WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional radiant energy

  1. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  2. Radiant energy to electric energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Arden (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Radiant energy is converted into electric energy by irradiating a capacitor including an ionic dielectric. The dielectric is a sintered crystal superionic conductor, e.g., lanthanum trifluoride, lanthanum trichloride, or silver bromide, so that a multiplicity of crystallites exist between electrodes of the capacitor. The radiant energy cyclically irradiates the dielectric so that the dielectric exhibits a cyclic photocapacitive like effect. Adjacent crystallites have abutting surfaces that enable the crystallites to effectively form a multiplicity of series capacitor elements between the electrodes. Each of the capacitor elements has a dipole layer only on or near its surface. The capacitor is initially charged to a voltage just below the dielectric breakdown voltage by connecting it across a DC source causing a current to flow through a charging resistor to the dielectric. The device can be utilized as a radiant energy detector or as a solar energy cell.

  3. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  4. Radiant heat for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, R.V.

    1980-05-02

    It is proposed that human comfort could be provided in otherwise chilly surroundings by filling the occupied space with electromagnetic energy of centimeter wavelength. Very considerable reductions in the consumption of energy required for the heating of buildings should result from the lowering of interior temperatures thereby permitted.

  5. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  6. Thinnest two-dimensional nanomaterial-graphene for solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun Hang; Wang, Hui; Hu, Bo

    2010-07-19

    Graphene is a rapidly rising star in materials science. This two-dimensional material exhibits unique properties, such as low resistance, excellent optical transmittance, and high mechanical and chemical stabilities. These exceptional advantages possess great promise for its potential applications in photovoltaic devices. In this Review, we present the status of graphene research for solar energy with emphasis on solar cells. Firstly, the preparation and properties of graphene are described. Secondly, applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes and counter electrodes are presented. Thirdly, graphene-based electron- (or hole) accepting materials for solar energy conversion are evaluated. Fourthly, the promoting effect of graphene on photovoltaic devices and the photocatalytic property of graphene-semiconductor composites are discussed. Finally, the challenges to increase the power conversion efficiency of graphene-based solar cells are explored.

  7. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  8. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric...

  9. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  10. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  11. Radiant Image Simulation of Pulverized Coal Combustion in Blast Furnace Raceway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between two-dimensional radiant image and three-dimensional radiant energy in blast furnace raceway was studied by numerical simulation of combustion process. Taking radiant image as radiant boundary for numerical simulation of combustion process, the uneven radiation parameter can be calculated. A method to examine three-dimensional temperature distribution in blast furnace raceway was put forward by radiant image processing. The numeral temperature field matching the real combustion can be obtained by proposed numeric image processing technique.

  12. Radiant energy dosimeter for field use

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Broido; A.W. McMasters

    1967-01-01

    Thermal radiation measurements in Project Flambeau fires involved a limited number of conventional radiometers located outside the fire periphery. A simple, cheap, easily-fabricated, light-weight, self-contained, rugged dosimeter was desired to withstand a hot fire environment, including a specific energy input of 5,000 cal cm -2, and to record...

  13. Energy Conservation in Two-dimensional Incompressible Ideal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskidov, A.; Filho, M. C. Lopes; Lopes, H. J. Nussenzveig; Shvydkoy, R.

    2016-11-01

    This note addresses the issue of energy conservation for the 2D Euler system with an L p -control on vorticity. We provide a direct argument, based on a mollification in physical space, to show that the energy of a weak solution is conserved if {ω = nabla × u in L^{3/2}}. An example of a 2D field in the class {ω in L^{3/2 - ɛ}} for any ɛ > 0, and {u in B^{1/3}_{3,∞}} (Onsager critical space, see Shvydkoy in Discr Contin Dyn Syst Ser S 3(3):473-496, 2010) is constructed with non-vanishing energy flux. This demonstrates sharpness of the kinematic argument, which does not differentiate between 2D and 3D, and requires Onsager's regularity control on the solution. Next, we show that for physically realizable solutions there is a mechanism preventing the anomalous dissipation in 2D that does not require such a control. Namely, we prove that any solution to the Euler equations produced via a vanishing viscosity limit from the Navier-Stokes equations, with {ω in L^p}, for p > 1, conserves energy.

  14. Vacuum Energy in Two Dimensional Box Through the Krein Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Ali; Karimaghaee, Sanaz; Tanhayi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we reexamine the Casimir effect in which the vacuum expectation value of quantum fields is calculated over a so-called Krein space. This method has already been successfully applied to study Casimir effect on non-trivial topologies and also the covariance problem in the massless minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space-time. It is shown that within this method, no infinite term appears in the computation of the vacuum expectation value of energy-momentum tensor. We investigate the behavior of the Krein quantization for a scalar field in a box satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition. We show that one can recover the usual theory with the exception that the vacuum energy of the free theory is zero.

  15. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  16. Origin of the inverse energy cascade in two-dimensional quantum turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Skaugen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    We unravel the intimate connection between fundamental characteristics of two dimensional turbulence, i.e. the large-scale coherent structures and the inverse energy cascade. We propose a driven, dissipative point vortex model that is able to capture the dynamics of two-dimensional quantum turbulence by the emergent clustering of same-sign vortices, which form a non-equilibrium analogue of Onsager vortex equilibria. The inverse energy cascade developing in a statistically neutral system originates from this clustering of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The Kolmogorov energy spectrum $k^{-5/3}$ is attributed to the scale-free correlations in the vorticity field fluctuations, here measured by the weighted pair correlation function that has a power-law decay as $r^{-4/3}$ on inertial separation lengthscales $r$. This scale-invariant statistics of vorticity, attributed to a conformal symmetry of two-dimensional classical turbulence, draws further analogies between classical and quantum turbulence beyon...

  17. Free energy and structure of dislocation cores in two-dimensional crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladon, P.B.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the melting transition in two dimensions is critically dependent on the core energy of dislocations. In this paper, we report calculations of the core free energy and the core size of dislocations in two-dimensional solids of systems interacting via square well, hard disk, and r-12

  18. Scale-selective dissipation in energy-conserving finite element schemes for two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the multiscale properties of energy-conserving upwind-stabilised finite element discretisations of the two-dimensional incompressible Euler equations. We focus our attention on two particular methods: the Lie derivative discretisation introduced in Natale and Cotter (2016a) and the SUPG discretisation of the vorticity advection equation. Such discretisations provide control on enstrophy by modelling different types of scale interactions. We quantify the performance of the schemes in reproducing the non-local energy backscatter that characterises two-dimensional turbulent flows.

  19. Energy Spectra of Vortex Distributions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton S. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically explore key concepts of two-dimensional turbulence in a homogeneous compressible superfluid described by a dissipative two-dimensional Gross-Pitaeveskii equation. Such a fluid supports quantized vortices that have a size characterized by the healing length ξ. We show that, for the divergence-free portion of the superfluid velocity field, the kinetic-energy spectrum over wave number k may be decomposed into an ultraviolet regime (k≫ξ^{-1} having a universal k^{-3} scaling arising from the vortex core structure, and an infrared regime (k≪ξ^{-1} with a spectrum that arises purely from the configuration of the vortices. The Novikov power-law distribution of intervortex distances with exponent -1/3 for vortices of the same sign of circulation leads to an infrared kinetic-energy spectrum with a Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} power law, which is consistent with the existence of an inertial range. The presence of these k^{-3} and k^{-5/3} power laws, together with the constraint of continuity at the smallest configurational scale k≈ξ^{-1}, allows us to derive a new analytical expression for the Kolmogorov constant that we test against a numerical simulation of a forced homogeneous, compressible, two-dimensional superfluid. The numerical simulation corroborates our analysis of the spectral features of the kinetic-energy distribution, once we introduce the concept of a clustered fraction consisting of the fraction of vortices that have the same sign of circulation as their nearest neighboring vortices. Our analysis presents a new approach to understanding two-dimensional quantum turbulence and interpreting similarities and differences with classical two-dimensional turbulence, and suggests new methods to characterize vortex turbulence in two-dimensional quantum fluids via vortex position and circulation measurements.

  20. Direct control of the small-scale energy balance in two-dimensional fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Jason; Leimkuhler, Benedict; Myerscough, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the direct modification of the pseudo-spectral truncation of two-dimensional, incompressible fluid dynamics to maintain a prescribed kinetic energy spectrum. The method provides a means of simulating fluid states with defined spectral properties, for the purpose of matching simulation sta

  1. Description of cross peaks induced by intermolecular vibrational energy transfer in two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Villaeys, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the analytical description of an intermolecular vibrational energy transfer, analyzed by two dimensional infrared spectroscopy, is established. The energy transfer process takes place between the dark combination states of low frequency modes pertaining to different molecules. The appearance of the cross peaks results from coherent transfer between these combination states and an optically active state of the acceptor molecule. Such a process has recently been observed experimentally between the nitrile groups of acetonitrile-d3 and benzonitrile molecules. This molecular system will be used as a model for the simulations of their two-dimensional infrared spectra. The dependence of the cross-peak growth, which is a signature of the intermolecular energy transfer, will be discussed in detail as a function of the molecular dynamical constants.

  2. Critical behavior in the inverse to forward energy transition in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the critical transition from an inverse cascade of energy to a forward energy cascade in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow as the ratio of magnetic to mechanical forcing amplitude is varied. It is found that the critical transition is the result of two competing processes. The first process is due to hydrodynamic interactions and cascades the energy to the large scales. The second process couples small-scale magnetic fields to large-scale flows, transferring the energy back to the small scales via a nonlocal mechanism. At marginality the two cascades are both present and cancel each other. The phase space diagram of the transition is sketched.

  3. Energy Spectrum of Helium Confined to a Two-Dimensional Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEWen-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional helium in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of helium in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  4. Boundaries determine the formation energies of lattice defects in two-dimensional buckled materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sandeep K.; Juričić, Vladimir; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2016-07-01

    Lattice defects are inevitably present in two-dimensional materials, with direct implications on their physical and chemical properties. We show that the formation energy of a lattice defect in buckled two-dimensional crystals is not uniquely defined as it takes different values for different boundary conditions even in the thermodynamic limit, as opposed to their perfectly planar counterparts. Also, the approach to the thermodynamic limit follows a different scaling: inversely proportional to the logarithm of the system size for buckled materials, rather than the usual power-law approach. In graphene samples of ˜1000 atoms, different boundary conditions can cause differences exceeding 10 eV. Besides presenting numerical evidence in simulations, we show that the universal features in this behavior can be understood with simple bead-spring models. Fundamentally, our findings imply that it is necessary to specify the boundary conditions for the energy of the lattice defects in the buckled two-dimensional crystals to be uniquely defined, and this may explain the lack of agreement in the reported values of formation energies in graphene. We argue that boundary conditions may also have an impact on other physical observables such as the melting temperature.

  5. Energy transfer pathways in semiconducting carbon nanotubes revealed using two-dimensional white-light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlenbacher, Randy D.; McDonough, Thomas J.; Grechko, Maksim; Wu, Meng-Yin; Arnold, Michael S.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2015-04-01

    Thin film networks of highly purified semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being explored for energy harvesting and optoelectronic devices because of their exceptional transport and optical properties. The nanotubes in these films are in close contact, which permits energy to flow through the films, although the pathways and mechanisms for energy transfer are largely unknown. Here we use a broadband continuum to collect femtosecond two-dimensional white-light spectra. The continuum spans 500 to 1,300 nm, resolving energy transfer between all combinations of bandgap (S1) and higher (S2) transitions. We observe ultrafast energy redistribution on the S2 states, non-Förster energy transfer on the S1 states and anti-correlated energy levels. The two-dimensional spectra reveal competing pathways for energy transfer, with S2 excitons taking routes depending on the bandgap separation, whereas S1 excitons relax independent of the bandgap. These observations provide a basis for understanding and ultimately controlling the photophysics of energy flow in CNT-based devices.

  6. High-energy magnon dispersion and multimagnon continuum in the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, A W; Singh, R R

    2001-01-15

    We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations and numerical analytic continuation to study high-energy spin excitations in the two-dimensional S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet at low temperature. We present results for both the transverse (x) and longitudinal (z) dynamic spin structure factors Sx,z(q,omega) at q = (pi,0) and (pi/2, pi/2). Linear spin-wave theory predicts no dispersion on the line connecting these momenta. Our calculations show that in fact the magnon energy at (pi,0) is 10% lower than at (pi/2, pi/2). We also discuss the transverse and longitudinal multimagnon continua and their relevance to neutron scattering experiments.

  7. Variable enstrophy flux and energy spectrum in two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Mahendra K

    2012-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations reveal that in the forward cascade regime, the energy spectrum of two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction deviates from Kraichnan's prediction of $k^{-3}$ power spectrum. In this letter we explain this observation using an analytic model based on variable enstrophy flux arising due to Ekman friction. We derive an expression for the enstrophy flux which exhibits a logarithmic dependence in the inertial range for the Ekman-friction dominated flows. The energy spectrum obtained using this enstrophy flux shows a power law scaling for large Reynolds number and small Ekman friction, but has an exponential behaviour for large Ekman friction and relatively small Reynolds number.

  8. Chemically Integrated Inorganic-Graphene Two-Dimensional Hybrid Materials for Flexible Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Li, Hongsen; Yu, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    State-of-the-art energy storage devices are capable of delivering reasonably high energy density (lithium ion batteries) or high power density (supercapacitors). There is an increasing need for these power sources with not only superior electrochemical performance, but also exceptional flexibility. Graphene has come on to the scene and advancements are being made in integration of various electrochemically active compounds onto graphene or its derivatives so as to utilize their flexibility. Many innovative synthesis techniques have led to novel graphene-based hybrid two-dimensional nanostructures. Here, the chemically integrated inorganic-graphene hybrid two-dimensional materials and their applications for energy storage devices are examined. First, the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of inorganic-graphene hybrid nanostructures are summarized, and then the most relevant applications of inorganic-graphene hybrid materials in flexible energy storage devices are reviewed. The general design rules of using graphene-based hybrid 2D materials for energy storage devices and their current limitations and future potential to advance energy storage technologies are also discussed.

  9. Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional Metal Dichalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The development of renewable energy storage and conversion devices is one of the most promising ways to address the current energy crisis, along with the global environmental concern. The exploration of suitable active materials is the key factor for the construction of highly efficient, highly stable, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage and conversion devices. The ability to prepare two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenide (MDC) nanosheets and their functional composites in high yield and large scale via various solution-based methods in recent years has inspired great research interests in their utilization for renewable energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we will summarize the recent advances of solution-processed 2D MDCs and their hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion applications, including rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and solar cells. Moreover, based on the current progress, we will also give some personal insights on the existing challenges and future research directions in this promising field.

  10. Numerical model for two-dimensional hydrodynamics and energy transport. [VECTRA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, D.S.

    1973-06-01

    The theoretical basis and computational procedure of the VECTRA computer program are presented. VECTRA (Vorticity-Energy Code for TRansport Analysis) is designed for applying numerical simulation to a broad range of intake/discharge flows in conjunction with power plant hydrological evaluation. The code computational procedure is based on finite-difference approximation of the vorticity-stream function partial differential equations which govern steady flow momentum transport of two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous fluids in conjunction with the transport of heat and other constituents.

  11. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  12. Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Two Dimensional Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network with Relay Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kakitani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of non-cooperative and cooperative transmissions are investigated in a two-dimensional wireless sensor network, considering a target outage probability and the same end-to-end throughput for all transmission schemes. The impact of the relay selection method in the cooperative schemes is also analyzed. We show that under non line-of-sight conditions the relay selection method has a greater impact in the energy efficiency than the availability of a return channel. By its turn, under line-of-sight conditions a return channel is more valuable to the energy efficiency of cooperative transmission than the specific relay selection method. Finally, we demonstrate that the energy efficiency advantage of the cooperative over the non-cooperative transmission increases with the distance among nodes and with the nodes density.

  13. Two-dimensional concentrated-stress low-frequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Priya, Shashank

    2015-08-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesters using piezoelectric materials have long made use of the cantilever beam structure. Surmounting the deficiencies in one-dimensional cantilever-based energy harvesters has been a major focus in the literature. In this work, we demonstrate a strategy of using two-dimensional beam shapes to harvest energy from low frequency excitations. A characteristic Zigzag-shaped beam is created to compare against the two proposed two-dimensional beam shapes, all of which occupy a 25.4 × 25.4 mm2 area. In addition to maintaining the low-resonance bending frequency, the proposed beam shapes are designed with the goal of realizing a concentrated stress structure, whereby stress in the beam is concentrated in a single area where a piezoelectric layer may be placed, rather than being distributed throughout the beam. It is shown analytically, numerically, and experimentally that one of the proposed harvesters is able to provide significant increase in power production, when the base acceleration is set equal to 0.1 g, with only a minimal change in the resonant frequency compared to the current state-of-the-art Zigzag shape. This is accomplished by eliminating torsional effects, producing a more pure bending motion that is necessary for high electromechanical coupling. In addition, the proposed harvesters have a large effective beam tip whereby large tip mass may be placed while retaining a low-profile, resulting in a low volume harvester and subsequently large power density.

  14. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  15. Two-dimensional carbon-based nanocomposites for photocatalytic energy generation and environmental remediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suneel; Kumar, Ashish; Bahuguna, Ashish; Sharma, Vipul; Krishnan, Venkata

    2017-01-01

    In the pursuit towards the use of sunlight as a sustainable source for energy generation and environmental remediation, photocatalytic water splitting and photocatalytic pollutant degradation have recently gained significant importance. Research in this field is aimed at solving the global energy crisis and environmental issues in an ecologically-friendly way by using two of the most abundant natural resources, namely sunlight and water. Over the past few years, carbon-based nanocomposites, particularly graphene and graphitic carbon nitride, have attracted much attention as interesting materials in this field. Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, carbon-based nanocomposites have made a substantial contribution towards the generation of clean, renewable and viable forms of energy from light-based water splitting and pollutant removal. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the recent research progress in the field of energy generation and environmental remediation using two-dimensional carbon-based nanocomposites. It begins with a brief introduction to the field, basic principles of photocatalytic water splitting for energy generation and environmental remediation, followed by the properties of carbon-based nanocomposites. Then, the development of various graphene-based nanocomposites for the above-mentioned applications is presented, wherein graphene plays different roles, including electron acceptor/transporter, cocatalyst, photocatalyst and photosensitizer. Subsequently, the development of different graphitic carbon nitride-based nanocomposites as photocatalysts for energy and environmental applications is discussed in detail. This review concludes by highlighting the advantages and challenges involved in the use of two-dimensional carbon-based nanocomposites for photocatalysis. Finally, the future perspectives of research in this field are also briefly mentioned.

  16. Experiment and modeling of a two-dimensional piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Wu, Hao; Kiong Soh, Chee

    2015-12-01

    Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials has attracted much research interest in recent years. Numerous efforts have been devoted to improving the efficiency of vibration energy harvesters and broadening their bandwidths. In most reported literature, energy harvesters are designed to harvest energy from vibration source with a specific excitation direction. However, a practical environmental vibration source may include multiple components from different directions. Thus, it is an important concern to design a vibration energy harvester to be adaptive to multiple excitation directions. In this article, a piezoelectric energy harvester with frame configuration is proposed to achieve two-dimensional (2D) vibration energy harvesting. The harvester works in two fundamental modes, i.e., its vertical and horizontal vibration modes. By tuning the structural parameters, the harvester can capture vibration energy from arbitrary directions in a 2D plane. Experimental studies are carried out to prove its feasibility. A finite element model and an equivalent circuit model are built to simulate the system and validate the experiment outcomes. The study of this 2D energy harvester indicates its promising potential in practical vibration scenarios.

  17. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. I. Droplet Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2013-11-01

    This is the first in a series of two papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for a two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion, also known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model, in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In that model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. We focus on the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In this paper we show that an appropriate setting for Γ-convergence in the considered parameter regime is via weak convergence of the suitably normalized charge density in the sense of measures. We prove that, after a suitable rescaling, the Ohta-Kawasaki energy functional Γ-converges to a quadratic energy functional of the limit charge density generated by the screened Coulomb kernel. A consequence of our results is that minimizers (or almost minimizers) of the energy have droplets which are almost all asymptotically round, have the same radius and are uniformly distributed in the domain. The proof relies mainly on the analysis of the sharp interface version of the energy, with the connection to the original diffuse interface model obtained via matching upper and lower bounds for the energy. We thus also obtain an asymptotic characterization of the energy minimizers in the diffuse interface model.

