations on spatial attention was not reduced (i.e., number of learning blocks did not affect memory-guided attention). Both Experiments 2 and 3 showed gains in performance related to target-context associations, even for associations that were not explicitly remembered. Together, these findings indicate that memory for audio clips is acquired quickly and is surprisingly robust; both implicit and explicit LTM for the location of a faint target tone modulated auditory spatial attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Early handling effect on female rat spatial and non-spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa A M; Navarra, Michele; Gambino, Giuditta; Brancato, Anna; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at providing an insight into early handling procedures on learning and memory performance in adult female rats. Early handling procedures were started on post-natal day 2 until 21, and consisted in 15 min, daily separations of the dams from their litters. Assessment of declarative memory was carried out in the novel-object recognition task; spatial learning, reference- and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM). Our results indicate that early handling induced an enhancement in: (1) declarative memory, in the object recognition task, both at 1h and 24h intervals; (2) reference memory in the probe test and working memory and behavioral flexibility in the "single-trial and four-trial place learning paradigm" of the MWM. Short-term separation by increasing maternal care causes a dampening in HPA axis response in the pups. A modulated activation of the stress response may help to protect brain structures, involved in cognitive function. In conclusion, this study shows the long-term effects of a brief maternal separation in enhancing object recognition-, spatial reference- and working memory in female rats, remarking the impact of early environmental experiences and the consequent maternal care on the behavioral adaptive mechanisms in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of Allocentric Spatial Memory Resolution in Children from 2 to 4 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Farfalla Ribordy; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2015-01-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, the memory for locations coded in relation to objects comprising our environment, is a fundamental component of episodic memory and is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in adulthood. Previous research from different laboratories reported that basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably…

  7. Short-term memory for spatial, sequential and duration information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2017-10-01

    Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory.

  8. Nobiletin improves emotional and novelty recognition memory but not spatial referential memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyun; Shin, Jung-Won; Kim, Yoo-Rim; Swanberg, Kelley M; Kim, Yooseung; Bae, Jae Ryong; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Sohn, Nak-Won; Maeng, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    How to maintain and enhance cognitive functions for both aged and young populations is a highly interesting subject. But candidate memory-enhancing reagents are tested almost exclusively on lesioned or aged animals. Also, there is insufficient information on the type of memory these reagents can improve. Working memory, located in the prefrontal cortex, manages short-term sensory information, but, by gaining significant relevance, this information is converted to long-term memory by hippocampal formation and/or amygdala, followed by tagging with space-time or emotional cues, respectively. Nobiletin is a product of citrus peel known for cognitive-enhancing effects in various pharmacological and neurodegenerative disease models, yet, it is not well studied in non-lesioned animals and the type of memory that nobiletin can improve remains unclear. In this study, 8-week-old male mice were tested using behavioral measurements for working, spatial referential, emotional and visual recognition memory after daily administration of nobiletin. While nobiletin did not induce any change of spontaneous activity in the open field test, freezing by fear conditioning and novel object recognition increased. However, the effectiveness of spatial navigation in the Y-maze and Morris water maze was not improved. These results mean that nobiletin can specifically improve memories of emotionally salient information associated with fear and novelty, but not of spatial information without emotional saliency. Accordingly, the use of nobiletin on normal subjects as a memory enhancer would be more effective on emotional types but may have limited value for the improvement of episodic memories.

  9. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  10. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  12. Almeria spatial memory recognition test (ASMRT): Gender differences emerged in a new passive spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; García-Moreno, Luis Miguel; Cimadevilla, Jose Manuel

    2017-06-09

    Many different human spatial memory tasks were developed in the last two decades. Virtual reality based tasks make possible developing different scenarios and situations to assess spatial orientation but sometimes these tasks are complex for specific populations like children and older-adults. A new spatial task with a very limited technological requirement was developed in this study. It demanded the use of spatial memory for an accurate solution. It also proved to be sensitive to gender differences, with men outperforming women under high specific difficulty levels. Thanks to its simplicity it could be applied as a screening test and is easy to combine with EEG and fMRI studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships among Verbal Memory, Spatial Working Memory and Intelligence in Children of 10-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukova Yu,A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue investigates the relationship Selective Reminding Test (SRT, a test of spatial working memory (SWM with Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC II. It has been found that the efficiency of memorizing verbal material is associated with the estimates on the K-ABC Sequential processing scale and K-ABC Simultaneous processing scale, but not to the Learning scale of education, is measured indirectly verbal memorization. Spatial working memory is not related to IQ.The issue is part of a research project on cognitive function in children with neuro-oncological disorders

  14. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-level lead exposure effects on spatial reference memory and working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Yang; Ping Zhou; Yonghui Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that lead exposure can result in cognitive dysfunction and behavior disorders. However, lead exposure impairments vary under different experimental conditions.OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in spatial learning and memory following low-level lead exposure in rats, in Morris water maze test under the same experimental condition used to analyze lead exposure effects on various memory types and learning processes.DESIGN AND SETTING: The experiment was conducted at the Animal Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science between February 2005 and March 2006. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and behavioral observations were performed.MATERIALS: Sixteen male, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into normal control and lead exposure groups (n = 8).METHODS: Rats in the normal control group were fed distilled water, and those in the lead exposure group were fed 250 mL of 0.05% lead acetate once per day. At day 28, all rats performed the Morris water maze test, consisting of four phases: space navigation, probe test, working memory test, and visual cue test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place navigation in the Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, probe trials for spatial reference memory, working memory test for spatial working memory, and visual cue test for non-spatial cognitive function. Perkin-Elmer Model 300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was utilized to determine blood lead levels in rats.RESULTS: (1) In the working memory test, the time to reach the platform remained unchanged between the control and lead exposure groups (F(1,1) = 0.007, P = 0.935). A visible decrease in escape latencies was observed in each group (P = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (F(1,1) = 1.869, P = 0.193). The working memory probe test demonstrated no change between the two groups in the time spent in the target quadrant during the working memory probe test

  17. Spatial memory is intact in aged rats after propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Ho; Culley, Deborah J; Baxter, Mark G; Xie, Zhongcong; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Crosby, Gregory

    2008-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that aged rats have persistent impairment of spatial memory after sedation with nitrous oxide or general anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide. Propofol has different receptor mechanisms of action and a favorable short-term recovery profile, and it has been proposed that propofol is devoid of enduring effects on cognitive performance. No studies have investigated this question in aged subjects, however, so we designed an experiment to examine the long-term effects of propofol anesthesia on spatial working memory. Eighteen-mo-old rats were randomized to 2 h of 100% oxygen-propofol anesthesia (n=11) or to a control group that breathed 100% oxygen (n=10). Propofol was administered by continuous infusion via a tail vein catheter. Rats breathed spontaneously and rectal temperature was maintained. Mean arterial blood pressure was measured noninvasively and a venous blood gas was obtained just before discontinuation of propofol. After a 2-day recovery, spatial working memory was assessed for 14 days using a 12-arm radial maze. The number of total errors, number of correct choices to first error, and time to complete the maze was recorded and analyzed using a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), with Pmemory in aged rats. In aged rats, propofol anesthesia is devoid of the persistent memory effects observed with other general anesthetics in this model. Thus, while it appears that the state of general anesthesia is neither necessary nor sufficient for development of postanesthetic memory impairment, the choice of anesthetics may play a role in late cognitive outcome in the aged.

  18. The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Starc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory. We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the distracting influences (towards or away from the position of the distractor. Participants (n = 25, 8 men, 19–31 years old were asked to remember the exact position of a target scrambled image and recall it with a joystick after a delay. In some trials an additional distracting image (scrambled, neutral or negative was shown during the delay. We measured the spread of responses (standard deviation of angular error and shifts of the average response towards the prototype angles (45° or towards the position of distractors. Distracting stimuli did not affect the spread of responses and decreased the tendency of participants to move the responses towards the prototype angle. Different types of distractors did not differ in this effect. Contrary to expectations, the participants moved their responses away from the position of distractors; this effect was more pronounced for negative distractors. In addition to memorizing the exact position and maintaining attention on the position of the stimulus, participants are likely to strategically use information about spatial category membership (quadrants and information about the position of the distractor. The repulsive effect of the distractor likely results from inhibition of its position and indicates the need to supplement computational models of spatial working memory and to take into account different strategies of working memory use.

  19. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Meagan L.; Floresco, Stan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates ...

  20. Barnes Maze Procedure for Spatial Learning and Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Matthew W

    2018-03-05

    The Barnes maze is a dry-land based rodent behavioral paradigm for assessing spatial learning and memory that was originally developed by its namesake, Carol Barnes. It represents a well-established alternative to the more popular Morris Water maze and offers the advantage of being free from the potentially confounding influence of swimming behavior. Herein, the Barnes maze experimental setup and corresponding procedures for testing and analysis in mice are described in detail.

  1. DAILY RUNNING PROMOTES SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HojjatAllah Alaei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent 8 days. Four rat groups were included as follows: 1- Group C (controls which did not exercise. 2- Group A (30 days treadmill running before and 8 days during the Morris water maze testing period. 3- Group B (30 days exercise before the Morris water maze testing period only and 4- Group D (8 days exercise only during the Morris water maze testing period. The results showed that chronic (30 days and continuous (during 8 days of Morris water maze testing days treadmill training produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning and memory which was indicated by decreases in path length and latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05. The benefits in these tests were lost in three days, if the daily running session was abandoned. In group D with acute treadmill running (8 days exercise only the difference between the Group A disappeared in one week and benefit seemed to be obtained in comparison with the controls without running program. In conclusion the chronic and daily running exercises promoted learning and memory in Morris water maze, but the benefits were lost in few days without daily running sessions in adult rats

  2. [GLIATILIN CORRECTION OF WORKING AND REFERENCE SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN AGED RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the influence of gliatilin administration on the spatial memory in aged rats. Cognitive function and spatial memory in animals was evaluated using radial (8-beam) maze test. Errors of working spatial memory and reference memory were used as indicators of impaired cognitive function. It was found that aged (24-month) rats compared with younger (6-months) age group exhibited cognitive impairment, as manifested by deterioration of short- and long-term memory processes. Course administration of gliatilin in rats of the older age group at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement of the working and reference spatial memory in aged rats.

  3. Focus of spatial attention during spatial working memory maintenance : Evidence from pupillary light response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabius, J. H.; Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Schut, M. J.; Nijboer, T. C.W.; Van der Stigchel, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, we demonstrate modulation of the pupillary light response by spatial working memory (SWM). The pupillary light response has previously been shown to reflect the focus of covert attention, as demonstrated by smaller pupil sizes when a subject covertly attends a location on a

  4. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs learning while sparing source memory and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra E; Slivicki, Richard A; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments. Episodic memory in rats can be examined using a source memory task. In the current study, rats received paclitaxel, a taxane-derived chemotherapeutic agent, and learning and memory functioning was examined using the source memory task. Treatment with paclitaxel did not impair spatial and episodic memory, and paclitaxel treated rats were not more susceptible to cognitive challenges. Under conditions in which memory was not impaired, paclitaxel treatment impaired learning of new rules, documenting a decreased sensitivity to changes in experimental contingencies. These findings provide new information on the nature of cancer chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments, particularly regarding the incongruent vulnerability of episodic memory and new learning following treatment with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote spatial memory in aging: all is not lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shayna eRosenbaum

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to acquire and retain spatial memories in order to navigate in new environments is known to decline with age, but little is known about the effect of aging on representations of environments learned long ago, in the remote past. To investigate the status of remote spatial memory in old age, we tested healthy young and older adults on a variety of mental navigation tests based on a large-scale city environment that was very familiar to participants but rarely visited by the older adults in recent years. We show that whereas performance on a route learning test of new spatial learning was significantly worse in older than younger adults, performance was comparable or better in the older adults on mental navigation tests based on a well-known environment learned long ago. An exception was in the older adults’ ability to vividly re-experience the well-known environment, and recognize and represent the visual details contained within it. The results are seen as analogous to the pattern of better semantic than episodic memory that has been found to accompany healthy aging.

  6. Spatial memory in captive American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays.

  7. MGlu5 antagonism impairs exploration and memory of spatial and non-spatial stimuli in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul; Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2008-01-01

    and it was found that: 1) Locomotion during exploration of spatial environments and exploration time at novel objects were reduced by i.p. but not by prelimbic administration of MPEP, 2) spatial short-term memory was impaired in cross-maze and object discrimination was reduced after both types of administration, 3......) long-term retention of spatial conditioning in the cross-maze was inhibited after i.p. applications which 4) also inhibited spontaneous alternation performance during maze-exploration. Reduced exploratory locomotion and exploration time after i.p. injections may have contributed to the observed......Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) has been implicated in memory processing in some but not all learning tasks.  The reason why this receptor is involved in some tasks but not in others remains to be determined.  The present experiments using rats examined effects of the mGlu5...

  8. Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: Emotion, working memory and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Maswood, Raeya

    2016-08-01

    The effects of emotion on working memory and executive control are often studied in isolation. Positive mood enhances verbal and impairs spatial working memory, whereas negative mood enhances spatial and impairs verbal working memory. Moreover, positive mood enhances executive control, whereas negative mood has little influence. We examined how emotion influences verbal and spatial working memory capacity, which requires executive control to coordinate between holding information in working memory and completing a secondary task. We predicted that positive mood would improve both verbal and spatial working memory capacity because of its influence on executive control. Positive, negative and neutral moods were induced followed by completing a verbal (Experiment 1) or spatial (Experiment 2) working memory operation span task to assess working memory capacity. Positive mood enhanced working memory capacity irrespective of the working memory domain, whereas negative mood had no influence on performance. Thus, positive mood was more successful holding information in working memory while processing task-irrelevant information, suggesting that the influence mood has on executive control supersedes the independent effects mood has on domain-specific working memory.

  9. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  10. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  11. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  12. Visual long-term memory for spatial frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Martin; Paul, Aileen

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that a visual long-term memory based on a sensory representation of the stimulus accounts for discrimination performance when the reference and the test stimuli are separated in time. Decision processes involved in setting response criteria, however, may also contribute to discrimination performance. In the present study, it is shown that under proper control, spatial frequency discrimination thresholds from a group of observers, each performing on a single trial, are significantly higher for a 2-h than for a 5-sec retention interval, whereas thresholds from individual observers performing in repeated trials with a 2-h retention interval are considerably lower. The results suggest that discrimination performance may depend on the retention of task-relevant information, such as a response criterion, rather than on visual memory of the stimulus. It is concluded that it is risky to postulate a high-fidelity long-term visual memory for spatial frequency on the basis of psychophysical group discrimination thresholds.

  13. Spatial working memory load affects counting but not subitizing in enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomonari; Kumada, Takatsune

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated whether subitizing reflects capacity limitations associated with two types of working memory tasks. Under a dual-task situation, participants performed an enumeration task in conjunction with either a spatial (Experiment 1) or a nonspatial visual (Experiment 2) working memory task. Experiment 1 showed that spatial working memory load affected the slope of a counting function but did not affect subitizing performance or subitizing range. Experiment 2 showed that nonspatial visual working memory load affected neither enumeration efficiency nor subitizing range. Furthermore, in both spatial and nonspatial memory tasks, neither subitizing efficiency nor subitizing range was affected by amount of imposed memory load. In all the experiments, working memory load failed to influence slope, subitizing range, or overall reaction time. These findings suggest that subitizing is performed without either spatial or nonspatial working memory. A possible mechanism of subitizing with independent capacity of working memory is discussed.

  14. Methylphenidate Improves Visual-Spatial Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit- hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Martinussen, Rhonda; Ickowicz, Abel; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on visual-spatial memory, as measured by subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual-spatial memory is a core component of working memory that has been shown to be impaired in…

  15. NMDA Signaling in CA1 Mediates Selectively the Spatial Component of Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Ryan; Lykken, Christy; Beer, Zachery; Suh, Junghyup; McHugh, Thomas J.; Tonegawa, Susumu; Eichenbaum, Howard; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies focusing on the memory for temporal order have reported that CA1 plays a critical role in the memory for the sequences of events, in addition to its well-described role in spatial navigation. In contrast, CA3 was found to principally contribute to the memory for the association of items with spatial or contextual information in…

  16. Fractionation of visuo-spatial memory processes in bipolar depression: a cognitive scaffolding account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, P.; Gray, J.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of neurocognitive performance in bipolar disorder (BD) have demonstrated impairments in visuo-spatial memory. The aim of the present study was to use an object-location memory (OLM) paradigm to assess specific, dissociable processes in visuo-spatial memory and examine

  17. Fractionation of visuo-spatial memory processes in bipolar depression: a cognitive scaffolding account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, P.; Gray, J.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of neurocognitive performance in bipolar disorder (BD) have demonstrated impairments in visuo-spatial memory. The aim of the present study was to use an object-location memory (OLM) paradigm to assess specific, dissociable processes in visuo-spatial memory and examine

  18. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Distractors on Maintenance in Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Anne R.; Keiser, Brian A.; Beattie, Heidi L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether attention to a location plays a role in the maintenance of locations in spatial working memory in young children as it does in adults. This study was the first to investigate whether distractors presented during the delay of a spatial working-memory task influenced young children's memory responses. Across 2…

  19. Release from proactive interference in rat spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; MacDonald, Hayden; Brown, Lyn; Macpherson, Krista

    2017-09-01

    A three-phase procedure was used to produce proactive interference (PI) in one trial on an eight-arm radial maze. Rats were forced to enter four arms for reward on an initial interference phase, to then enter the four remaining arms on a target phase, and to then choose among all eight arms on a retention test, with only the arms not visited in the target phase containing reward. Control trials involved only the target phase and the retention test. Lower accuracy was found on PI trials than on control trials, but performance on PI trials significantly exceeded chance, showing some retention of target memories. Changes in temporal and reward variables between the interference, target, and retention test phases showed release from PI, but changes in context and pattern of arm entry did not. It is suggested that the release from PI paradigm can be used to understand spatial memory encoding in rats and other species.

  20. Bosonization in a two-dimensional Riemann Cartan geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denardo, G.; Spallucci, E.

    1987-01-01

    We study the vacuum functional for a Dirac field in a two dimensional Riemann-Cartan geometry. Torsion is treated as a quantum variable while the metric is considered as a classical background field. Decoupling spinors from the non-Riemannian part of the geometry introduces a chiral Jacobian into the vacuum generating functional. We compute this functional Jacobian determinant by means of the Alvarez method. Finally, we show that the effective action for the background geometry is of the Liouville type and does not preserve any memory of the initial torsion field. (author)

  1. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  2. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  3. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  4. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  5. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  6. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  7. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  8. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  9. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  10. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  11. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Fulling, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed. (author)

  13. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W.; Fulling, S A [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed.

  14. DNA methylation regulates neurophysiological spatial representation in memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Roth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including altered DNA methylation are critical for altered gene transcription subserving synaptic plasticity and the retention of learned behavior. Here, we tested the idea that one role for activity-dependent altered DNA methylation is stabilization of cognition-associated hippocampal place cell firing in response to novel place learning. We observed that a behavioral protocol (spatial exploration of a novel environment known to induce hippocampal place cell remapping resulted in alterations of hippocampal Bdnf DNA methylation. Further studies using neurophysiological in vivo single-unit recordings revealed that pharmacological manipulations of DNA methylation decreased long-term but not short-term place field stability. Together, our data highlight a role for DNA methylation in regulating neurophysiological spatial representation and memory formation.

  15. DNA methylation regulates neurophysiological spatial representation in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric D; Roth, Tania L; Money, Kelli M; SenGupta, Sonda; Eason, Dawn E; Sweatt, J David

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms including altered DNA methylation are critical for altered gene transcription subserving synaptic plasticity and the retention of learned behavior. Here we tested the idea that one role for activity-dependent altered DNA methylation is stabilization of cognition-associated hippocampal place cell firing in response to novel place learning. We observed that a behavioral protocol (spatial exploration of a novel environment) known to induce hippocampal place cell remapping resulted in alterations of hippocampal Bdnf DNA methylation. Further studies using neurophysiological in vivo single unit recordings revealed that pharmacological manipulations of DNA methylation decreased long-term but not short-term place field stability. Together our data highlight a role for DNA methylation in regulating neurophysiological spatial representation and memory formation.

  16. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  17. Contributions of Medial Temporal Lobe and Striatal Memory Systems to Learning and Retrieving Overlapping Spatial Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I.; Stern, Chantal E.