  18. Electrically controlled crossing of energy levels in quantum dots in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A.

    2017-05-15

    We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.

  19. Two-dimensional concentrated-stress low-frequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Vibration-based energy harvesters using piezoelectric materials have long made use of the cantilever beam structure. Surmounting the deficiencies in one-dimensional cantilever-based energy harvesters has been a major focus in the literature. In this work, we demonstrate a strategy of using two-dimensional beam shapes to harvest energy from low frequency excitations. A characteristic Zigzag-shaped beam is created to compare against the two proposed two-dimensional beam shapes, all of which occupy a 25.4 × 25.4 mm{sup 2} area. In addition to maintaining the low-resonance bending frequency, the proposed beam shapes are designed with the goal of realizing a concentrated stress structure, whereby stress in the beam is concentrated in a single area where a piezoelectric layer may be placed, rather than being distributed throughout the beam. It is shown analytically, numerically, and experimentally that one of the proposed harvesters is able to provide significant increase in power production, when the base acceleration is set equal to 0.1 g, with only a minimal change in the resonant frequency compared to the current state-of-the-art Zigzag shape. This is accomplished by eliminating torsional effects, producing a more pure bending motion that is necessary for high electromechanical coupling. In addition, the proposed harvesters have a large effective beam tip whereby large tip mass may be placed while retaining a low-profile, resulting in a low volume harvester and subsequently large power density.

  20. Scaling Universality between Band Gap and Exciton Binding Energy of Two-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zeyu; Liu, Zhirong; Li, Yuanchang; Duan, Wenhui

    2017-06-01

    Using first-principles G W Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations and the k .p theory, we unambiguously show that for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, there exists a robust linear scaling law between the quasiparticle band gap (Eg) and the exciton binding energy (Eb), namely, Eb≈Eg/4 , regardless of their lattice configuration, bonding characteristic, as well as the topological property. Such a parameter-free universality is never observed in their three-dimensional counterparts. By deriving a simple expression for the 2D polarizability merely with respect to Eg, and adopting the screened hydrogen model for Eb, the linear scaling law can be deduced analytically. This work provides an opportunity to better understand the fantastic consequence of the 2D nature for materials, and thus offers valuable guidance for their property modulation and performance control.

  1. Low-energy properties of two-dimensional magnetic nanostructures: interparticle interactions and disorder effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P J; Pastor, G M [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2003-06-01

    The low-energy properties of two-dimensional ensembles of dipole-coupled magnetic nanoparticles are studied as a function of structural disorder and particle coverage. Already small deviations from a square particle arrangement lift the degeneracies of the microvortex (MV) magnetic configuration and result in a strongly inhomogeneous magnetic order of the particle ensemble. The energy distribution of metastable states is determined. For a low degree of disorder a strongly asymmetric shape with a pronounced peak of the ground-state energy results. In contrast, for a strong disorder a Gaussian-like distribution is obtained. The average dipole energy barE{sub dip} decreases with increasing structural disorder. Above a coverage-dependent degree of disorder barE{sub dip} resembles the average dipole energy of a random particle set-up, for which a simple scaling behaviour is derived. The role of vacancies has been studied for a square particle array by determining the angular distribution of the preferred MV angle as a function of the vacancy concentration. Preferred angles along the axial as well as along the diagonal directions of the square array are obtained. A corresponding investigation for disturbed square arrays yields preferred MV angles only along the axial directions. The effect of dipole-quadrupole corrections resulting from the finite size of the particles is quantified.

  2. Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bojić, Milorad; Miletić, Marko; Malešević, Jovan; Boyer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

  3. Strain-Induced Energy Band Gap Opening in Two-Dimensional Bilayered Silicon Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Z.; Zhou, R.; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhuang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of bilayered silicon film (BiSF) under in-plane biaxial strain/stress using density functional theory (DFT). Atomic structures of the two-dimensional (2-D) silicon films are optimized by using both the local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In the absence of strain/stress, five buckled hexagonal honeycomb structures of the BiSF with triangular lattice have been obtained as local energy minima, and their structural stability has been verified. These structures present a Dirac-cone shaped energy band diagram with zero energy band gaps. Applying a tensile biaxial strain leads to a reduction of the buckling height. Atomically flat structures with zero buckling height have been observed when the AA-stacking structures are under a critical biaxial strain. Increase of the strain between 10.7% and 15.4% results in a band-gap opening with a maximum energy band gap opening of ˜0.17 eV, obtained when a 14.3% strain is applied. Energy band diagrams, electron transmission efficiency, and the charge transport property are calculated. Additionally, an asymmetric energetically favorable atomic structure of BiSF shows a non-zero band gap in the absence of strain/stress and a maximum band gap of 0.15 eV as a -1.71% compressive strain is applied. Both tensile and compressive strain/stress can lead to a band gap opening in the asymmetric structure.

  4. Two-dimensional energy spectra in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dileep; Baidya, Rio; Monty, Jason; Marusic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    The current study measures the two-dimensional (2D) spectra of streamwise velocity component (u) in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer for the first time. A 2D spectra shows the contribution of streamwise (λx) and spanwise (λy) length scales to the streamwise variance at a given wall height (z). 2D spectra could be a better tool to analyse spectral scaling laws as it is devoid of energy aliasing errors that could be present in one-dimensional spectra. A novel method is used to calculate the 2D spectra from the 2D correlation of u which is obtained by measuring velocity time series at various spanwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. At low Reynolds number, the shape of the 2D spectra at a constant energy level shows λy √{ zλx } behaviour at larger scales which is in agreement with the literature. However, at high Reynolds number, it is observed that the square-root relationship gradually transforms into a linear relationship (λy λx) which could be caused by the large packets of eddies whose length grows proportionately to the growth of its width. Additionally, we will show that this linear relationship observed at high Reynolds number is consistent with attached eddy predictions. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Australian Research Council.

  5. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209...

  6. Atmospheric radiative flux divergence from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis G.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Crommelynk, D.; Rutan, David; Gupta, Shashi

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) is the computation of vertical profiles through the atmosphere of the divergence of radiation flux, with global coverage. This paper discusses the need for radiation divergence and presents some options for its inference from CERES measurements and other data from the Earth Observating System.

  7. Bouncing, rolling, energy flows, and cluster formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of crystalline clusters for a two-dimensional (2D) sinusoidally vibrated granular gas, with maximum vertical acceleration smaller than gravity, using fully 3D simulations. It is found that this phenomenon arises from the spontaneous segregation of the granulate into two dynamical modes: one of grains that bounce in synchrony with the motion of the sustaining plate (“bouncers”) and another of grains that cease to bounce and simply rolls on the plate, without ever loosing contact with it (“rollers”). These two dynamical categories are quite robust with respect to perturbations. The populations for bouncers and rollers depend on the preparation of the granulate and can be made to take arbitrary values in all the range of accelerations where both dynamical modes are present. It is found that the dynamical mode with the largest population coalesces in clusters under the influence of the other mode, whose grains act as a higher pressure gas that compresses the clusters. In this way it is possible to produce clusters of rollers or clusters of bouncers. A gas made of grains from only one dynamical class shows only weak density fluctuations. When the occupation fractions for both modes are similar, one observes segregation and clusters of both types. The clustering of the gas is monitored using both the average coordination number and the local hexatic order parameter ψ6. Energy flows in the plane are monitored, and it is shown that roller-bouncer collisions increase horizontal kinetic energy, while all other types of collisions reduce this energy. We find that friction with the substrate is the main sink of horizontal energy for these granular gases.

  8. Evolution of desertification in a two-dimensional energy balance model coupled with thermodynamics and dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between desert evolution and change in albedo has been investigated quasi-analytically using a zonal mean two-dimensional energy balance model which considers the radiation transmission process due to thermodynamics and bound- ary layer movement caused by kinetics. A climate state including temperature, zonal wind, meridional wind and vertical wind can be simulated according to the current zonal distribution of albedo. Given desert distribution, characterized by the value and distribution of albedo, the response of climate on albedo has been studied to analyze the evolution of desert climate. One significant result is that the simple model can reproduce mean meridional circulation. Another result indicates that climate corresponds to two equilibria. This happens when the junction temperature between vegetation and desert is higher than a certain critical value. As for the first equilibrium, the desert belt is predicted to move southward in the northern hemisphere with the increasing values of albedo, which corresponds to the current trend of climate change. For the second equilibrium, vegetation will expand northward with increasing values of albedo, which would indicate a narrowing of the desert belt. In order to determine if the two equilibria exist, new physical models are needed.

  9. Scaling behavior of the dipole-coupling energy in two-dimensional disordered magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P. J.; Pastor, G. M.

    2003-11-01

    Numerical calculations of the average dipole-coupling energy Edip in two-dimensional disordered magnetic nanostructures are performed as a function of the particle coverage C. We observe that Edip scales as Edip∝Cα* with an unusually small exponent α*≃0.8 1.0 for coverages C≲20%. This behavior is shown to be primarily given by the contributions of particle pairs at short distances, which is intrinsically related to the presence of an appreciable degree of disorder. The value of α* is found to be sensitive to the magnetic arrangement within the nanostructure and to the degree of disorder. For large coverages C≳20% we obtain Edip∝Cα with α=3/2, in agreement with the straightforward scaling of the dipole coupling as in a periodic particle setup. Taking into account the effect of single-particle anisotropies, we show that the scaling exponent can be used as a criterion to distinguish between weakly interacting (α*≃1.0) and strongly interacting (α*≃0.8) particle ensembles as a function of coverage.

  10. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu, Linfan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808 (United States); Guo, Jiandong, E-mail: jdguo@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  11. Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Zhao; Gerald H. Pollack; Xavier Figueroa

    2009-01-01

    We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun’s radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and the...

  12. Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Gerald H; Figueroa, Xavier; Zhao, Qing

    2009-03-27

    We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun's radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water.

  13. Anharmonic exciton dynamics and energy dissipation in liquid water from two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Luigi; Fournier, Joseph A.; Thämer, Martin; Carpenter, William; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    Water's extended hydrogen-bond network results in rich and complex dynamics on the sub-picosecond time scale. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectrum of O-H stretching vibrations in liquid H2O and their interactions with bending and intermolecular vibrations. By exploring the dependence of the spectrum on waiting time, temperature, and laser polarization, we refine our molecular picture of water's complex ultrafast dynamics. The spectral evolution following excitation of the O-H stretching resonance reveals vibrational dynamics on the 50-300 fs time scale that are dominated by intermolecular delocalization. These O-H stretch excitons are a result of the anharmonicity of the nuclear potential energy surface that arises from the hydrogen-bonding interaction. The extent of O-H stretching excitons is characterized through 2D depolarization measurements that show spectrally dependent delocalization in agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that these dynamics are insensitive to temperature, indicating that the exciton dynamics alone set the important time scales in the system. Finally, we study the evolution of the O-H stretching mode, which shows highly non-adiabatic dynamics suggestive of vibrational conical intersections. We argue that the so-called heating, commonly observed within ˜1 ps in nonlinear IR spectroscopy of water, is a nonequilibrium state better described by a kinetic temperature rather than a Boltzmann distribution. Our conclusions imply that the collective nature of water vibrations should be considered in describing aqueous solvation.

  14. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Yasin [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  15. Two-dimensional metal oxide and metal hydroxide nanosheets: synthesis, controlled assembly and applications in energy conversion and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshof, ten J.E.; Yuan, H.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.

    2016-01-01

    The developments and state of the art in the research on two-dimensional nanosheets derived from layered metal oxides and layered metal hydroxides are reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on their promising applications in various new energy technologies, i.e., as supercapacitor electrodes, lithium

  16. Probing energy transfer events in the light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides with two-dimensional spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Andrew F; Singh, Ved P; Long, Phillip D; Dahlberg, Peter D; Engel, Gregory S

    2013-10-21

    Excitation energy transfer events in the photosynthetic light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are investigated with polarization controlled two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. A spectrally broadened pulse allows simultaneous measurement of the energy transfer within and between the two absorption bands at 800 nm and 850 nm. The phased all-parallel polarization two-dimensional spectra resolve the initial events of energy transfer by separating the intra-band and inter-band relaxation processes across the two-dimensional map. The internal dynamics of the 800 nm region of the spectra are resolved as a cross peak that grows in on an ultrafast time scale, reflecting energy transfer between higher lying excitations of the B850 chromophores into the B800 states. We utilize a polarization sequence designed to highlight the initial excited state dynamics which uncovers an ultrafast transfer component between the two bands that was not observed in the all-parallel polarization data. We attribute the ultrafast transfer component to energy transfer from higher energy exciton states to lower energy states of the strongly coupled B850 chromophores. Connecting the spectroscopic signature to the molecular structure, we reveal multiple relaxation pathways including a cyclic transfer of energy between the two rings of the complex.

  17. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. Droplet Arrangement via the Renormalized Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    This is the second in a series of papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for the two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In this model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. Here we focus on the sharp interface version of this energy in the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In our previous paper, we computed the Γ-limit of the leading order energy, which yields the averaged behavior for almost minimizers, namely that the density of droplets should be uniform. Here we go to the next order and derive a next order Γ-limit energy, which is exactly the Coulombian renormalized energy obtained by Sandier and Serfaty as a limiting interaction energy for vortices in the magnetic Ginzburg-Landau model. The derivation is based on the abstract scheme of Sandier-Serfaty that serves to obtain lower bounds for 2-scale energies and express them through some probabilities on patterns via the multiparameter ergodic theorem. Thus, without appealing to the Euler-Lagrange equation, we establish for all configurations which have "almost minimal energy" the asymptotic roundness and radius of the droplets, and the fact that they asymptotically shrink to points whose arrangement minimizes the renormalized energy in some averaged sense. Via a kind of Γ-equivalence, the obtained results also yield an expansion of the minimal energy and a characterization of the zero super-level sets of the minimizers for the original Ohta-Kawasaki energy. This leads to the expectation of seeing triangular lattices of droplets as energy minimizers.

  18. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  19. Flame radiant image numeralization for pulverized coal combustion in BF raceway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Liang-ying; OU Yang-qi; BAI Chen-guang; WANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish correlativity between pulverized coal combustion in a blast furnace raceway and its radiant image, we investigated the relationships between two dimensional radiant images and three dimensional radiant energy in a blast furnace raceway, focusing on the correlativity of the numerical simulation of combustion processes with the connection of radiant images information and space temperature distribution. We calculated the uneven radiate characteristic parameterby taking radiant images as a kind of radiative boundary for numerical simulation of combustion processes, and put forward a method to examine three-dimensional temperatures distribution in blast furnace raceway by radiant image processing. The numeral temperature fields matching the real combustion can be got by the numeric image processing technique.

  20. Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun’s radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water.

  1. Sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional turbulence and the energy spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry;

    2010-01-01

    Formation of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. The analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together with the di-vorticity lines...... is developed and compressibility of this mapping appears as the main reason for the formation of the sharp vorticity gradients at high Reynolds numbers. In the case of strong anisotropy the sharp vorticity gradients can generate spectra which fall off as k −3 at large k, which appear to take the same form...... as the Kraichnan spectrum for the enstrophy cascade. For turbulence with weak anisotropy the k dependence of the spectrum due to the sharp gradients coincides with the Saffman spectrum: E(k) ~ k −4. Numerical investigations of decaying turbulence reveal exponential growth of di-vorticity with a spatial distributed...

  2. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  3. Emerging Energy Applications of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2015-10-31

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant attention for their great potential in nano energy. TMDC layered materials represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. High-quality TMDC layers with an appropriate size, variable thickness, superior electronic and optical properties can be produced by the exfoliation or vapour phase deposition method. Semiconducting TMDC monolayers have been demonstrated feasible for various energy related applications, where their electronic properties and uniquely high surface areas offer opportunities for various applications such as nano generators, green electronics, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and energy storage. In this review, we start from the structure, properties and preparation, followed by detailed discussions on the development of TMDC-based nano energy applications. Graphical abstract The structure characterizations and preparative methods of 2D TMDCs have obtained significant progresses. Their recent advances for nano energy generation, solar harvesting, conversion and storage, and green electronics are reviewed.

  4. Energy transfer in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: formalism and numerical results

    OpenAIRE

    Dar, Gaurav; Verma, Mahendra K.; Eswaran, V.

    2001-01-01

    The basic entity of nonlinear interaction in Navier-Stokes and the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is a wavenumber triad ({\\bf k,p,q}) satisfying ${\\bf k+p+q=0}$. The expression for the combined energy transfer from two of these wavenumbers to the third wavenumber is known. In this paper we introduce the idea of an effective energy transfer between a pair of modes by the mediation of the third mode, and find an expression for it. Then we apply this formalism to compute the energy transfer...

  5. Binding energies of trions and biexcitons in two-dimensional semiconductors from diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewski, M.; Mostaani, E.; Drummond, N. D.; Fal'ko, V. I.

    2017-02-01

    Excitonic effects play a particularly important role in the optoelectronic behavior of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. To facilitate the interpretation of experimental photoabsorption and photoluminescence spectra we provide statistically exact diffusion quantum Monte Carlo binding-energy data for Mott-Wannier models of excitons, trions, and biexcitons in 2D semiconductors. We also provide contact pair densities to allow a description of contact (exchange) interactions between charge carriers using first-order perturbation theory. Our data indicate that the binding energy of a trion is generally larger than that of a biexciton in 2D semiconductors. We provide interpolation formulas giving the binding energy and contact density of 2D semiconductors as functions of the electron and hole effective masses and the in-plane polarizability.

  6. A parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence based on a maximum entropy production principle with a local conservation of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2014-01-01

    In the context of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, we apply the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) by enforcing a local conservation of energy. This leads to an equation for the vorticity distribution that conserves all the Casimirs, the energy, and that increases monotonically the mixing entropy ($H$-theorem). Furthermore, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity dissipates monotonically all the generalized enstrophies. These equations may provide a parametrization of 2D turbulence. They do not generally relax towards the maximum entropy state. The vorticity current vanishes for any steady state of the 2D Euler equation. Interestingly, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity obtained from the MEPP turns out to coincide, after some algebraic manipulations, with the one obtained with the anticipated vorticity method. This shows a connection between these two approaches when the conservation of energy is treated locally. Furthermore, the newly derived equation, which incorporates a diffusion...

  7. A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yue, Xihai; Yu, Qiangmo; Bai, Xiaoling [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2013-12-09

    In this study, a magnetoelectric vibration energy harvester was demonstrated, which aims at addressing the limitations of the existing approaches in single dimensional operation with narrow working bandwidth. A circular cross-section cantilever rod, not a conventional thin cantilever beam, was adopted to extract vibration energy in arbitrary in-plane motion directions. The magnetic interaction not only resulted in a nonlinear motion of the rod with increased frequency bandwidth, but also contributed to a multi-mode motion to exhibit double power peaks. In energy harvesting with in-plane directions, it showed a maximum bandwidth of 4.4 Hz and power of 0.59 mW, with acceleration of 0.6 g (with g = 9.8 m s{sup −2})

  8. Edge Functionalization of Graphene and Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Polymers for Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Dai, Quanbin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Dai, Liming

    2016-08-01

    Edge functionalization by selectively attaching chemical moieties at the edge of graphene sheets with minimal damage of the carbon basal plane can impart solubility, film-forming capability, and electrocatalytic activity, while largely retaining the physicochemical properties of the pristine graphene. The resultant edge-functionalized graphene materials (EFGs) are attractive for various potential applications. Here, a focused, concise review on the synthesis of EFGs is presented, along with their 2D covalent organic polymer (2D COP) analogues, as energy materials. The versatility of edge-functionalization is revealed for producing tailor-made graphene and COP materials for efficient energy conversion and storage.