    2014-01-01

    Many life experiences share information with other memories. In order to make decisions based on overlapping memories, we need to distinguish between experiences to determine the appropriate behavior for the current situation. Previous work suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and medial caudate interact to support the retrieval of overlapping navigational memories in different contexts. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to test the prediction that the MTL and medial caudate play complementary roles in learning novel mazes that cross paths with, and must be distinguished from, previously learned routes. During fMRI scanning, participants navigated virtual routes that were well learned from prior training while also learning new mazes. Critically, some routes learned during scanning shared hallways with those learned during pre-scan training. Overlap between mazes required participants to use contextual cues to select between alternative behaviors. Results demonstrated parahippocampal cortex activity specific for novel spatial cues that distinguish between overlapping routes. The hippocampus and medial caudate were active for learning overlapping spatial memories, and increased their activity for previously learned routes when they became context dependent. Our findings provide novel evidence that the MTL and medial caudate play complementary roles in the learning, updating, and execution of context-dependent navigational behaviors. PMID:23448868

  18. Early blindness alters the spatial organization of verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Mattioni, Stefania; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood. In the present study we tested whether visual experience is instrumental in establishing the link between serial order in WM and spatial processing. We tested early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted individuals in an auditory WM task. Replicating previous studies, left-key responses were faster for early items in the list whereas later items facilitated right-key responses in the sighted group. The same effect was observed in LB individuals. In contrast, EB participants did not show any association between space and serial position in WM. These results suggest that early visual experience plays a critical role in linking ordered items in WM and spatial representations. The analogical spatial structure of WM may depend in part on the actual experience of using spatially organized devices (e.g., notes, whiteboards) to offload WM. These practices are largely precluded to EB individuals, who instead rely to mnemonic devices that are less spatially organized (e.g., recordings, vocal notes). The way we habitually organize information in the external world may bias the way we organize information in our WM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple foci of spatial attention in multimodal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2016-11-15

    The maintenance of sensory information in working memory (WM) is mediated by the attentional activation of stimulus representations that are stored in perceptual brain regions. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we measured tactile and visual contralateral delay activity (tCDA/CDA components) in a bimodal WM task to concurrently track the attention-based maintenance of information stored in anatomically segregated (somatosensory and visual) brain areas. Participants received tactile and visual sample stimuli on both sides, and in different blocks, memorized these samples on the same side or on opposite sides. After a retention delay, memory was unpredictably tested for touch or vision. In the same side blocks, tCDA and CDA components simultaneously emerged over the same hemisphere, contralateral to the memorized tactile/visual sample set. In opposite side blocks, these two components emerged over different hemispheres, but had the same sizes and onset latencies as in the same side condition. Our results reveal distinct foci of tactile and visual spatial attention that were concurrently maintained on task-relevant stimulus representations in WM. The independence of spatially-specific biasing mechanisms for tactile and visual WM content suggests that multimodal information is stored in distributed perceptual brain areas that are activated through modality-specific processes that can operate simultaneously and largely independently of each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  1. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  3. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  4. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  5. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-09-22

    Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  7. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  8. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  9. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  10. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  11. Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Gao, Jun; Sun, Ke; Wang, Chao-Yue; Lai, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yao; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Jin, Xian-Min

    2018-05-01

    Quantum walks, in virtue of the coherent superposition and quantum interference, have exponential superiority over their classical counterpart in applications of quantum searching and quantum simulation. The quantum-enhanced power is highly related to the state space of quantum walks, which can be expanded by enlarging the photon number and/or the dimensions of the evolution network, but the former is considerably challenging due to probabilistic generation of single photons and multiplicative loss. We demonstrate a two-dimensional continuous-time quantum walk by using the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays, rather than the inner degree of freedoms of photons. Using femtosecond laser direct writing, we construct a large-scale three-dimensional structure that forms a two-dimensional lattice with up to 49 × 49 nodes on a photonic chip. We demonstrate spatial two-dimensional quantum walks using heralded single photons and single photon-level imaging. We analyze the quantum transport properties via observing the ballistic evolution pattern and the variance profile, which agree well with simulation results. We further reveal the transient nature that is the unique feature for quantum walks of beyond one dimension. An architecture that allows a quantum walk to freely evolve in all directions and at a large scale, combining with defect and disorder control, may bring up powerful and versatile quantum walk machines for classically intractable problems.

  12. Testing a Dynamic Field Account of Interactions between Spatial Attention and Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: if attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal is reexamined in light of a neural process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color-discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial recall task. In the critical shifting attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the memorized location relative to a midline reference axis. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors but no change in directional error, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations—as predicted by the model—there should be systematic changes in the pattern of spatial recall errors depending on the direction of the shift. Results were consistent with the latter possibility—recall errors were biased toward the location of discrimination targets appearing during the delay. PMID:26810574

  13. Testing a dynamic-field account of interactions between spatial attention and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Spencer, John P

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: If attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal was reexamined in light of a neural-process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial-recall task. In the critical shifting-attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the midline reference axis, relative to the memorized location. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors, but no change in directional errors, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations-as predicted by the model-systematic changes in the patterns of spatial-recall errors should occur that would depend on the direction of the shift. The results were consistent with the latter possibility-recall errors were biased toward the locations of discrimination targets appearing during the delay.

  14. Emotion’s Influence on Memory for Spatial and Temporal Context

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Katherine; Patnaik, Pooja; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals report remembering emotional items vividly. It is debated whether this report reflects enhanced memory accuracy or a bias to believe emotional memories are vivid. We hypothesized emotion would enhance memory accuracy, improving memory for contextual details. The hallmark of episodic memory is that items are remembered in a spatial and temporal context, so we examined whether an item’s valence (positive, negative) or arousal (high, low) would influence its ability to be remembered ...

  15. Two-Dimensional One-Component Plasma on Flamm's Paraboloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Riccardo; Téllez, Gabriel

    2008-11-01

    We study the classical non-relativistic two-dimensional one-component plasma at Coulomb coupling Γ=2 on the Riemannian surface known as Flamm's paraboloid which is obtained from the spatial part of the Schwarzschild metric. At this special value of the coupling constant, the statistical mechanics of the system are exactly solvable analytically. The Helmholtz free energy asymptotic expansion for the large system has been found. The density of the plasma, in the thermodynamic limit, has been carefully studied in various situations.

  16. The Penalty Cost Functional for the Two-Dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Onomza WAZIRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs the penalty cost functional for optimizing the two-dimensional control operator of the energized wave equation. In some multiplier methods such as the Lagrange multipliers and Pontrygean maximum principle, the cost of merging the constraint equation to the integral quadratic objective functional to obtain an unconstraint equation is normally guessed or obtained from the first partial derivatives of the unconstrained equation. The Extended Conjugate Gradient Method (ECGM necessitates that the penalty cost be sequentially obtained algebraically. The ECGM problem contains a functional which is completely given in terms of state and time spatial dependent variables.

  17. Contribution of cerebellar sensorimotor adaptation to hippocampal spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Passot

    Full Text Available Complementing its primary role in motor control, cerebellar learning has also a bottom-up influence on cognitive functions, where high-level representations build up from elementary sensorimotor memories. In this paper we examine the cerebellar contribution to both procedural and declarative components of spatial cognition. To do so, we model a functional interplay between the cerebellum and the hippocampal formation during goal-oriented navigation. We reinterpret and complete existing genetic behavioural observations by means of quantitative accounts that cross-link synaptic plasticity mechanisms, single cell and population coding properties, and behavioural responses. In contrast to earlier hypotheses positing only a purely procedural impact of cerebellar adaptation deficits, our results suggest a cerebellar involvement in high-level aspects of behaviour. In particular, we propose that cerebellar learning mechanisms may influence hippocampal place fields, by contributing to the path integration process. Our simulations predict differences in place-cell discharge properties between normal mice and L7-PKCI mutant mice lacking long-term depression at cerebellar parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. On the behavioural level, these results suggest that, by influencing the accuracy of hippocampal spatial codes, cerebellar deficits may impact the exploration-exploitation balance during spatial navigation.

  18. Exogenous and endogenous spatial attention effects on visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabiano; Santangelo, Valerio; Raffone, Antonino; Lupiáñez, Juan; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we investigate how exogenous and endogenous orienting of spatial attention affect visuospatial working memory (VSWM). Specifically, we focused on two attentional effects and their consequences on storage in VSWM, when exogenous (Experiment 1) or endogenous (Experiment 2) orienting cues were used. The first effect, known as the meridian effect, is given by a decrement in behavioural performance when spatial cues and targets are presented in locations separated by vertical and/or horizontal meridians. The second effect, known as the distance effect, is given by a decrement in the orienting effects as a function of the spatial distance between cues and targets. Our results revealed a dissociation between exogenous and endogenous orienting mechanisms in terms of both meridian and distance effects. We found that meridian crossing affects performance only when endogenous cues were used. Specifically, VSWM performance with endogenous cueing depended more on the number of meridian crossings than on distance between cue and target. By contrast, a U-shaped distance dependency was observed using exogenous cues. Our findings therefore suggest that exogenous and endogenous orienting mechanisms lead to different forms of attentional bias for storage in VSWM.

  19. Synaptic connectivity and spatial memory: a topological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Russell; Babichev, Andrey; Dabaghian, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    In the hippocampus, a network of place cells generates a cognitive map of space, in which each cell is responsive to a particular area of the environment - its place field. The peak response of each cell and the size of each place field have considerable variability. Experimental evidence suggests that place cells encode a topological map of space that serves as a basis of spatial memory and spatial awareness. Using a computational model based on Persistent Homology Theory we demonstrate that if the parameters of the place cells spiking activity fall inside of the physiological range, the network correctly encodes the topological features of the environment. We next introduce parameters of synaptic connectivity into the model and demonstrate that failures in synapses that detect coincident neuronal activity lead to spatial learning deficiencies similar to the ones that are observed in rodent models of neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, we show that these learning deficiencies may be mitigated by increasing the number of active cells and/or by increasing their firing rate, suggesting the existence of a compensatory mechanism inherent to the cognitive map.

  20. Primacy Performance of Normal and Retarded Children: Stimulus Familiarity or Spatial Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lee

    1978-01-01

    Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)

  1. A fast semi-discrete Kansa method to solve the two-dimensional spatiotemporal fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, HongGuang; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yong; Pang, Guofei; Garrard, Rhiannon

    2017-09-01

    Fractional-order diffusion equations (FDEs) extend classical diffusion equations by quantifying anomalous diffusion frequently observed in heterogeneous media. Real-world diffusion can be multi-dimensional, requiring efficient numerical solvers that can handle long-term memory embedded in mass transport. To address this challenge, a semi-discrete Kansa method is developed to approximate the two-dimensional spatiotemporal FDE, where the Kansa approach first discretizes the FDE, then the Gauss-Jacobi quadrature rule solves the corresponding matrix, and finally the Mittag-Leffler function provides an analytical solution for the resultant time-fractional ordinary differential equation. Numerical experiments are then conducted to check how the accuracy and convergence rate of the numerical solution are affected by the distribution mode and number of spatial discretization nodes. Applications further show that the numerical method can efficiently solve two-dimensional spatiotemporal FDE models with either a continuous or discrete mixing measure. Hence this study provides an efficient and fast computational method for modeling super-diffusive, sub-diffusive, and mixed diffusive processes in large, two-dimensional domains with irregular shapes.

  2. Spatial memory enhances the evacuation efficiency of virtual pedestrians under poor visibility condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng; Kwok Kit Yuen, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Spatial memory is a critical navigation support tool for disoriented evacuees during evacuation under adverse environmental conditions such as dark or smoky conditions. Owing to the complexity of memory, it is challenging to understand the effect of spatial memory on pedestrian evacuation quantitatively. In this study, we propose a simple method to quantitatively represent the evacueeʼs spatial memory about the emergency exit, model the evacuation of pedestrians under the guidance of the spatial memory, and investigate the effect of the evacueeʼs spatial memory on the evacuation from theoretical and physical perspectives. The result shows that (i) a good memory can significantly assist the evacuation of pedestrians under poor visibility conditions, and the evacuation can always succeed when the degree of the memory exceeds a threshold (\\varphi > 0.5); (ii) the effect of memory is superior to that of “follow-the-crowd” under the same environmental conditions; (iii) in the case of multiple exits, the difference in the degree of the memory between evacuees has a significant effect (the greater the difference, the faster the evacuation) for the evacuation under poor visibility conditions. Our study provides a new quantitative insight into the effect of spatial memory on crowd evacuation under poor visibility conditions. Project supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Grant No. 11203615).

  3. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Sc...

  4. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  5. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  6. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  7. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  8. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  9. Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.

  10. [Spatial Cognition and Episodic Memory Formation in the Limbic Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex. Areas 35 and 36 roughly cover the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33 belong to the anterior cingulate gyrus, while areas 23, 26, 29, 30, and 31 to the posterior cingulate gyrus. Areas 25, 32, and the anteroinferior portion of area 24 are deeply involved in emotional responses, particularly in their autonomic functions, through reciprocal connections with the amygdaloid complex, anterior thalamus and projections to the brainstem and spinal visceral centers. Areas 29 and 30 have dense reciprocal connections with areas 23 and 31, the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, and the regions related to the hippocampus. They play pivotal roles in mediating spatial cognition, working memory processing, and episodic memory formation.

  11. Molecular mechanisms for the destabilization and restabilization of reactivated spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ryang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory retrieval is not a passive process. Recent studies have shown that reactivated memory is destabilized and then restabilized through gene expression-dependent reconsolidation. Molecular studies on the regulation of memory stability after retrieval have focused almost exclusively on fear memory, especially on the restabilization process of the reactivated fear memory. We previously showed that, similarly with fear memories, reactivated spatial memory undergoes reconsolidation in the Morris water maze. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which reactivated spatial memory is destabilized and restabilized remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates the stability of the reactivated spatial memory. Results We first showed that pharmacological inactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR in the hippocampus or genetic inhibition of cAMP-responsible element binding protein (CREB-mediated transcription disrupted reactivated spatial memory. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and L-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs in the hippocampus blocked the disruption of the reactivated spatial memory by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the reactivated spatial memory is destabilized through the activation of CB1 and LVGCCs and then restabilized through the activation of NMDAR- and CREB-mediated transcription. We also suggest that the reactivated spatial memory undergoes destabilization and restabilization in the hippocampus, through similar molecular processes as those for reactivated contextual fear memories, which require CB1 and LVGCCs for destabilization and NMDAR and CREB for restabilization.

  12. Hippocampal activation during retrieval of spatial context from episodic and semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Nadel, Lynn; Payne, Jessica; Ryan, Lee

    2010-10-15

    The hippocampus, a region implicated in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory, is central to the debate concerning the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Studies of medial temporal lobe amnesic patients provide evidence that the hippocampus is critical for the retrieval of episodic but not semantic memory. On the other hand, recent neuroimaging studies of intact individuals report hippocampal activation during retrieval of both autobiographical memories and semantic information that includes historical facts, famous faces, and categorical information, suggesting that episodic and semantic memory may engage the hippocampus during memory retrieval in similar ways. Few studies have matched episodic and semantic tasks for the degree to which they include spatial content, even though spatial content may be what drives hippocampal activation during semantic retrieval. To examine this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which retrieval of spatial and nonspatial information was compared during an episodic and semantic recognition task. Results show that the hippocampus (1) participates preferentially in the retrieval of episodic memories; (2) is also engaged by retrieval of semantic memories, particularly those that include spatial information. These data suggest that sharp dissociations between episodic and semantic memory may be overly simplistic and that the hippocampus plays a role in the retrieval of spatial content whether drawn from a memory of one's own life experiences or real-world semantic knowledge. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence.

  14. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  15. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  16. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  17. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  18. Attention on our mind: the role of spatial attention in visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Irwin, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study shows that spatial visual attention is used to retrieve information from visual working memory. Participants had to keep four colored circles in visual working memory. While keeping this information in memory we asked whether one of the colors was present in the array. While

  19. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  20. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  1. Contextual Cueing: Implicit Learning and Memory of Visual Context Guides Spatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M.; Jiang, Yuhong

    1998-01-01

    Six experiments involving a total of 112 college students demonstrate that a robust memory for visual context exists to guide spatial attention. Results show how implicit learning and memory of visual context can guide spatial attention toward task-relevant aspects of a scene. (SLD)

  2. The Effects of Spatial Contextual Familiarity on Remembered Scenes, Episodic Memories, and Imagined Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the effect of contextual familiarity on remembered and imagined events. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of this effect by comparing the effect of cuing spatial memories, episodic memories, and imagined future events with spatial contextual cues of varying levels of familiarity. We used…

  3. No functional role of attention-based rehearsal in maintenance of spatial working memory representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belopolsky, A.V.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study systematically examined the role of attention in maintenance of spatial representations in working memory as proposed by the attention-based rehearsal hypothesis [Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in spatial working memory. Journal of Experimental

  4. Spatial Sequences, but Not Verbal Sequences, Are Vulnerable to General Interference during Retention in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C.; Miron, Monica D.

    2016-01-01

    Among models of working memory, there is not yet a consensus about how to describe functions specific to storing verbal or visual-spatial memories. We presented aural-verbal and visual-spatial lists simultaneously and sometimes cued one type of information after presentation, comparing accuracy in conditions with and without informative…

  5. Mode selection in two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V R; Ginzburg, N S; Zaslavskii, V Yu; Malkin, A M; Sergeev, A S; Thumm, M

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides are analysed. It is shown that the doubly periodic corrugation deposited on the dielectric surface in the form of two gratings with translational vectors directed perpendicular to each other ensures effective selection of modes along two coordinates at large Fresnel parameters. This result is obtained both by the method of coupled waves (geometrical optics approximation) and by the direct numerical simulations. Two-dimensional Bragg resonators make it possible to fabricate two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers and to provide generation of spatially coherent radiation in large-volume active media. (waveguides)

  6. Sex differences in stress effects on response and spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to affect learning and memory processes. However, although effects of stress on hippocampus-dependent declarative learning and memory are well-documented, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of stress on striatum-dependent stimulus-response (S-R) learning and memory. Recent evidence indicates that glucocorticoid stress hormones shortly after learning enhance S-R memory consolidation, whereas stress prior to retention testing impairs S-R memory retrieval. Whether stress affects also the acquisition of S-R memories in humans remains unclear. For this reason, we examined here the effects of acute stress on S-R memory formation and contrasted these stress effects with those on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Healthy men and women underwent a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test, SECPT) or a control manipulation before they completed an S-R task and two spatial learning tasks. Memory was assessed one week later. Our data showed that stress impaired S-R memory performance in men but not in women. Conversely, spatial memory was impaired by stress in women but not in men. These findings provide further evidence that stress may alter learning and memory processes beyond the hippocampus. Moreover, our data underline that participants' sex may play a critical role in the impact of stress on multiple memory systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Static and dynamic properties of two-dimensional Coulomb clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosal, Amit

    2017-10-01

    We study the temperature dependence of static and dynamic responses of Coulomb interacting particles in two-dimensional confinements across the crossover from solid- to liquid-like behaviors. While static correlations that investigate the translational and bond orientational order in the confinements show the footprints of hexatic-like phase at low temperatures, dynamics of the particles slow down considerably in this phase, reminiscent of a supercooled liquid. Using density correlations, we probe long-lived heterogeneities arising from the interplay of the irregularity in the confinement and long-range Coulomb interactions. The relaxation at multiple time scales show stretched-exponential decay of spatial correlations in irregular traps. Temperature dependence of characteristic time scales, depicting the structural relaxation of the system, show striking similarities with those observed for the glassy systems, indicating that some of the key signatures of supercooled liquids emerge in confinements with lower spatial symmetries.

  8. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefan; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Bethge, Ole; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The advent of microcomputers in the 1970s has dramatically changed our society. Since then, microprocessors have been made almost exclusively from silicon, but the ever-increasing demand for higher integration density and speed, lower power consumption and better integrability with everyday goods has prompted the search for alternatives. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered promising candidates for future high-performance processor generations and chips based on thin-film plastic technology or carbon nanotubes could allow for embedding electronic intelligence into arbitrary objects for the Internet-of-Things. Here, we present a 1-bit implementation of a microprocessor using a two-dimensional semiconductor--molybdenum disulfide. The device can execute user-defined programs stored in an external memory, perform logical operations and communicate with its periphery. Our 1-bit design is readily scalable to multi-bit data. The device consists of 115 transistors and constitutes the most complex circuitry so far made from a two-dimensional material.

  9. The Role of the Oculomotor System in Updating Visual-Spatial Working Memory across Saccades

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Paul J.; Belopolsky, Artem V.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) helps us to maintain and manipulate visual information in the absence of sensory input. It has been proposed that VSWM is an emergent property of the oculomotor system. In the present study we investigated the role of the oculomotor system in updating of spatial working memory representations across saccades. Participants had to maintain a location in memory while making a saccade to a different location. During the saccade the target was displaced, which ...

  10. Emotion’s Influence on Memory for Spatial and Temporal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katherine; Patnaik, Pooja; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals report remembering emotional items vividly. It is debated whether this report reflects enhanced memory accuracy or a bias to believe emotional memories are vivid. We hypothesized emotion would enhance memory accuracy, improving memory for contextual details. The hallmark of episodic memory is that items are remembered in a spatial and temporal context, so we examined whether an item’s valence (positive, negative) or arousal (high, low) would influence its ability to be remembered with those contextual details. Across two experiments, high-arousal items were remembered with spatial and temporal context more often than low-arousal items. Item valence did not influence memory for those details, although positive high-arousal items were recognized or recalled more often than negative items. These data suggest that emotion does not just bias participants to believe they have a vivid memory; rather, the arousal elicited by an event can benefit memory for some types of contextual details. PMID:21379376

  11. Spatial-Simultaneous and Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Individuals with Down Syndrome: The Effect of Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Mammarella, Irene C.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier research showed that visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is better preserved in Down syndrome (DS) than verbal WM. Some differences emerged, however, when VSWM performance was broken down into its various components, and more recent studies revealed that the spatial-simultaneous component of VSWM is more impaired than the spatial-sequential…

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  13. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  14. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  15. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  16. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  17. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  18. Two-dimensional phase fraction charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morral, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A phase fraction chart is a graphical representation of the amount of each phase present in a system as a function of temperature, composition or other variable. Examples are phase fraction versus temperature charts used to characterize specific alloys and as a teaching tool in elementary texts, and Schaeffler diagrams used to predict the amount of ferrite in stainless steel welds. Isothermal-transformation diagrams (TTT diagrams) are examples that give phase (or microconstituent) amount versus temperature and time. The purpose of this communication is to discuss the properties of two-dimensional phase fraction charts in more general terms than have been reported before. It is shown that they can represent multi-component, multiphase equilibria in a way which is easier to read and which contains more information than the isotherms and isopleths of multi-component phase diagrams

  19. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  20. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  1. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  2. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  3. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  4. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  5. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  6. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  7. When gestures show us the way: Co-speech gestures selectively facilitate navigation and spatial memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Galati, Alexia; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Avraamides, Marios N.

    2017-01-01

    How does gesturing during route learning relate to subsequent spatial performance? We examined the relationship between gestures produced spontaneously while studying route directions and spatial representations of the navigated environment. Participants studied route directions, then navigated those routes from memory in a virtual environment, and finally had their memory of the environment assessed. We found that, for navigators with low spatial perspective-taking pe...

  8. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of verbal and nonverbal interference on spatial and object visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postle, Bradley R; Desposito, Mark; Corkin, Suzanne

    2005-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a verbal coding mechanism is necessarily engaged by object, but not spatial, visual working memory tasks. We employed a dual-task procedure that paired n-back working memory tasks with domain-specific distractor trials inserted into each interstimulus interval of the n-back tasks. In two experiments, object n-back performance demonstrated greater sensitivity to verbal distraction, whereas spatial n-back performance demonstrated greater sensitivity to motion distraction. Visual object and spatial working memory may differ fundamentally in that the mnemonic representation of featural characteristics of objects incorporates a verbal (perhaps semantic) code, whereas the mnemonic representation of the location of objects does not. Thus, the processes supporting working memory for these two types of information may differ in more ways than those dictated by the "what/where" organization of the visual system, a fact more easily reconciled with a component process than a memory systems account of working memory function.