  9. Low-energy electron microscopy on two-dimensional systems : : growth, potentiometry and band structure mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kautz, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) is a microscopy technique typically used to study surface processes. The sample is illuminated with a parallel beam of electrons under normal incidence and the reflected electrons are projected onto a pixelated detector, where an image is formed. In the first

  10. Two-dimensional equilibrium island shape and step free energies of Cu(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moere, R.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2003-01-01

    We have derived expressions for the free energies of the densely packed [110] and 100% kinked [010] step edges of Cu(001), including both meandering and vibrational entropy terms. The meandering entropy is calculated by taking into account nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interactions

  11. Bispectral experimental estimation of the nonlinear energy transfer in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.

    2008-01-01

    -wave turbulence. The density fluctuations, which at the realistic collisionality are advected as a passive scalar with the vorticity, show power transfer from large to small scales, while the spectral power in potential fluctuations, which represents the energy, is transferred as an inverse cascade to larger...

  12. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of excitons in two-dimensional-semiconductors as a function of temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2016-04-21

    We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy(EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELSspectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.

  13. Numerical computation of the critical energy constant for two-dimensional Boussinesq equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.; Angelow, K.

    2015-10-01

    The critical energy constant is of significant interest for the theoretical and numerical analysis of Boussinesq type equations. In the one-dimensional case this constant is evaluated exactly. In this paper we propose a method for numerical evaluation of this constant in the multi-dimensional cases by computing the ground state. Aspects of the numerical implementation are discussed and many numerical results are demonstrated.

  14. Measurement of Turbulence Energy Balance in a Two-Dimensional Wall Jet along a Plane Surface

    OpenAIRE

    藤沢, 延行; 白井, 紘行

    1987-01-01

    The sructure of turbulence in a wall jet along a plane surface is investigated by measuring the balance of turbulence energy. With the aid of a hot-wire anemometer system, convection velocities of small-scale turbulent motion are measured as well as other time-averaged flow properties and turbulence characteristics. It is found that the convection velocity of small-scale turbulence deviates significantly from the mean flow velocity, that is, Taylor's hypothesis is not valid for the present wa...

  15. Two-Dimensional Time-Domain Antenna Arrays for Optimum Steerable Energy Pattern with Low Side Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the synthesis of different two-dimensional time-domain antenna arrays for steerable energy patterns with side lobe levels. The research is focused on the uniform and nonuniform distributions of true-time exciting delays and positions of antenna elements. The uniform square array, random array, uniform concentric ring array, and rotated nonuniform concentric ring array geometries are particularly studied. These geometries are synthesized by using the well-known sequential quadratic programming. The synthesis regards the optimal true-time exciting delays and optimal positions of pulsed antenna elements. The results show the capabilities of the different antenna arrays to steer the beam in their energy pattern in time domain and how their performance is in frequency domain after the synthesis in time domain.

  16. Role of thermal excitation in ultrafast energy transfer in chlorosomes revealed by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sunhong; Yang, Cheolhee; Kim, Tae Wu; Isaji, Megumi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kim, Jeongho

    2015-07-21

    Chlorosomes are the largest light harvesting complexes in nature and consist of many bacteriochlorophyll pigments forming self-assembled J-aggregates. In this work, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) to investigate ultrafast dynamics of excitation energy transfer (EET) in chlorosomes and their temperature dependence. From time evolution of the measured 2D electronic spectra of chlorosomes, we directly map out the distribution of the EET rate among the manifold of exciton states in a 2D energy space. In particular, it is found that the EET rate varies gradually depending on the energies of energy-donor and energy-acceptor states. In addition, from comparative 2D-ES measurements at 77 K and room temperature, we show that the EET rate exhibits subtle dependence on both the exciton energy and temperature, demonstrating the effect of thermal excitation on the EET rate. This observation suggests that active thermal excitation at room temperature prevents the excitation trapping at low-energy states and thus promotes efficient exciton diffusion in chlorosomes at ambient temperature.

  17. The Energy Landscape for the Self-Assembly of a Two-Dimensional DNA Origami Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Joshua; Lu, Jennifer; Schulman, Rebecca

    2016-02-23

    While the self-assembly of different types of DNA origami into well-defined complexes could produce nanostructures on which thousands of locations can be independently functionalized with nanometer-scale precision, current assembly processes have low yields. Biomolecular complex formation requires relatively strong interactions and reversible assembly pathways that prevent kinetic trapping. To characterize how these issues control origami complex yields, the equilibrium constants for each possible reaction for the assembly of a heterotetrameric ring, the unit cell of a rectangular lattice, were measured using fluorescence colocalization microscopy. We found that origami interface structure controlled reaction free energies. Cooperativity, measured for the first time for a DNA nanostructure assembly reaction, was weak. Simulations of assembly kinetics suggest assembly occurs via parallel pathways with the primary mechanism of assembly being hierarchical: two dimers form that then bind to one another to complete the ring.

  18. Holey two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets for efficient energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Xiong, Pan; Ma, Lu; Yuan, Yifei; Zhu, Yue; Chen, Dahong; Luo, Xiangyi; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Yu, Guihua

    2017-04-01

    Transition metal oxide nanomaterials are promising electrodes for alkali-ion batteries owing to their distinct reaction mechanism, abundant active sites and shortened ion diffusion distance. However, detailed conversion reaction processes in terms of the oxidation state evolution and chemical/mechanical stability of the electrodes are still poorly understood. Herein we explore a general synthetic strategy for versatile synthesis of various holey transition metal oxide nanosheets with adjustable hole sizes that enable greatly enhanced alkali-ion storage properties. We employ in-situ transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption structures to study the mechanical properties, morphology evolution and oxidation state changes during electrochemical processes. We find that these holey oxide nanosheets exhibit strong mechanical stability inherited from graphene oxide, displaying minimal structural changes during lithiation/delithiation processes. These holey oxide nanosheets represent a promising material platform for in-situ probing the electrochemical processes, and could open up opportunities in many energy storage and conversion systems.

  19. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    Heating and cooling terminals can be classified in two main categories: convective terminals (e.g air conditioning, active chilled beam, fan coil) and radiant terminals. The two terminals have different modes of heat transfer: the first one is mainly based on convection, whereas the second one...... is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. These conclusions are valid for multi-storey and/or highly insulated buildings (R > 5 m2.K/W). In case of single-storey building with a low level of insulation, the effectiveness of radiant terminals is lower due to the larger back...

  20. Two-dimensional Clay and Graphene Nanosheets for Polymer Nanocomposites and Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuqiang

    Clay and graphene nanosheets are attractive to materials scientists due to their unique structural and physical properties and potentially low cost. This thesis focuses on the surface modification and structure design of clay and graphene nanosheets, targeting special requirements in polymer nanocomposites and energy storage applications. The high aspect ratio and stiffness of clay and graphene nanosheets make them promising candidates to reinforce polymers. However, it is challenging to achieve a good dispersion of the nanosheets in a polymer matrix. It is demonstrated in this study that organic modifications of clay and graphene nanosheets lead to better filler dispersion in polymer matrices. A prepolymer route was developed to achieve clay exfoliation in a polyurethane-vermiculite system. However, the phase-separated structure of the polyurethane matrix was disrupted. Intragallery catalysis was adopted to promote the clay exfoliation during polymerization. With both catalytic and reactive groups on the clay modifier, the polyurethane-vermiculite nanocomposites showed a significant increase in modulus and improved barrier performance, compared to neat polyurethane. The toughening effect of graphene on thermosetting epoxies and unsaturated polyesters (UPs) was also investigated. Various types of graphene with different structures and surface functionalities were incorporated into the thermosetting resin by in situ polymerization. The toughening effect was observed for epoxy nanocomposites at loading levels of less than 0.1 wt%, and a peak of fracture toughness was observed at 0.02 or 0.04 wt% of graphene loadings for all epoxy-graphene systems. A microcrack-crazing mechanism was proposed to explain the fracture behavior of epoxy-graphene systems based on fractography observations. Similar peak behavior of fracture toughness was not observed in UP system. UP nanocomposites with modified graphene oxide showed better mechanical performance than those with unmodified

  1. Two-dimensional model of a Space Station Freedom thermal energy storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Dynamic Power Module being developed for Space Station Freedom uses a eutectic mixture of LiF-CaF2 phase change salt contained in toroidal canisters for thermal energy storage. Results are presented from heat transfer analyses of the phase change salt containment canister. A 2-D, axisymmetric finite difference computer program which models the canister walls, salt, void, and heat engine working fluid coolant was developed. Analyses included effects of conduction in canister walls and solid salt, conduction and free convection in liquid salt, conduction and radiation across salt vapor filled void regions and forced convection in the heat engine working fluid. Void shape, location, growth or shrinkage (due to density difference between the solid and liquid salt phases) were prescribed based on engineering judgement. The salt phase change process was modeled using the enthalpy method. Discussion of results focuses on the role of free-convection in the liquid salt on canister heat transfer performance. This role is shown to be important for interpreting the relationship between ground based canister performance (in l-g) and expected on-orbit performance (in micro-g). Attention is also focused on the influence of void heat transfer on canister wall temperature distributions. The large thermal resistance of void regions is shown to accentuate canister hot spots and temperature gradients.

  2. A parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence based on a maximum entropy production principle with a local conservation of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri, E-mail: chavanis@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, we apply the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) by enforcing a local conservation of energy. This leads to an equation for the vorticity distribution that conserves all the Casimirs, the energy, and that increases monotonically the mixing entropy (H-theorem). Furthermore, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity dissipates monotonically all the generalized enstrophies. These equations may provide a parametrization of 2D turbulence. They do not generally relax towards the maximum entropy state. The vorticity current vanishes for any steady state of the 2D Euler equation. Interestingly, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity obtained from the MEPP turns out to coincide, after some algebraic manipulations, with the one obtained with the anticipated vorticity method. This shows a connection between these two approaches when the conservation of energy is treated locally. Furthermore, the newly derived equation, which incorporates a diffusion term and a drift term, has a nice physical interpretation in terms of a selective decay principle. This sheds new light on both the MEPP and the anticipated vorticity method. (paper)

  3. Extinction of radiant energy by large atmospheric crystals with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The calculated results of extinction characteristics of visible and infrared radiation for large semi-transparent crystals are obtained by hybrid technique, which is a combination of the geometric optics method and the physical optics method. Energy and polarization characteristics of the radiation extinction in terms of the elements of the extinction matrix for individual large crystals and ensemble of crystals are discussed. Influences of particle shapes, aspect ratios, parameters of size distribution, complex refractive index, orientation of crystals, wavelength, and the polarization state of an incident radiation on the extinction are illustrated. It is shown that the most expressive and stable features of energy and polarization characteristics of the extinction are observed in the midinfrared region, despite the fact that the ice particles significantly absorb the radiant energy of this spectrum. It is demonstrated that the polarized extinction characteristics can reach several tens of percent at IR wavelengths. For the large crystals, the conditions of occurrence of the spectral behavior of the extinction coefficient in the visible, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength ranges are determined.

  4. Zero-energy states bound to a magnetic {pi}-flux vortex in a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesaros, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.mesaros@bc.edu [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Slager, Robert-Jan; Zaanen, Jan; Juricic, Vladimir [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-02-21

    We show that the existence of a pair of zero-energy modes bound to a vortex carrying a {pi}-flux is a generic feature of the topologically non-trivial phase of the M-B model, which was introduced to describe the topological band insulator in HgTe quantum wells. We explicitly find the form of the zero-energy states of the corresponding Dirac equation, which contains a novel momentum-dependent mass term and describes a generic topological transition in a band insulator. The obtained modes are exponentially localized in the vortex-core, with the dependence of characteristic length on the parameters of the model matching the dependence extracted from a lattice version of the model. We consider in full generality the short-distance regularization of the vector potential of the vortex, and show that a particular choice yields the modes localized and simultaneously regular at the origin. Finally, we also discuss a realization of two-dimensional spin-charge separation through the vortex zero-modes.

  5. Over 50% reduction in the formation energy of Co-based Heusler alloy films by two-dimensional crystallisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, James; Fleet, Luke R.; Walsh, Michael; Whear, Oliver; Huminiuc, Teodor [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lari, Leonardo [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); York JEOL Nanocentre, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5BR (United Kingdom); Boyes, Edward D. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); York JEOL Nanocentre, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5BR (United Kingdom); Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Vick, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Hirohata, Atsufumi, E-mail: atsufumi.hirohata@york.ac.uk [Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Crystalline formation of high magnetic-moment thin films through low-temperature annealing processes compatible with current semiconductor technologies is crucial for the development of next generation devices, which can utilise the spin degree of freedom. Utilising in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy, we report a 235 °C crystallisation process for a Co-based ternary Heusler-alloy film whose initial nucleation is initiated by as few as 27 unit cells. The crystallisation occurs preferentially in the 〈111〉 crystalline directions via a two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode; resulting in grains with [110] surface normal and [111] plane facets. This growth process was found to reduce the crystallisation energy by more than 50% when compared to bulk samples whilst still leading to the growth of highly ordered grains expected to give a high degree of spin-polarisation. Our findings suggest that the 2D layer-by-layer growth minimises the crystallisation energy allowing for the possible implementation of highly spin-polarised alloy films into current chip and memory technologies.

  6. Numerical investigation of the single scattering albedo of radiant energy passing through polydisperse crystalline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, O. V.; Shefer, V. A.; Sinyukova, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the role of atmospheric formations and cosmic dust clouds in the transmission of radiation is one of the most uncertain and difficult problems in astrophysics and climatology. One of the main tasks of practical astrophysics is the interpretation of the results of observations of space objects. There is a necessity of describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the environment. In this paper, applying the numerical methods, we study the optical characteristics of polydisperse media consisting of randomly oriented and preferentially oriented crystals, taking into account the distribution function of particle sizes. Particles of spherical shape and ensembles preferentially oriented plate crystals are considered as models. Mie theory and method of physical optics are used to calculate the scattering characteristics. Numerical study of the effects of extinction, scattering and absorption on the single scattering albedo of radiation allowed us to establish the basic patterns of the passage of radiant energy through a translucent medium. At the visible range of wavelengths, both for small and large particles, the single scattering albedo is almost equal to 1. The spectral course of this optical performance is mainly determined by the refractive index of the particles. Features of wave dependence of single scattering albedo are associated with microphysical parameters of the environment, which are more pronounced when the attenuation of the radiation is determined mainly by the scattering. Higher values of the absorption index and optical thickness of the crystal reduce the value of the single scattering albedo, smoothing the features of its spectral course. Values of the absorption index of substance, as value of the order of 0.1, do not lead to a decrease of the single scattering albedo as it is less than 0.5. This allows us to conclude that we should not neglect the microphysical characteristics of the crystals even by strong absorption of radiant

  7. Tailor-made biopolymers porous scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering: application of radiant energy in the form of microwave under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, S; Durance, T D

    2008-01-01

    Many methods are available for developing three-dimensional porous scaffolds using various polymeric materials for tissue-engineering applications. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the available methods and their limitations were discussed briefly. This paper focuses on the scope of novel technology called radiant energy application under vacuum for the fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Radiant energy application in the form of microwave under vacuum has been shown to develop and maintain the porous structure in fruits and vegetables after dehydration, which produced the microstructure similar to the freeze dried materials. Same principle of applying radiant energy under vacuum was used on the biopolymeric gels to create tailor-made, porous scaffolds for biomedical purposes. It has many advantages over the other existing methods of scaffold fabrication. This paper also reviews the scaffolds design recently fabricated by the authors using radiant energy under vacuum.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary....

  9. Highly selective CO2 adsorption accompanied with low-energy regeneration in a two-dimensional Cu(II) porous coordination polymer with inorganic fluorinated PF6(-) anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Shin-ichiro; Hijikata, Yuh; Inukai, Munehiro; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Horike, Satoshi; Higuchi, Masakazu; Kitagawa, Susumu; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    High selectivity and low-energy regeneration for adsorption of CO(2) gas were achieved concurrently in a two-dimensional Cu(II) porous coordination polymer, [Cu(PF(6))(2)(4,4'-bpy)(2)](n) (4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine), containing inorganic fluorinated PF(6)(-) anions that can act as moderate interaction sites for CO(2) molecules.

  10. Improved energy extrapolation with infinite projected entangled-pair states applied to the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corboz, P.

    2016-01-01

    An infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) is a variational tensor network ansatz for two-dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit where the accuracy can be systematically controlled by the bond dimension D. We show that for the doped Hubbard model in the strongly correlated reg

  11. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  12. A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    in decreasing the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. It has also been observed that the type and repartition of heat load have an influence on the cooling demand. Regarding the comfort level, both terminals met the general requirements, except at high solar heat gains......Full-scale experiments under both steady-state and dynamic conditions have been performed to compare the energy performance of a radiant wall and an active chilled beam. From these experiments, it has been observed that the radiant wall is a more secure and efficient way of removing heat from...... the test room than the active chilled beam. The energy saving, which can be estimated to around 10%, is due to increased ventilation losses. The asymmetry between air and radiant temperature, the air temperature gradient and the possible short-circuit between inlet and outlet play an equally important role...

  13. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  14. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.

  15. Energy transfer pathways in light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria as revealed by global kinetic analysis of two-dimensional transient spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Anna, Jessica M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-09-26

    Excited state dynamics in LH2 complexes of two purple bacterial species were studied by broad-band two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The optical response was measured in the 500-600 nm spectral region on the 0-400 fs time scale. Global target analysis of two-dimensional (2D) transient spectra revealed the main energy transfer pathways between carotenoid S2, 1Bu(-) and S1 states and bacteriochlorophyll Qx state. Global analysis ascertained the evolutionary and vibration-associated spectra, which also indicated the presence of a higher-lying vibrational level in the carotenoid S1 state. The estimation of the spectral overlap between the 1Bu(-) state and the Qx state indicated a significant contribution of the 1Bu(-) state to the overall S2-to-Qx excitation energy transfer.

  16. Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Ema; Stutterecker, Werner; Schoberer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II.) for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

  17. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5

  18. Peierls-Nabarro energy surfaces and directional mobility of discrete solitons in two-dimensional saturable nonlinear Schr\\"odinger lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Naether, Uta; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of directional mobility of discrete solitons in two-dimensional rectangular lattices, in the framework of a discrete nonlinear Schr\\"odinger model with saturable on-site nonlinearity. A numerical constrained Newton-Raphson method is used to calculate two-dimensional Peierls-Nabarro energy surfaces, which describe a pseudopotential landscape for the slow mobility of coherent localized excitations, corresponding to continuous phase-space trajectories passing close to stationary modes. Investigating the two-parameter space of the model through independent variations of the nonlinearity constant and the power, we show how parameter regimes and directions of good mobility are connected to existence of smooth surfaces connecting the stationary states. In particular, directions where solutions can move with minimum radiation can be predicted from flatter parts of the surfaces. For such mobile solutions, slight perturbations in the transverse direction yield additional transverse oscillations w...

  19. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  20. Ground-state energy and entropy of the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model with different bond distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Morelo, D. J.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Romá, F.

    2012-02-01

    We study the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model using a parallel tempering Monte Carlo algorithm. The ground-state energy and entropy are calculated for different bond distributions. In particular, the entropy is obtained by using a thermodynamic integration technique and an appropriate reference state, which is determined with the method of high-temperature expansion. This strategy provides accurate values of this quantity for finite-size lattices. By extrapolating to the thermodynamic limit, the ground-state energy and entropy of the different versions of the spin-glass model are determined.

  1. Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

    2012-09-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

  2. Three- and two-dimensional simulations of counter-propagating shear experiments at high energy densities at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Zhou, Ye, E-mail: yezhou@llnl.gov; MacLaren, Stephan A.; Huntington, Channing M.; Raman, Kumar S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Doss, Forrest W.; Flippo, Kirk A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Three- and two-dimensional numerical studies have been carried out to simulate recent counter-propagating shear flow experiments on the National Ignition Facility. A multi-physics three-dimensional, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code is used. Using a Reynolds Averaging Navier-Stokes model, we show that the evolution of the mixing layer width obtained from the simulations agrees well with that measured from the experiments. A sensitivity study is conducted to illustrate a 3D geometrical effect that could confuse the measurement at late times, if the energy drives from the two ends of the shock tube are asymmetric. Implications for future experiments are discussed.

  3. Accurate iterative solution of the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey) and Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey)]. E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com; Boztosun, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, we present the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field by using the asymptotic iteration method. The binding energy eigenvalues in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields ({gamma}<>0) are obtained within the framework of this iterative approach for 1S, 2P{sup -} and 3D{sup -} levels. The energy eigenvalues for the non-magnetic field case ({gamma}=0) are also determined and the results are compared with the values in weak and strong magnetic fields. The effect of the magnetic field strength on the energy eigenvalues are determined explicitly and excellent agreement with the findings of other methods is obtained.

  4. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  5. Two-dimensional angular energy spectrum of electrons accelerated by the ultra-short relativistic laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovskiy, A. V. [Department of Computer Science and Cybernetics, Baikal State University of Economics and Law, 11 Lenin Street, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Galkin, A. L. [Coherent and Nonlinear Optics Department, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics of MBF, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovitianov Street, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, M. P., E-mail: galkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short-Time Spectroscopy, 2a Max-Born-Strasse, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The new method of calculating energy spectra of accelerated electrons, based on the parameterization by their initial coordinates, is proposed. The energy spectra of electrons accelerated by Gaussian ultra-short relativistic laser pulse at a selected angle to the axis of the optical system focusing the laser pulse in a low density gas are theoretically calculated. The two-peak structure of the electron energy spectrum is obtained. Discussed are the reasons for its appearance as well as an applicability of other models of the laser field.

  6. New class of two-dimensional bimetallic nanoplatelets for high energy density and electrochemically stable hybrid supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiting; Ma, Peng; Ulstrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the application of supercapacitors (SCs) in portable electronic devices and vehicles is limited by their low energy density. Developing high-energy density SCs without sacrificing their advantages, such as their long-term stability and high power density, has thus become an increasing...... and a 96.1% retention of the initial capacitance over 5,000 cycles. We exploited the novel 2D nanoplatelets as cathode materials to assemble a hybrid SC for full-cell tests. The resulting SCs operated in a wide potential window of 0 - 1.7 V, exhibited a high energy density over 50 Wh·kg-1, and sustained...

  7. Single-shot full strain tensor determination with microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction and a two-dimensional energy-dispersive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, A; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Conka Nurdan, T; Send, S; Micha, J S; Ulrich, O; Hartmann, R; Strüder, L; Pietsch, U

    2017-06-01

    The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section). Taking advantage of a two-dimensional energy-dispersive X-ray detector (pnCCD), the position and energy of the collected Laue spots were measured for multiple positions on the sample, allowing the measurement of variations in the local microstructure. At the same time, both the deviatoric and hydrostatic components of the elastic strain and stress tensors were calculated.

  8. Energies and wave functions of an off-centre donor in hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and ritz variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; El Harouny, El Hassan [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 2121 M’Hannech II, 93030 Tétouan (Morocco); Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); El Khamkhami, Jamal [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 2121 M’Hannech II, 93030 Tétouan (Morocco); and others

    2016-09-15

    Eigenvalues equation solutions of a hydrogen-like donor impurity, confined in a hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer and capped by an insulating matrix, are determined in the framework of the effective mass approximation. Conduction band alignments at interfaces between quantum dot and surrounding materials are described by infinite height barriers. Ground and excited states energies and wave functions are determined analytically and via one-dimensional finite difference approach in case of an on-center donor. Donor impurity is then moved from center to pole of hemispherical quantum dot and eigenvalues equation is solved via Ritz variational principle, using a trial wave function where Coulomb attraction between electron and ionized donor is taken into account, and by two-dimensional finite difference approach. Numerical codes developed enable access to variations of donor total energy, binding energy, Coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to hemisphere radius and impurity position inside the quantum dot.

  9. Targeted energy transfers and passive acoustic wave redirection in a two-dimensional granular network under periodic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijing, E-mail: yzhng123@illinois.edu; Moore, Keegan J.; Vakakis, Alexander F. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); McFarland, D. Michael [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    We study passive pulse redirection and nonlinear targeted energy transfer in a granular network composed of two semi-infinite, ordered homogeneous granular chains mounted on linear elastic foundations and coupled by weak linear stiffnesses. Periodic excitation in the form of repetitive half-sine pulses is applied to one of the chains, designated as the “excited chain,” whereas the other chain is initially at rest and is regarded as the “absorbing chain.” We show that passive pulse redirection and targeted energy transfer from the excited to the absorbing chain can be achieved by macro-scale realization of the spatial analog of the Landau-Zener quantum tunneling effect. This is realized by finite stratification of the elastic foundation of the excited chain and depends on the system parameters (e.g., the percentage of stratification) and on the parameters of the periodic excitation. Utilizing empirical mode decomposition and numerical Hilbert transforms, we detect the existence of two distinct nonlinear phenomena in the periodically forced network; namely, (i) energy localization in the absorbing chain due to sustained 1:1 resonance capture leading to irreversible pulse redirection from the excited chain, and (ii) continuous energy exchanges in the form of nonlinear beats between the two chains in the absence of resonance capture. Our results extend previous findings of transient passive energy redirection in impulsively excited granular networks and demonstrate that steady state passive pulse redirection in these networks can be robustly achieved under periodic excitation.

  10. A two-dimensional problem for a fibre-reinforced anisotropic thermoelastic half-space with energy dissipation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim A Abbas

    2011-06-01

    The theory of thermoelasticity with energy dissipation is employed to study plane waves in a fibre-reinforced anisotropic thermoelastic half-space. We apply a thermal shock on the surface of the half-space which is taken to be traction free. The problem is solved numerically using a finite element method. Moreover, the numerical solutions of the non-dimensional governing partial differential equations of the problem are shown graphically. Comparisons are made with the results predicted by Green–Naghdi theory of the two types (GNII without energy dissipation) and (GNIII with energy dissipation). We found that the reinforcement has great effect on the distribution of field quantities. Results carried out in this paper can be used to design various fibre-reinforced anisotropic thermoelastic elements under thermal load to meet special engineering requirements.

  11. Energy-efficient optical line terminal for WDM-OFDM-PON based on two-dimensional subcarrier and layer allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Qi; Su, Yikai

    2012-11-05

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical line terminal (OLT) in wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). In our scheme, a wireless communication technique, termed layered modulation, is introduced to maximize the transmission capacity of OFDM modulation module in the OLT by multiplexing data from different ONU groups with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) margins onto the same subcarriers. With adaptive and dynamic subcarrier and layer allocation, several ONU groups with low traffic demands can share one OFDM modulation module to deliver their data during non-peak hours of a day, thus greatly reducing the number of running devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. Numerical calculation shows that an energy efficiency improvement of 28.3% in the OLT can be achieved by using proposed scheme compared to the conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  12. Influence of Small Impurities on Low-Energy Electron Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Microscopic Bounded Region

    CERN Document Server

    Shigehara, T; Mizoguchi, H; Mishima, T; Cheon, T; Cheon, Taksu

    1998-01-01

    In order to give some insight into a role of small impurities on the electron motion in microscopic devices, we examine from a general viewpoint, the effect of small obstacles on a particle motion at low energy inside microscopic bounded regions. It will be shown that the obstacles disturb the electron motion only if they are weakly attractive.

  13. Distance-dependent energy transfer between CdSe/CdS quantum dots and a two-dimensional semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, Kenneth M.; Vamivakas, A. Nick, E-mail: nick.vamivakas@rochester.edu [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Chakraborty, Chitraleema [Materials Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Sowers, Kelly [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Waduge, Pradeep; Wanunu, Meni [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Krauss, Todd [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Driscoll, Kristina [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Atomically thin semiconductors, such as the transition metal dichalcogenides, show great potential for nanoscale photodetection, energy harvesting, and nanophotonics. Here, we investigate the efficiency of energy transfer between colloidal quantum dots with a cadmium selenide core and cadmium sulfide shell and monolayer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}). We show that MoSe{sub 2} effectively quenches the fluorescence of quantum dots when the two materials are in contact. We then separate the MoSe{sub 2} and quantum dots by inserting variable thickness hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) spacers and show that the efficiency at which the MoSe{sub 2} quenches fluorescence decreases as the h-BN thickness is increased. For distances d, this trend can be modeled by a 1/d{sup 4} decay, in agreement with theory and recent studies involving graphene.

  14. Vibrational coherence and energy transfer in two-dimensional spectra with the optimized mean-trajectory approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The optimized mean-trajectory (OMT) approximation is a semiclassical method for computing vibrational response functions from action-quantized classical trajectories connected by discrete transitions that represent radiation-matter interactions. Here, we extend the OMT to include additional vibrational coherence and energy transfer processes. This generalized approximation is applied to a pair of anharmonic chromophores coupled to a bath. The resulting 2D spectra are shown to reflect coherence transfer between normal modes.

  15. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  16. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  17. Binary cooperative NiCo2O4 on the nickel foams with quasi-two-dimensional precursors: a bridge between 'supercapacitor' and 'battery' in electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Qian, Zhongyu; Wang, Jun; Qu, Liangti; Wang, Peng

    2015-02-28

    Some inorganic quasi-two-dimensional nanomaterials such as cobalt-nickel hydroxides are kinetically facile for a capacitive charge storage process. However, high performance capacitive charge storage needs a balance of the ionic and electronic transporting, and to build up an integrated architecture on substrates step by step and utilize the interface better is still a key challenge. As the interfacial assembly has conflicted with our goals for high-performance capacitive charge storage process, we identify theoretically and experimentally binary cooperative nanoscale interfacial materials to solve the problem. Co-Ni-hydroxide precursors were prepared by hybrid quasi-two-dimensional nanosheets and hetero-oriented nanocrystallines walls. Followed by dip-dry and annealing, NiCo2O4 could adhere to the nickel foams robustly with a solution-based surface treatment. Moreover, an unusual phenomenon in the electrochemical test inspired us to establish a bridge between 'supercapacitor' and 'battery'. The bridged gap highlights a new design idea for high-performance energy storage.

  18. Three- and Two- Dimensional Simulations of Re-shock Experiments at High Energy Densities at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Stephan; Huntington, Channing; Nagel, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of recent high-energy-density (HED) re-shock experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability growth that occurs after successive shocks transit a sinusoidally-perturbed interface between materials of different densities. The shock tube is driven at one or both ends using indirect-drive laser cavities or hohlraums. X-ray area-backlit imaging is used to visualize the growth at different times. Our simulations are done with the three-dimensional, radiation hydrodynamics code ARES, developed at LLNL. We show the instabilitygrowth rate, inferred from the experimental radiographs, agrees well with our 2D and 3D simulations. We also discuss some 3D geometrical effects, suggested by our simulations, which could deteriorate the images at late times, unless properly accounted for in the experiment design. Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE- AC52-06NA27279. LLNL-ABS-680789.

  19. Electrical and physical topography in energy-filtered photoelectron emission microscopy of two-dimensional silicon pn junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssière, Maylis [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Escher, Matthias [Focus GmbH, 65510 Hünstetten (Germany); Renault, Olivier; Mariolle, Denis [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Barrett, Nicholas, E-mail: nick.barrett@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS/SPCSI/LENSIS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is a powerful non-destructive tool for spatially resolved, spectroscopic analysis of surfaces with sub-micron chemical heterogeneities. However, in the case of micron scale patterned semiconductors, band line-ups at pn junctions have a built-in lateral electric field which can significantly alter the PEEM image of the structure with respect to its physical dimensions. Furthermore, real surfaces may also have physical topography which can reinforce or counteract the electrically induced distortion at a pn junction. We have measured the experimental PEEM image distortion at such a junction and carried out numerical simulations of the PEEM images. The simulations include energy filtering and the use of a contrast aperture in the back focal plane in order to describe the changes in the PEEM image of the junction with respect to its real physical dimensions. Threshold imaging does not give a reliable measurement of micron sized p and n type patterns. At higher take-off energies, for example using Si 2p electrons, the pattern width is closer to the real physical size. Physical topography must also be quantitatively accounted for. The results can be generalized to PEEM imaging of any structure with a built-in lateral electric field.

  20. Low-energy dynamics of the two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on percolating clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Sandvik, Anders W

    2006-09-15

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of site diluted S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic clusters at the 2D percolation threshold. We use Lanczos diagonalization to calculate the lowest excitation gap Delta and, to reach larger sizes, use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study an upper bound for Delta obtained from sum rules involving the staggered structure factor and susceptibility. Scaling the gap distribution with the cluster length L, Delta approximately L(-), we obtain a dynamic exponent z approximately 2D(f), where D(f)=91/48 is the fractal dimensionality of the percolating cluster. This is in contrast with previous expectations of z=D(f). We argue that the low-energy excitations are due to weakly coupled effective moments formed due to local imbalance in sublattice occupation.

  1. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  2. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  3. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  5. Potential Use of Radiant Walls to Transfer Energy Between two Building Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Due to a reduced energy demand in low energy buildings, low temperature heating and high temperature cooling can be used to control thermal comfort. Nevertheless, highly varying heat loads due to solar radiation can create sometimes an imbalanced energy demand inside the building. Instead of being...... considered as a disturbance, this asymmetry can be used as a heat source for another zone of the building. By means of computer simulations, the possibility of shifting the energy demand between two office rooms with different thermal loads has been studied. Due to the small temperature difference between...

  6. Model independent search for new particles in two-dimensional mass space using events with missing energy, two jets and two leptons with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080070; Hebbeker, Thomas

    2017-07-07

    The discovery of a new particle consistent with the standard model Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 completed the standard model of particle physics (SM). Despite its remarkable success many questions remain unexplained. Numerous theoretical models, predicting the existence of new heavy particles, provide answers to these unresolved questions and are tested at high energy experiments such as the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this thesis a model independent search method for new particles in two-dimensional mass space in events with missing transverse energy is presented using 19.7 $\\mbox{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at a centre of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV at the LHC. The analysis searches for signatures of pair-produced new heavy particles $\\mbox{T}^\\prime$ which decay further into unknown heavy particles $\\mbox{W}^\\prime$ and SM quarks $q$ ($\\mbox{T}^\\prime\\overline{\\mbox{T}^\\prime} \\rightarrow {...

  7. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results for energy states of two-dimensional electron gas in pseudomorphically strained InAs high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yui; Tange, Takahiro; Hirayama, Naomi; Iida, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    The energy states of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in high-electron-mobility transistors with a pseudomorphically strained InAs channel (PHEMTs) were analyzed rigorously using a recently established theory that takes into account the nonparabolicity of the conduction band of the channel layer. The sheet density of the 2DEG in InxGa1-xAs-PHEMTs and the drain I-V characteristics of those devices were calculated theoretically and compared with the density and characteristics obtained experimentally. Not only the calculated threshold voltage (VTH) but also the calculated transconductance agreed fairly well with the corresponding values obtained experimentally. When the effects of the compositions of the InxGa1-xAs subchannel layer in the composite channel and the channel layer on energy states of 2DEG were investigated in order to establish a guiding principle for a design of the channel structure in PHEMTs, it was found that VTH is determined by the effective conduction-band offset energy ΔEC between the InAlAs barrier and the channel layers.

  8. Superconductivity in the two-dimensional electron gas induced by high-energy optical phonon mode and large polarization of the SrTiO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.; Li, Dingping

    2016-07-01

    Pairing in one-atomic-layer-thick two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by a single flat band of high-energy longitudinal optical phonons is considered. The polar dielectric SrTiO3 (STO) exhibits such an energetic phonon mode and the 2DEG is created both when one unit cell FeSe layer is grown on its (100 ) surface and on the interface with another dielectric like LaAlO3 (LAO). We obtain a quantitative description of both systems solving the gap equation for Tc for arbitrary Fermi energy ɛF, electron-phonon coupling λ , and the phonon frequency Ω , and direct (random-phase approximation) electron-electron repulsion strength α . The focus is on the intermediate region between the adiabatic, ɛF>>Ω , and the nonadiabatic, ɛF<<Ω , regimes. The high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell FeSe/STO is possible due to a combination of three factors: high-longitudinal-optical phonon frequency, large electron-phonon coupling λ ˜0.5 , and huge dielectric constant of the substrate suppression the Coulomb repulsion. It is shown that very low density electron gas in the interfaces is still capable of generating superconductivity of the order of 0.1 K in LAO/STO.

  9. Two-dimensional heterostructures of V2O5 and reduced graphene oxide as electrodes for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Nagaraju, Doddahalli Hanumantharayudu

    2014-08-27

    In this article, we report the synthesis of electrode materials based on two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures of V2O5 nanosheets (V2O5 NS) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitor applications. Specifically, the 2D V2O5 and rGO/V2O5 nanosheet electrodes showed a specific capacitance of 253 F g-1 and 635 F g-1, respectively at a current density of 1 A g-1. The capacitance of the heterostructures is almost 2.5 times higher than the 2D V2O5 nanosheets alone. The corresponding energy density of 39 Wh kg-1 and 79.5 Wh kg-1 were achieved for the two electrodes at a power density of 900 W kg-1 in an asymmetric supercapacitor configuration. The energy and power density using the nanosheet heterostructure are, to our knowledge, higher than any of those that were previously reported for asymmetric supercapacitors using V2O5 electrodes. This journal is

  10. Redox Active Cation Intercalation/Deintercalation in Two-Dimensional Layered MnO2 Nanostructures for High-Rate Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Ma, Renzhi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Bai, Xueyin; Li, Shen; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2017-02-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials with a high intercalation pseudocapacitance have long been investigated for Li(+)-ion-based electrochemical energy storage. By contrast, the exploration of guest ions other than Li(+) has been limited, although promising. The present study investigates intercalation/deintercalation behaviors of various metal ions in 2D layered MnO2 with various interlayer distances, K-birnessite nanobelt (K-MnO2), its protonated form (H-MnO2), and a freeze-dried sample of exfoliated nanosheets. Series of metal ions, such as monovalent Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) and divalent Mg(2+), exhibit reversible intercalation during charge/discharge cycling, delivering high-rate pseudocapacitances. In particular, the freeze-dried MnO2 of exfoliated nanosheets restacked with the largest interlayer spacing and a less compact 3D network exhibits the best rate capability and a stable cyclability over 5000 cycles. Both theoretical calculation and kinetic analysis reveal that the increased interlayer distance facilitates the fast diffusion of cations in layered MnO2 hosts. The results presented herein provide a basis for the controllable synthesis of layered nanostructures for high-rate electrochemical energy storage using various single- and multivalent ions.

  11. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  12. Radiant flux density, energy density, and fuel consumption in mixed-oak forest surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Kremens; M.B. Dickinson; A.S. Bova

    2012-01-01

    Closing the wildland fire heat budget involves characterising the heat source and energy dissipation across the range of variability in fuels and fire behaviour. Meeting this challenge will lay the foundation for predicting direct ecological effects of fires and fire-atmosphere coupling. In this paper, we focus on the relationships between the fire radiation field, as...

  13. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  14. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.6 Test procedures... radiant flux of exposed attic floor insulation using a radiant heat energy source. (a) Apparatus and... attic floor insulation specimen. The radiant panel generates a radiant energy flux distribution ranging...

  15. Comparative Study of Potential Applications of Graphene, MoS2, and Other Two-Dimensional Materials in Energy Devices, Sensors, and Related Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C N R; Gopalakrishnan, K; Maitra, Urmimala

    2015-04-22

    Novel properties of graphene have been well documented, whereas the importance of nanosheets of MoS2 and other chalcogenides is increasingly being recognized over the last two to three years. Borocarbonitrides, BxCyNz, with insulating BN and conducting graphene on either side are new materials whose properties have been attracting attention. These two-dimensional (2D) materials contain certain common features. Thus, graphene, MoS2, and borocarbonitrides have all been used in supercapacitor applications, oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs), and lithium-ion batteries. It is instructive, therefore, to make a comparative study of some of the important properties of these layered materials. In this article, we discuss properties related to energy devices at length. We examine the hydrogen evolution reaction facilitated by graphene, MoS2, and related materials. We also discuss gas and radiation sensors based on graphene and MoS2 as well as gas storage properties of graphene and borocarbonitrides. The article should be useful in making a judicious choice of which 2D material to use for a particular application.