  10. Working-memory performance is related to spatial breadth of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.

  11. Spatial But Not Oculomotor Information Biases Perceptual Memory: Evidence From Face Perception and Cognitive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Lobmaier, Janek S; Mast, Fred W; Senn, Walter

    2017-08-01

    Recent research put forward the hypothesis that eye movements are integrated in memory representations and are reactivated when later recalled. However, "looking back to nothing" during recall might be a consequence of spatial memory retrieval. Here, we aimed at distinguishing between the effect of spatial and oculomotor information on perceptual memory. Participants' task was to judge whether a morph looked rather like the first or second previously presented face. Crucially, faces and morphs were presented in a way that the morph reactivated oculomotor and/or spatial information associated with one of the previously encoded faces. Perceptual face memory was largely influenced by these manipulations. We considered a simple computational model with an excellent match (4.3% error) that expresses these biases as a linear combination of recency, saccade, and location. Surprisingly, saccades did not play a role. The results suggest that spatial and temporal rather than oculomotor information biases perceptual face memory. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. What versus where: Investigating how autobiographical memory retrieval differs when accessed with thematic versus spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Chu, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory research has investigated how cueing distinct aspects of a past event can trigger different recollective experiences. This research has stimulated theories about how autobiographical knowledge is accessed and organized. Here, we test the idea that thematic information organizes multiple autobiographical events whereas spatial information organizes individual past episodes by investigating how retrieval guided by these two forms of information differs. We used a novel autobiographical fluency task in which participants accessed multiple memory exemplars to event theme and spatial (location) cues followed by a narrative description task in which they described the memories generated to these cues. Participants recalled significantly more memory exemplars to event theme than to spatial cues; however, spatial cues prompted faster access to past memories. Results from the narrative description task revealed that memories retrieved via event theme cues compared to spatial cues had a higher number of overall details, but those recalled to the spatial cues were recollected with a greater concentration on episodic details than those retrieved via event theme cues. These results provide evidence that thematic information organizes and integrates multiple memories whereas spatial information prompts the retrieval of specific episodic content from a past event.

  13. Spatial memory in nonhuman primates implanted with the subdural pharmacotherapy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvig, Nandor; Tang, Hai M; Baptiste, Shirn L; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Kral, John G

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the possible influence of the Subdural Pharmacotherapy Device (SPD) on spatial memory in 3 adult, male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). The device was implanted in and above the subdural/subarachnoid space and cranium overlaying the right parietal/frontal cortex: a circuitry involved in spatial memory processing. A large test chamber, equipped with four baited and four non-baited food-ports at different locations, was used: reaches into empty food ports were counted as spatial memory errors. In this study of within-subject design, before SPD implantation (control) the animals made mean 373.3 ± 114.9 (mean ± SEM) errors in the first spatial memory test session. This value dropped to 47.7 ± 18.4 by the 8th session. After SPD implantation and alternating cycles of transmeningeal saline delivery and local cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in the implanted cortex the spatial memory error count, with the same port locations, was 33.0 ± 12.2 during the first spatial memory test session, further decreasing to 5.7 ± 3.5 by the 8th post-implantation session (Pmemory performance, which in fact included at least one completely error-free session per animal over time. The study showed that complication-free implantation and use of the SPD over the parietal and frontal cortices for months leave spatial memory processes intact in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial attention interacts with serial-order retrieval from verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Abrahamse, Elger L; Majerus, Steve; Fias, Wim

    2013-09-01

    The ability to maintain the serial order of events is recognized as a major function of working memory. Although general models of working memory postulate a close link between working memory and attention, such a link has so far not been proposed specifically for serial-order working memory. The present study provided the first empirical demonstration of a direct link between serial order in verbal working memory and spatial selective attention. We show that the retrieval of later items of a sequence stored in working memory-compared with that of earlier items-produces covert attentional shifts toward the right. This observation suggests the conceptually surprising notion that serial-order working memory, even for nonspatially defined verbal items, draws on spatial attention.

  15. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  16. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  17. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  18. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  19. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  20. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  1. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  3. Spin precession in inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.-H.; Chang, C.-R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical method to calculate the expectation value of spin in an inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional (2D) system with respect to an arbitrarily spin-polarized electron state, injected via an ideal point contact. The 2D system is confined in a [0 0 1]-grown quantum well, where both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are taken into account. The obtained analytical results allow more concrete description of the spatial behaviors of the spin precession caused individually by the Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. Applying the calculation on the Datta-Das spin-FET, whose original design considers only the Rashba effect inside the channel, we investigate the possible influence due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Concluded solution is the choice of ±[1±10], in particular [1 1 0], as the channel direction

  4. Two-dimensional neutron scintillation detector with optimal gamma discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyo, M.; Reinartz, R.; Schelten, J.; Mueller, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gamma sensitivity of a two-dimensional scintillation neutron detector based on position sensitive photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R2387 PM) has been minimized by a digital differential discrimination unit. Since the photomultiplier gain is position-dependent by ±25% a discrimination unit was developed where digital upper and lower discrimination levels are set due to the position-dependent photomultiplier gain obtained from calibration measurements. By this method narrow discriminator windows can be used to reduce the gamma background drastically without effecting the neutron sensitivity of the detector. The new discrimination method and its performance tested by neutron measurements will be described. Experimental results concerning spatial resolution and γ-sensitivity are presented

  5. Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2014-09-16

    We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.

  6. Sleep modulates the neural substrates of both spatial and contextual memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Rauchs

    Full Text Available It is known that sleep reshapes the neural representations that subtend the memories acquired while navigating in a virtual environment. However, navigation is not process-pure, as manifold learning components contribute to performance, notably the spatial and contextual memory constituents. In this context, it remains unclear whether post-training sleep globally promotes consolidation of all of the memory components embedded in virtual navigation, or rather favors the development of specific representations. Here, we investigated the effect of post-training sleep on the neural substrates of the consolidation of spatial and contextual memories acquired while navigating in a complex 3D, naturalistic virtual town. Using fMRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during various tasks designed to tap either the spatial or the contextual memory component, or both, 72 h after encoding with or without sleep deprivation during the first post-training night. Behavioral performance was not dependent upon post-training sleep deprivation, neither in a natural setting that engages both spatial and contextual memory processes nor when looking more specifically at each of these memory representations. At the neuronal level however, analyses that focused on contextual memory revealed distinct correlations between performance and neuronal activity in frontal areas associated with recollection processes after post-training sleep, and in the parahippocampal gyrus associated with familiarity processes in sleep-deprived participants. Likewise, efficient spatial memory was associated with posterior cortical activity after sleep whereas it correlated with parahippocampal/medial temporal activity after sleep deprivation. Finally, variations in place-finding efficiency in a natural setting encompassing spatial and contextual elements were associated with caudate activity after post-training sleep, suggesting the automation of navigation. These data indicate that post

  7. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Uresti-Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Methods. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. Results. The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. Discussion. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  8. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uresti-Cabrera, Luis A; Diaz, Rosalinda; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  9. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial memory depends on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to aging. This vulnerability has implications for the impairment of navigation capacities in older people, who may show a marked drop in performance of spatial tasks with advancing age. Contemporary understanding of long-term memory formation relies on molecular mechanisms underlying long-term synaptic plasticity. With memory acquisition, activity-dependent changes occurring in synapses initiate multiple signal transduction pathways enhancing protein turnover. This enhancement facilitates de novo synthesis of plasticity related proteins, crucial factors for establishing persistent long-term synaptic plasticity and forming memory engrams. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of memory traces formation; however, the identity of plasticity related proteins is still evasive. In this study, we investigated protein turnover in mouse hippocampus during long-term spatial memory formation using the reference memory version of radial arm maze (RAM) paradigm. We identified 1592 proteins, which exhibited a complex picture of expression changes during spatial memory formation. Variable linear decomposition reduced significantly data dimensionality and enriched three principal factors responsible for variance of memory-related protein levels at (1) the initial phase of memory acquisition (165 proteins), (2) during the steep learning improvement (148 proteins), and (3) the final phase of the learning curve (123 proteins). Gene ontology and signaling pathways analysis revealed a clear correlation between memory improvement and learning phase-curbed expression profiles of proteins belonging to specific functional categories. We found differential enrichment of (1) neurotrophic factors signaling pathways, proteins regulating synaptic transmission, and actin microfilament during the first day of the learning curve; (2) transcription and translation machinery, protein

  10. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert; Michaelevski, Izhak

    2016-02-01

    Spatial memory depends on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to aging. This vulnerability has implications for the impairment of navigation capacities in older people, who may show a marked drop in performance of spatial tasks with advancing age. Contemporary understanding of long-term memory formation relies on molecular mechanisms underlying long-term synaptic plasticity. With memory acquisition, activity-dependent changes occurring in synapses initiate multiple signal transduction pathways enhancing protein turnover. This enhancement facilitates de novo synthesis of plasticity related proteins, crucial factors for establishing persistent long-term synaptic plasticity and forming memory engrams. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of memory traces formation; however, the identity of plasticity related proteins is still evasive. In this study, we investigated protein turnover in mouse hippocampus during long-term spatial memory formation using the reference memory version of radial arm maze (RAM) paradigm. We identified 1592 proteins, which exhibited a complex picture of expression changes during spatial memory formation. Variable linear decomposition reduced significantly data dimensionality and enriched three principal factors responsible for variance of memory-related protein levels at (1) the initial phase of memory acquisition (165 proteins), (2) during the steep learning improvement (148 proteins), and (3) the final phase of the learning curve (123 proteins). Gene ontology and signaling pathways analysis revealed a clear correlation between memory improvement and learning phase-curbed expression profiles of proteins belonging to specific functional categories. We found differential enrichment of (1) neurotrophic factors signaling pathways, proteins regulating synaptic transmission, and actin microfilament during the first day of the learning curve; (2) transcription and translation machinery, protein

  11. Biphasic effect of citral, a flavoring and scenting agent, on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheqiong; Xi, Jinlei; Li, Jihong; Qu, Wen

    2009-10-01

    Although some central effects of citral have been reported, cognitive effects on spatial memory have not been investigated. The evidence showed that citral can regulate the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), which exerts a vital function in the development and maintenance of spatial memory. In this study, we applied Morris water maze to test the effect of citral on animals' spatial learning and memory. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect, we also measured the retinoic acid concentration in rats' hippocampus by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data implied biphasic effects of citral. The low dose (0.1 mg/kg) of citral improved the spatial learning capability, and enhanced the spatial reference memory of rats, whereas the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) was like to produce the opposite effects. Meanwhile, the low dose of citral increased the hippocampal retinoic acid concentration, while the high dose decreased it. Due to the quick elimination and non-bioaccumulation in the body, effects of citral on spatial memory in this study seemed to be indirect actions. The change in hippocampal retinoic acid concentration induced by different doses of citral might be responsible for the biphasic effect of citral on spatial learning and memory.

  12. The "when" and the "where" of single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance in young children: Insights into the development of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, "where" with respect to the surrounding environment, is one of the three fundamental components of episodic memory: what, where, when. Whereas basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age, coinciding with the offset of infantile amnesia, the resolution of allocentric spatial memory acquired over repeated trials improves from 2 to 4 years of age. Here, we first show that single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance improves in children from 3.5 to 7 years of age, during the typical period of childhood amnesia. Second, we show that large individual variation exists in children's performance at this age. Third, and most importantly, we show that improvements in single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance are due to an increasing ability to spatially and temporally separate locations and events. Such improvements in spatial and temporal processing abilities may contribute to the gradual offset of childhood amnesia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Verbal and visual-spatial memory in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Yun; Jing, Jin; Fan, Miao; Yang, De-Sheng; Zhu, Yan-Na; Chen, Ling; Li, Xiu-Hong

    2018-04-01

    To explore the abilities of verbal and visual-spatial memory in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Thirty-two children with developmental dyslexia (aged 8-12 years) and thirty-nine age- and gender-matched normal children were involved in the study. Their verbal short-term and verbal working memories were measured using the digit ordering and the digit span tests, respectively. Their visual-spatial short-term and visual-spatial working memories were examined using the forward and backward block-tapping tests, respectively. The DD children scored lower in the digit ordering and the digit span tests than the control children (P<0.05). The scores for the forward and backward block-tapping tests did not vary between the two groups (P>0.05). The children with DD have the deficits in both verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory.

  14. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  15. Working memory-driven attention improves spatial resolution: Support for perceptual enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Luo, Qianying; Cheng, Min

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has indicated that attention can be biased toward those stimuli matching the contents of working memory and thereby facilitates visual processing at the location of the memory-matching stimuli. However, whether this working memory-driven attentional modulation takes place on early perceptual processes remains unclear. Our present results showed that working memory-driven attention improved identification of a brief Landolt target presented alone in the visual field. Because the suprathreshold target appeared without any external noise added (i.e., no distractors or masks), the results suggest that working memory-driven attention enhances the target signal at early perceptual stages of visual processing. Furthermore, given that performance in the Landolt target identification task indexes spatial resolution, this attentional facilitation indicates that working memory-driven attention can boost early perceptual processing via enhancement of spatial resolution at the attended location.

  16. Modeling spatial-temporal operations with context-dependent associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, Eduardo; Lin, Juan

    2015-10-01

    We organize our behavior and store structured information with many procedures that require the coding of spatial and temporal order in specific neural modules. In the simplest cases, spatial and temporal relations are condensed in prepositions like "below" and "above", "behind" and "in front of", or "before" and "after", etc. Neural operators lie beneath these words, sharing some similarities with logical gates that compute spatial and temporal asymmetric relations. We show how these operators can be modeled by means of neural matrix memories acting on Kronecker tensor products of vectors. The complexity of these memories is further enhanced by their ability to store episodes unfolding in space and time. How does the brain scale up from the raw plasticity of contingent episodic memories to the apparent stable connectivity of large neural networks? We clarify this transition by analyzing a model that flexibly codes episodic spatial and temporal structures into contextual markers capable of linking different memory modules.

  17. Spatial and verbal working memory: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available According to numerous studies, working memory is not a unitary system. Baddeley's model of working memory includes besides central executive also two separate systems for verbal and visuo-spatial information processing. A modality- and process-specific specialization presumably exists in working memory system of the frontal lobes. In our preliminary study, we have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the pattern of cortical activation during spatial and verbal n-back task in six healthy subjects. A bilateral fronto-parietal cortical network was activated in both tasks. There was larger activation of right parietal and bilateral occipital areas in spatial than in vebal task. Activation of left sensorimotor area was larger in verbal compared to spatial task. No task-specific differences were found in the prefrontal cortex. Our results support the assumption that modality-specific processes exist within the working-memory system.

  18. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Druzian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027, but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  19. Readout from iconic memory and selective spatial attention involve similar neural processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christian C; Kristjánsson, Arni; Driver, Jon

    2007-10-01

    Iconic memory and spatial attention are often considered separately, but they may have functional similarities. Here we provide functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for some common underlying neural effects. Subjects judged three visual stimuli in one hemifield of a bilateral array comprising six stimuli. The relevant hemifield for partial report was indicated by an auditory cue, administered either before the visual array (precue, spatial attention) or shortly after the array (postcue, iconic memory). Pre- and postcues led to similar activity modulations in lateral occipital cortex contralateral to the cued side. This finding indicates that readout from iconic memory can have some neural effects similar to those of spatial attention. We also found common bilateral activation of a fronto-parietal network for postcue and precue trials. These neuroimaging data suggest that some common neural mechanisms underlie selective spatial attention and readout from iconic memory. Some differences were also found; compared with precues, postcues led to higher activity in the right middle frontal gyrus.

  20. The Role of Spatial Memory and Frames of Reference in the Precision of Angular Path Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Joeanna C.; Philbeck, John W.; Kleene, Nicholas J.; Chichka, David

    2012-01-01

    Angular path integration refers to the ability to maintain an estimate of self-location after a rotational displacement by integrating internally-generated (idiothetic) self-motion signals over time. Previous work has found that non-sensory inputs, namely spatial memory, can play a powerful role in angular path integration (Arthur et al., 2007, 2009). Here we investigated the conditions under which spatial memory facilitates angular path integration. We hypothesized that the benefit of spatia...

  1. Visuo-spatial processing in a dynamic and a static working memory paradigm in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise; Volken, Henri

    2007-01-01

    patients with schizophrenia and matched controls in a new working memory paradigm involving dynamic (the Ball Flight Task - BFT) or static (the Static Pattern Task - SPT) visual stimuli. In the BFT, the responses of the patients were apparently based on the retention of the last set of segments...... that visuo-spatial working memory can simply be dissociated into visual and spatial sub-components....

  2. Increased Task Demand during Spatial Memory Testing Recruits the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua K.; Fournier, Neil M.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was…

  3. Spatial and Temporal Episodic Memory Retrieval Recruit Dissociable Functional Networks in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Arne D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging, electrophysiological studies, and lesion work have shown that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for episodic memory; however, it is unclear whether different MTL regions support the spatial, temporal, and item elements of episodic memory. In this study we used fMRI to examine retrieval performance emphasizing different aspects…

  4. System Consolidation of Spatial Memories in Mice: Effects of Enriched Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Bonaccorsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE is known to enhance learning and memory. Declarative memories are thought to undergo a first rapid and local consolidation process, followed by a prolonged process of system consolidation, which consist in a time-dependent gradual reorganization of brain regions supporting remote memory storage and crucial for the formation of enduring memories. At present, it is not known whether EE can affect the process of declarative memory system consolidation. We characterized the time course of hippocampal and cortical activation following recall of progressively more remote spatial memories. Wild-type mice either exposed to EE for 40 days or left in standard environment were subjected to spatial learning in the Morris water maze and to the probe test 1, 10, 20, 30, and 50 days after learning. Following the probe test, regional expression of the inducible immediate early gene c-Fos was mapped by immunohistochemistry, as an indicator of neuronal activity. We found that activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, suggested to have a privileged role in processing remote spatial memories, was evident at shorter time intervals after learning in EE mice; in addition, EE induced the progressive activation of a distributed cortical network not activated in non-EE mice. This suggests that EE not only accelerates the process of mPFC recruitment but also recruits additional cortical areas into the network supporting remote spatial memories.

  5. Brain functional network changes following Prelimbic area inactivation in a spatial memory extinction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial vision is superior in musicians when memory plays a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Atalia H; Biron, Tali; Lieder, Itay; Granot, Roni Y; Ahissar, Merav

    2014-08-21

    Musicians' perceptual advantage in the acoustic domain is well established. Recent studies show that musicians' verbal working memory is also superior. Additionally, some studies report that musicians' visuospatial skills are enhanced although others failed to find this enhancement. We now examined whether musicians' spatial vision is superior, and if so, whether this superiority reflects refined visual skills or a general superiority of working memory. We examined spatial frequency discrimination among musicians and nonmusician university students using two presentation conditions: simultaneous (spatial forced choice) and sequential (temporal forced choice). Musicians' performance was similar to that of nonmusicians in the simultaneous condition. However, their performance in the sequential condition was superior, suggesting an advantage only when stimuli need to be retained, i.e., working memory. Moreover, the two groups showed a different pattern of correlations: Musicians' visual thresholds were correlated, and neither was correlated with their verbal memory. By contrast, among nonmusicians, the visual thresholds were not correlated, but sequential thresholds were correlated with verbal memory scores, suggesting that a general working memory component limits their performance in this condition. We propose that musicians' superiority in spatial frequency discrimination reflects an advantage in a domain-general aspect of working memory rather than a general enhancement in spatial-visual skills. © 2014 ARVO.

  7. Long-term heavy ketamine use is associated with spatial memory impairment and altered hippocampal activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia J A Morgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is rising in popularity as a drug of abuse. Preliminary evidence suggests that chronic, heavy ketamine use may have profound effects on spatial memory but the mechanism of these deficits is as yet unclear. This study aimed to examine the neural mechanism by which heavy ketamine use impairs spatial memory processing. In a sample of 11 frequent ketamine users and 15 polydrug controls, matched for IQ, age and years in education. We used fMRI utilising an ROI approach to examine the neural activity of three regions known to support successful navigation; the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and the caudate nucleus during a virtual reality task of spatial memory. Frequent ketamine users displayed spatial memory deficits, accompanied by and related to, reduced activation in both the right hippocampus and left parahippocampal gyrus during navigation from memory, and in the left caudate during memory updating, compared to controls. Ketamine users also exhibited schizotypal and dissociative symptoms that were related to hippocampal activation. Impairments in spatial memory observed in ketamine users are related to changes in medial temporal lobe activation. Disrupted medial temporal lobe function may be a consequence of chronic ketamine abuse and may relate to schizophrenia-like symptomatology observed in ketamine users.