  16. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  17. Two-Dimensional Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Isihara and Y. Nalane, Elementary Excitations and Energy Dispersion in TTF-TCNQ;Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors ...Abano Terme, Molec. Crys. Liq. Crys. 120, 85 (1984). One-dimensiona4 conductors such as TTF-TCNQ are attracting considerable attention for their...A. Isihara and Y. Nakane; Magnetoconductivity of 2D Conductors ; Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors , Abano Terme

  18. 二维三温能量方程的Krylov子空间迭代求解%APPLICATION OF KRYLOV ITERATIVE METHODS IN TWO DIMENSIONAL THREE TEMPERATURES ENERGY EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫则尧; 符尚武

    2003-01-01

    Two dimensional three temperatures energy equation is a kind of very impor-tant partial differential equation. In general, we discrete such equation with full implicit nine points stencil on Lagrange structured grid and generate a non-linear sparse algebraic equation including nine diagonal lines. This paper will discuss the iterative solver for such non-linear equations. We linearize the equations by fixing the coefficient matrix, and iteratively solve the linearized algebraic equation with Krylov subspace iterative method. We have applied the iterative method presented in this paper to the code Lared-Ⅰ for numerical simulation of two dimensional threetemperatures radial fluid dynamics, and have obtained efficient results.

  19. Infrared radiant ceramic plaques; Plaques radiantes ceramiques a infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-05-01

    Infrared plaques developed by MORGAN MATROC can now produce radiant heat from both natural and bottled gas with substantially lower NOx levels, and greater fuel efficiency and cleanliness, than other mass produced gas burning systems. The properties of this ceramic system, in particular very low thermal conductivity, allied to the infrared process for heat conversion, result in efficient radiation of energy. Morgan Matroc now claims half of the world-wide market of infrared plaque. (authors)

  20. The Nonrelativistic Ground State Energy Spectra of Potential Counting Coulomb and Quad-ratic Terms in Non-commutative Two Dimensional Real Spaces and Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmadjid Maireche

    2016-01-01

    A novel theoretical study for the exact solvability of nonrelativistic quantum spectrum systems for potential containing coulomb and quadratic terms is discussed used both Boopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory in both noncommutativity two dimensional real space and phase (NC-2D: RSP), it has been observed that the exact corrections for the ground states spectrum of studied potential was depended on two infinitesimals parameters and which plays an opposite rolls, and we ha...

  1. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  2. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  3. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  4. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  5. Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.

  6. Solar-driven high temperature radiant cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG ZhaoPei; WANG RuZhu; ZHAI XiaoQiang

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy is widely used as one of the most important renewable energy. In addition to the growing applications of solar PV and solar water heater, solar cooling is also considered very valuable and the related researches are developing fast because of the synchronism between solar irradiance and building cooling load. Current studies mainly focus on the high temperature solar collector technique and heat-driven cooling technique, while little concern has been paid to the transport process of cooling power. In this paper, the high temperature radiant cooling is studied as an alternative way for transporting cooling power, and the performance of the combination of radiant ceiling and solar cooling is also studied. From simulation and theoretical analysis results, high temperature radiant cooling terminal shows better cooling power transportation ability against conventional air-conditioning terminal, and its thermal comfort is improved. Experiment results indicate that radiant cooling can enhance the chiller's COP (Coefficient of Performance) by 17% and cooling power regeneration by 50%.According to analysis in this paper, high temperature radiant cooling is proved to be suitable for solar cooling system, and out work can serve as a reference for later system design and promotion.

  7. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  8. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  9. Compound Floor Radiant Heating System of Solar Energy, Heat Pump and Phase Change Energy Storage%太阳能热泵相变储能复合地板辐射采暖系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长宁

    2016-01-01

    太阳能地板辐射采暖系统与相变储能技术结合使用是新能源利用的一种重要方法。介绍了一种太阳能、热泵、低谷电辅热与相变储能地板联合运行的复合地板辐射采暖系统;讨论了系统组成、运行原理以及运行流程;分析了该采暖系统在节能环保、室内热舒适性等方面的优点;展望了其良好的发展前景。%Combing solar radiant floor heating system with phase change energy storage technology is an important method of new energy utilization. A compound floor radiant heating system of solar energy, heat pump, off-peak electricity and phase change energy storage is introduced. The system composition, working principle and operation process are discussed. Advantages of the heating system in the aspects of energy saving, environmental protection, indoor thermal comfort are analyzed. Moreover, a view of good ap-plication prospect is presented.

  10. Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wen-Chao

    2004-01-01

    We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.

  11. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  12. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  13. Energy Transfer Between Coherently Delocalized States in Thin Films of the Explosive Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Revealed by Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Joshua S; Knepper, Robert; Tappan, Alexander S; Kay, Jeffrey J; Zanni, Martin T; Farrow, Darcie A

    2017-02-16

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is a common secondary explosive and has been used extensively to study shock initiation and energy propagation in energetic materials. We report 2D IR measurements of PETN thin films that resolve vibrational energy transfer and relaxation mechanisms. Ultrafast anisotropy measurements reveal a sub-500 fs reorientation of transition dipoles in thin films of vapor-deposited PETN that is absent in solution measurements, consistent with intermolecular energy transfer. The anisotropy is frequency dependent, suggesting spectrally heterogeneous vibrational relaxation. Cross peaks are observed in 2D IR spectra that resolve a specific energy transfer pathway with a 2 ps time scale. Transition dipole coupling calculations of the nitrate ester groups in the crystal lattice predict that the intermolecular couplings are as large or larger than the intramolecular couplings. The calculations match well with the experimental frequencies and the anisotropy, leading us to conclude that the observed cross peak is measuring energy transfer between two eigenstates that are extended over multiple PETN molecules. Measurements of the transition dipole strength indicate that these vibrational modes are coherently delocalized over at least 15-30 molecules. We discuss the implications of vibrational relaxation between coherently delocalized eigenstates for mechanisms relevant to explosives.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  15. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  16. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  17. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  18. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  19. Quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in the flat antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone of NpRhGa{sub 5} studied by dHvA experiments and energy band calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Dai [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamagami, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Homma, Yoshiya [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshinobu [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamamoto, Etsuji [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Akio [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Haga, Yoshinori [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Settai, Rikio [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Onuki, Yoshichika [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-05-04

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpRhGa{sub 5} by the Ga-flux method and observed the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation in the antiferromagnetic state. Four kinds of nearly cylindrical Fermi surfaces, which correspond to main Fermi surfaces, were clearly detected. These quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces are formed in the flat antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone and are well explained on the basis of spin- and orbital-polarized LAPW energy band calculations. The cyclotron masses are moderately enhanced, ranging from 8.1 to 11.7 m{sub 0}, which are approximately four times larger than the corresponding band masses. This is the first case where the 5f-itinerant band model is applicable to a neptunium magnetic compound. (letter to the editor)

  20. Chaotic dynamics of a classical radiant cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Benenti, G; Guarneri, I; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo

    1999-01-01

    The statistical properties of a classical electromagnetic field in interaction with matter are numerically investigated on a one-dimensional model of a radiant cavity, conservative and with finite total energy. Our results suggest a trend towards equipartition of energy, with the relaxation times of the normal modes of the cavity increasing with the mode frequency according to a law, the form of which depends on the shape of the charge distribution.

  1. Influence of radiant energy exchange on the determination of convective heat transfer rates to Orbiter leeside surfaces during entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Temperatures measured at the aerodynamic surface of the Orbiter's thermal protection system (TPS), and calorimeter measurements, are used to determine heating rates to the TPS surface during atmospheric entry. On the Orbiter leeside, where convective heating rates are low, it is possible that a significant portion of the total energy input may result from solar radiation, and for the wing, cross radiation from the hot (relatively) Orbiter fuselage. In order to account for the potential impact of these sources, values of solar- and cross-radiation heat transfer are computed, based upon vehicle trajectory and attitude information and measured surface temperatures. Leeside heat-transfer data from the STS-2 mission are presented, and the significance of solar radiation and fuselage-to-wing cross-radiation contributions to total energy input to Orbiter leeside surfaces is assessed.

  2. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.

  3. Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

  4. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  5. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  6. 微波及辐射真空干燥过程中的干燥动力学及能量消耗%Drying Kinetics and Energy Consumption in Vacuum Drying Process with Microwave and Radiant Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Kamel; J.I. Lombra(n)a; C. de Elvira; R. Rodr(i)guez

    2004-01-01

    The general objective of this work is to analyze energy input in a vacuum process with the incorporation of microwave heating. Thus, necessary criteria for designing an efficient freeze-drying operation are considered through the analysis of strategies based on the combination of different intensities of radiant and microwave heating.The other aim of this research topic is to study the kinetics of drying in relation to mass transfer parameters.Five freeze-drying strategies using both heating systems were used. Consequently, energy input could be related to diffusivity coefficients, temperature and pressure profiles during dehydration of the product and analyzed in comparison to a conventional freeze-drying process.

  7. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  8. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  9. Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.

  10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  11. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  12. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  13. On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp

  14. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  15. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  16. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  17. Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-12-01

    The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.

  18. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Commensurate and incommensurate states of a spin density wave in a quasi-two-dimensional system with an anisotropic energy spectrum in an external magnetic field of arbitrary direction relative to magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palistrant, M. E., E-mail: mepalistrant@yandex.com; Ursu, V. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A theory of thermodynamic properties of a spin density wave (SDW) in a quasi-two-dimensional system (with a preset impurity concentration x) is constructed. We choose an anisotropic dispersion relation for the electron energy and assume that external magnetic field H has an arbitrary direction relative to magnetic moment M{sub Q}. The system of equations defining order parameters M{sub Q}{sup z}, M{sub Q}{sup {sigma}}, M{sub z}, and M{sup {sigma}} is constructed and transformed with allowance for the Umklapp processes. Special cases when H Double-Vertical-Line M{sub Q} and H Up-Tack M{sub Q} (H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0) are considered in detail as well as cases of weak fields H of arbitrary direction. The condition for the transition of the system to the commensurate and incommensurate states of the SDW is analyzed. The concentration dependence of magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is calculated, and the components of the order parameter for the incommensurate phase are determined. The phase diagram (T,{approx}x) is constructed. The effect of the magnetic field on magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is analyzed for H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0, and longitudinal magnetic susceptibility {chi} Double-Vertical-Line is calculated; this quantity demonstrates the temperature dependence corresponding to a system with a gap for x < x{sub c} and to a gapless state for x > x{sub c}. In the immediate vicinity of the critical impurity concentration (x {approx} x{sub c}), the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility acquires a local maximum. The effect of anisotropy of the electron energy spectrum on the investigated physical quantities is also analyzed.

  20. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qing-Hai Wang

    2009-08-01

    Two-dimensional $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry, the complex energy eigenvalues appear when level crossing happens between same parity eigenstates.

  3. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  4. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingjuan

    Improving energy efficiency in the Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings is critical to achieve the energy reduction in the building sector, which consumes 41% of all primary energy produced in the United States, and was responsible for nearly half of U.S. CO2 emissions. Based on a report by the New Building Institute (NBI), when HVAC systems are used, about half of the zero net energy (ZNE) buildings report using a radiant cooling/heating system, often in conjunction with ground source heat pumps. Radiant systems differ from air systems in the main heat transfer mechanism used to remove heat from a space, and in their control characteristics when responding to changes in control signals and room thermal conditions. This dissertation investigates three related design and control topics: cooling load calculations, cooling capacity estimation, and control for the heavyweight radiant systems. These three issues are fundamental to the development of accurate design/modeling tools, relevant performance testing methods, and ultimately the realization of the potential energy benefits of radiant systems. Cooling load calculations are a crucial step in designing any HVAC system. In the current standards, cooling load is defined and calculated independent of HVAC system type. In this dissertation, I present research evidence that sensible zone cooling loads for radiant systems are different from cooling loads for traditional air systems. Energy simulations, in EnergyPlus, and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer dynamics in spaces conditioned by radiant and air systems. The results show that the magnitude of the cooling load difference between the two systems ranges from 7-85%, and radiant systems remove heat faster than air systems. For the experimental tested conditions, 75-82% of total heat gain was removed by radiant system during the period when the heater (simulating the heat gain) was on, while for air

  5. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  6. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  7. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  8. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  9. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  10. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  11. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  13. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  14. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  15. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  16. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  17. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  18. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  19. Radiant recuperator modelling and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Suzana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators are frequently used in glass production and metallurgical processes to preheat combustion air by heat exchange with high temperature flue gases. Mass and energy balances of a 15 m high, concurrent radiant recuperator used in a glass fiber production process are given. The balances are used: for validation of a cell modeling method that predicts the performance of different recuperator designs, and for finding a simple solution to improve the existing recuperator. Three possible solutions are analyzed: to use the existing recuperator as a countercurrent one, to add an extra cylinder over the existing construction, and to make a system that consists of a central pipe and two concentric annular ducts. In the latter, two air streams flow in opposite directions, whereas air in the inner annular passage flows concurrently or countercurrently to flue gases. Compared with the concurrent recuperator, the countercurrent has only one drawback: the interface temperature is higher at the bottom. The advantages are: lower interface temperature at the top where the material is under maximal load, higher efficiency, and smaller pressure drop. Both concurrent and countercurrent double pipe-in-pipe systems are only slightly more efficient than pure concurrent and countercurrent recuperators, respectively. Their advantages are smaller interface temperatures whereas the disadvantages are their costs and pressure drops. To implement these solutions, the average velocities should be: for flue gas around 5 m/s, for air in the first passage less than 2 m/s, and for air in the second passage more than 25 m/s. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. EE 33027

  20. Two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion H- in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of H- in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  1. Spirals and Skyrmions in two dimensional oxide heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W Vincent; Balents, Leon

    2014-02-14

    We construct the general free energy governing long-wavelength magnetism in two dimensional oxide heterostructures, which applies irrespective of the microscopic mechanism for magnetism. This leads, in the relevant regime of weak but non-negligible spin-orbit coupling, to a rich phase diagram containing in-plane ferromagnetic, spiral, cone, and Skyrmion lattice phases, as well as a nematic state stabilized by thermal fluctuations.

  2. Statistical study of approximations to two dimensional inviscid turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaz, H.M.

    1977-09-01

    A numerical technique is developed for studying the ergodic and mixing hypotheses for the dynamical systems arising from the truncated Fourier transformed two-dimensional inviscid Navier-Stokes equations. This method has the advantage of exactly conserving energy and entropy (i.e., total vorticity) in the inviscid case except for numerical error in solving the ordinary differential equations. The development of the mathematical model as an approximation to a real physical (turbulent) flow and the numerical results obtained are discussed.

  3. Radiant Professionals Alliance guidelines 2010

    CERN Document Server

    IAPMO

    2010-01-01

    RPA Guidelines for the Design and Installation of Radiant Panel Heating and Snow/Ice Melt Systems. Intended for reference use by code officials, designers and installers. Deals with both hydronic and electric floor, wall and limited ceiling applications. Includes sample schematics and industry recommendations.

  4. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  5. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  6. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  7. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  8. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  9. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  10. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  11. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  12. Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolei Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.

  13. Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.

  14. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  15. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  16. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  18. Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.

  19. Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301

    2012-01-01

    The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...

  20. Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2017-04-01

    Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.

  1. Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.

  2. Electronic Transmission Properties of Two-Dimensional Quasi-Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志林; 傅秀军; 刘有延

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the tight binding model, the electronic transmission properties of two-dimensional Penrose lattices with free boundary conditions are studied using the generalized eigenfunction method (Phys. Rev. B 60(1999)13444). The electronic transmission coefficients for Penrose lattices with different sizes and widths are calculated, and the result shows strong energy dependence because of the quasiperiodic structure and quantum coherent effect. Around the Fermi level E = 0, there is an energy region with zero transmission amplitudes,which suggests that the studied systems are insulating. The spatial distributions of several typical electronic states with different transmission coefficients are plotted to display the propagation process.

  3. Controlled Production of Sub-Radiant States of a Diatomic Molecule in an Optical Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Takasu, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Borkowski, Mateusz; Ciuryło, Roman; Julienne, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    We report successful production of sub-radiant states of a two-atom system in a three-dimensional optical lattice starting from doubly occupied sites in a Mott insulator phase of a quantum gas of atomic ytterbium. We can selectively produce either sub-radiant 1g state or super-radiant 0u state by choosing the excitation laser frequency. The inherent weak excitation rate for the sub-radiant 1g state is overcome by the increased atomic density due to the tight-confinement in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Our experimental measurements of binding energies, linewidth, and Zeeman shift confirm observation of sub-radiant levels of the 1g state of the Yb_2 molecule.

  4. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  6. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  7. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  8. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  9. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  10. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  11. Two-dimensional oxides: multifunctional materials for advanced technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-08-13

    The last decade has seen spectacular progress in the design, preparation, and characterization down to the atomic scale of oxide ultrathin films of few nanometers thickness grown on a different material. This has paved the way towards several sophisticated applications in advanced technologies. By playing around with the low-dimensionality of the oxide layer, which sometimes leads to truly two-dimensional systems, one can exploit new properties and functionalities that are not present in the corresponding bulk materials or thick films. In this review we provide some clues about the most recent advances in the design of these systems based on modern electronic structure theory and on their preparation and characterization with specifically developed growth techniques and analytical methods. We show how two-dimensional oxides can be used in mature technologies by providing added value to existing materials, or in new technologies based on completely new paradigms. The fields in which two-dimensional oxides are used are classified based on the properties that are exploited, chemical or physical. With respect to chemical properties we discuss use of oxide ultrathin films in catalysis, solid oxide fuel cells, gas sensors, corrosion protection, and biocompatible materials; regarding the physical properties we discuss metal-oxide field effect transistors and memristors, spintronic devices, ferroelectrics and thermoelectrics, and solar energy materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  13. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  14. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  15. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  16. An early attempt at an integrated home energy system including solar thermal, ground source heat pump, radiant floor heating, reflective and dynamic insulation and ground-tempered makeup air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.

    2005-07-01

    This paper described an attempt to design and build a comfortable and energy efficient home that integrates solar thermal panels with active and passive features. The exterior walls of the 1700 square foot house were interlocking concrete blocks with radiant floor heating pipes fastened to the outside, which was later covered with rigid insulation and stucco. The active heating system included 4 solar panels and a ground source heat pump with supply lines buried horizontally 5 feet below the surface of the back yard on the south side of the building. The solar panels were used for different purposes in different seasons. The system was monitored for the first winter only. For 4 hours a day in January, 10 per cent more solar energy was measured on the vertical collectors than is available from direct solar insolation at summer solstice. With an outside temperature of -33 degrees C, the solar collectors were capable of maintaining an almost constant core wall temperature of 12 degrees C. The total electricity bill for this all-electric house averaged $60 month during for an entire year, with a single occupant. Despite these results, funding to optimize the control system was not granted. The house was sold at a loss and the heat pump was eventually replaced by a natural gas boiler, which reduced the energy efficiency of the house, but which satisfied the bank who wanted a conventional heating system before approving a mortgage. 2 figs.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Himadri R., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  18. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...... heating and cooling with pipes embedded in room surfaces (floor, wall, and ceiling), the application increased significantly worldwide. Earlier application of radiant heating systems was mainly for residential buildings because of its comfort and free use of floor space without any obstruction from...

  19. Two-dimensional conformal field theory and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    We study chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional conformal field theory through out-of-time order thermal correlators of the form $\\langle W(t)VW(t)V\\rangle$. We reproduce bulk calculations similar to those of [1], by studying the large $c$ Virasoro identity block. The contribution of this block to the above correlation function begins to decrease exponentially after a delay of $\\sim t_* - \\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log \\beta^2E_w E_v$, where $t_*$ is the scrambling time $\\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log c$, and $E_w,E_v$ are the energy scales of the $W,V$ operators.

  20. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  1. Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.

  2. Dynamical matrix of two-dimensional electron crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, R.; Lemonde, M.-A.; Doiron, C. B.; Ettouhami, A. M.

    2008-03-01

    In a quantizing magnetic field, the two-dimensional electron gas has a rich phase diagram with broken translational symmetry phases such as Wigner, bubble, and stripe crystals. In this paper, we derive a method to obtain the dynamical matrix of these crystals from a calculation of the density response function performed in the generalized random-phase approximation (GRPA). We discuss the validity of our method by comparing the dynamical matrix calculated from the GRPA with that obtained from standard elasticity theory with the elastic coefficients obtained from a calculation of the deformation energy of the crystal.