  8. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  9. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  10. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  11. As the world turns: short-term human spatial memory in egocentric and allocentric coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lecci, Sandro; Prêtre, Vincent; Brandner, Catherine; Mazza, Christian; Pasquier, Jérôme; Lavenex, Pierre

    2011-05-16

    We aimed to determine whether human subjects' reliance on different sources of spatial information encoded in different frames of reference (i.e., egocentric versus allocentric) affects their performance, decision time and memory capacity in a short-term spatial memory task performed in the real world. Subjects were asked to play the Memory game (a.k.a. the Concentration game) without an opponent, in four different conditions that controlled for the subjects' reliance on egocentric and/or allocentric frames of reference for the elaboration of a spatial representation of the image locations enabling maximal efficiency. We report experimental data from young adult men and women, and describe a mathematical model to estimate human short-term spatial memory capacity. We found that short-term spatial memory capacity was greatest when an egocentric spatial frame of reference enabled subjects to encode and remember the image locations. However, when egocentric information was not reliable, short-term spatial memory capacity was greater and decision time shorter when an allocentric representation of the image locations with respect to distant objects in the surrounding environment was available, as compared to when only a spatial representation encoding the relationships between the individual images, independent of the surrounding environment, was available. Our findings thus further demonstrate that changes in viewpoint produced by the movement of images placed in front of a stationary subject is not equivalent to the movement of the subject around stationary images. We discuss possible limitations of classical neuropsychological and virtual reality experiments of spatial memory, which typically restrict the sensory information normally available to human subjects in the real world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective impairments in spatial memory after ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, RPC; de Haan, EHF; Kappelle, LJ; Postma, A

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence that object-location memory consists of three separate processes, that is, positional memory, binding of objects to locations, and a possible integration mechanism. A group of 26 patients with lesions following ischaemic stroke was studied to find evidence for selective impairments

  13. Subhypnotic doses of propofol impair spatial memory retrieval in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence indicates that propofol profoundly affects memory processes, although its specific effects on memory retrieval have not been clarified. A recent study has indicated that hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β activity affects memory. Constitutively active GSK-3β is required for memory retrieval, and propofol has been shown to inhibit GSK-3β. Thus, the present study examined whether propofol affects memory retrieval, and, if so, whether that effect is mediated through altered GSK-3β activity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a Morris water maze task (eight acquisition trials in one session and subjected under the influence of a subhypnotic dose of propofol to a 24-hour probe trial memory retrieval test. The results showed that rats receiving pretest propofol (25 mg/kg spent significantly less time in the target quadrant but showed no change in locomotor activity compared with those in the control group. Memory retrieval was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of the serine-9 residue of GSK-3β in the hippocampus, whereas phosphorylation of the tyrosine-216 residue was unaffected. However, propofol blocked this retrieval-associated serine-9 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that subhypnotic propofol administration impairs memory retrieval and that the amnestic effects of propofol may be mediated by attenuated GSK-3β signaling in the hippocampus.

  14. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face–location associations is

  15. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M; Nieuwenhuis, Ingrid L C; Takashima, Atsuko; Jensen, Ole

    2008-04-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face-location associations is significantly higher following a 12-h retention interval containing sleep than following an equally long period of waking. Furthermore, retention is significantly higher over a 24-h sleep-wake interval than over an equally long wake-sleep interval. This difference occurs because retention during sleep was significantly better when sleep followed learning directly, rather than after a day of waking. These data demonstrate a beneficial effect of sleep on memory that cannot be explained solely as a consequence of reduced interference. Rather, our findings suggest a competitive consolidation process, in which the fate of a memory depends, at least in part, on its relative stability at sleep onset: Strong memories tend to be preserved, while weaker memories erode still further. An important aspect of memory consolidation may thus result from the removal of irrelevant memory "debris."

  16. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.; Jensen, O.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face-location associations is

  17. Improving visual spatial working memory in younger and older adults: effects of cross-modal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashley F; Turner, Gary R; Park, Norman W; Murtha, Susan J E

    2017-11-06

    Spatially informative auditory and vibrotactile (cross-modal) cues can facilitate attention but little is known about how similar cues influence visual spatial working memory (WM) across the adult lifespan. We investigated the effects of cues (spatially informative or alerting pre-cues vs. no cues), cue modality (auditory vs. vibrotactile vs. visual), memory array size (four vs. six items), and maintenance delay (900 vs. 1800 ms) on visual spatial location WM recognition accuracy in younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA). We observed a significant interaction between spatially informative pre-cue type, array size, and delay. OA and YA benefitted equally from spatially informative pre-cues, suggesting that attentional orienting prior to WM encoding, regardless of cue modality, is preserved with age.  Contrary to predictions, alerting pre-cues generally impaired performance in both age groups, suggesting that maintaining a vigilant state of arousal by facilitating the alerting attention system does not help visual spatial location WM.

  18. Hippocampal Volume Reduction in Humans Predicts Impaired Allocentric Spatial Memory in Virtual-Reality Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Dzieciol, Anna M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Doeller, Christian F; Burgess, Neil; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-21

    The extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is not well documented. We investigated allocentric spatial recall using a virtual environment in a group of patients with severe hippocampal damage (SHD), a group of patients with "moderate" hippocampal damage (MHD), and a normal control group. Through four learning blocks with feedback, participants learned the target locations of four different objects in a circular arena. Distal cues were present throughout the experiment to provide orientation. A circular boundary as well as an intra-arena landmark provided spatial reference frames. During a subsequent test phase, recall of all four objects was tested with only the boundary or the landmark being present. Patients with SHD were impaired in both phases of this task. Across groups, performance on both types of spatial recall was highly correlated with memory quotient (MQ), but not with intelligence quotient (IQ), age, or sex. However, both measures of spatial recall separated experimental groups beyond what would be expected based on MQ, a widely used measure of general memory function. Boundary-based and landmark-based spatial recall were both strongly related to bilateral hippocampal volumes, but not to volumes of the thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, or caudate nucleus. The results show that boundary-based and landmark-based allocentric spatial recall are similarly impaired in patients with SHD, that both types of recall are impaired beyond that predicted by MQ, and that recall deficits are best explained by a reduction in bilateral hippocampal volumes. In humans, bilateral hippocampal atrophy can lead to profound impairments in episodic memory. Across species, perhaps the most well-established contribution of the hippocampus to memory is not to episodic memory generally but to allocentric spatial memory. However, the extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is

  19. What we remember affects how we see: spatial working memory steers saccade programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason H; Peterson, Matthew S

    2013-02-01

    Relationships between visual attention, saccade programming, and visual working memory have been hypothesized for over a decade. Awh, Jonides, and Reuter-Lorenz (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 24(3):780-90, 1998) and Awh et al. (Psychological Science 10(5):433-437, 1999) proposed that rehearsing a location in memory also leads to enhanced attentional processing at that location. In regard to eye movements, Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009) found that holding a location in working memory affects saccade programming, albeit negatively. In three experiments, we attempted to replicate the findings of Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009) and determine whether the spatial memory effect can occur in other saccade-cuing paradigms, including endogenous central arrow cues and exogenous irrelevant singletons. In the first experiment, our results were the opposite of those in Belopolsky and Theeuwes (Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 71(3):620-631, 2009), in that we found facilitation (shorter saccade latencies) instead of inhibition when the saccade target matched the region in spatial working memory. In Experiment 2, we sought to determine whether the spatial working memory effect would generalize to other endogenous cuing tasks, such as a central arrow that pointed to one of six possible peripheral locations. As in Experiment 1, we found that saccade programming was facilitated when the cued location coincided with the saccade target. In Experiment 3, we explored how spatial memory interacts with other types of cues, such as a peripheral color singleton target or irrelevant onset. In both cases, the eyes were more likely to go to either singleton when it coincided with the location held in spatial working memory. On the basis of these results, we conclude that spatial working memory and saccade programming are likely to share common

  20. Sex differences in visual-spatial working memory: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Visual-spatial working memory measures are widely used in clinical and experimental settings. Furthermore, it has been argued that the male advantage in spatial abilities can be explained by a sex difference in visual-spatial working memory. Therefore, sex differences in visual-spatial working memory have important implication for research, theory, and practice, but they have yet to be quantified. The present meta-analysis quantified the magnitude of sex differences in visual-spatial working memory and examined variables that might moderate them. The analysis used a set of 180 effect sizes from healthy males and females drawn from 98 samples ranging in mean age from 3 to 86 years. Multilevel meta-analysis was used on the overall data set to account for non-independent effect sizes. The data also were analyzed in separate task subgroups by means of multilevel and mixed-effects models. Results showed a small but significant male advantage (mean d = 0.155, 95 % confidence interval = 0.087-0.223). All the tasks produced a male advantage, except for memory for location, where a female advantage emerged. Age of the participants was a significant moderator, indicating that sex differences in visual-spatial working memory appeared first in the 13-17 years age group. Removing memory for location tasks from the sample affected the pattern of significant moderators. The present results indicate a male advantage in visual-spatial working memory, although age and specific task modulate the magnitude and direction of the effects. Implications for clinical applications, cognitive model building, and experimental research are discussed.

  1. Integrated cross-domain object storage in working memory: evidence from a verbal-spatial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C

    2009-11-01

    Working-memory theories often include domain-specific verbal and visual stores (e.g., the phonological and visuospatial buffers of Baddeley, 1986), and some also posit more general stores thought to be capable of holding verbal or visuospatial materials (Baddeley, 2000; Cowan, 2005). However, it is currently unclear which type of store is primarily responsible for maintaining objects that include components from multiple domains. In these studies, a spatial array of letters was followed by a single probe identical to an item in the array or differing systematically in spatial location, letter identity, or their combination. Concurrent verbal rehearsal suppression impaired memory in each of these trial types in a task that required participants to remember verbal-spatial binding, but did not impair memory for spatial locations if the task did not require verbal-spatial binding for a correct response. Thus, spatial information might be stored differently when it must be bound to verbal information. This suggests that a cross-domain store such as the episodic buffer of Baddeley (2000) or the focus of attention of Cowan (2001) might be used for integrated object storage, rather than the maintenance of associations between features stored in separate domain-specific buffers.

  2. Combined spatial/angular domain decomposition SN algorithms for shared memory parallel machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, M.A.; Haghighat, A.

    1993-01-01

    Several parallel processing algorithms on the basis of spatial and angular domain decomposition methods are developed and incorporated into a two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport theory code. These algorithms divide the spatial and angular domains into independent subdomains so that the flux calculations within each subdomain can be processed simultaneously. Two spatial parallel algorithms (Block-Jacobi, red-black), one angular parallel algorithm (η-level), and their combinations are implemented on an eight processor CRAY Y-MP. Parallel performances of the algorithms are measured using a series of fixed source RZ geometry problems. Some of the results are also compared with those executed on an IBM 3090/600J machine. (orig.)

  3. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: Positional versus object-location recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been Studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while Studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  4. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  5. The effect of food quality during growth on spatial memory consolidation in adult pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, M F; Gasparini, J; Jacquin, L; Mettke-Hofmann, C; Rattenborg, N C; Roulin, A

    2017-02-15

    Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate for negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons ( Columba livia ) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as 'spatial memory'. Parents were fed with either high- or low-quality food from egg laying until young fledged, after which all young pigeons received the same high-quality diet until memory performance was tested at 6 months of age. The pigeons were trained to learn a food location out of 18 possible locations in one session, and then their memory of this location was tested 24 h later. Birds reared with the low-quality diet made fewer errors in the memory test. These results demonstrate that food quality during development has long-lasting effects on memory, with a moderate nutritional deficit improving spatial memory performance in a foraging context. It might be that under poor feeding conditions resources are redirected from non-vital to vital traits, or pigeons raised with low-quality food might be better in using environmental cues such as the position of the sun to find where food was hidden. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. An obesogenic bias in women's spatial memory for high calorie snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, K; Allan, J L

    2013-08-01

    To help maintain a positive energy balance in ancestral human habitats, evolution appears to have designed a functional bias in spatial memory that enhances our ability to remember the location of high-calorie foodstuffs. Here, we investigated whether this functional bias has obesogenic consequences for individuals living in a modern urban environment. Spatial memory, dietary intentions, and perceived desirability, for high-calorie snacks and lower-calorie fruits and vegetables were measured using a computer-based task in 41 women (age: 18-35, body mass index: 18.5-30.0). Using multiple linear regression, we analyzed whether enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks versus fruits and vegetables predicted BMI, controlling for dietary intention strength and perceived food desirability. We observed that enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks (both independently, and relative to that for fruits and vegetables), significantly predicted higher BMI. The evolved function of high-calorie bias in human spatial memory, to promote positive energy balance, would therefore appear to be intact. But our data reveal that this function may contribute to higher, less healthy BMI in individuals in whom the memory bias is most marked. Our findings reveal a novel cognitive marker of vulnerability to weight gain that, once the proximal mechanisms are understood, may offer new possibilities for weight control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex, estradiol, and spatial memory in a food-caching corvid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensel, Michelle A; Ellis, Jesse M S; Harvey, Brigit; Schlinger, Barney A

    2015-09-01

    Estrogens significantly impact spatial memory function in mammalian species. Songbirds express the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase at relatively high levels in the hippocampus and there is evidence from zebra finches that estrogens facilitate performance on spatial learning and/or memory tasks. It is unknown, however, whether estrogens influence hippocampal function in songbirds that naturally exhibit memory-intensive behaviors, such as cache recovery observed in many corvid species. To address this question, we examined the impact of estradiol on spatial memory in non-breeding Western scrub-jays, a species that routinely participates in food caching and retrieval in nature and in captivity. We also asked if there were sex differences in performance or responses to estradiol. Utilizing a combination of an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, with estradiol implants, we found that while overall cache recovery rates were unaffected by estradiol, several other indices of spatial memory, including searching efficiency and efficiency to retrieve the first item, were impaired in the presence of estradiol. In addition, males and females differed in some performance measures, although these differences appeared to be a consequence of the nature of the task as neither sex consistently out-performed the other. Overall, our data suggest that a sustained estradiol elevation in a food-caching bird impairs some, but not all, aspects of spatial memory on an innate behavioral task, at times in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial memory impairment is associated with hippocampal insulin signals in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Song, Yan-Feng; Yin, Jie; Liu, Zi-Hua; Mo, Xiao-Dan; Wang, De-Gui; Gao, Li-Ping; Jing, Yu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen influences memory formation and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, glucose utilization directly affects learning and memory, which are modulated by insulin signals. Therefore, this study investigated whether or not the effect of estrogen on memory is associated with the regulatory effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism. The relative expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated by western blot. Insulin level was assessed by ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR, and spatial memory was tested by the Morris water maze. Glucose utilization in the hippocampus was measured by 2-NBDG uptake analysis. Results showed that ovariectomy impaired the spatial memory of rats. These impairments are similar as the female rats treated with the ERβ antagonist tamoxifen (TAM). Estrogen blockade by ovariectomy or TAM treatment obviously decreased glucose utilization. This phenomenon was accompanied by decreased insulin level and GLUT4 expression in the hippocampus. The female rats were neutralized with hippocampal insulin with insulin antibody, which also impaired memory and local glucose consumption. These results indicated that estrogen blockade impaired the spatial memory of the female rats. The mechanisms by which estrogen blockade impaired memory partially contributed to the decline in hippocampal insulin signals, which diminished glucose consumption.

  9. Persistent increased PKMζ in long-term and remote spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Changchi; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Serrano, Peter; Hernández, A Iván; Tian, Dezhi; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2017-02-01

    PKMζ is an autonomously active PKC isoform that is thought to maintain both LTP and long-term memory. Whereas persistent increases in PKMζ protein sustain the kinase's action in LTP, the molecular mechanism for the persistent action of PKMζ during long-term memory has not been characterized. PKMζ inhibitors disrupt spatial memory when introduced into the dorsal hippocampus from 1day to 1month after training. Therefore, if the mechanisms of PKMζ's persistent action in LTP maintenance and long-term memory were similar, persistent increases in PKMζ would last for the duration of the memory, far longer than most other learning-induced gene products. Here we find that spatial conditioning by aversive active place avoidance or appetitive radial arm maze induces PKMζ increases in dorsal hippocampus that persist from 1day to 1month, coinciding with the strength and duration of memory retention. Suppressing the increase by intrahippocampal injections of PKMζ-antisense oligodeoxynucleotides prevents the formation of long-term memory. Thus, similar to LTP maintenance, the persistent increase in the amount of autonomously active PKMζ sustains the kinase's action during long-term and remote spatial memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Memory for Pictures, Words, and Spatial Location in Older Adults: Evidence for Pictorial Superiority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Denise Cortis; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested recognition memory for items and spatial location by varying picture and word stimuli across four slide quadrants. Results showed a pictorial superiority effect for item recognition and a greater ability to remember the spatial location of pictures versus words for both old and young adults (N=95). (WAS)

  11. Covert is better than overt when rehearsing Visuo-Spatial information in working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godijn, R.J.; Theeuwes, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether eye movements facilitate retention of visuo-spatial information in working memory. In two experiments, participants memorised the sequence of the spatial locations of six digits across a retention interval. In some conditions, participants were free to move

  12. Sexual Orientation and Spatial Position Effects on Selective Forms of Object Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object…

  13. Cryptic sexual dimorphism in spatial memory and hippocampal oxytocin receptors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marissa A; Hobbs, Lauren E; Wallace, Kelly J; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically. We hypothesize that sex-specific cognitive demands are present in monogamous species that will influence neural and behavioral phenotypes. The effects of these demands should be observable in spatial learning performance and neural structures associated with spatial learning and memory. We analyzed spatial memory performance, hippocampal volume and cell density, and hippocampal oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression in the socially monogamous prairie vole. Compared to females, males performed better in a spatial memory and spatial learning test. Although we found no sex difference in hippocampal volume or cell density, male OTR density was significantly lower than females, suggesting that performance may be regulated by sub-cellular mechanisms within the hippocampus that are less obvious than classic neuroanatomical features. Our results suggest an expanded role for oxytocin beyond facilitating social interactions, which may function in part to integrate social and spatial information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a

  15. When Spatial and Temporal Contiguities Help the Integration in Working Memory: "A Multimedia Learning" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of spatial and temporal contiguities in a working memory binding task that required participants to remember coloured objects. In Experiment 1, a black and white drawing and a corresponding phrase that indicated its colour perceptually were either near or far (spatial study condition), while in Experiment 2,…

  16. Noise-induced drift in two-dimensional anisotropic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farago, Oded

    2017-10-01

    We study the isothermal Brownian dynamics of a particle in a system with spatially varying diffusivity. Due to the heterogeneity of the system, the particle's mean displacement does not vanish even if it does not experience any physical force. This phenomenon has been termed "noise-induced drift," and has been extensively studied for one-dimensional systems. Here, we examine the noise-induced drift in a two-dimensional anisotropic system, characterized by a symmetric diffusion tensor with unequal diagonal elements. A general expression for the mean displacement vector is derived and presented as a sum of two vectors, depicting two distinct drifting effects. The first vector describes the tendency of the particle to drift toward the high diffusivity side in each orthogonal principal diffusion direction. This is a generalization of the well-known expression for the noise-induced drift in one-dimensional systems. The second vector represents a novel drifting effect, not found in one-dimensional systems, originating from the spatial rotation in the directions of the principal axes. The validity of the derived expressions is verified by using Langevin dynamics simulations. As a specific example, we consider the relative diffusion of two transmembrane proteins, and demonstrate that the average distance between them increases at a surprisingly fast rate of several tens of micrometers per second.

  17. Motor transfer from map ocular exploration to locomotion during spatial navigation from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichelis, Alixia; Olivier, Gérard; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Spatial navigation from memory can rely on two different strategies: a mental simulation of a kinesthetic spatial navigation (egocentric route strategy) or visual-spatial memory using a mental map (allocentric survey strategy). We hypothesized that a previously performed "oculomotor navigation" on a map could be used by the brain to perform a locomotor memory task. Participants were instructed to (1) learn a path on a map through a sequence of vertical and horizontal eyes movements and (2) walk on the slabs of a "magic carpet" to recall this path. The main results showed that the anisotropy of ocular movements (horizontal ones being more efficient than vertical ones) influenced performances of participants when they change direction on the central slab of the magic carpet. These data suggest that, to find their way through locomotor space, subjects mentally repeated their past ocular exploration of the map, and this visuo-motor memory was used as a template for the locomotor performance.

  18. Spatial Memory in the Progeny of Rats Subjected to Different Types of Experimental Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Zhakupova, G A; Lashchenova, L I; Lebedeva, S A; Tyurenkov, I N

    2016-09-01

    Spatial memory was studied in 2-month-old offspring of rats subjected to different types of experimental preeclampsia (replacement of drinking water with 1.8% NaCl from day 1 to 21 of gestation or intraperitoneal administration of non-selective NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME to pregnant rats in a daily dose of 25 mg/kg for 7 days on gestation days 14-20). Spatial memory was evaluated in an elevated 8-arm radial maze. Both types of experimental preeclampsia impaired spatial (long-term and short-term) memory and can be used in the development of drugs correcting negative effects of this pregnancy complication on memory.

  19. Tokishakuyakusan ameliorates spatial memory deficits induced by ovariectomy combined with β-amyloid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Egashira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that ovariectomy (OVX combined with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ impaired spatial memory by decreasing extracellular acetylcholine (ACh levels in the dorsal hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effect of tokishakuyakusan (TSS, a Kampo medicine, on the impairment of spatial memory induced by OVX combined with Aβ in rats. Repeated administration of TSS (300 mg/kg, p.o. significantly decreased the number of errors in the eight-arm radial maze test. Though TSS had no effect on extracellular ACh levels at baseline, TSS significantly increased extracellular ACh levels in the dorsal hippocampus. These results suggest that TSS improves the impairment of spatial memory induced by OVX combined with Aβ by (at least in part increasing extracellular ACh levels in the dorsal hippocampus. Keywords: Tokishakuyakusan, Ovariectomy, β-Amyloid, Memory, Acetylcholine

  20. The selective disruption of spatial working memory by eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postle, Bradley R; Idzikowski, Christopher; Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H; Baddeley, Alan D

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Baddeley and colleagues conducted a series of experiments investigating the role of eye movements in visual working memory. Although only described briefly in a book, these studies have influenced a remarkable number of empirical and theoretical developments in fields ranging from experimental psychology to human neuropsychology to nonhuman primate electrophysiology. This paper presents, in full detail, three critical studies from this series, together with a recently performed study that includes a level of eye movement measurement and control that was not available for the older studies. Together, the results demonstrate several facts about the sensitivity of visuospatial working memory to eye movements. First, it is eye movement control, not movement per se, that produces the disruptive effects. Second, these effects are limited to working memory for locations and do not generalize to visual working memory for shapes. Third, they can be isolated to the storage/maintenance components of working memory (e.g., to the delay period of the delayed-recognition task). These facts have important implications for models of visual working memory.

  1. 76 FR 18769 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Device and System for Two Dimensional Analysis of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Samples AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... and Patenting Manager, Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health, 6011 Executive... sample, or performing a combination thereof, that substantially preserve two-dimensional (2D) spatial...

  2. Context-dependent modulation of hippocampal and cortical recruitment during remote spatial memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joëlle; Herbeaux, Karin; Cosquer, Brigitte; Engeln, Michel; Muller, Christophe; Lazarus, Christine; Kelche, Christian; Bontempi, Bruno; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira

    2012-04-01

    According to systems consolidation, as hippocampal-dependent memories mature over time, they become additionally (or exclusively) dependent on extra-hippocampal structures. We assessed the recruitment of hippocampal and cortical structures on remote memory retrieval in a performance-degradation resistant (PDR; no performance degradation with time) versus performance-degradation prone (PDP; performance degraded with time) context. Using a water-maze task in two contexts with a hidden platform and three control conditions (home cage, visible platform with or without access to distal cues), we compared neuronal activation (c-Fos imaging) patterns in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after the retrieval of recent (5 days) versus remote (25 days) spatial memory. In the PDR context, the hippocampus exhibited greater c-Fos protein expression on remote than recent memory retrieval, be it in the visible or hidden platform group. In the PDP context, hippocampal activation increased at the remote time point and only in the hidden platform group. In the anterior cingulate cortex, c-Fos expression was greater for remote than for recent memory retrieval and only in the PDR context. The necessity of the mPFC for remote memory retrieval in the PDR context was confirmed using region-specific lidocaine inactivation, which had no impact on recent memory. Conversely, inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus impaired both recent and remote memory in the PDR context, and only recent memory in the PDP context, in which remote memory performance was degraded. While confirming that neuronal circuits supporting spatial memory consolidation are reorganized in a time-dependent manner, our findings further indicate that mPFC and hippocampus recruitment (i) depends on the content and perhaps the strength of the memory and (ii) may be influenced by the environmental conditions (e.g., cue saliency, complexity) in which memories are initially formed and subsequently

  3. Dissociable Decoding of Spatial Attention and Working Memory from EEG Oscillations and Sustained Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gi-Yeul; Luck, Steven J

    2018-01-10

    In human scalp EEG recordings, both sustained potentials and alpha-band oscillations are present during the delay period of working memory tasks and may therefore reflect the representation of information in working memory. However, these signals may instead reflect support mechanisms rather than the actual contents of memory. In particular, alpha-band oscillations have been tightly tied to spatial attention and may not reflect location-independent memory representations per se. To determine how sustained and oscillating EEG signals are related to attention and working memory, we attempted to decode which of 16 orientations was being held in working memory by human observers (both women and men). We found that sustained EEG activity could be used to decode the remembered orientation of a stimulus, even when the orientation of the stimulus varied independently of its location. Alpha-band oscillations also carried clear information about the location of the stimulus, but they provided little or no information about orientation independently of location. Thus, sustained potentials contain information about the object properties being maintained in working memory, consistent with previous evidence of a tight link between these potentials and working memory capacity. In contrast, alpha-band oscillations primarily carry location information, consistent with their link to spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory plays a key role in cognition, and working memory is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that human scalp EEG recordings contain signals that reflect the neural representation of information in working memory. However, to conclude that a neural signal actually represents the object being remembered, it is necessary to show that the signal contains fine-grained information about that object. Here, we show that sustained voltages in human EEG recordings contain fine-grained information about the

  4. Short-term memory for spatial configurations in the tactile modality: a comparison with vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine; Monnier, Catherine

    2009-11-01

    This study investigates the role of acquisition constraints on the short-term retention of spatial configurations in the tactile modality in comparison with vision. It tests whether the sequential processing of information inherent to the tactile modality could account for limitation in short-term memory span for tactual-spatial information. In addition, this study investigates developmental aspects of short-term memory for tactual- and visual-spatial configurations. A total of 144 child and adult participants were assessed for their memory span in three different conditions: tactual, visual, and visual with a limited field of view. The results showed lower tactual-spatial memory span than visual-spatial, regardless of age. However, differences in memory span observed between the tactile and visual modalities vanished when the visual processing of information occurred within a limited field. These results provide evidence for an impact of acquisition constraints on the retention of spatial information in the tactile modality in both childhood and adulthood.

  5. The Object Context-place-location Paradigm for Testing Spatial Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesburguères, Edith; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Fenton, André Antonio

    2017-04-20

    This protocol was originally designed to examine long-term spatial memory in PKMζ knockout ( i.e ., PKMζ-null) mice (Tsokas et al ., 2016). Our main goal was to test whether the ability of these animals to maintain previously acquired spatial information was sensitive to the type and complexity of the spatial information that needs to be remembered. Accordingly, we modified and combined into a single protocol, three novelty-preference tests, specifically the object-in-context, object-in-place and object-in-location tests, adapted from previous studies in rodents (Mumby et al ., 2002; Langston and Wood, 2010; Barker and Warburton, 2011). During the training (learning) phase of the procedure, mice are repeatedly exposed to three different environments in which they learn the spatial arrangement of an environment-specific set of non-identical objects. After this learning phase is completed, each mouse receives three different memory tests configured as environment mismatches, in which the previously learned objects-in-space configurations have been modified from the original training situation. The mismatch tests differ in their cognitive demands due to the type of spatial association that is manipulated, specifically evaluating memory for object-context and object-place associations. During each memory test, the time differential spent exploring the novel (misplaced) and familiar objects is computed as an index of novelty discrimination. This index is the behavioral measure of memory recall of the previously acquired spatial associations.

  6. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  7. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Applications for chemists and biochemists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2-D NMR) has become a very powerful class of experiments (in the hands of an adept scientist) with broad adaptability to new situations. It is the product of a happy marriage between modern pulse FT-NMR technology, with its large memory and high-speed computers, and the physicists and chemists who love to manipulate spin systems. Basic 2-D experiments are now a standard capability of modern NMR spectrometers, and this timely book intends to make 2-D NMR users of those who are familiar with normal 1-D NMR. The 2-D NMR goal is correlation of the lines of the observed NMR spectrum with other properties of the system. This book deals with applications to high-resolution spectrum analysis, utilizing either coupling between the NMR-active nuclei or chemical exchange to perform the correlation. The coupling can be scalar (through bonds) or direct through space (within 5 A). The coupling may be homonuclear (between like nuclei) or heteronuclear

  8. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega

    2017-05-01

    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Jalbert, Annie

    2006-06-01

    It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task--a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial recall task--with delayed recall, performance and eyetracking data were recorded in order to establish whether visual-spatial rehearsal could be evidenced by eye movement. The use of eye movement as a form of rehearsal is detectable (Experiment 1), and it seems to contribute to serial memory performance over and above rehearsal based on shifts of spatial attention (Experiments 1 and 2).

  10. Acute effects of alcohol on intrusive memory development and viewpoint dependence in spatial memory support a dual representation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; King, John A; Brewin, Chris R; Burgess, Neil; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-08-01

    A dual representation model of intrusive memory proposes that personally experienced events give rise to two types of representation: an image-based, egocentric representation based on sensory-perceptual features; and a more abstract, allocentric representation that incorporates spatiotemporal context. The model proposes that intrusions reflect involuntary reactivation of egocentric representations in the absence of a corresponding allocentric representation. We tested the model by investigating the effect of alcohol on intrusive memories and, concurrently, on egocentric and allocentric spatial memory. With a double-blind independent group design participants were administered alcohol (.4 or .8 g/kg) or placebo. A virtual environment was used to present objects and test recognition memory from the same viewpoint as presentation (tapping egocentric memory) or a shifted viewpoint (tapping allocentric memory). Participants were also exposed to a trauma video and required to detail intrusive memories for 7 days, after which explicit memory was assessed. There was a selective impairment of shifted-view recognition after the low dose of alcohol, whereas the high dose induced a global impairment in same-view and shifted-view conditions. Alcohol showed a dose-dependent inverted "U"-shaped effect on intrusions, with only the low dose increasing the number of intrusions, replicating previous work. When same-view recognition was intact, decrements in shifted-view recognition were associated with increases in intrusions. The differential effect of alcohol on intrusive memories and on same/shifted-view recognition support a dual representation model in which intrusions might reflect an imbalance between two types of memory representation. These findings highlight important clinical implications, given alcohol's involvement in real-life trauma. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploration, anxiety, and spatial memory in transgenic anophthalmic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhot, M C; Dubayle, D; Malleret, G; Javerzat, S; Segu, L

    2001-04-01

    Contradictory results are found in the literature concerning the role of vision in the perception of space or in spatial navigation, in part because of the lack of murine models of total blindness used so far. The authors evaluated the spatial abilities of anophthalmic transgenic mice. These mice did not differ qualitatively from their wild-type littermates in general locomotor activity, spontaneous alternation, object exploration, or anxiety, but their level of exploratory activity was generally lower. In the spatial version of the water maze, they displayed persistent thigmotaxic behavior and showed severe spatial learning impairments. However, their performances improved with training, suggesting that they may have acquired a rough representation of the platform position. These results suggest that modalities other than vision enable some degree of spatial processing in proximal and structured spaces but that vision is critical for accurate spatial navigation.

  12. Spatial memory and integration processes in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, Tomaso; Tinti, Carla; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-12-22

    The paper tests the hypothesis that difficulties met by the blind in spatial processing are due to the simultaneous treatment of independent spatial representations. Results showed that lack of vision does not impede the ability to process and transform mental images; however, blind people are significantly poorer in the recall of more than a single spatial pattern at a time than in the recall of the corresponding material integrated into a single pattern. It is concluded that the simultaneous maintenance of different spatial information is affected by congenital blindness, while cognitive processes that may involve sequential manipulation are not.

  13. Prefrontal spatial working memory network predicts animal's decision making in a free choice saccade task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    While neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode spatial information during the performance of working memory tasks, they are also known to participate in subjective behavior such as spatial attention and action selection. In the present study, we analyzed the activity of primate PFC neurons during the performance of a free choice memory-guided saccade task in which the monkeys needed to choose a saccade direction by themselves. In trials when the receptive field location was subsequently chosen by the animal, PFC neurons with spatially selective visual response started to show greater activation before cue onset. This result suggests that the fluctuation of firing before cue presentation prematurely biased the representation of a certain spatial location and eventually encouraged the subsequent choice of that location. In addition, modulation of the activity by the animal's choice was observed only in neurons with high sustainability of activation and was also dependent on the spatial configuration of the visual cues. These findings were consistent with known characteristics of PFC neurons in information maintenance in spatial working memory function. These results suggest that precue fluctuation of spatial representation was shared and enhanced through the working memory network in the PFC and could finally influence the animal's free choice of saccade direction. The present study revealed that the PFC plays an important role in decision making in a free choice condition and that the dynamics of decision making are constrained by the network architecture embedded in this cortical area. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Prefrontal spatial working memory network predicts animal's decision making in a free choice saccade task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kei

    2015-01-01

    While neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode spatial information during the performance of working memory tasks, they are also known to participate in subjective behavior such as spatial attention and action selection. In the present study, we analyzed the activity of primate PFC neurons during the performance of a free choice memory-guided saccade task in which the monkeys needed to choose a saccade direction by themselves. In trials when the receptive field location was subsequently chosen by the animal, PFC neurons with spatially selective visual response started to show greater activation before cue onset. This result suggests that the fluctuation of firing before cue presentation prematurely biased the representation of a certain spatial location and eventually encouraged the subsequent choice of that location. In addition, modulation of the activity by the animal's choice was observed only in neurons with high sustainability of activation and was also dependent on the spatial configuration of the visual cues. These findings were consistent with known characteristics of PFC neurons in information maintenance in spatial working memory function. These results suggest that precue fluctuation of spatial representation was shared and enhanced through the working memory network in the PFC and could finally influence the animal's free choice of saccade direction. The present study revealed that the PFC plays an important role in decision making in a free choice condition and that the dynamics of decision making are constrained by the network architecture embedded in this cortical area. PMID:26490287

  15. The role of spatial memory and frames of reference in the precision of angular path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Joeanna C; Philbeck, John W; Kleene, Nicholas J; Chichka, David

    2012-09-01

    Angular path integration refers to the ability to maintain an estimate of self-location after a rotational displacement by integrating internally-generated (idiothetic) self-motion signals over time. Previous work has found that non-sensory inputs, namely spatial memory, can play a powerful role in angular path integration (Arthur et al., 2007, 2009). Here we investigated the conditions under which spatial memory facilitates angular path integration. We hypothesized that the benefit of spatial memory is particularly likely in spatial updating tasks in which one's self-location estimate is referenced to external space. To test this idea, we administered passive, non-visual body rotations (ranging 40°-140°) about the yaw axis and asked participants to use verbal reports or open-loop manual pointing to indicate the magnitude of the rotation. Prior to some trials, previews of the surrounding environment were given. We found that when participants adopted an egocentric frame of reference, the previously-observed benefit of previews on within-subject response precision was not manifested, regardless of whether remembered spatial frameworks were derived from vision or spatial language. We conclude that the powerful effect of spatial memory is dependent on one's frame of reference during self-motion updating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Camarin E; Anguera, Joaquin A; Skinner, Sasha N; Voytek, Bradley; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application. We compared training-related gains on a spatial attention assessment and spatial working memory task to age-matched controls who engaged in expectancy-matched, active placebo computerized training. Age-related declines in spatial attention abilities were observed regardless of task difficulty. Spatial attention training led to improved focused and distributed attention abilities as well as improved spatial working memory in both younger and older participants. No such improvements were observed in either of the age-matched control groups. Note that these findings were not a function of improvements in simple response time, as basic motoric function did not change after training. Furthermore, when using change in simple response time as a covariate, all findings remained significant. These results suggest that spatial attention training can lead to enhancements in spatial working memory regardless of age.

  17. Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Camarin E.; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Skinner, Sasha N.; Voytek, Bradley; Gazzaley, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application. We compared training-related gains on a spatial attention assessment and spatial working memory task to age-matched controls who engaged in expectancy-matched, active placebo computerized training. Age-related declines in spatial attention abilities were observed regardless of task difficulty. Spatial attention training led to improved focused and distributed attention abilities as well as improved spatial working memory in both younger and older participants. No such improvements were observed in either of the age-matched control groups. Note that these findings were not a function of improvements in simple response time, as basic motoric function did not change after training. Furthermore, when using change in simple response time as a covariate, all findings remained significant. These results suggest that spatial attention training can lead to enhancements in spatial working memory regardless of age. PMID:28654361

  18. Selective deficit of spatial short-term memory: Role of storage and rehearsal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnì, Sonia; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-10-01

    We report the neuropsychological and MRI investigation of a patient (GP) who developed a selective impairment of spatial short-term memory (STM) following damage to the dorso-mesial areas of the right frontal lobe. We assessed in this patient spatial STM with an experimental procedure that evaluated immediate and 5-20 s delayed recall of verbal, visual and spatial stimuli. The patient scored significantly worse than normal controls on tests that required delayed recall of spatial data. This could not be ascribed to a deficit of spatial episodic long-term memory because amnesic patients performed normally on these tests. Conversely, the patient scored in the normal range on tests of immediate recall of verbal, visual and spatial data and tests of delayed recall of verbal and visual data. Comparison with a previously described patient who had a selective deficit in immediate spatial recall and an ischemic lesion that affected frontal and parietal dorso-mesial areas in the right hemisphere (Carlesimo GA, Perri R, Turriziani P, Tomaiuolo F, Caltagirone C. Remembering what but not where: independence of spatial and visual working memory in the human brain. Cortex. 2001 Sep; 37(4):519-34) suggests that the right parietal areas are involved in the short-term storage of spatial information and that the dorso-mesial regions of the right frontal underlie mechanisms for the delayed maintenance of the same data.

  19. Peripheral inflammation acutely impairs human spatial memory via actions on medial temporal lobe glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Doeller, Christian F; Voon, Valerie; Burgess, Neil; Critchley, Hugo D

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation impairs cognitive performance and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Rodent studies demonstrated key roles for inflammatory mediators in many processes critical to memory, including long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. They also demonstrated functional impairment of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures by systemic inflammation. However, human data to support this position are limited. Sequential fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography together with experimentally induced inflammation was used to investigate effects of a systemic inflammatory challenge on human MTL function. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning was performed in 20 healthy participants before and after typhoid vaccination and saline control injection. After each scanning session, participants performed a virtual reality spatial memory task analogous to the Morris water maze and a mirror-tracing procedural memory control task. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data demonstrated an acute reduction in human MTL glucose metabolism after inflammation. The inflammatory challenge also selectively compromised human spatial, but not procedural, memory; this effect that was independent of actions on motivation or psychomotor response. Effects of inflammation on parahippocampal and rhinal glucose metabolism directly mediated actions of inflammation on spatial memory. These data demonstrate acute sensitivity of human MTL to mild peripheral inflammation, giving rise to associated functional impairment in the form of reduced spatial memory performance. Our findings suggest a mechanism for the observed epidemiologic link between inflammation and risk of age-related cognitive decline and progression of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9–10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  2. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ensemble coding remains accurate under object and spatial visual working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael L; Emmanouil, Tatiana A

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have provided evidence that the visual system statistically summarizes large amounts of information that would exceed the limitations of attention and working memory (ensemble coding). However the necessity of working memory resources for ensemble coding has not yet been tested directly. In the current study, we used a dual task design to test the effect of object and spatial visual working memory load on size averaging accuracy. In Experiment 1, we tested participants' accuracy in comparing the mean size of two sets under various levels of object visual working memory load. Although the accuracy of average size judgments depended on the difference in mean size between the two sets, we found no effect of working memory load. In Experiment 2, we tested the same average size judgment while participants were under spatial visual working memory load, again finding no effect of load on averaging accuracy. Overall our results reveal that ensemble coding can proceed unimpeded and highly accurately under both object and spatial visual working memory load, providing further evidence that ensemble coding reflects a basic perceptual process distinct from that of individual object processing.

  4. Normal mitochondrial respiratory function is essential for spatial remote memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA with pathogenic mutations has been found in patients with cognitive disorders. However, little is known about whether pathogenic mtDNA mutations and the resultant mitochondrial respiration deficiencies contribute to the expression of cognitive alterations, such as impairments of learning and memory. To address this point, we used two groups of trans-mitochondrial mice (mito-mice with heteroplasmy for wild-type and pathogenically deleted (Δ mtDNA; the "low" group carried 50% or less ΔmtDNA, and the "high" group carried more than 50% ΔmtDNA. Results Both groups had normal phenotypes for not only spatial learning, but also memory at short retention delays, indicating that ΔmtDNA load did not affect learning and temporal memory. The high group, however, showed severe impairment of memory at long retention delays. In the visual cortex and dentate gyrus of these mice, we observed mitochondrial respiration deficiencies, and reduced Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-α (α-CaMKII, a protein important for the establishment of spatial remote memory. Conclusion Our results indicated that normal mitochondrial respiratory function is necessary for retention and consolidation of memory trace; deficiencies in this function due to high loads of pathogenically mutated mtDNA are responsible for the preferential impairment of spatial remote memory.

  5. No functional role of attention-based rehearsal in maintenance of spatial working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolsky, Artem V; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The present study systematically examined the role of attention in maintenance of spatial representations in working memory as proposed by the attention-based rehearsal hypothesis [Awh, E., Jonides, J., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Rehearsal in spatial working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology--Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 780-790]. Three main issues were examined. First, Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that inhibition and not facilitation of visual processing is often observed at the memorized location during the retention interval. This inhibition was caused by keeping a location in memory and not by the exogenous nature of the memory cue. Second, Experiment 4 showed that inhibition of the memorized location does not lead to any significant impairment in memory accuracy. Finally, Experiment 5 connected current results to the previous findings and demonstrated facilitation of processing at the memorized location. Importantly, facilitation of processing did not lead to more accurate memory performance. The present results challenge the functional role of attention in maintenance of spatial working memory representations.

  6. The medial prefrontal cortex is involved in spatial memory retrieval under partial-cue conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Sang; Park, Eun Hye; Kim, Il Hwan; Park, Soon Kwon; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Taek; Choi, June-Seek

    2007-12-05

    Brain circuits involved in pattern completion, or retrieval of memory from fragmented cues, were investigated. Using different versions of the Morris water maze, we explored the roles of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in spatial memory retrieval under various conditions. In a hidden platform task, both CA3 and mPFC lesions disrupted memory retrieval under partial-cue, but not under full-cue, conditions. For a delayed matching-to-place task, CA3 lesions produced a deficit in both forming and recalling spatial working memory regardless of extramaze cue conditions. In contrast, damage to mPFC impaired memory retrieval only when a fraction of cues was available. To corroborate the lesion study, we examined the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in mPFC and the hippocampus. After training of spatial reference memory in full-cue conditions for 6 d, the same training procedure in the absence of all cues except one increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in mPFC and CA3. Furthermore, mPFC inactivation with muscimol, a GABA agonist, blocked memory retrieval in the degraded-cue environment. However, mPFC-lesioned animals initially trained in a single-cue environment had no difficulty in retrieving spatial memory when the number of cues was increased, demonstrating that contextual change per se did not impair the behavioral performance of the mPFC-lesioned animals. Together, these findings strongly suggest that pattern completion requires interactions between mPFC and the hippocampus, in which mPFC plays significant roles in retrieving spatial information maintained in the hippocampus for efficient navigation.

  7. Effects of testosterone dose on spatial memory among castrated adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Benjamin A; Braddick, Valerie C; Batson, Christopher G; Cullen, Brendan H; Miller, L Erin; Spritzer, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Previous research on the activational effects of testosterone on spatial memory has produced mixed results, possibly because such effects are dose-dependent. We tested a wide range of testosterone doses using two spatial memory tasks: a working-reference memory version of the radial-arm maze (RAM) and an object location memory task (OLMT). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated or sham-castrated and given daily injections of drug vehicle (Oil Sham and Oil GDX) or one of four doses of testosterone propionate (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, and 1.000 mg T) beginning seven days before the first day of behavioral tests and continuing throughout testing. For the RAM, four arms of the maze were consistently baited on each day of testing. Testosterone had a significant effect on working memory on the RAM, with the Oil Sham, 0.125 mg T, and 0.500 mg T groups performing better than the Oil GDX group. In contrast, there was no significant effect of testosterone on spatial reference memory on the RAM. For the OLMT, we tested long-term memory using a 2 h inter-trial interval between first exposure to two identical objects and re-exposure after one object had been moved. Only the 0.125 and 0.500 mg T groups showed a significant increase in exploration of the moved object during the testing trials, indicating better memory than all other groups. Testosterone replacement restored spatial memory among castrated male rats on both behavioral tasks, but there was a complex dose-response relationship; therefore, the therapeutic value of testosterone is likely sensitive to dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping

    2016-04-01

    We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.