  3. Magnetization of two-dimensional superconductors with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kashurnikov, V A; Zyubin, M V

    2002-01-01

    The new method for modeling the layered high-temperature superconductors magnetization with defects, based on the Monte-Carlo algorithm, is developed. Minimization of the free energy functional of the vortex two-dimensional system made it possible to obtain the equilibrium vortex density configurations and calculate the magnetization of the superconductor with the arbitrary defects distribution in the wide range of temperatures. The magnetic induction profiles and magnetic flux distribution inside the superconductor, proving the applicability of the Bean model, are calculated

  4. Many body localization in two dimensional square and triangular lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Paredes, R

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold interacting Bose atoms placed in disordered two dimensional optical lattices with square and triangular symmetries are found to be localized above a certain disorder strength amplitude. From a Gross-Pitaevskii mean analysis we determine the localization length as a function of the disorder strength and investigate the energy spectrum in terms of the disorder magnitude. We found that the localization length is observed to decrease faster in triangular geometries than in square ones. In the presence of a harmonic confinement localization is observed at the center of the trap. The analysis of the energy spectrum reveals that discrete energy levels acquire a finite width that is always smaller than the distance among energy levels.

  5. Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2010-01-01

    Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...

  6. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  7. Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubich, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.

  8. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  9. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  10. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  11. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  12. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  13. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  14. Impact of pickup ions on the shock front nonstationarity and energy dissipation of the heliospheric termination shock: Two-dimensional full particle simulations and comparison with Voyager 2 observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhongwei; Richardson, John D; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The transition between the supersonic solar wind and the subsonic heliosheath, the termination shock (TS), was observed by Voyager 2 (V2) on 2007 August 31-September 1 at a distance of 84 AU from the Sun. The data reveal multiple crossings of a complex, quasi-perpendicular supercritical shock. These experimental data are the starting point for a more sophisticated analysis that includes computer modeling of a shock in the presence of pickup ions (PUIs). here, we present two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the TS including PUIs self-consistently. We also report the ion velocity distribution across the TS using the Faraday cup data from V2. A relatively complete plasma and magnetic field data set from V2 gives us the opportunity to do a full comparison between the experimental data and PIC simulation results. Our results show that: (1) The nonstationarity of the shock front is mainly caused by the ripples along the shock front and these ripples from even if the percentage of PUIs is high...

  15. Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.

  16. The modified cumulant expansion for two-dimensional isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, T.; Yanase, S.

    1981-09-01

    The two-dimensional isotropic turbulence in an incompressible fluid is investigated using the modified zero fourth-order cumulant approximation. The dynamical equation for the energy spectrum obtained under this approximation is solved numerically and the similarity laws governing the solution in the energy-containing and enstrophy-dissipation ranges are derived analytically. At large Reynolds numbers the numerical solutions yield the k to the -3rd power inertial subrange spectrum which was predicted by Kraichnan (1967), Leith (1968) and Batchelor (1969), assuming a finite enstrophy dissipation in the inviscid limit. The energy-containing range is found to satisfy an inviscid similarity while the enstrophy-dissipation range is governed by the quasi-equilibrium similarity with respect to the enstrophy dissipation as proposed by Batchelor (1969). There exists a critical time which separates the initial period and the similarity period in which the enstrophy dissipation vanishes and remains non-zero respectively in the inviscid limit.

  17. On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....

  18. Two-Dimensional turbulence in the inverse cascade range

    CERN Document Server

    Yakhot, V

    1999-01-01

    A theory of two-dimensional turbulence in the inverse energy cascade range is presented. Strong time-dependence of the large-scale features of the flow ($\\bar{u^{2}}\\propto t$) results in decoupling of the large-scale dynamics from statistically steady-state small-scale random processes. This time-dependence is also a reason for the localness of the pressure-gradient terms in the equations governing the small-scale velocity difference PDF's. The derived expressions for the pressure gradient contributions lead to a gaussian statistics of transverse velocity differences. The solution for the PDF of longitudinal velocity differences is based on a smallness of the energy flux in two-dimensional turbulence. The theory makes a few quantitative predictions which can be tested experimentally. One of the most surprising results, derived in this paper, is that the small-scale transverse velocity differences are governed by a linear Langevin-like equation, strirred by a non-local universal gaussian random force. This ex...

  19. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  20. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  1. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  2. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  3. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  5. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  6. Development of Personalized Radiant Cooling System for an Office Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Vaibhav [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The building industry nowadays is facing two major challenges increased concern for energy reduction and growing need for thermal comfort. These challenges have led many researchers to develop Radiant Cooling Systems that show a large potential for energy savings. This study aims to develop a personalized cooling system using the principle of radiant cooling integrated with conventional all-air system to achieve better thermal environment at the workspace. Personalized conditioning aims to create a microclimatic zone around a single workspace. In this way, the energy is deployed only where it is actually needed, and the individual s needs for thermal comfort are fulfilled. To study the effect of air temperature along with air temperature distribution for workspace, air temperature near the vicinity of the occupant has been obtained as a result of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using FLUENT. The analysis showed that personalized radiant system improves thermal environment near the workspace and allows all-air systems to work at higher thermostat temperature without compromising the thermal comfort, which in turn reduces its energy consumption.

  7. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  8. Structure and computation of two-dimensional incompressible extended MHD

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, D; Abdelhamid, H M; Morrison, P J

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study of a reduced version of Lust's equations, the extended magnetohydrodynamic (XMHD) model obtained from the two-fluid theory for electrons and ions with the enforcement of quasineutrality, is given. Starting from the Hamiltonian structure of the fully three-dimensional theory, a Hamiltonian two-dimensional incompressible four-field model is derived. In this way energy conservation along with four families of Casimir invariants are naturally obtained. The construction facilitates various limits leading to the Hamiltonian forms of Hall, inertial, and ideal MHD, with their conserved energies and Casimir invariants. Basic linear theory of the four-field model is treated, and the growth rate for collisionless reconnection is obtained. Results from nonlinear simulations of collisionless tearing are presented and interpreted using, in particular normal fields, a product of the Hamiltonian theory that gives rise to simplified equations of motion.

  9. Two-dimensional optical thermal ratchets based on Fibonacci spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Roichman, Yael; Grier, David G

    2011-07-01

    An ensemble of symmetric potential energy wells arranged at the vertices of a Fibonacci spiral can serve as the basis for an irreducibly two-dimensional thermal ratchet. Periodic rotation of the potential energy landscape through a three-step cycle drives trapped Brownian particles along spiral trajectories through the pattern. Which spiral is selected depends on the angular displacement at each step, with transitions between selected spirals arising at rational proportions of the golden angle. Fibonacci spiral ratchets therefore display an exceptionally rich range of transport properties, including inhomogeneous states in which different parts of the pattern induce motion in different directions. Both the radial and angular components of these trajectories can undergo flux reversal as a function of the scale of the pattern or the rate of rotation.

  10. Structure and computation of two-dimensional incompressible extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, D.; Tassi, E.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the extended magnetohydrodynamic model obtained from the two-fluid theory for electrons and ions with the enforcement of quasineutrality is given. Starting from the Hamiltonian structure of the fully three-dimensional theory, a Hamiltonian two-dimensional incompressible four-field model is derived. In this way, the energy conservation along with four families of Casimir invariants is naturally obtained. The construction facilitates various limits leading to the Hamiltonian forms of Hall, inertial, and ideal MHD, with their conserved energies and Casimir invariants. Basic linear theory of the four-field model is treated, and the growth rate for collisionless reconnection is obtained. Results from nonlinear simulations of collisionless tearing are presented and interpreted using, in particular, normal fields, a product of the Hamiltonian theory that gives rise to simplified equations of motion.

  11. A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

  12. Polarons and molecules in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöllner, Sascha; Bruun, Georg Morten; Pethick, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    We study an impurity atom in a two-dimensional Fermi gas using variational wave functions for (i) an impurity dressed by particle-hole excitations (polaron) and (ii) a dimer consisting of the impurity and a majority atom. In contrast to three dimensions, where similar calculations predict a sharp...... transition to a dimer state with increasing interspecies attraction, we show that the polaron Ansatz always gives a lower energy. However, the exact solution for a heavy impurity reveals that both a two-body bound state and distortions of the Fermi sea are crucial. This reflects the importance of particle......-hole pairs in lower dimensions and makes simple variational calculations unreliable. We show that the energy of an impurity gives important information about its dressing cloud, for which both Ansätze give inaccurate results....

  13. Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-11-01

    Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I-V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane.

  14. Quasi-two-dimensional Dirac fermions and quantum magnetoresistance in LaAgBi$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kefeng; Graf, D.; Petrovic, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional Dirac fermions and quantum magnetoresistance in LaAgBi$_2$. The band structure shows several narrow bands with nearly linear energy dispersion and Dirac-cone-like points at the Fermi level. The quantum oscillation experiments revealed one quasi-two-dimensional Fermi pocket and another complex pocket with small cyclotron resonant mass. The in-plane transverse magnetoresistance exhibits a crossover at a critical field $B^*$ from semiclassical weak-field $B^2$ dep...

  15. Performance of Thomas-Fermi and linear response approaches in periodic two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderin, L; Stott, M J [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7 L 3N6 (Canada)], E-mail: calderin@physics.queensu.ca, E-mail: stott@mjs.phy.queensu.ca

    2010-04-16

    A study of the performance of Thomas-Fermi and linear response theories in the case of a two-dimensional periodic model system is presented. The calculated density distribution and total energy per unit cell compare very well with exact results except when there is a small number of particles per cell, even though the potential has narrow tight-binding bands. The results supplement earlier findings of Koivisto and Stott for a localized impurity in a two-dimensional uniform gas.

  16. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  17. Electronic structure of boron based single and multi-layer two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Itsuki; Takahashi, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Two dimensional nanosheets based on boron and Group VA elements are designed and characterized using first principles calculations. B-N, B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi are found to possess honeycomb structures where formation energies indicate exothermic reactions. Contrary to B-N, the cases of B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi nanosheets are calculated to possess narrow band gaps. In addition, calculations reveal that the electronegativity difference between B and Group VA elements in the designed materials is a good indicator to predict the charge transfer and band gap of the two dimensional materials. Hydrogen adsorption over defect-free B-Sb and B-Bi results in exothermic reactions, while defect-free B-N, B-P, and B-As result in endothermic reactions. The layerability of the designed two dimensional materials is also investigated where the electronic structure of two-layered two dimensional materials is strongly coupled with how the two dimensional materials are layered. Thus, one can consider that the properties of two dimensional materials can be controlled by the composition of two dimensional materials and the structure of layers.

  18. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  19. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low-frequency bur......In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...... to the mean component of the flow. Bursting can also result from the quasi-linear modification of the linear instability drive which is the mean pressure gradient. For each bursting process the relevant zero-dimensional model equations are given. These are finally coupled in a minimal model of convection...

  20. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-08-01

    We use a two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to measure the coupled absorption and emission properties of atomic species in plasmas produced via laser ablation of solid aluminum targets at atmospheric pressure. Emission spectra from the Al I 394.4 nm and Al I 396.15 nm transitions are measured while a frequency-doubled, continuous-wave, Ti:Sapphire laser is tuned across the Al I 396.15 nm transition. The resulting two-dimensional spectra show the energy coupling between the two transitions via increased emission intensity for both transitions during resonant absorption of the continuous-wave laser at one transition. Time-delayed and gated detection of the emission spectrum is used to isolate the resonantly-excited fluorescence emission from the thermally-excited emission from the plasma. In addition, the tunable continuous-wave laser measures the absorption spectrum of the Al transition with ultra-high resolution after the plasma has cooled, resulting in narrower spectral linewidths than observed in emission spectra. Our results highlight that fluorescence spectroscopy employing continuous-wave laser re-excitation after pulsed laser ablation combines benefits of both traditional emission and absorption spectroscopic methods.

  1. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  2. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  3. Two-dimensional temperature analysis of nuclear fireballs using digitized film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Robert C.; Peery, Tyler R.; McClory, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have begun digitizing technical films spanning the atmospheric nuclear testing operations conducted by the United States from 1945 through 1962. Each atmospheric nuclear test was filmed by Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc., using between 20 to 40 cameras per test. These technical film test data represent a primary source for advancing the knowledge of nuclear weapon output as well as the understanding of nonnuclear high-temperature gases. This manuscript outlines the procedures followed in order to perform two-dimensional temperature calculations for early time nuclear fireballs using digitized film. The digitized optical densities of the film were converted into irradiance on the film that was then used to determine an effective power temperature. The events Wasp Prime and Tesla of Operation Teapot were analyzed using this technique. Film temperature results agreed within uncertainties with historic data collected by calorimeters. Results were also validated by comparison to a thermal heat flux solution that utilizes historic thermal yield values to normalize radiant flux. Additionally, digital imaging and remote sensing image generation was used to demonstrate that the two-dimensional temperature calculation was self-consistent.

  4. Fermionic boundary modes in two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, K. V.; Mukherjee, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the spectrum of the Andreev boundary modes in a two-dimensional superconductor formed at an interface between two different nonsuperconducting materials, e.g., insulating oxides. Inversion symmetry is absent in this system, and both the electron band structure and the superconducting pairing are strongly affected by the spin-orbit coupling of the Rashba type. We consider isotropic s -wave pairing states, both with and without time-reversal symmetry breaking, as well as various d -wave states. In all cases, there exist subgap Andreev boundary states, whose properties, in particular, the number and location of the zero-energy modes, qualitatively depend on the gap symmetry and the spin-orbit coupling strength.

  5. Extension of the approximate two-dimensional electron gas formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, R. F.

    1985-07-01

    The functional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formalism employed in the analysis of modulation-doped field-effect transistors is extended to properly account for the bulk charge and to more accurately model sub- and near-threshold behavior. The implemented changes basically transform the functional formulation from an above-threshold formalism for lightly doped structures to one of additional utility which automatically approaches expected limits under widely divergent conditions. Sample computations of the surface carrier concentration, relevant energy level positionings, and the semiconductor depletion width as a function of surface potential and doping are also presented and examined. These computations exhibit the general utility of the extended theory and provide an indirect evaluation of the standard two-level 2DEG theory.

  6. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...

  7. Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Song, Y.-Q.

    2014-03-01

    We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as 14N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented.

  8. Anomaly matching condition in two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinkin, O; Gubankova, E

    2016-01-01

    Based on Son-Yamamoto relation obtained for transverse part of triangle axial anomaly in ${\\rm QCD}_4$, we derive its analog in two-dimensional system. It connects the transverse part of mixed vector-axial current two-point function with diagonal vector and axial current two-point functions. Being fully non-perturbative, this relation may be regarded as anomaly matching for conductivities or certain transport coefficients depending on the system. We consider the holographic RG flows in holographic Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory via the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with respect to the radial coordinate. Within this holographic model it is found that the RG flows for the following relations are diagonal: Son-Yamamoto relation and the left-right polarization operator. Thus the Son-Yamamoto relation holds at wide range of energy scales.

  9. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    We compute the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy within two-dimensional Rashba models. For a ferromagnetic free-electron Rashba model, the magnetic anisotropy is exactly zero regardless of the strength of the Rashba coupling, unless only the lowest band is occupied. For this latter case, the model predicts in-plane anisotropy. For a more realistic Rashba model with finite band width, the magnetic anisotropy evolves from in-plane to perpendicular and back to in-plane as bands are progressively filled. This evolution agrees with first-principles calculations on the interfacial anisotropy, suggesting that the Rashba model captures energetics leading to anisotropy originating from the interface provided that the model takes account of the finite Brillouin zone. The results show that the electron density modulation by doping or an external voltage is more important for voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy than the modulation of the Rashba parameter.

  10. Velocity statistics in two-dimensional granular turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masaharu

    2003-10-01

    We studied the macroscopic statistical properties on the freely evolving quasielastic hard disk (granular) system by performing a large-scale (up to a few million particles) event-driven molecular dynamics systematically and found it to be remarkably analogous to an enstrophy cascade process in the decaying two-dimensional fluid turbulence. There are four typical stages in the freely evolving inelastic hard disk system, which are homogeneous, shearing (vortex), clustering, and final state. In the shearing stage, the self-organized macroscopic coherent vortices become dominant. In the clustering stage, the energy spectra are close to the expectation of Kraichnan-Batchelor theory and the squared two-particle separation strictly obeys Richardson law.

  11. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A.; Drewes, Jan H.; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0 ≲U /t ≲20 and temperatures, down to kBT /t =0.63 (2 ) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  12. Intrinsic Energies of Two-dimensional Heisenberg Magnets and Ferromagnetic Single-walled Nanotubes%二维磁性系统和准一维磁性纳米管的内能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米斌周; 冯翠菊; 祁云平; 丁东; 薛永红

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic energy of two⁃dimensional square lattice single⁃ion anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, and ferromagnetic single⁃walled nanotubes are calculated with many⁃body Green’ s function method in quantum statistical theory. Calculated results of ferromagnets and antiferromagnets are compared. Between zero temperature and phase transition point, including zero temperature, anti⁃ferromagnetic energy is always lower than that of ferromagnetic energy. Calculation method of intrinsic energy in this paper is applicable not only to ferromagnetic system, but also suitable for antiferromagnetic system and ferrimagnetic system, as well as ferromagnetic single⁃walled nanotubes. Intrinsic energies are greatly lower than classical energies, which shows that transverse correlation effect is important.%采用量子统计理论的多体格林函数法计算二维单离子各向异性海森伯铁磁体、反铁磁体以及单壁铁磁纳米管的内能,对比铁磁体和反铁磁体的结果。在相同的参量下,反铁磁能量总是低于相应的铁磁能量(相变点除外)。由于反铁磁能量随温度上升的速度较铁磁能量快,当温度升高到居里点TC和奈尔点TN时( TC =TN ),铁磁能量和反铁磁能量相等。横向关联效应对系统内能的影响较大,不能忽略。

  13. Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetiu, Corina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

  14. The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG CHI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.

  15. Quantum mechanical treatment of a constrained particle on two dimensional sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, L.; Panahi, H.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we study the motion of a particle on two dimensional sphere. By writing the Schrodinger equation, we obtain the wave function and energy spectra for three dimensional harmonic oscillator potential plus trigonometric Rosen-Morse non-central potential. By letting three special cases for intertwining operator, we investigate the energy spectra and wave functions for Smorodinsky-Winternitz potential model.

  16. Expectation value of composite field $T{\\bar T}$ in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zamolodchikov, Alexander B.

    2004-01-01

    I show that the expectation value of the composite field $T{\\bar T}$, built from the components of the energy-momentum tensor, is expressed exactly through the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor itself. The relation is derived in two-dimensional quantum field theory under broad assumptions, and does not require integrability.

  17. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ω-ψ, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of those final states, is merely a sufficient but not necessary condition; moreover, it is not proper to use it as the definition. It is found that the method through the value of the effective area S covered by the scatter ω-ψ plot, initially suggested by Read, Rhines, and White ["Geostrophic scatter diagrams and potential vorticity dynamics," J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 3226 (1986)] is more general and suitable for the definition. Based on this concept, a definition is presented, which covers all existing results in late states of decaying 2D flows (including some previous unexplainable weird double-valued ω-ψ scatter plots). The remaining part of the paper is trying to further study 2D decaying turbulence with the assistance of this definition. Some numerical results, leading to "bar" final states and further verifying the predictive ability of statistical mechanics [Yin, Montgomery, and Clercx, "Alternative statistical-mechanical descriptions of decaying two-dimensional turbulence in terms of patches and points," Phys. Fluids 15, 1937 (2003)], are reported. It is realized that some simulations with narrow-band energy spectral initial conditions result in some final states that cannot be very well interpreted by the statistical theory (meanwhile, those final states are still in the scope of the definition).

  18. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd...