  9. Isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in mice is prevented by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diansan Su

    Full Text Available Although many studies have shown that isoflurane exposure impairs spatial memory in aged animals, there are no clinical treatments available to prevent this memory deficit. The anticholinergic properties of volatile anesthetics are a biologically plausible cause of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, prevents isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. In present study, eighteen-month-old mice were administered donepezil (5 mg/kg or an equal volume of saline by oral gavage with a feeding needle for four weeks. Then the mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.2% for six hours. Two weeks later, mice were subjected to the Morris water maze to examine the impairment of spatial memory after exposure to isoflurane. After the behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed, and the protein expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, choline acetylase (ChAT and α7 nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR were measured in the brain. Each group consisted of 12 mice. We found that isoflurane exposure for six hours impaired the spatial memory of the mice. Compared with the control group, isoflurane exposure dramatically decreased the protein level of ChAT, but not AChE or α7-nAChR. Donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairments and increased ChAT levels, which were downregulated by isoflurane. In conclusions, pretreatment with the AChE inhibitor donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. The mechanism was associated with the upregulation of ChAT, which was decreased by isoflurane.

  10. Two dimensional model for coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengkun; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects in a bunch compressor requires an accurate model accounting for the realistic beam shape and parameters. We extend the well-known 1D CSR analytic model into two dimensions and develop a simple numerical model based on the Liénard-Wiechert formula for the CSR field of a coasting beam. This CSR numerical model includes the 2D spatial dependence of the field in the bending plane and is accurate for arbitrary beam energy. It also removes the singularity in the space charge field calculation present in a 1D model. Good agreement is obtained with 1D CSR analytic result for free electron laser (FEL) related beam parameters but it can also give a more accurate result for low-energy/large spot size beams and off-axis/transient fields. This 2D CSR model can be used for understanding the limitation of various 1D models and for benchmarking fully electromagnetic multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations for self-consistent CSR modeling.

  11. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam M P; Vedder, Lindsey C; Law, L Matthew; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Spatial navigation requires memory representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus (HPC) and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the HPC. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the HPC and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  12. Amnesia induced by morphine in spatial memory retrieval inhibited in morphine-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Naghdi, Nasser; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Kadivar, Mehdi; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2012-05-15

    The present study investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on the impairment of spatial memory retrieval induced by acute morphine in adult male rats. Spatial memory was assessed by 2-day Morris water maze task which included training and test day. On the training day, rats were trained by a single training session of 8 trials. On the test day, a probe trial consisting of 60s free swim period without a platform and the visible test were administered. Morphine sensitization was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine, once daily for 3 days followed by 5 days without drug treatment before training. The results indicated that acute administration of morphine (7.5mg/kg, s.c.) before testing impaired spatial memory on the test day. Pre-test morphine-induced amnesia decreased in morphine-sensitized (15 and 20mg/kg, s.c.) rats. Improvement in spatial memory retrieval in morphine-sensitized rats was inhibited by once daily administration of naloxone (1 and 2mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min prior to the injection of morphine for three days. The results suggest that morphine sensitization reverses the impairment of spatial memory retrieval induced by acute morphine and it is implied that mu-opioid receptors may play an important role in this effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  14. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  15. Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane.

  16. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  17. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  18. Spatial partitions systematize visual search and enhance target memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-02-01

    Humans are remarkably capable of finding desired objects in the world, despite the scale and complexity of naturalistic environments. Broadly, this ability is supported by an interplay between exploratory search and guidance from episodic memory for previously observed target locations. Here we examined how the environment itself may influence this interplay. In particular, we examined how partitions in the environment-like buildings, rooms, and furniture-can impact memory during repeated search. We report that the presence of partitions in a display, independent of item configuration, reliably improves episodic memory for item locations. Repeated search through partitioned displays was faster overall and was characterized by more rapid ballistic orienting in later repetitions. Explicit recall was also both faster and more accurate when displays were partitioned. Finally, we found that search paths were more regular and systematic when displays were partitioned. Given the ubiquity of partitions in real-world environments, these results provide important insights into the mechanisms of naturalistic search and its relation to memory.

  19. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  20. Discrimination performance in aging is vulnerable to interference and dissociable from spatial memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Sacks, Patricia K.; Turner, Sean M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal model. In the present study, young and aged F344×BN F1 hybrid rats were cross-characterized on the Morris water maze test of spatial memory and a dentate gyrus-dependent match-to-position test of spatial discrimination ability. Aged rats showed overall impairments relative to young in spatial learning and memory on the water maze task. Although young and aged learned to apply a match-to-position response strategy in performing easy spatial discriminations within a similar number of trials, a majority of aged rats were impaired relative to young in performing difficult spatial discriminations on subsequent tests. Moreover, all aged rats were susceptible to cumulative interference during spatial discrimination tests, such that error rate increased on later trials of test sessions. These data suggest that when faced with difficult discriminations, the aged rats were less able to distinguish current goal locations from those of previous trials. Increasing acetylcholine levels with donepezil did not improve aged rats’ abilities to accurately perform difficult spatial discriminations or reduce their susceptibility to interference. Interestingly, better spatial memory abilities were not significantly associated with higher performance on difficult spatial discriminations. This observation, along with the finding that aged rats made more errors under conditions in which interference was high, suggests that match-to-position spatial discrimination performance may rely on extra-hippocampal structures such as the prefrontal cortex, in addition to the dentate gyrus. PMID:27317194

  1. Hippocampal activation during the recall of remote spatial memories in radial maze tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesiger, Magdalene I; Cressey, John C; Boublil, Brittney; Koenig, Julie; Melvin, Neal R; Leutgeb, Jill K; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Temporally graded retrograde amnesia is observed in human patients with medial temporal lobe lesions as well as in animal models of medial temporal lobe lesions. A time-limited role for these structures in memory recall has also been suggested by the observation that the rodent hippocampus and entorhinal cortex are activated during the retrieval of recent but not of remote memories. One notable exception is the recall of remote memories for platform locations in the water maze, which requires an intact hippocampus and results in hippocampal activation irrespective of the age of the memory. These findings raise the question whether the hippocampus is always involved in the recall of spatial memories or, alternatively, whether it might be required for procedural computations in the water maze task, such as for calculating a path to a hidden platform. We performed spatial memory testing in radial maze tasks to distinguish between these possibilities. Radial maze tasks require a choice between spatial locations on a center platform and thus have a lesser requirement for navigation than the water maze. However, we used a behavioral design in the radial maze that retained other aspects of the standard water maze task, such as the use of multiple start locations and retention testing in a single trial. Using the immediate early gene c-fos as a marker for neuronal activation, we found that all hippocampal subregions were more activated during the recall of remote compared to recent spatial memories. In areas CA3 and CA1, activation during remote memory testing was higher than in rats that were merely reexposed to the testing environment after the same time interval. Conversely, Fos levels in the dentate gyrus were increased after retention testing to the extent that was also observed in the corresponding exposure control group. This pattern of hippocampal activation was also obtained in a second version of the task that only used a single start arm instead of multiple

  2. Fluctuations and symmetries in two-dimensional active gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N; Basu, A

    2011-04-01

    Motivated by the unique physical properties of biological active matter, e.g., cytoskeletal dynamics in eukaryotic cells, we set up effective two-dimensional (2d) coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations for the dynamics of thin active gels with polar or nematic symmetries. We use the well-known three-dimensional (3d) descriptions (K. Kruse et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 5 (2005); A. Basu et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 149 (2008)) for thin active-gel samples confined between parallel plates with appropriate boundary conditions to derive the effective 2d constitutive relations between appropriate thermodynamic fluxes and generalised forces for small deviations from equilibrium. We consider three distinct cases, characterised by spatial symmetries and boundary conditions, and show how such considerations dictate the structure of the constitutive relations. We use these to study the linear instabilities, calculate the correlation functions and the diffusion constant of a small tagged particle, and elucidate their dependences on the activity or nonequilibrium drive.

  3. Parallel processing of two-dimensional Sn transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, M.

    1997-01-01

    A parallel processing method for the two-dimensional S n transport code DOT3.5 has been developed to achieve a drastic reduction in computation time. In the proposed method, parallelization is achieved with angular domain decomposition and/or space domain decomposition. The calculational speed of parallel processing by angular domain decomposition is largely influenced by frequent communications between processing elements. To assess parallelization efficiency, sample problems with up to 32 x 32 spatial meshes were solved with a Sun workstation using the PVM message-passing library. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements, for example, was found to be nine times as fast as that with one processing element. As for parallel processing by geometry segmentation, the influence of processing element communications on computation time is small; however, discontinuity at the segment boundary degrades convergence speed. To accelerate the convergence, an alternate sweep of angular flux in conjunction with space domain decomposition and a two-step rescaling method consisting of segmentwise rescaling and ordinary pointwise rescaling have been developed. By applying the developed method, the number of iterations needed to obtain a converged flux solution was reduced by a factor of 2. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements was found to be 5.98 times as fast as the original DOT3.5 calculation

  4. TUTANK a two-dimensional neutron kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.G.; Halsall, M.J.; Fayers, F.J.

    1975-04-01

    TUTANK is a two-dimensional neutron kinetics code which treats two neutron energy groups and up to six groups of delayed neutron precursors. A 'theta differencing' method is used to integrate the time dependence of the equations. A position dependent exponential transformation on the time variable is available as an option, which in many circumstances can remove much of the time dependence, and thereby allow longer time steps to be taken. A further manipulation is made to separate the solutions of the neutron fluxes and the precursor concentrations. The spatial equations are based on standard diffusion theory, and their solution is obtained from alternating direction sweeps with a transverse buckling - the so-called ADI-B 2 method. Other features of the code include an elementary temperature feedback and heat removal treatment, automatic time step adjustment, a flexible method of specifying cross-section and heat transfer coefficient variations during a transient, and a restart facility which requires a minimal data specification. Full details of the code input are given. An example of the solution of a NEACRP benchmark for an LWR control rod withdrawal is given. (author)

  5. Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation

  6. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R λ ∼100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in k space consistent with the k -3 spectrum of the Kraichnan endash Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Lagrangian statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Michael K; Ecke, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of Lagrangian single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale ri. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. Lagrangian correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in terms of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of Lagrangian velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed.

  8. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  9. Binding of Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory in Williams Syndrome and Moderate Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Phillips, Caroline; Baddeley, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    A main aim of this study was to test the claim that individuals with Williams syndrome have selectively impaired memory for spatial as opposed to visual information. The performance of 16 individuals with Williams syndrome (six males, 10 females; mean age 18y 7mo [SD 7y 6mo], range 9y 1mo-30y 7mo) on tests of short-term memory for item and…

  10. A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Biegler, Robert; McGregor, Anthony; Krebs, John R.; Healy, Susan D.

    2001-01-01

    Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits (Parus ater) a food-storin...

  11. Vision and kinesthesis in spatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podros, L Z; Wyke, M A; Waters, J M

    1981-10-01

    This investigation examined the effects of different localizing cues on the precision with which subjects can recall the position of a target in space. The availability of the cues--vision, kinesthesis, or both--was varied during both learning and recall. Subjects (age range 26 to 58 yr.) placed the stimulus or watched it being placed. The stimulus was removed, and subjects replaced or indicated its replacement location. Results show a striking similarity of performance for all subjects and significant performance differences relative to the different cues. The results provide information about intramodal and intermodal visual and kinesthetic transfer effects and about the effects of unimodal and multimodal input in such transfer. Results confirm a dominance of vision over kinesthesis, i.e., "kinesthetic memory" does not provide as accurate localizing information as does "visual memory."

  12. Symmetry and binding in visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, C; Pieroni, L; Baddeley, A

    2006-04-28

    Three experiments study the impact of symmetry on a sequential block tapping immediate memory task in human subjects. Experiment 1 shows an advantage from vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, while finding no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. Experiment 2 tests the possible role of verbal labeling by means of a secondary task that prevents this by articulatory suppression. No evidence of verbalization was observed. A third study examines the effects of a concurrent executive load, finding an overall impairment, that did not differ between symmetrical and asymmetric patterns, suggesting that the effect of symmetry reflects automatic rather than executive processes. Implications for the episodic buffer component of working memory are discussed.

  13. The Focus of Spatial Attention Determines the Number and Precision of Face Representations in Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, John; Kelly, Maria; Eimer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The capacity of visual working memory for faces is extremely limited, but the reasons for these limitations remain unknown. We employed event-related brain potential measures to demonstrate that individual faces have to be focally attended in order to be maintained in working memory, and that attention is allocated to only a single face at a time. When 2 faces have to be memorized simultaneously in a face identity-matching task, the focus of spatial attention during encoding predicts which of these faces can be successfully maintained in working memory and matched to a subsequent test face. We also show that memory representations of attended faces are maintained in a position-dependent fashion. These findings demonstrate that the limited capacity of face memory is directly linked to capacity limits of spatial attention during the encoding and maintenance of individual face representations. We suggest that the capacity and distribution of selective spatial attention is a dynamic resource that constrains the capacity and fidelity of working memory for faces. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Familiar real-world spatial cues provide memory benefits in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-05-01

    Episodic memory, future thinking, and memory for scenes have all been proposed to rely on the hippocampus, and evidence suggests that these all decline in healthy aging. Despite this age-related memory decline, studies examining the effects of context reinstatement on episodic memory have demonstrated that reinstating elements of the encoding context of an event leads to better memory retrieval in both younger and older adults. The current study was designed to test whether more familiar, real-world contexts, such as locations that participants visited often, would improve the detail richness and vividness of memory for scenes, autobiographical events, and imagination of future events in young and older adults. The predicted age-related decline in internal details across all 3 conditions was accompanied by persistent effects of contextual familiarity, in which a more familiar spatial context led to increased detail and vividness of remembered scenes, autobiographical events, and, to some extent, imagined future events. This study demonstrates that autobiographical memory, imagination of the future, and scene memory are similarly affected by aging, and all benefit from being associated with more familiar (real-world) contexts, illustrating the stability of contextual reinstatement effects on memory throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The selective disruption of spatial working memory by eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Postle, Bradley R.; Idzikowski, Christopher; Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Baddeley and colleagues conducted a series of experiments investigating the role of eye movements in visual working memory. Although only described briefly in a book (Baddeley, 1986), these studies have influenced a remarkable number of empirical and theoretical developments in fields ranging from experimental psychology to human neuropsychology to nonhuman primate electrophysiology. This paper presents, in full detail, three critical studies from this series, t...

  16. Effects of Asiatic Acid on Spatial Working Memory and Cell Proliferation in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiwat Sirichoat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene from Centella asiatica. Previous studies have reported that asiatic acid exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cell culture. It also prevents memory deficits in animal models. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatial working memory and changes in cell proliferation within the hippocampus after administration of asiatic acid to male Spraque-Dawley rats. Control rats received vehicle (propylene glycol while treated rats received asiatic acid (30 mg/kg orally for 14 or 28 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL test. In animals administered asiatic acid for both 14 and 28 days, the number of Ki-67 positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly higher than in control animals. This was associated with a significant increase in their ability to discriminate between novel and familiar object locations in a novel object discrimination task, a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory test. Administration of asiatic acid also significantly increased doublecortin (DCX and Notch1 protein levels in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that asiatic acid treatment may be a potent cognitive enhancer which improves hippocampal-dependent spatial memory, likely by increasing hippocampal neurogenesis.

  17. SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LOSS INDUCED BY OKADAIC ACID (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chighladze, M; Dashniani, M; Beselia, G; Kruashvili, L; Naneishvili, T

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated and compared effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intrahippocampal bilateral microinjection of okadaic acid (OA) on spatial memory function assessed in one day water maze paradigm and hippocampal structure in rats. Rats were divided in following groups: Control(icv) - rats injected with ICV and aCSF; Control(hipp) - rats injected intrahippocampally with aCSF; OAicv - rats injected with ICV and OA; OAhipp - rats injected intrahippocampally with OA. Nissl staining of hippocampal sections showed that the pyramidal cell loss in OAhipp group is significantly higher than that in the OAicv. The results of behavioral experiments showed that ICV or intrahippocampal bilateral microinjection of OA did not affect learning process and short-term spatial memory but induced impairment in spatial long-term memory assessed in probe test performance 24 h after training. OA-induced spatial memory impairment may be attributed to the hippocampal cell death. Based on these results OA induced memory deficit and hippocampal cell loss in rat may be considered as a potential animal model for preclinical evaluation of antidementic drug activity.

  18. Protocol for Short- and Longer-term Spatial Learning and Memory in Mice

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    Emily F. Willis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the role of the hippocampus in higher cognitive functions such as spatial learning and memory in rodents are reliant upon robust and objective behavioral tests. This protocol describes one such test—the active place avoidance (APA task. This behavioral task involves the mouse continuously integrating visual cues to orientate itself within a rotating arena in order to actively avoid a shock zone, the location of which remains constant relative to the room. This protocol details the step-by-step procedures for a novel paradigm of the hippocampal-dependent APA task, measuring acquisition of spatial learning during a single 20-min trial (i.e., short-term memory, with spatial memory encoding and retrieval (i.e., long-term memory assessed by trials conducted over consecutive days. Using the APA task, cognitive flexibility can be assessed using the reversal learning paradigm, as this increases the cognitive load required for efficient performance in the task. In addition to a detailed experimental protocol, this paper also describes the range of its possible applications, the expected key results, as well as the analytical methods to assess the data, and the pitfalls/troubleshooting measures. The protocol described herein is highly robust and produces replicable results, thus presenting an important paradigm that enables the assessment of subtle short-term changes in spatial learning and memory, such as those observed for many experimental interventions.

  19. Inhibition of hippocampal aromatization impairs spatial memory performance in a male songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David J; Ma, Chunqi; Soma, Kiran K; Saldanha, Colin J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed the presence and regulation of aromatase at the vertebrate synapse, and identified a critical role played by presynaptic estradiol synthesis in the electrophysiological response to auditory and other social cues. However, if and how synaptic aromatization affects behavior remains to be directly tested. We have exploited 3 characteristics of the zebra finch hippocampus (HP) to test the role of synaptocrine estradiol provision on spatial memory function. Although the zebra finch HP contains abundant aromatase transcripts and enzyme activity, immunocytochemical studies reveal widespread pre- and postsynaptic, but sparse to undetectable somal, localization of this enzyme. Further, the superficial location of the avian HP makes possible the more exclusive manipulation of its neurochemical characteristics without perturbation of the neuropil and the resultant induction of astroglial aromatase. Last, as in other vertebrates, the HP is critical for spatial memory performance in this species. Here we report that local inhibition of hippocampal aromatization impairs spatial memory performance in an ecologically valid food-finding task. Local aromatase inhibition also resulted in lower levels of estradiol in the HP, but not in adjacent brain areas, and was achieved without the induction of astroglial aromatase. The observed decrement in acquisition and subsequent memory performance as a consequence of lowered aromatization was similar to that achieved by lesioning this locus. Thus, hippocampal aromatization, much of which is achieved at the synapse in this species, is critical for spatial memory performance.

  20. Spatial Impairment and Memory in Genetic Disorders: Insights from Mouse Models

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    Sang Ah Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research across the cognitive and brain sciences has begun to elucidate some of the processes that guide navigation and spatial memory. Boundary geometry and featural landmarks are two distinct classes of environmental cues that have dissociable neural correlates in spatial representation and follow different patterns of learning. Consequently, spatial navigation depends both on the type of cue available and on the type of learning provided. We investigated this interaction between spatial representation and memory by administering two different tasks (working memory, reference memory using two different environmental cues (rectangular geometry, striped landmark in mouse models of human genetic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWScrm+/p− mice, n = 12 and Beta-catenin mutation (Thr653Lys-substituted mice, n = 12. This exploratory study provides suggestive evidence that these models exhibit different abilities and impairments in navigating by boundary geometry and featural landmarks, depending on the type of memory task administered. We discuss these data in light of the specific deficits in cognitive and brain function in these human syndromes and their animal model counterparts.

  1. Support for distinct subcomponents of spatial working memory: a double dissociation between spatial-simultaneous and spatial-sequential performance in unilateral neglect.

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    Wansard, Murielle; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Bastin, Christine; Segovia, Fermín; Gillet, Sophie; Duret, Christophe; Meulemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, many studies have demonstrated that visuospatial working memory (VSWM) can be divided into separate subsystems dedicated to the retention of visual patterns and their serial order. Impaired VSWM has been suggested to exacerbate left visual neglect in right-brain-damaged individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the segregation between spatial-sequential and spatial-simultaneous working memory in individuals with neglect. We demonstrated that patterns of results on these VSWM tasks can be dissociated. Spatial-simultaneous and sequential aspects of VSWM can be selectively impaired in unilateral neglect. Our results support the hypothesis of multiple VSWM subsystems, which should be taken into account to better understand neglect-related deficits.

  2. Disturbance effect of music on processing of verbal and spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Makoto; Ito, Takako

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the disturbance effect of music on performances of memory tasks. Subjects performed a verbal memory task and a spatial memory task in 4 sound conditions, including the presence of vocal music, instrumental music, a natural sound (murmurings of a stream), and no music. 47 undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to perform tasks under each condition. Perceived disturbance was highest under the vocal music condition regardless of the type of task. A disturbance in performance by music was observed only with the verbal memory task under the vocal and the instrumental music conditions. These findings were discussed from the perspectives of the working memory hypothesis and the changing state model.

  3. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

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    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was

  4. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

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    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Effects of two-dimensional versus three-dimensional landmark geometry and layout on young children's recall of locations from new viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Roome, Hannah E; Keenaghan, Samantha; Nardini, Marko

    2018-06-01

    Spatial memory is an important aspect of adaptive behavior and experience, providing both content and context to the perceptions and memories that we form in everyday life. Young children's abilities in this realm shift from mainly egocentric (self-based) to include allocentric (world-based) codings at around 4 years of age. However, information about the cognitive mechanisms underlying acquisition of these new abilities is still lacking. We examined allocentric spatial recall in 4.5- to 8.5-year-olds, looking for continuity with navigation as previously studied in 2- to 4-year-olds and other species. We specifically predicted an advantage for three-dimensional landmarks over two-dimensional ones and for recalling targets "in the middle" versus elsewhere. However, we did not find compelling evidence for either of these effects, and indeed some analyses even support the opposite of each of these conclusions. There were also no significant interactions with age. These findings highlight the incompleteness of our overall theories of the development of spatial cognition in general and allocentric spatial recall in particular. They also suggest that allocentric spatial recall involves processes that have separate behavioral characteristics from other cognitive systems involved in navigation earlier in life and in other species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States); Reno, J. L. [CINT, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.