  19. Unexpected Ge-Ge Contacts in the Two-Dimensional Ge4 Se3 Te Phase and Analysis of Their Chemical Cause with the Density of Energy (DOE) Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon; Mio, Antonio M; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Müller, Merlin; Luysberg, Martina; Mayer, Joachim; Wuttig, Matthias; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe0.75 Te0.25 has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge4 Se3 Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge4 Se3 Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hilbert Statistics of Vorticity Scaling in Two-Dimensional Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, H S; Meng, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the scaling property of the inverse energy cascade and forward enstrophy cascade of the vorticity filed $\\omega(x,y)$ in two-dimensional (2D) turbulence is analyzed. This is accomplished by applying a Hilbert-based technique, namely Hilbert-Huang Transform, to a vorticity field obtained from a $8192^2$ grid-points direct numerical simulation of the 2D turbulence with a forcing scale $k_f=100$ and an Ekman friction. The measured joint probability density function $p(C,k)$ of mode $C_i(x)$ of the vorticity $\\omega$ and instantaneous wavenumber $k(x)$ is separated by the forcing scale $k_f$ into two parts, which corresponding to the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. It is found that all conditional pdf $p(C\\vert k)$ at given wavenumber $k$ has an exponential tail. In the inverse energy cascade, the shape of $p(C\\vert k)$ does collapse with each other, indicating a nonintermittent cascade. The measured scaling exponent $\\zeta_{\\omega}^I(q)$ is linear with the statistical ord...

  1. The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    De, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.

  2. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  3. Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.

  4. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  5. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.

  6. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of tunnelling into a two-dimensional electron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reker, T.; Chung, Y.C.; Im, H.; Klipstein, P.C.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Shtrikman, Hadas [Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2002-06-10

    Tunnelling between a three-dimensional emitter contact and a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is studied in magnetic fields aligned perpendicular to the barriers of a double-barrier heterostructure. The differential conductance around the Fermi energy exhibits a magnetic-field-dependent pseudogap. This pseudogap is shown to be thermally activated and to depend on the two-dimensional electron density. We attribute this pseudogap to an extra energy that an electron tunnelling from the emitter into the 2DES has to overcome as a result of the correlated state of the 2DES. (author)

  7. From spin flip excitations to the spin susceptibility enhancement of a two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F; Aku-leh, C; Richards, D; Jusserand, B; Smith, L C; Wolverson, D; Karczewski, G

    2007-07-13

    The g-factor enhancement of the spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas was measured directly over a wide range of spin polarizations, using spin flip resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy on two-dimensional electron gases embedded in Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te semimagnetic quantum wells. At zero Raman transferred momentum, the single-particle spin flip excitation, energy Z*, coexists in the Raman spectrum with the spin flip wave of energy Z, the bare giant Zeeman splitting. We compare the measured g-factor enhancement with recent spin-susceptibility enhancement theories and deduce the spin-polarization dependence of the mass renormalization.

  8. Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.

  9. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    Radiant heating and cooling (RHC) systems are being increasingly applied not only in residential but also in non-residential buildings such as commercial buildings, education facilities, and even large scale buildings such as airport terminals. Furthermore, with the combined ventilation system used...... studies on RHC systems in terms of comfort, heat transfer analysis, energy simulation, control strategy, system configurations and so on. Many studies have demonstrated that the RHC system is a good solution to improve indoor environmental quality while reducing building energy consumption for heating...

  10. Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.

  11. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  12. Dynamic Properties of Two-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a two-dimensional model of polydisperse granular mixtures with a power-law size distribution in the presence of stochastic driving. A fractal dimension D is introduced as a measurement of the inhomogeneity of the size distribution of particles. We define the global and partial granular temperatures of the multi-component mixture. By direct simulation Monte Carlo, we investigate how the inhomogeneity of the size distribution influences the dynamic properties of the mixture, focusing on the granular temperature, dissipated energy, velocity distribution, spatial clusterization, and collision time. We get the following results: a single granular temperature does not characterize a multi-component mixture and each species attains its own "granular temperature"; The velocity deviation from Gaussian distribution becomes more and more pronounced and the partial density of the assembly is more inhomogeneous with the increasing value of the fractal dimension D; The global granular temperature decreases and average dissipated energy per particle increases as the value of D augments.

  13. Two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Q B; Zhao, P W; Jolos, R V; Meng, J

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor ($\\gamma=-30^\\circ$) coupling to one $h_{11/2}$ proton particle and one $h_{11/2}$ neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobb...

  14. Two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ =-30∘ ) coupling to one h11 /2 proton particle and one h11 /2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.

  15. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k(∥)=0 and in the area k(∥)>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvénic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  16. Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; QIANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).

  17. Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnel, Frank Oliver

    density fluctuations. Due to this field, spatial diffusion of electrons in a (comparatively strong) random potential of defects gives rise to energy diffusion of each individual electron, with a diffusion coefficient Depsilon = gammae2h/mo c. In combination with the known power-law asymptotic of the single-electron conductivity for sigmase(o) for o → 0, this allows us to find the static many-electron conductivity sigma me.

  18. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

  19. Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located

  20. RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang

    2006-01-01

    The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.

  1. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  2. Signal Characteristics of a Resistive-Strip Micromegas Detector with an Integrated Two-Dimensional Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Wehner, Laura; Westenberger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, micropattern gaseous detectors, which comprise a two-dimensional readout structure within one PCB layer, received significant attention in the development of precision and cost-effective tracking detectors in medium and high energy physics experiments. In this article, we present for the first time a systematic performance study of the signal characteristics of a resistive strip micromegas detector with a two-dimensional readout, based on test-beam and X-ray measurements. In particular, comparisons of the response of the two independent readout-layers regarding their signal shapes and signal reconstruction efficiencies are discussed.

  3. Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.

  4. On the equivalence between stochastic baker's maps and two-dimensional spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, K.

    2010-05-01

    We show that there is a class of stochastic bakers transformations that is equivalent to the class of equilibrium solutions of two-dimensional spin systems with finite interaction. The construction is such that the equilibrium distribution of the spin lattice is identical to the invariant measure in the corresponding bakers transformation. We illustrate the equivalence by deriving two stochastic bakers maps representing the Ising model at a temperature above and below the critical temperature, respectively. A calculation of the invariant measure and the free energy in the baker system is then shown to be in agreement with analytic results of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  5. Calculating Two-Dimensional Spectra with the Mixed Quantum-Classical Ehrenfest Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegte, C. P.; Dijkstra, A. G.; Knoester, J.; Jansen, T. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a mixed quantum-classical simulation approach to calculate two-dimensional spectra of coupled two-level electronic model systems. We include the change in potential energy of the classical system due to transitions in the quantum system using the Ehrenfest method. We study how this

  6. Two-dimensional quantum compass model in a staggered field: some rigorous results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Pei-Song; You Wen-Long; Tian Guang-Shan

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of the two-dimensional quantum compass model in a staggered field. Using the PerronFr(o)enius theorem and the reflection positivity method, we rigorously determine the low energy spectrum of this model and its global ground state Ψ0. Furthermore, we show that Ψ0 has a directional long-range order.

  7. Collective modes of a quasi-two-dimensional Bose condensate in large gas parameter regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Mishra; S P Ram; Arup Banerjee

    2007-06-01

    We have theoretically studied the collective modes of a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) Bose condensate in the large gas parameter regime by using a formalism which treats the interaction energy beyond the mean-field approximation. The results show that incorporation of this higher order term leads to significant modifications in the mode frequencies.

  8. Comparison between one-dimensional and two-dimensional models for Josephson junctions of overlap type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilbeck, J. C; Lomdahl, P.S.; Olsen, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of Josephson junction of overlap type is presented. The energy input is provided through induced magnetic fields modeled by a set of boundary conditions. In the limit of a very narrow junction, this model reduces to the one-dimensional model. Further, an equation derived f...

  9. DEFINITION STRESS INTENSITY COEFFICIENT TWO-DIMENSIONAL BODIES UNDER THERMAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkril’ А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the finite element scheme of the moment method (FEM implemented method of determining the coefficients of stress intensity (K in two-dimensional bodies under the action of temperature load. Results of test problems showed that the methods for determining the energy of K are more effeciency compared with the.

  10. Klein Paradox of Two-Dimensional Dirac Electrons in Circular Well Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海; 付星球; 韩榕生

    2012-01-01

    We study two-dimensional massive Dirac equation in circular well potential. The energies of bound states are obtained. We demonstrate the Klein paradox of this relativistic wave equation: For large enough potential depth, the bound states disappear from the spectra. Applications to graphene systems are discussed.

  11. Calculating Two-Dimensional Spectra with the Mixed Quantum-Classical Ehrenfest Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegte, C. P.; Dijkstra, A. G.; Knoester, J.; Jansen, T. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a mixed quantum-classical simulation approach to calculate two-dimensional spectra of coupled two-level electronic model systems. We include the change in potential energy of the classical system due to transitions in the quantum system using the Ehrenfest method. We study how this feedba

  12. Quantum computing via defect states in two-dimensional antidot lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-12-01

    We propose a new structure suitable for quantum computing in a solid-state environment: designed defect states in antidot lattices superimposed on a two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. State manipulation can be obtained with gate control. Model calculations indicate that it is feasible to fabricate structures whose energy level structure is robust against thermal dephasing.

  13. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  14. UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.

  15. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  16. Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R

    2016-01-01

    We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.

  17. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  18. Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.

  19. Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.

  20. A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji

    2012-02-05

    Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.

  1. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra

    2003-10-01

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  2. Phthalo-carbonitride: an ab initio prediction of a stable two-dimensional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2016-06-01

    Using density-functional theory calculations, we identify a stable two-dimensional carbonitride polymorph which resembles the core of phthalocyanine molecules. This so-called phthalo-carbonitride is found to be the lowest-energy polymer made of tetracyanoethylene molecules. It is a two-dimensional metal in its pristine form. Functionalization of the phthalo-cores with copper or iron atoms retains the metallic character of the material, but also adds magnetization to the system. Based on these properties and the established use of phthalocyanine molecules in various applications, the growth of phthalo-carbonitride sheets can add another multi-functional building block to the research and technology of two-dimensional materials.

  3. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  4. Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-05-11

    Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.

  5. Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer in a Heterogeneous Fracture Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, V. R.; Roubinet, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy harvesting requires extraction and injection of geothermal fluid. Doing so in an optimal way requires a quantitative understanding of site-specific heat transfer between geothermal fluid and the ambient rock. We develop a heat transfer particle-tracking approach to model that interaction. Fracture-network models of heat transfer in fractured rock explicitly account for the presence of individual fractures, ambient rock matrix, and fracture-matrix interfaces. Computational domains of such models span the meter scale, whereas fracture apertures are on the millimeter scale. The computations needed to model these multi-scale phenomenon can be prohibitively expensive, even for methods using nonuniform meshes. Our approach appreciably decreases the computational costs. Current particle-tracking methods usually assume both infinite matrix and one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer in the matrix blocks. They rely on 1D analytical solutions for heat transfer in a single fracture, which can lead to large predictive errors. Our two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer simulation algorithm is mesh-free and takes into account both longitudinal and transversal heat conduction in the matrix. It uses a probabilistic model to transfer particle to the appropriate neighboring fracture unless it returns to the fracture of origin or remains in the matrix. We use this approach to look at the impact of a fracture-network topology (e.g. the importance of smaller scale fractures), as well as the matrix block distribution on the heat transport in heterogeneous fractured rocks.

  6. DISCRETE MODELLING OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL LIQUID FOAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qicheng Sun

    2003-01-01

    Liquid foam is a dense random packing of gas or liquid bubbles in a small amount of immiscible liquid containing surfactants. The liquid within the Plateau borders, although small in volume, causes considerable difficulties to the investigation of the spatial structure and physical properties of foams, and the situation becomes even more complicated as the fluid flows. To solve these problems, a discrete model of two-dimensional liquid foams on the bubble scale is proposed in this work. The bubble surface is represented with finite number of nodes, and the liquid within Plateau borders is discretized into lattice particles. The gas in bubbles is treated as ideal gas at constant temperatures. This model is tested by choosing an arbitrary shape bubble as the initial condition. This then automatically evolves into a circular shape, which indicates that the surface energy minimum routine is obeyed without calling external controlling conditions. Without inserting liquid particle among the bubble channels, periodic ordered and disordered dry foams are both simulated, and the fine foam structures are developed. Wet foams are also simulated by inserting fluid among bubble channels. The calculated coordination number, as a function of liquid fractions, agrees well with the standard values.

  7. The intrinsic two-dimensional size of Sagittarius A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Geoffrey C. [Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), 645 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Markoff, Sera [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brunthaler, Andreas; Falcke, Heino [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Law, Casey [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, UC Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Maitra, Dipankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766 (United States); Clavel, M.; Goldwurm, A. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Morris, M. R.; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A. M., E-mail: grower@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array observations at a wavelength of 7 mm. The intrinsic source is modeled as an elliptical Gaussian with major-axis size 35.4 × 12.6 R{sub S} in position angle 95° east of north. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95°. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the intrinsic major-axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports the conclusion that NIR and X-ray flares are primarily due to electron excitation and not to an enhanced accretion rate onto the black hole.

  8. The Intrinsic Two-Dimensional Size of Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Geoffrey C; Brunthaler, Andreas; Law, Casey; Falcke, Heino; Maitra, Dipankar; Clavel, M; Goldwurm, A; Morris, M R; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A M

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at a wavelength of 7mm. The intrinsic source is modeled as an elliptical Gaussian with major axis size 35.4 x 12.6 R_S in position angle 95 deg East of North. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95 deg. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the intrinsic major axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports...

  9. Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-10-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration.

  10. Interactions between lasers and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2016-05-03

    The recent increasing research interest in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has led to an explosion of in the discovery of novel physical and chemical phenomena in these materials. Among the 2D family, group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as represented by MoS2 and WSe2, are remarkable semiconductors with sizable energy band gaps, which make the TMDs promising building blocks for new generation optoelectronics. On the other hand, the specificity and tunability of the band gaps can generate particularly strong light-matter interactions between TMD crystals and specific photons, which can trigger complex and interesting phenomena such as photo-scattering, photo-excitation, photo-destruction, photo-physical modification, photochemical reaction and photo-oxidation. Herein, we provide an overview of the phenomena explained by various interactions between lasers and the 2D TMDs. Characterizations of the optical fundamentals of the TMDs via laser spectroscopies are reviewed. Subsequently, photoelectric conversion devices enabled by laser excitation and the functionality extension and performance improvement of the TMDs materials via laser modification are comprehensively summarized. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the prospects for further development in this research area.

  11. Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Desario, Paul A.; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F.; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials `beyond graphene’ offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (~5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides `beyond hBN’ and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

  12. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.

  13. Two-Dimensional Nucleation of Ice from Supercooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, L. H.; Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation is the initial formation of a stable phase from a metastable phase in the presence of a catalyzing surface. This ubiquitous process has consequences ranging from metallurgy to the formation of kidney stones. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice plays a central role in cloud formation, suggesting one possible connection between anthropogenic pollutants and global climate. A key topic in the theory of nucleation is the geometry of the critical nucleus. Standard nucleation theories generally predict a compact critical nucleus with a surface of roughly constant curvature. We report measurements of the temperature dependent nucleation rate of ice from water samples supporting aliphatic alcohol Langmuir films. We use classical nucleation theory to extract thermodynamic parameters from the measured nucleation rates. From these parameters we conclude that both the effective free energy barrier and the molecular kinetics of nucleation are dominated by the physics at the interface. Our results give self-consistent evidence that the geometry of the critical nucleus in this system is essentially two-dimensional.

  14. Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.

    1993-05-01

    A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system`s development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

  15. Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.

    1993-05-01

    A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

  16. Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...

  17. Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University

    1997-01-01

    Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...

  18. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan

    2002-05-01

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.

  20. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  1. Improved thermal performance of a hydronic radiant panel heating system by the optimization of tube shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T. CHAE; Kwang Ho LEE; Jae Sung PARK

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance enhancement of the hydronic radiant floor heating system by tube shape refinements is investigated in this paper. Both analytical and detailed numerical modelings are carried out to predict the performance of the radiant system. While the simple analytical model briefly investigates the possibility of the effect of the tube shape improvement with the parametric analysis, the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (Ansys/CFX) is used to perform the detailed 3D analysis under different tube shape conditions. The fin thickness, the number of fins, and the tube thermal conductivity turn out to have significant effects on the radiant system performance. The potential energy saving impacts of the tube shape refinements are also discussed. The tube shape improvement turns out to increase the floor surface temperature and to decrease the hot water temperature drop across the system, resulting in heating energy savings.

  2. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  3. Vibrational wave packet induced oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectra. II. Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mancal, Tomas; Milota, Franz; Lukes, Vladimir; Kauffmann, Harald F; Sperling, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory of vibrational modulation of two-dimensional coherent Fourier transformed electronic spectra. Based on an expansion of the system's energy gap correlation function in terms of Huang-Rhys factors, we explain the time-dependent oscillatory behavior of the absorptive and dispersive parts of two-dimensional spectra of a two-level electronic system, weakly coupled to intramolecular vibrational modes. The theory predicts oscillations in the relative amplitudes of the rephasing and non-rephasing parts of the two-dimensional spectra, and enables to analyze time dependent two-dimensional spectra in terms of simple elementary components whose line-shapes are dictated by the interaction of the system with the solvent only. The theory is applicable to both low and high energy (with respect to solvent induced line broadening) vibrations. The results of this paper enable to qualitatively explain experimental observations on low energy vibrations presented in the preceding paper [A. Nemeth et al, arXiv:1...

  4. Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-05-26

    The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.

  5. Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum of Ultracold Atoms on the Two-Dimensional Kagome Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing-Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum of ultracold atoms on the two-dimensional Kagome optical lattice under an effective magnetic field,which can be realized with laser beams.We derive the generalized Harper's equations from the Schr(o)dinger equation.The energy spectrum with a fractal band structure is obtained by numerically solving the generalized Harper's equations.We analyze the properties of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum and discuss its observability.

  6. Comment on "Thermal propagation in two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays"

    OpenAIRE

    De Leo, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Filatrella et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 54510 (2007)] report results of numerical calculations of energy barriers for flux quanta propagation in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions with finite self and mutual inductances. To avoid complex numerical calculations, they use an approximated inductance model to address the effects of the mutual couplings. Using a full inductance matrix model, we show that this approximated model cannot be used to calculate the energy barri...

  7. Electronic, Vibrational and Thermoelectric Properties of Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Darshana

    The discovery of graphene's unique electronic and thermal properties has motivated the search for new two-dimensional materials. Examples of these materials include the layered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and metal mono-chalcogenides. The properties of the TMDCs (eg. MoS 2, WS2, TaS2, TaSe2) and the metal mono-chalcogenides (eg. GaSe, InSe, SnS) are diverse - ranging from semiconducting, semi-metallic and metallic. Many of these materials exhibit strongly correlated phenomena and exotic collective states such as exciton condensates, charge density waves, Lifshitz transitions and superconductivity. These properties change as the film thickness is reduced down to a few monolayers. We use first-principles simulations to discuss changes in the electronic and the vibrational properties of these materials as the film thickness evolves from a single atomic monolayer to the bulk limit. In the semiconducting TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2) and monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InS and InSe) we show confining these materials to their monolayer limit introduces large band degeneracies or non-parabolic features in the electronic structure. These changes in the electronic structure results in increases in the density of states and the number of conducting modes. Our first-principles simulations combined with a Landauer approach show these changes can lead to large enhancements up to an order of magnitude in the thermoelectric performance of these materials when compared to their bulk structure. Few monolayers of the TMDCs can be misoriented with respect to each other due to the weak van-der-Waals (vdW) force at the interface of two monolayers. Misorientation of the bilayer semiconducting TMDCs increases the interlayer van-der-Waals gap distance, reduces the interlayer coupling and leads to an increase in the magnitude of the indirect bandgap by up to 100 meV compared to the registered bilayer. In the semi-metallic and metallic TMDC compounds (TiSe2, Ta

  8. Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.

  9. Two-dimensional simulation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hum, B.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have fast startup, are highly energy efficient and have high power density, rendering them very suitable for use in zero-emission vehicles and on-site power cogeneration. Before the PEM fuel cell can reach widespread commercial use, the performance has to be improved regarding the minimization of all transport resistances. This can be done by considering the electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layers along with the physical transport of reactant gas flows, product and process water, heat and the charged particles in the individual cells and stacks. This paper presents the results of a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a steady, isothermal, fully humidified PEM fuel cell which was conducted to examine what happens in the catalyst layers. The finite volume method was used together with the alternating direction implicit algorithm. It was determined that the cathode catalyst layer has more pronounced changes in potential, reaction rate and current density generation compared to the anode catalyst layer. This is because of the large cathode activation overpotential and the low diffusion coefficient of oxygen. It was demonstrated that catalyst layers, by nature, are 2 dimensional, particularly in areas of low reactant concentrations. Maximum power density is limited by the depletion of one of the reactants in the catalyst layer. Both the fuel and oxidant supply must be managed simultaneously for optimal cell performance. It was concluded that cell performance is not greatly affected by flow direction. It was noted that this analysis can also be used for more complex cell design, such as cross flow between reactant streams and practical serpentine flow channel design. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.