  7. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Hashemi, Jordan; Gans, Lee K; Lerebours, Laura; Clement, Nathaniel J; Vu, Mai-Anh T; Sapiro, Guillermo; Heller, Nicole E; Adcock, R Alison

    2018-01-01

    Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel characterization of

  8. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S Chiew

    Full Text Available Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel

  9. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Jordan; Gans, Lee K.; Lerebours, Laura; Clement, Nathaniel J.; Vu, Mai-Anh T.; Sapiro, Guillermo; Heller, Nicole E.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2018-01-01

    Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel characterization of

  10. Spatial Memory in Captive Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla

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    Stephanie M. Allard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The type of learning exhibited during foraging has been studied in a large number of species. Species that feed on food sources that temporally vary in quality could be well suited for exhibiting evidence of spatial learning. The foraging strategies of captive giant anteaters were examined using an experimental foraging task. Two giant anteaters were exposed to a modified radial arm maze in order to determine whether or not they would demonstrate evidence of spatial learning. Both subjects demonstrated significant improvement in performance by visiting baited feeders more consistently across learning trials. A disruption in performance occurred when the task was reversed, indicating that giant anteaters may use spatial learning to locate food sources. Obtaining a more sound understanding of the cognitive abilities of giant anteaters may help to enhance their welfare in captive settings.

  11. Does visuo-spatial working memory generally contribute to immediate serial letter recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, A; Rummer, R; Schweppe, J

    2013-01-01

    This work contributes to the understanding of the visual similarity effect in verbal working memory, a finding that suggests that the visuo-spatial sketch pad-the system in Baddeley's working memory model specialised in retaining nonverbal visual information-might be involved in the retention of visually presented verbal materials. Crucially this effect is implicitly interpreted by the most influential theory of multimedia learning as evidence for an obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad. We claim that it is only involved when the functioning of the working memory component normally used for processing verbal material is impaired. In this article we review the studies that give rise to the idea of obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad and suggest that some findings can be understood with reference to orthographic rather than visual similarity. We then test an alternative explanation of the finding that is most apt to serve as evidence for obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad. We conclude that, in healthy adults and under normal learning conditions, the visual similarity effect can be explained within the framework of verbal working memory proposed by Baddeley (e.g., 1986, 2000) without additional premises regarding the visuo-spatial sketch.

  12. Spatial working memory for locations specified by vision and audition: testing the amodality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Jack M; Klatzky, Roberta L; McHugh, Brendan; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2012-08-01

    Spatial working memory can maintain representations from vision, hearing, and touch, representations referred to here as spatial images. The present experiment addressed whether spatial images from vision and hearing that are simultaneously present within working memory retain modality-specific tags or are amodal. Observers were presented with short sequences of targets varying in angular direction, with the targets in a given sequence being all auditory, all visual, or a sequential mixture of the two. On two thirds of the trials, one of the locations was repeated, and observers had to respond as quickly as possible when detecting this repetition. Ancillary detection and localization tasks confirmed that the visual and auditory targets were perceptually comparable. Response latencies in the working memory task showed small but reliable costs in performance on trials involving a sequential mixture of auditory and visual targets, as compared with trials of pure vision or pure audition. These deficits were statistically reliable only for trials on which the modalities of the matching location switched from the penultimate to the final target in the sequence, indicating a switching cost. The switching cost for the pair in immediate succession means that the spatial images representing the target locations retain features of the visual or auditory representations from which they were derived. However, there was no reliable evidence of a performance cost for mixed modalities in the matching pair when the second of the two did not immediately follow the first, suggesting that more enduring spatial images in working memory may be amodal.

  13. Persistent spatial information in the frontal eye field during object-based short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L; Noudoost, Behrad; Moore, Tirin

    2012-08-08

    Spatial attention is known to gate entry into visual short-term memory, and some evidence suggests that spatial signals may also play a role in binding features or protecting object representations during memory maintenance. To examine the persistence of spatial signals during object short-term memory, the activity of neurons in the frontal eye field (FEF) of macaque monkeys was recorded during an object-based delayed match-to-sample task. In this task, monkeys were trained to remember an object image over a brief delay, regardless of the locations of the sample or target presentation. FEF neurons exhibited visual, delay, and target period activity, including selectivity for sample location and target location. Delay period activity represented the sample location throughout the delay, despite the irrelevance of spatial information for successful task completion. Furthermore, neurons continued to encode sample position in a variant of the task in which the matching stimulus never appeared in their response field, confirming that FEF maintains sample location independent of subsequent behavioral relevance. FEF neurons also exhibited target-position-dependent anticipatory activity immediately before target onset, suggesting that monkeys predicted target position within blocks. These results show that FEF neurons maintain spatial information during short-term memory, even when that information is irrelevant for task performance.

  14. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition

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    Adam M P Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation requires representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the hippocampus. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the hippocampus and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  15. The effect of sodium salicylate injection on spatial learning and memory of rat

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    Leila Azimi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase (COX enzyme known as a regulatory factor in synaptic plasticity. It has been reported that synaptic plasticity is one of the mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes. In the current study peripheral injection's effects of sodium salicylate (as a non selective COX inhibitor on spatial learning and memory have been investigated.Methods: Four groups of male rats received different doses of sodium salicylate (0, 200, 300, 400 mg/kg; i.p.. Studies were performed using Morris Water Maze (MWM. Spatial learning and memory parameters were subjected to the one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.Results: Data showed that intraperitoneal injection of sodium salicylate had not significant effect on spatial learning parameters (including escape latency and traveled distance to hidden platform in training days; but administration of high dose of the drug (400 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of time that animals spent in the target quadrant in probe trial testing. Conclusion: Peripheral injection of the COX inhibitor has no significant effect on spatial learning; but potentiates spatial memory consolidation using MWM.

  16. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  17. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  18. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

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    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  19. Visual memory in unilateral spatial neglect: immediate recall versus delayed recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreh, Elior; Malkinson, Tal Seidel; Zohary, Ehud; Soroker, Nachum

    2014-09-01

    Patients with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often show impaired performance in spatial working memory tasks, apart from the difficulty retrieving "left-sided" spatial data from long-term memory, shown in the "piazza effect" by Bisiach and colleagues. This study's aim was to compare the effect of the spatial position of a visual object on immediate and delayed memory performance in USN patients. Specifically, immediate verbal recall performance, tested using a simultaneous presentation of four visual objects in four quadrants, was compared with memory in a later-provided recognition task, in which objects were individually shown at the screen center. Unlike healthy controls, USN patients showed a left-side disadvantage and a vertical bias in the immediate free recall task (69% vs. 42% recall for right- and left-sided objects, respectively). In the recognition task, the patients correctly recognized half of "old" items, and their correct rejection rate was 95.5%. Importantly, when the analysis focused on previously recalled items (in the immediate task), no statistically significant difference was found in the delayed recognition of objects according to their original quadrant of presentation. Furthermore, USN patients were able to recollect the correct original location of the recognized objects in 60% of the cases, well beyond chance level. This suggests that the memory trace formed in these cases was not only semantic but also contained a visuospatial tag. Finally, successful recognition of objects missed in recall trials points to formation of memory traces for neglected contralesional objects, which may become accessible to retrieval processes in explicit memory.

  20. Synchronous retinotopic frontal-temporal activity during long-term memory for spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-05-12

    Early visual areas in occipital cortex are known to be retinotopic. Recently, retinotopic maps have been reported in frontal and parietal cortex during spatial attention and working memory. The present event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study determined whether spatial long-term memory was associated with retinotopic activity in frontal and parietal regions, and assessed whether retinotopic activity in these higher level control regions was synchronous with retinotopic activity in lower level visual sensory regions. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as old and previously on the "left", old and previously on the "right", or "new". Retinotopic effects were manifested by accurate memory for items previously presented on the left producing activity in the right hemisphere and accurate memory for items previously presented on the right producing activity in the left hemisphere. Retinotopic ERP activity was observed in frontal regions and visual sensory (occipital and temporal) regions. In frontal cortex, retinotopic fMRI activity was localized to the frontal eye fields. There were no significant ERP or fMRI retinotopic memory effects in parietal regions. The present long-term memory retinotopic effects complement previous spatial attention and working memory findings (and suggest retinotopic activity in parietal cortex may require an external peripheral stimulus). Furthermore, ERP cross-correlogram analysis revealed that retinotopic activations in frontal and temporal regions were synchronous, indicating that these regions interact during retrieval of spatial information. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-Sensory Transfer of Reference Frames in Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jonathan W.; Avraamides, Marios N.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether visual cues influence spatial reference frame selection for locations learned through touch. Participants experienced visual cues emphasizing specific environmental axes and later learned objects through touch. Visual cues were manipulated and haptic learning conditions were held constant. Imagined perspective…

  2. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2017-12-01

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75 NTR receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  3. The Role of the Oculomotor System in Updating Visual-Spatial Working Memory across Saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Paul J; Belopolsky, Artem V; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) helps us to maintain and manipulate visual information in the absence of sensory input. It has been proposed that VSWM is an emergent property of the oculomotor system. In the present study we investigated the role of the oculomotor system in updating of spatial working memory representations across saccades. Participants had to maintain a location in memory while making a saccade to a different location. During the saccade the target was displaced, which went unnoticed by the participants. After executing the saccade, participants had to indicate the memorized location. If memory updating fully relies on cancellation driven by extraretinal oculomotor signals, the displacement should have no effect on the perceived location of the memorized stimulus. However, if postsaccadic retinal information about the location of the saccade target is used, the perceived location will be shifted according to the target displacement. As it has been suggested that maintenance of accurate spatial representations across saccades is especially important for action control, we used different ways of reporting the location held in memory; a match-to-sample task, a mouse click or by making another saccade. The results showed a small systematic target displacement bias in all response modalities. Parametric manipulation of the distance between the to-be-memorized stimulus and saccade target revealed that target displacement bias increased over time and changed its spatial profile from being initially centered on locations around the saccade target to becoming spatially global. Taken together results suggest that we neither rely exclusively on extraretinal nor on retinal information in updating working memory representations across saccades. The relative contribution of retinal signals is not fixed but depends on both the time available to integrate these signals as well as the distance between the saccade target and the remembered location.

  4. Alpha-Band Activity Reveals Spontaneous Representations of Spatial Position in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Bsales, Emma M; Jaffe, Russell J; Awh, Edward

    2017-10-23

    An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]. However, these findings do not establish that a persistent, active representation of stimulus position is maintained in WM because similar effects have also been documented following storage in long-term memory [8, 9]. Here we show that the spatial position of the memorandum is actively coded by persistent neural activity during a non-spatial WM task. We used a spatial encoding model in conjunction with electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity to track active representations of spatial position. The position of the stimulus varied trial to trial but was wholly irrelevant to the tasks. We nevertheless observed active neural representations of the original stimulus position that persisted throughout the retention interval. Further experiments established that these spatial representations are dependent on the volitional storage of non-spatial features rather than being a lingering effect of sensory energy or initial encoding demands. These findings provide strong evidence that online spatial representations are spontaneously maintained in WM-regardless of task relevance-during the storage of non-spatial features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc deficiency with reduced mastication impairs spatial memory in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Kumiko; Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient oral microelements such as zinc and fully chewing of foods are required to maintain cognitive function despite aging. No knowledge exists about the combination of factors such as zinc deficiency and reduced mastication on learning and memory. Here we show that tooth extraction only in 8-week-old mice did not change the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled astrocytes in the hippocampus or spatial memory parameters. However, tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation strongly impaired spatial memory and led to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. The impaired spatial performance in the zinc-deficient only (ZD) mice also coincided well with the increase in the astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. After switching both zinc-deficient groups to a normal diet with sufficient zinc, spatial memory recovered, and more time was spent in the quadrant with the goal in the probe test in the mice with tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation (EZD) compared to the ZD mice. Interestingly, we found no differences in astrocytic density in the CA1 region among all groups at 22 weeks of age. Furthermore, the escape latency in a visible probe test at all times was longer in zinc-deficient groups than the others and demonstrated a negative correlation with body weight. No significant differences in escape latency were observed in the visible probe test among the ZD, EZD, and normal-fed control at 4 weeks (CT4w) groups in which body weight was standardized to that of the EZD group, or in the daily reduction in latency between the normal-fed control and CT4w groups. Our data showed that zinc-deficient feeding during a young age impairs spatial memory performance and leads to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region and that zinc-sufficient feeding is followed by recovery of the impaired spatial memory along with changes in astrocytic density. The combination of the two factors, zinc deficiency

  7. A working memory account of the interaction between numbers and spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Abrahamse, Elger L; Acar, Freya; Ketels, Boris; Fias, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Rather than reflecting the long-term memory construct of a mental number line, it has been proposed that the relation between numbers and space is of a more temporary nature and constructed in working memory during task execution. In three experiments we further explored the viability of this working memory account. Participants performed a speeded dot detection task with dots appearing left or right, while maintaining digits or letters in working memory. Just before presentation of the dot, these digits or letters were used as central cues. These experiments show that the "attentional SNARC-effect" (where SNARC is the spatial-numerical association of response codes) is not observed when only the lastly perceived number cue--and no serially ordered sequence of cues--is maintained in working memory (Experiment 1). It is only when multiple items (numbers in Experiment 2; letters in Experiment 3) are stored in working memory in a serially organized way that the attentional cueing effect is observed as a function of serial working memory position. These observations suggest that the "attentional SNARC-effect" is strongly working memory based. Implications for theories on the mental representation of numbers are discussed.

  8. Common mechanisms of spatial attention in memory and perception: a tactile dual-task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Andersen, Søren K; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-03-01

    Orienting attention to locations in mnemonic representations engages processes that functionally and anatomically overlap the neural circuitry guiding prospective shifts of spatial attention. The attention-based rehearsal account predicts that the requirement to withdraw attention from a memorized location impairs memory accuracy. In a dual-task study, we simultaneously presented retro-cues and pre-cues to guide spatial attention in short-term memory (STM) and perception, respectively. The spatial direction of each cue was independent of the other. The locations indicated by the combined cues could be compatible (same hand) or incompatible (opposite hands). Incompatible directional cues decreased lateralized activity in brain potentials evoked by visual cues, indicating interference in the generation of prospective attention shifts. The detection of external stimuli at the prospectively cued location was impaired when the memorized location was part of the perceptually ignored hand. The disruption of attention-based rehearsal by means of incompatible pre-cues reduced memory accuracy and affected encoding of tactile test stimuli at the retrospectively cued hand. These findings highlight the functional significance of spatial attention for spatial STM. The bidirectional interactions between both tasks demonstrate that spatial attention is a shared neural resource of a capacity-limited system that regulates information processing in internal and external stimulus representations.

  9. Co-speech iconic gestures and visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana

    2014-11-01

    Three experiments tested the role of verbal versus visuo-spatial working memory in the comprehension of co-speech iconic gestures. In Experiment 1, participants viewed congruent discourse primes in which the speaker's gestures matched the information conveyed by his speech, and incongruent ones in which the semantic content of the speaker's gestures diverged from that in his speech. Discourse primes were followed by picture probes that participants judged as being either related or unrelated to the preceding clip. Performance on this picture probe classification task was faster and more accurate after congruent than incongruent discourse primes. The effect of discourse congruency on response times was linearly related to measures of visuo-spatial, but not verbal, working memory capacity, as participants with greater visuo-spatial WM capacity benefited more from congruent gestures. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants performed the same picture probe classification task under conditions of high and low loads on concurrent visuo-spatial (Experiment 2) and verbal (Experiment 3) memory tasks. Effects of discourse congruency and verbal WM load were additive, while effects of discourse congruency and visuo-spatial WM load were interactive. Results suggest that congruent co-speech gestures facilitate multi-modal language comprehension, and indicate an important role for visuo-spatial WM in these speech-gesture integration processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient processing of two-dimensional arrays with C or C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-20

    Because fast and efficient serial processing of raster-graphic images and other two-dimensional arrays is a requirement in land-change modeling and other applications, the effects of 10 factors on the runtimes for processing two-dimensional arrays with C and C++ are evaluated in a comparative factorial study. This study’s factors include the choice among three C or C++ source-code techniques for array processing; the choice of Microsoft Windows 7 or a Linux operating system; the choice of 4-byte or 8-byte array elements and indexes; and the choice of 32-bit or 64-bit memory addressing. This study demonstrates how programmer choices can reduce runtimes by 75 percent or more, even after compiler optimizations. Ten points of practical advice for faster processing of two-dimensional arrays are offered to C and C++ programmers. Further study and the development of a C and C++ software test suite are recommended.Key words: array processing, C, C++, compiler, computational speed, land-change modeling, raster-graphic image, two-dimensional array, software efficiency

  11. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  12. Effects of harmane during treadmill exercise on spatial memory of restraint-stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Shahini, Faezeh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Azarbayjani, MohammadAli; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2018-06-08

    Chronic stress induces hippocampal-dependent memory deficits, which can be counterbalanced with prolonged exercise. On the other hand, the β-carboline alkaloid harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases and modulating neuronal responses to stress. The present study investigated the effect of chronic treatment of harmane alone or during treadmill running on spatial memory deficit in restraint-stressed mice. To examine spatial memory, adult male NMRI mice were subjected to the Y-maze. Intraperitoneal administration of harmane (0.6 mg/kg, once/ 48 h for 25 days) decreased the percentage of time in the novel arm and the number of novel arm visits, indicating a spatial memory deficit. A 9-day restraint stress (3 h/day) also produced spatial learning impairment. However, a 4-week regime of treadmill running (10 m/min for 30 min/day, 5 days/week) aggravated the stress impairing effect on spatial learning of 3-day stressed mice compared to exercise/non-stressed mice. Moreover, harmane (0.3 mg/kg) associated with exercise increased the number of novel arm visits in 9-day stressed mice compared to harmane/exercise/non-stressed or 9-day stressed group. It should be noted that none of these factors alone or in combination with each other had no effect on locomotor activity. Taken together, these data suggest that there is no interaction between harmane and exercise on spatial memory in stress condition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  14. Two-dimensional electronic femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie J.P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with a femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering probe. The method reveals correlations between excitation energy and excited state vibrational structure following photoexcitation. We demonstrate the method in rhodamine 6G.

  15. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  16. Generalized similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009 ... temperature two-dimensional MHD laminar boundary layer of incompressible fluid. ...... Φ η is Blasius solution for stationary boundary layer on the plate,. ( ). 0.

  17. A Simple GPU-Accelerated Two-Dimensional MUSCL-Hancock Solver for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Christopher; Dorelli, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe our experience using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) C programming environment to implement a two-dimensional second-order MUSCL-Hancock ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver on a GTX 480 Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Taking a simple approach in which the MHD variables are stored exclusively in the global memory of the GTX 480 and accessed in a cache-friendly manner (without further optimizing memory access by, for example, staging data in the GPU's faster shared memory), we achieved a maximum speed-up of approx. = 126 for a sq 1024 grid relative to the sequential C code running on a single Intel Nehalem (2.8 GHz) core. This speedup is consistent with simple estimates based on the known floating point performance, memory throughput and parallel processing capacity of the GTX 480.

  18. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Kai, Qi; Tao, Zhu; Yong, Chen; Ji-Rong, Ren

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  19. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  20. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  1. Glucose administration attenuates spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density microwave exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghui; Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Chen, Chunhai; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chuan; Chu, Fang; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou; Zhong, Min

    2012-07-16

    Extensive evidence indicates that glucose administration attenuates memory deficits in rodents and humans, and cognitive impairment has been associated with reduced glucose metabolism and uptake in certain brain regions including the hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose treatment attenuated memory deficits caused by chronic low-power-density microwave (MW) exposure, and the effect of MW exposure on hippocampal glucose uptake. We exposed Wistar rats to 2.45 GHz pulsed MW irradiation at a power density of 1 mW/cm(2) for 3 h/day, for up to 30 days. MW exposure induced spatial learning and memory impairments in rats. Hippocampal glucose uptake was also reduced by MW exposure in the absence or presence of insulin, but the levels of blood glucose and insulin were not affected. However, these spatial memory deficits were reversed by systemic glucose treatment. Our results indicate that glucose administration attenuates the spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure, and reduced hippocampal glucose uptake may be associated with cognitive impairment caused by MW exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual-Spatial Attention Aids the Maintenance of Object Representations in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melonie; Pouget, Pierre; Boucher, Leanne; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Theories have proposed that the maintenance of object representations in visual working memory is aided by a spatial rehearsal mechanism. In this study, we used two different approaches to test the hypothesis that overt and covert visual-spatial attention mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of object representations in visual working memory. First, we tracked observers’ eye movements while remembering a variable number of objects during change-detection tasks. We observed that during the blank retention interval, participants spontaneously shifted gaze to the locations that the objects had occupied in the memory array. Next, we hypothesized that if attention mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of object representations, then drawing attention away from the object locations during the retention interval would impair object memory during these change-detection tasks. Supporting this prediction, we found that attending to the fixation point in anticipation of a brief probe stimulus during the retention interval reduced change-detection accuracy even on the trials in which no probe occurred. These findings support models of working memory in which visual-spatial selection mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of object representations. PMID:23371773

  3. Interactive effects of morphine and dopaminergic compounds on spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hong Wang; Joshua Dominie Rizak; Yan-Mei Chen; Liang Li; Xin-Tian Hu; Yuan-Ye Ma

    2013-01-01

    Opiates and dopamine (DA) play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals.Although interactions between these neurotransmitters have been found,their functional roles remain to be fully elucidated,and their dysfunction may contribute to human diseases and addiction.Here we investigated the interactions of morphine and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems with respect to learning and memory in rhesus monkeys by using the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA) delayed-response task.Morphine and DA agonists (SKF-38393,apomorphine and bromocriptine) or DA antagonists (SKF-83566,haloperidol and sulpiride) were co-administered to the monkeys 30 min prior to the task.We found that dose-patterned co-administration of morphine with D1 or D2 antagonists or agonists reversed the impaired spatial working memory induced by morphine or the compounds alone.For example,morphine at 0.01 mg/kg impaired spatial working memory,while morphine (0.01 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.01 or 0.06 mg/kg) co-treatment ameliorated this effect.Our findings suggest that the interactions between morphine and dopaminergic compounds influence spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys.A better understanding of these interactive relationships may provide insights into human addiction.

  4. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  5. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  6. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  7. Spatial recognition test: A novel cognition task for assessing topographical memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd

    2017-06-01

    Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.

  8. Spatial memory: Theoretical basis and comparative review on experimental methods in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carrillo-Mora; Magda, Giordano; Abel, Santamaría

    2009-11-05

    The assessment of learning and memory in animal models has been widely employed in scientific research for a long time. Among these models, those representing diseases with primary processes of affected memory - such as amnesia, dementia, brain aging, etc. - studies dealing with the toxic effects of specific drugs, and other exploring neurodevelopment, trauma, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders, are often called on to employ these tools. There is a diversity of experimental methods assessing animal learning and memory skills. Overall, mazes are the devices mostly used today to test memory in rodents; there are several types of them, but their real usefulness, advantages and applications remain to be fully established and depend on the particular variant selected by the experimenter. The aims of the present article are first, to briefly review the accumulated knowledge in regard to spatial memory tasks; second, to bring the reader information on the different types of rodent mazes available to test spatial memory; and third, to elucidate the usefulness and limitations of each of these devices.

  9. The dynamics of sensory buffers: geometric, spatial, and experience-dependent shaping of iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Martin; Sigman, Mariano

    2008-05-23

    When a stimulus is presented, its sensory trace decays rapidly, lasting for approximately 1000 ms. This brief and labile memory, referred as iconic memory, serves as a buffer before information is transferred to working memory and executive control. Here we explored the effect of different factors--geometric, spatial, and experience--with respect to the access and the maintenance of information in iconic memory and the progressive distortion of this memory. We studied performance in a partial report paradigm, a design wherein recall of only part of a stimulus array is required. Subjects had to report the identity of a letter in a location that was cued in a variable delay after the stimulus onset. Performance decayed exponentially with time, and we studied the different parameters (time constant, zero-delay value, and decay amplitude) as a function of the different factors. We observed that experience (determined by letter frequency) affected the access to iconic memory but not the temporal decay constant. On the contrary, spatial position affected the temporal course of delay. The entropy of the error distribution increased with time reflecting a progressive morphological distortion of the iconic buffer. We discuss our results on the context of a model of information access to executive control and how it is affected by learning and attention.

  10. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  11. Eye movement suppression interferes with construction of object-centered spatial reference frames in working memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager

    2011-01-01

    The brain's frontal eye fields (FEF), responsible for eye movement control, are known to be involved in spatial working memory (WM). In a previous fMRI experiment (Wallentin, Roepstorff & Burgess, Neuropsychologia, 2008) it was found that FEF activation was primarily related to the formation...

  12. Spatial working memory and attention skills are predicted by maternal stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, André; Akbari, Emis; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence in rodents shows that maternal stress during pregnancy (MSDP) negatively impacts spatial learning and memory in the offspring. We aim to investigate the association between MSDP (i.e., life events) and spatial working memory, as well as attention skills (attention shifting and attention focusing), in humans. The moderating roles of child sex, maternal anxiety during pregnancy and postnatal care are also investigated. Participants were 236 mother-child dyads that were followed from the second trimester of pregnancy until 4 years postpartum. Measurements included questionnaires and independent observations. MSDP was negatively associated with attention shifting at 18 months when concurrent maternal anxiety was low. MSDP was associated with poorer spatial working memory at 4 years of age, but only for boys who experienced poorer postnatal care. Consistent with results observed in rodents, MSDP was found to be associated with spatial working memory and attention skills. These results point to postnatal care and maternal anxiety during pregnancy as potential targets for interventions that aim to buffer children from the detrimental effects of MSDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proficient use of low spatial frequencies facilitates face memory but shows protracted maturation throughout adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range

  14. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  15. Acute administration of THC impairs spatial but not associative memory function in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tim; Prinz, Nicole; Oellers, Nadine; Seidel, Nathan Ian; Jonas, Annika; Albayram, Onder; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute administration of endocannabinoid receptor CB1 ligand ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on intracellular signalling in the brain and retrieval from two different memory systems in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). First, fish were treated with THC and changes in the phosphorylation level of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Akt and Erk in the brain were determined 1 h after drug treatment. Next, animals of a second group learned in a two-alternative choice paradigm to discriminate between two colours, whereas a third group solved a spatial cognition task in an open-field maze by use of an ego-allocentric strategy. After memory acquisition and consolidation, animals were pharmacologically treated using the treatment regime as in the first group and then tested again for memory retrieval. We found an enhanced Erk but not Akt phosphorylation suggesting that THC treatment specifically activated Erk signalling in the zebrafish telencephalon. While CB1 agonist THC did not affect behavioural performance of animals in the colour discrimination paradigm, spatial memory was significantly impaired. The effect of THC on spatial learning is probably specific, since neither motor activity nor anxiety-related behaviour was influenced by the drug treatment. That indicates a striking influence of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) on spatial cognition in zebrafish. The results are very coincident with reports on mammals, demonstrating that the ECS is functional highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. We further conclude that the zebrafish provides a promising model organism for ongoing research on the ECS.

  16. Individual variation in human spatial ability: differences between men and women in object location memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Postma, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in the area of cognitive sex differences is that males outperform females on many spatial tasks. One exception seems to be object location memory. On this task, females tend to perform better than males. However, the existing studies have provided quite mixed

  17. Long-term heavy ketamine use is associated with spatial memory impairment and altered hippocampal activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, C.J.A.; Dodds, C.M.; Furby, H.; Pepper, F.; Johnson, F.; Freeman, T.P.; Hughes, E.; Doeller, C.F.; King, J.; Howes, O.; Stone, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, is rising in popularity as a drug of abuse. Preliminary evidence suggests that chronic, heavy ketamine use may have profound effects on spatial memory but the mechanism of these deficits is as yet unclear. This study aimed to

  18. Does the Acquisition of Spatial Skill Involve a Shift from Algorithm to Memory Retrieval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J.; Macnamara, Brooke N.

    2017-01-01

    Performance on verbal and mathematical tasks is enhanced when participants shift from using algorithms to retrieving information directly from memory (Siegler, 1988a). However, it is unknown whether a shift to retrieval is involved in dynamic spatial skill acquisition. For example, do athletes mentally extrapolate the trajectory of the ball, or do…

  19. Different cortical mechanisms for spatial vs. feature-based attentional selection in visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Heuer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited capacity of visual working memory necessitates attentional mechanisms that selectively update and maintain only the most task-relevant content. Psychophysical experiments have shown that the retroactive selection of memory content can be based on visual properties such as location or shape, but the neural basis for such differential selection is unknown. For example, it is not known if there are different cortical modules specialized for spatial versus feature-based mnemonic attention, in the same way that has been demonstrated for attention to perceptual input. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to identify areas in human parietal and occipital cortex involved in the selection of objects from memory based on cues to their location (spatial information or their shape (featural information. We found that TMS over the supramarginal gyrus (SMG selectively facilitated spatial selection, whereas TMS over the lateral occipital cortex selectively enhanced feature-based selection for remembered objects in the contralateral visual field. Thus, different cortical regions are responsible for spatial vs. feature-based selection of working memory representations. Since the same regions are involved in attention to external events, these new findings indicate overlapping mechanisms for attentional control over perceptual input and mnemonic representations.

  20. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly…

  1. Cellular activation of hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin neurons facilitates short-term spatial memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Pappa, Elpiniki; Burdakov, Denis; Apergis-Schoute, John

    2016-12-01

    The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Contralateral Delay Activity Reflect Working Memory Storage or the Current Focus of Spatial Attention within Visual Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-12-01

    During the retention of visual information in working memory, event-related brain potentials show a sustained negativity over posterior visual regions contralateral to the side where memorized stimuli were presented. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) is generally believed to be a neural marker of working memory storage. In two experiments, we contrasted this storage account of the CDA with the alternative hypothesis that the CDA reflects the current focus of spatial attention on a subset of memorized items set up during the most recent encoding episode. We employed a sequential loading procedure where participants memorized four task-relevant items that were presented in two successive memory displays (M1 and M2). In both experiments, CDA components were initially elicited contralateral to task-relevant items in M1. Critically, the CDA switched polarity when M2 displays appeared on the opposite side. In line with the attentional activation account, these reversed CDA components exclusively reflected the number of items that were encoded from M2 displays, irrespective of how many M1 items were already held in working memory. On trials where M1 and M2 displays were presented on the same side and on trials where M2 displays appeared nonlaterally, CDA components elicited in the interval after M2 remained sensitive to a residual trace of M1 items, indicating that some activation of previously stored items was maintained across encoding episodes. These results challenge the hypothesis that CDA amplitudes directly reflect the total number of stored objects and suggest that the CDA is primarily sensitive to the activation of a subset of working memory representations within the current focus of spatial attention.

  3. Two-dimensional readout system for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional readout system has been provided for reading out locations of scintillations produced in a scintillation type radiation detector array wherein strips of scintillator material are arranged in a parallel planar array. Two sets of light guides are placed perpendicular to the scintillator strips, one on the top and one on the bottom to extend in alignment across the strips. Both the top and bottom guides are composed of a number of 90 0 triangular prisms with the lateral side forming the hypotenuse equal to twice the width of a scintillator strip. The prism system reflects light from a scintillation along one of the strips back and forth through adjacent strips to light pipes coupled to the outermost strips of the detector array which transmit light pulses to appropriate detectors to determine the scintillation along one axis. Other light pipes are connected to the end portions of the strips to transmit light from the individual strips to appropriate light detectors to indicate the particular strip activated, thereby determining the position of a scintillation along the other axis. The number of light guide pairs may be equal the number of the scintillation strips when equal spatial resolution for each of the two coordinates is desired. When the scintillator array detects an event which produces a scintillation along one of the strips, the emitted light travels along four different paths, two of which are along the strip, and two of which are through the light guide pair perpendicular to the strips until all four beams reach the outer edges of the array where they may be transmitted to light detectors by means of light pipes connected therebetween according to a binary code for direct digital readout. (U.S.)

  4. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of 13 C and 1 H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface

  5. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.

  6. Mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation effects on spatial memory in healthy young adults: A study using the virtual Morris Water Maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piber, Dominique; Schultebraucks, Katharina; Mueller, Sven C; Deuter, Christian Eric; Wingenfeld, Katja; Otte, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Stress hormones such as cortisol are known to influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampal based spatial memory. In the brain, cortisol acts via two different receptors: the glucocorticoid (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). As the MR has a high density in the hippocampus, we examined the effects of pharmacological MR stimulation on spatial memory. Eighty healthy participants (40 women, 40 men, mean age=23.9years±SD=3.3) completed the virtual Morris Water Maze (vMWM) task to test spatial encoding and spatial memory retrieval after receiving 0.4mg fludrocortisone, a MR agonist, or placebo. There was no effect of MR stimulation on spatial encoding during the vMWM task. However, participants who received fludrocortisone exhibited improved spatial memory retrieval performance. There was neither a main effect of sex nor a sex-by-treatment interaction. In young healthy participants, MR stimulation improved hippocampal based spatial memory retrieval in a virtual Morris Water Maze task. Our study not only confirms the importance of MR function in spatial memory, but suggests beneficial effects of acute MR stimulation on spatial memory retrieval in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Reversible Abolition of Basolateral Amygdala on Hippocampal Dependent Spatial Memory Processes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rashidy-Pour

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many evidences have suggested that the Basolateral Amygdala (BLA are probably involved in emotional learning and modulation of spatial memory processes. The aim of this present study was assessment of the effect of reversible abolition of BLA on spatial memory processes in a place avoidance learning model in a stable environment. Methods and Materials: Long-Evans strain rats (280-320 gr. were selected and cannulae aimed at the BLA were surgically implanted bilaterally. The mice were trained to avoid a 60° segment of the arena by punishing with a mild foot shock upon entering the area. The punished sector was defined by room cues during the place avoidance training, which occurred in a single 30-min session and the avoidance memory was assessed during a 30-min extinction trial after 24 hours. The time of the first entry and the number of entrances into the punished sector during extinction were used to measure the place avoidance memory. Bilateral injections of Tetrodotoxin (5ng/0.6ml per side were used to inactivate the BLA 60 min before acquisition, immediately, 60 and 120 min after training, or 60 min before the retrieval test. Control mice were injected saline at the same time. Results : The results indicated that acquisition, consolidation (immediately, 60 min after training and retrieval of spatial memory in stable arena were impaired (p0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that the Basolateral Amygdala (BLA modulate spatial memory processes in place avoidance learning model in stable arena and this effect in regard to consolidation is time dependent.

  8. The synthetic cannabinoid HU210 induces spatial memory deficits and suppresses hippocampal firing rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Goonawardena, A V; Pertwee, R G; Hampson, R E; Riedel, G

    2007-07-01

    Previous work implied that the hippocampal cannabinoid system was particularly important in some forms of learning, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. We therefore assessed the effects of the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 on memory and hippocampal activity. HU210 (100 microg kg(-1)) was administered intraperitoneally to rats under three experimental conditions. One group of animals were pre-trained in spatial working memory using a delayed-matching-to-position task and effects of HU210 were assessed in a within-subject design. In another, rats were injected before acquisition learning of a spatial reference memory task with constant platform location. Finally, a separate group of animals was implanted with electrode bundles in CA1 and CA3 and single unit responses were isolated, before and after HU210 treatment. HU210 treatment had no effect on working or short-term memory. Relative to its control Tween 80, deficits in acquisition of a reference memory version of the water maze were obtained, along with drug-related effects on anxiety, motor activity and spatial learning. Deficits were not reversed by the CB(1) receptor antagonists SR141716A (3 mg kg(-1)) or AM281 (1.5 mg kg(-1)). Single unit recordings from principal neurons in hippocampal CA3 and CA1 confirmed HU210-induced attenuation of the overall firing activity lowering both the number of complex spikes fired and the occurrence of bursts. These data provide the first direct evidence that the underlying mechanism for the spatial memory deficits induced by HU210 in rats is the accompanying abnormality in hippocampal cell firing.

  9. Discriminating image textures with the multiscale two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further explore the usefulness of the two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane as a texture image descriptor. A multiscale generalization is introduced in order to distinguish between different roughness features of images at small and large spatial scales. Numerically generated two-dimensional structures are initially considered for illustrating basic concepts in a controlled framework. Then, more realistic situations are studied. Obtained results allow us to confirm that intrinsic spatial correlations of images are successfully unveiled by implementing this multiscale symbolic information-theory approach. Consequently, we conclude that the proposed representation space is a versatile and practical tool for identifying, characterizing and discriminating image textures.

  10. Dynamic visual noise affects visual short-term memory for surface color, but not spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments participants retained a single color or a set of four spatial locations in memory. During a 5 s retention interval participants viewed either flickering dynamic visual noise or a static matrix pattern. In Experiment 1 memory was assessed using a recognition procedure, in which participants indicated if a particular test stimulus matched the memorized stimulus or not. In Experiment 2 participants attempted to either reproduce the locations or they picked the color from a whole range of possibilities. Both experiments revealed effects of dynamic visual noise (DVN) on memory for colors but not for locations. The implications of the results for theories of working memory and the methodological prospects for DVN as an experimental tool are discussed.

  11. Effects of alcoholic beverage treatment on spatial learning and fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Mishima, Shuta; Nagase, Shotaro; Morita, Keishi; Otsuka, Ami; Hashikawa, Naoya

    2018-04-24

    Although chronic ethanol treatment is known to impair learning and memory, humans commonly consume a range of alcoholic beverages. However, the specific effects of some alcoholic beverages on behavioral performance are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a range of alcoholic beverages (plain ethanol solution, red wine, sake and whiskey; with a matched alcohol concentration of 10%) on learning and memory. 6-week-old C57BL6J mice were orally administered alcohol for 7 weeks. The results revealed that red wine treatment exhibited a trend toward improvement of spatial memory and advanced extinction of fear memory. Additionally, red wine treatment significantly increased mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mice hippocampus. These results support previous reports that red wine has beneficial effects.

  12. Deployment of spatial attention towards locations in memory representations. An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Marcin; Wykowska, Agnieszka; Perez-Osorio, Jairo; Müller, Hermann J

    2013-01-01

    Recalling information from visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves the same neural mechanisms as attending to an actually perceived scene. In particular, retrieval from VSTM has been associated with orienting of visual attention towards a location within a spatially-organized memory representation. However, an open question concerns whether spatial attention is also recruited during VSTM retrieval even when performing the task does not require access to spatial coordinates of items in the memorized scene. The present study combined a visual search task with a modified, delayed central probe protocol, together with EEG analysis, to answer this question. We found a temporal contralateral negativity (TCN) elicited by a centrally presented go-signal which was spatially uninformative and featurally unrelated to the search target and informed participants only about a response key that they had to press to indicate a prepared target-present vs. -absent decision. This lateralization during VSTM retrieval (TCN) provides strong evidence of a shift of attention towards the target location in the memory representation, which occurred despite the fact that the present task required no spatial (or featural) information from the search to be encoded, maintained, and retrieved to produce the correct response and that the go-signal did not itself specify any information relating to the location and defining feature of the target.

  13. Deployment of spatial attention towards locations in memory representations. An EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Leszczyński

    Full Text Available Recalling information from visual short-term memory (VSTM involves the same neural mechanisms as attending to an actually perceived scene. In particular, retrieval from VSTM has been associated with orienting of visual attention towards a location within a spatially-organized memory representation. However, an open question concerns whether spatial attention is also recruited during VSTM retrieval even when performing the task does not require access to spatial coordinates of items in the memorized scene. The present study combined a visual search task with a modified, delayed central probe protocol, together with EEG analysis, to answer this question. We found a temporal contralateral negativity (TCN elicited by a centrally presented go-signal which was spatially uninformative and featurally unrelated to the search target and informed participants only about a response key that they had to press to indicate a prepared target-present vs. -absent decision. This lateralization during VSTM retrieval (TCN provides strong evidence of a shift of attention towards the target location in the memory representation, which occurred despite the fact that the present task required no spatial (or featural information from the search to be encoded, maintained, and retrieved to produce the correct response and that the go-signal did not itself specify any information relating to the location and defining feature of the target.

  14. Memory and comprehension deficits in spatial descriptions of children with non-verbal and reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9-12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children's difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children's difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions.

  15. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years and older (64-85 years adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998. Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial, and recall type (forward and backward, were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward. Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age

  16. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  17. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  18. Sex-specific impairment of spatial memory in rats following a reminder of predator stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Hanna M; Robinson, Cristina M; Wentz, Bethany; McKay, Jerel; Dexter, Kyle W; Pisansky, Julia M; Talbot, Jeffery N; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2013-07-01

    It has been suggested that cognitive impairments exhibited by people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) result from intrusive, flashback memories transiently interfering with ongoing cognitive processing. Researchers have further speculated that females are more susceptible to developing PTSD because they form stronger traumatic memories than males, hence females may be more sensitive to the negative effects of intrusive memories on cognition. We have examined how the reminder of a naturalistic stress experience would affect rat spatial memory and if sex was a contributing factor to such effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed, without contact, to an adult female cat for 30 min. Five weeks later, the rats were trained to locate a hidden platform in the radial-arm water maze and given a single long-term memory test trial 24 h later. Before long-term memory testing, the rats were given a 30-min reminder of the cat exposure experienced 5 weeks earlier. The results indicated that the stress reminder impaired spatial memory in the female rats only. Control manipulations revealed that this effect was not attributable to the original cat exposure adversely impacting learning that occurred 5 weeks later, or to merely exposing rats to a novel environment or predator-related cues immediately before testing. These findings provide evidence that the reminder of a naturalistic stressful experience can impair cognitive processing in rats; moreover, since female rats were more susceptible to the memory-impairing effects of the stress reminder, the findings could lend insight into the existing sex differences in susceptibility to PTSD.

  19. Using spatial context to support prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Finnerty, Dannielle; Remington, Roger W

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine whether prospective memory error and response costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation could be reduced by providing spatial context. Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action at an appropriate point in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. For this study, three conditions of participants performed an air traffic control task that required them to accept and hand off aircraft and to prevent conflicts. The prospective memory task required participants to remember to press an alternative key rather than the routine key when accepting target aircraft. A red line separated the display into upper and lower regions. Participants in the context condition were told that the prospective memory instruction would apply only to aircraft approaching from one region (upper or lower). Those in the standard condition were not provided this information. In the control condition, participants did not have to perform the prospective memory task. In the context condition, participants made fewer prospective memory errors than did those in the standard condition and made faster acceptance decisions for aircraft approaching from irrelevant compared with relevant regions. Costs to hand-off decision time were also reduced in the context condition. Spatial context provided no benefit to conflict detection. Participants could partially localize their allocation of attentional resources to the prospective memory task to relevant display regions. The findings are potentially applicable to air traffic control, whereby regularities in airspace structure and standard traffic flows allow controllers to anticipate the location of specific air traffic events.

  20. Accessing the mental space - Spatial working memory processes for language and vision overlap in precuneus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Weed, Ethan; Østergaard, Leif

    2008-01-01

    , strikingly overlapping a network previously shown to be involved in recall of spatial aspects of images depicting similar scenarios. This supports a neurocognitive model of language function, where sentences establish meaning by interacting with the perceptual and working memory networks of the brain.......Abstract: The ‘‘overlapping systems'' theory of language function argues that linguistic meaning construction crucially relies on contextual information provided by ‘‘nonlinguistic'' cognitive systems, such as perception and memory. This study examines whether linguistic processing of spatial.......g., ‘‘Was he turned towards her?'') and equally concrete nonspatial content (e.g., ‘‘Was he older than her?''). We found that recall of the spatial content relative to the nonspatial content resulted in higher BOLD response in a dorsoposterior network of brain regions, most significantly in precuneus...