  11. Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.

  12. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  13. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  14. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  15. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  16. Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  17. Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.

  18. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  19. Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.

  20. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  1. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  2. Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    2008-06-01

    We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.

  3. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used......We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  4. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.

  5. Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...

  7. Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.

  8. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2002-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  9. Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Ortega, A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.

  10. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  11. Energy relaxation studies in In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As two-dimensional electron gases and quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C.; Ferry, D. K.; Wieder, H. H.

    2004-04-01

    We present Joule heating measurements carried out over a wide temperature range on two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and quantum wires of varying widths fabricated in an In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure system that has a 25 nm wide In0.53Ga0.47As quantum well region. The power dissipated per electron is extracted and the electron-phonon coupling processes in these systems are studied. The temperature decay of the power loss at the 2DEG points towards unscreened piezoelectric coupling to the acoustic modes over temperatures of 1-30 K, with boundary scattering in the ohmic contacts gaining importance at very low temperatures. In the wires, we observe different behaviour and the effect of wire width and carrier density on the observed energy-loss rates. Possible phonon confinement and exponential suppression in these structures are also looked at.

  12. A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus

    1989-09-01

    manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.

  13. Two Dimensional Symmetric Correlation Functions of the S Operator and Two Dimensional Fourier Transforms: Considering the Line Coupling for P and R Lines of Linear Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  14. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

  15. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.

  16. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  17. Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,

  18. The partition function of two-dimensional string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen

    1993-04-01

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.

  19. The partition function of two-dimensional string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1993-04-12

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity

  20. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko V.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.

  1. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  2. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D

    1991-01-01

    Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...

  3. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  4. Piezoelectricity and Piezomagnetism: Duality in two-dimensional checkerboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fel, Leonid G.

    2002-05-01

    The duality approach in two-dimensional two-component regular checkerboards is extended to piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. The relation between the effective piezoelectric and piezomagnetic moduli is found for a checkerboard with the p6'mm'-plane symmetry group (dichromatic triangle).

  5. Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....

  6. Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K

    2011-01-01

    We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.

  7. Chaotic dynamics for two-dimensional tent maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumariño, Antonio; Ángel Rodríguez, José; Carles Tatjer, Joan; Vigil, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    For a two-dimensional extension of the classical one-dimensional family of tent maps, we prove the existence of an open set of parameters for which the respective transformation presents a strange attractor with two positive Lyapounov exponents. Moreover, periodic orbits are dense on this attractor and the attractor supports a unique ergodic invariant probability measure.

  8. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  9. Spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaiumzadeh, A.; Duine, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Titov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics in single-domain ferromagnets can be triggered by a charge current if the spin-orbit coupling is sufficiently strong. We apply functional Keldysh theory to investigate spin-orbit torques in metallic two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets in the presence of spin-dependent

  10. Numerical blowup in two-dimensional Boussinesq equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a three-stage numerical relay to investigate the finite time singularity in the two-dimensional Boussinesq approximation equations. The initial asymmetric condition is the middle-stage output of a $2048^2$ run, the highest resolution in our study is $40960^2$, and some signals of numerical blowup are observed.

  11. Exact two-dimensional superconformal R symmetry and c extremization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay

    2013-02-08

    We uncover a general principle dubbed c extremization, which determines the exact R symmetry of a two-dimensional unitary superconformal field theory with N=(0,2) supersymmetry. To illustrate its utility, we study superconformal theories obtained by twisted compactifications of four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces and construct their gravity duals.

  12. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  13. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...

  14. Non perturbative methods in two dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Elcio; Rothe, Klaus D

    1991-01-01

    This book is a survey of methods used in the study of two-dimensional models in quantum field theory as well as applications of these theories in physics. It covers the subject since the first model, studied in the fifties, up to modern developments in string theories, and includes exact solutions, non-perturbative methods of study, and nonlinear sigma models.

  15. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Black-Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, Chiara R.; Pasquinucci, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    We explore the thermodynamics of a general class of two dimensional dilatonic black-holes. A simple prescription is given that allows us to compute the mass, entropy and thermodynamic potentials, with results in agreement with those obtained by other methods, when available.

  16. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...

  17. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the

  18. Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.

    1988-06-01

    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.

  19. Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.

  20. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r

  1. Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Claude E.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)

  2. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal regi

  3. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  4. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  5. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells: Two-Dimensional Approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sabu

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  6. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  7. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  8. Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t

  9. Two Dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2016-01-01

    We study two-dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity from the Hamiltonian point of view. We determine constraints structure with emphasis on the careful separation of the second class constraints and global first class constraints. We determine number of physical degrees of freedom and also discuss gauge fixing of the global first class constraints.

  10. Localization of Tight Closure in Two-Dimensional Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamran Divaani-Aazar; Massoud Tousi

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that tight closure commutes with localization in any two-dimensional ring of prime characteristic if either is a Nagata ring or possesses a weak test element. Moreover, it is proved that tight closure commutes with localization at height one prime ideals in any ring of prime characteristic.

  11. Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Preneel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.

  12. New directions in science and technology: two-dimensional crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A H Castro [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Novoselov, K, E-mail: phycastr@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: konstantin.novoselov@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Graphene is possibly one of the largest and fastest growing fields in condensed matter research. However, graphene is only one example in a large class of two-dimensional crystals with unusual properties. In this paper we briefly review the properties of graphene and look at the exciting possibilities that lie ahead.

  13. Boundary-value problems for two-dimensional canonical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; De Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The two-dimensional canonical system Jy' = -lHy where the nonnegative Hamiltonian matrix function H(x) is trace-normed on (0,∞) has been studied in a function-theoretic way by L. de Branges. We show that the Hamiltonian system induces a closed symmetric relation which can be reduced to a, not necess

  14. Dislocation climb in two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dislocation climb is incorporated in a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Calculations are carried out for polycrystalline thin films, passivated on one or both surfaces. Climb allows dislocations to escape from dislocation pile-ups and reduces the strain-hardening r

  15. SAR Processing Based On Two-Dimensional Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Jin, Michael Y.; Curlander, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Exact transfer function, ETF, is two-dimensional transfer function that constitutes basis of improved frequency-domain-convolution algorithm for processing synthetic-aperture-radar, SAR data. ETF incorporates terms that account for Doppler effect of motion of radar relative to scanned ground area and for antenna squint angle. Algorithm based on ETF outperforms others.

  16. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  17. Confined two-dimensional fermions at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    De Francia, M; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M; De Francia, M; Falomir, H; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M

    1995-01-01

    We introduce the chemical potential in a system of two-dimensional massless fermions, confined to a finite region, by imposing twisted boundary conditions in the Euclidean time direction. We explore in this simple model the application of functional techniques which could be used in more complicated situations.

  18. Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059

  19. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  20. Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or

  1. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  2. Spontaneous emission in two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the radiation field in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with and without a microcavity introduced are investigated through the concept of the position-dependent photon density of states. The position-dependent rate of spontaneous radiative decay for a two-level atom with random...

  3. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  4. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  5. Two-dimensional manifold with point-like defects

    CERN Document Server

    Gani, Vakhid A; Rubin, Sergei G

    2014-01-01

    We study a class of two-dimensional extra spaces isomorphic to the $S^2$ sphere in the framework of the multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.

  6. Instability of two-dimensional heterotic stringy black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Azreg-Ainou, M

    1999-01-01

    We solve the eigenvalue problem of general relativity for the case of charged black holes in two-dimensional heterotic string theory, derived by McGuigan et al. For the case of $m^{2}>q^{2}$, we find a physically acceptable time-dependent growing mode; thus the black hole is unstable. The extremal case $m^{2}=q^{2}$ is stable.

  7. Two Dimensional Tensor Product B-Spline Wavelet Scaling Functions for the Solution of Two-Dimensional Unsteady Diffusion Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Lei; LI haijiao; ZHANG Lewen

    2008-01-01

    The fourth-order B spline wavelet scaling functions are used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation. The calculations from a case history indicate that the method provides high accuracy and the computational efficiency is enhanced due to the small matrix derived from this method.The respective features of 3-spline wavelet scaling functions, 4-spline wavelet scaling functions and quasi-wavelet used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation are compared. The proposed method has potential applications in many fields including marine science.

  8. A theoretical study on the electronic property of a new two-dimensional material molybdenum dinitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Haiping, E-mail: mrhpwu@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Qian, Yan, E-mail: qianyan@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Ruifeng; Tan, Weishi [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Motivated by the recent synthesis of bulk MoN{sub 2} which exhibits the layered structure just like the bulk MoS{sub 2}, the monolayered MoN{sub 2} exfoliated from the bulk counterpart is investigated systematically by using density-functional calculations in this work. The result shows that the ground-state two-dimensional monolayered MoN{sub 2} behaves as an indirect band gap semiconductor with the energy gap of ∼0.12 eV. Subsequently, the external strain from −6% to 6% is employed to engineer the band structure, and the energy gap can be efficiently tuned from 0 to 0.70 eV. Notably, when the strain is beyond 5% or −3%, the two-dimensional monolayered MoN{sub 2} would transfer from an indirect band gap to a direct band gap semiconductor. This work introduces a new member of two-dimensional transition-metal family, which is important for industry applications, especially for the utilization in the long-wavelength infrared field. - Highlights: • The 2D MoN{sub 2} behaves as an indirect band gap semiconductor with the energy gap of ∼0.12 eV. • The energy gap can be efficiently tuned from 0 to 0.70 eV by small strain. • The band gap would transfer from an indirect to a direct one when the strain is beyond 5% or −3%.

  9. A further experiment on two-dimensional decaying turbulence on a rotating sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoden, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Geophysics; Ishioka, K.; Yamada, M. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate Schoool of Mathematical Sciences; Hayashi, Y.-Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Div. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1999-12-01

    A series of numerical experiments on the two-dimensional decaying turbulence is performed for a non-divergent barotropic fluid on a rotating sphere by using a high-resolution spectral model. Time variations of the energy spectrum and the flow field are highly dependent on the rotation rate. In non-rotational cases, isolated coherent vortices emerge in the course of time development as in the planar two-dimensional turbulence. As the rotation rate increases, however, the evolution of the flow field charges drastically, and a westward circumpolar vortex appears in high-latitudes as well as zonal band structures in mid- and low-latitudes. The dependence of these features on the initial energy spectrum is investigated and the dynamics of such pattern formulations is discussed.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  11. Two-Dimensional Electronic Excitations in Self-Assembled Conjugated Polymer Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österbacka, R.; An, C. P.; Jiang, X. M.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2000-02-01

    Several spectroscopic methods were applied to study the characteristic properties of the electronic excitations in thin films of regioregular and regiorandom polythiophene polymers. In the regioregular polymers, which form two-dimensional lamellar structures, increased interchain coupling strongly influences the traditional one-dimensional electronic properties of the polymer chains. The photogenerated charge excitations (polarons) show two-dimensional delocalization that results in a relatively small polaronic energy, multiple absorption bands in the gap where the lowest energy band becomes dominant, and associated infrared active vibrations with reverse absorption bands caused by electron-vibration interferences. The relatively weak absorption bands of the delocalized polaron in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges may help to achieve laser action in nanocrystalline polymer devices using current injection.

  12. Anisotropic States of Two-Dimensional Electrons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettouhami, A. M.; Doiron, C. B.; Klironomos, F. D.; Côté, R.; Dorsey, Alan T.

    2006-05-01

    We study the collective states formed by two-dimensional electrons in Landau levels of index n≥2 near half filling. By numerically solving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for a set of oblique two-dimensional lattices, we find that the stripe state is an anisotropic Wigner crystal (AWC), and determine its precise structure for varying values of the filling factor. Calculating the elastic energy, we find that the shear modulus of the AWC is small but finite (nonzero) within the HF approximation. This implies, in particular, that the long-wavelength magnetophonon mode in the stripe state vanishes like q3/2 as in an ordinary Wigner crystal, and not like q5/2 as was found in previous studies where the energy of shear deformations was neglected.

  13. TELBE - the super-radiant THz facility at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Bertram; Kovalev, Sergei; Hauser, Jens; Kuntzsch, Michael; Schneider, Harald; Winnerl, Stephan; Seidel, Wolfgang; Zvyagin, Sergei; Lehnert, Ulf; Helm, Manfred; Michel, Peter; Gensch, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Al-Shemmary, Alaa; Radu, Ilie; Stojanovic, Nikola; Cavalleri, Andrea [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Wall, Simon [FHI Berlin (Germany); Eng, Lukas M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Heberle, Joachim [FU Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown recently that relativistic electron bunches can be utilized for the generation of super-radiant coherent THz radiation by one single pass through an undulator, bending magnet, or CDR/CTR screens. However, the high THz fields have all been achieved at large accelerators that allow for high electron beam energies. A crucially important research topic for the next years at the HZDR is therefore to investigate whether an equally fine control over highly charged electron bunch form can be routinely achieved in a low electron beam energy accelerator like ELBE. If successful this development would allow the generation of high field THz fields by linear accelerators at considerably reduced cost. Given stable operation can be provided, TELBE, could also become a world-wide unique research facility for high field THz science. The current status and an outlook on future developments are presented.

  14. Coexistence of two dissipative mechanisms in two-dimensional turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Romain Nguyen van [FB Mathematik und Informatik, Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Farge, Marie [LMD-CNRS-IPSL, ENS Paris (France); Schneider, Kai, E-mail: rnguyen@zedat.fu-berlin.de [M2P2-CNRS, Universite d' Aix-Marseille (France)

    2011-12-22

    Two distinct dissipative mechanisms occurring in two-dimensional fully developed turbulent flows in the limit of vanishing viscosity have been highlighted by means of direct numerical simulation. First, molecular energy dissipation is triggered by the production of localized vortices at the walls. Second, instabilities intrinsic to the flow itself generate a noisy component which can be quantified by wavelet analysis. The possibilities of competition and coexistence of the two mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  16. Graphene as a Prototypical Model for Two-Dimensional Continuous Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lambin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a few problems where continuous-medium theory specialized to two-dimensional media provides a qualitatively correct picture of the mechanical behavior of graphene. A critical analysis of the parameters involved is given. Among other results, a simple mathematical description of a folded graphene sheet is proposed. It is also shown how the graphene–graphene adhesion interaction is related to the cleavage energy of graphite and its C 33 bulk elastic constant.

  17. On t-local solvability of inverse scattering problems in two-dimensional layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The solvability of two-dimensional inverse scattering problems for the Klein-Gordon equation and the Dirac system in a time-local formulation is analyzed in the framework of the Galerkin method. A necessary and sufficient condition for the unique solvability of these problems is obtained in the form of an energy conservation law. It is shown that the inverse problems are solvable only in the class of potentials for which the stationary Navier-Stokes equation is solvable.

  18. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications.

  19. Measurement of the Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Cocchi, Eugenio; Drewes, Jan; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Koehl, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly-correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions, 0 constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Majorana lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata

    2017-07-01

    We study interacting Majorana fermions in two dimensions as a low-energy effective model of a vortex lattice in two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. For that purpose, we implement ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation to the Majorana fermion system in which the path-integral measure is given by a semipositive Pfaffian. We discuss spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry at finite temperatures.

  1. Two dimensional soft material: new faces of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemyung; Cote, Laura J; Huang, Jiaxing

    2012-08-21

    Graphite oxide sheets, now called graphene oxide (GO), can be made from chemical exfoliation of graphite by reactions that have been known for 150 years. Because GO is a promising solution-processable precursor for the bulk production of graphene, interest in this old material has resurged. The reactions to produce GO add oxygenated functional groups to the graphene sheets on their basal plane and edges, and this derivatization breaks the π-conjugated network, resulting in electrically insulating but highly water-dispersible sheets. Apart from making graphene, GO itself has many intriguing properties. Like graphene, GO is a two-dimensional (2D) sheet with feature sizes at two abruptly different length scales. The apparent thickness of the functionalized carbon sheet is approximately 1 nm, but the lateral dimensions can range from a few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, researchers can think of GO as either a single molecule or a particle, depending on which length scale is of greater interest. At the same time, GO can be viewed as an unconventional soft material, such as a 2D polymer, highly anisotropic colloid, membrane, liquid crystal, or amphiphile. In this Account, we highlight the soft material characteristics of GO. GO consists of nanographitic patches surrounded by largely disordered, oxygenated domains. Such structural characteristics effectively make GO a 2D amphiphile with a hydrophilic periphery and largely hydrophobic center. This insight has led to better understanding of the solution properties of GO for making thin films and new applications of GO as a surfactant. Changes in pH and sheet size can tune the amphiphilicity of GO, leading to intriguing interfacial activities. In addition, new all-carbon composites made of only graphitic nanostructures using GO as a dispersing agent have potential applications in photovoltaics and energy storage. On the other hand, GO can function as a 2D random diblock copolymer, one block graphitic and

  2. A Novel Infrared Radiant Glaze Exhibiting Antibacterialand Antifungal Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Infrared radiant powder was synthesized by conventional ceramic processing techniques by using Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, Co2O3 and kaolin as raw materials. A novel infrared radiant glaze was developed by introducing the infrared radiant powder into glazing as a functional additive. Infrared radiant characteristics of the powder and the glaze were investigated. The optimum content of infrared radiant powder in glazing was ascertained to be 5%. The infrared radiant glaze exhibits significant antibacterial and antifungal functions due to the thermal effect of infrared radiation. Antibacterial percentages of the glaze reach 91%-100% when Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis are used as model bacterium respectively, while antifungal percentage of the glaze exceeds 95% when Penicillum citrinum is used as model fungus.

  3. Role of the radiation-reaction force in the optical response of two-dimensional crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A classical theory of a radiating two-dimensional crystal is proposed and an expression for the radiative-reaction force is derived. It is shown how this force, acting on the dipoles forming the material, induces a flow of energy away from the dipole vibrations into radiative electromagnetic energy. As conservation of energy requires, the time-average work per unit time and unit area done by the radiation-reaction force is negative and equal in absolute value to the time-average intensity radiated by the crystal.

  4. The separation of whale myoglobins with two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, G S

    1988-10-01

    Five myoglobins (sperm whale, Sei whale, Hubbs' beaked whale, pilot whale, and Amazon River dolphin) were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Previous reports indicated that none of these proteins could be separated by using denaturing (in the presence of 8-9 M urea) isoelectric focusing. This result is confirmed in the present study. However, all the proteins could be separated by using denaturing nonequilibrium pH-gradient electrophoresis in the first dimension. Additionally, all the myoglobins have characteristic mobilities in the second dimension (sodium dodecyl sulfate), but these mobilities do not correspond to the molecular weights of the proteins. We conclude that two-dimensional electrophoresis can be more sensitive to differences in primary protein structure than previous studies indicate and that the assessment seems to be incorrect that this technique can separate only proteins that have a unit charge difference.

  5. Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A

    2015-09-18

    To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.

  6. The Persistence Problem in Two-Dimensional Fluid Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Perlekar, Prasad; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter {\\Lambda} to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with a universal exponent {\\theta} = 3.1 \\pm 0.2.

  7. On Dirichlet eigenvectors for neutral two-dimensional Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Miclo, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a general class of discrete, two-dimensional Markov chains modeling the dynamics of a population with two types, without mutation or immigration, and neutral in the sense that type has no influence on each individual's birth or death parameters. We prove that all the eigenvectors of the corresponding transition matrix or infinitesimal generator \\Pi\\ can be expressed as the product of "universal" polynomials of two variables, depending on each type's size but not on the specific transitions of the dynamics, and functions depending only on the total population size. These eigenvectors appear to be Dirichlet eigenvectors for \\Pi\\ on the complement of triangular subdomains, and as a consequence the corresponding eigenvalues are ordered in a specific way. As an application, we study the quasistationary behavior of finite, nearly neutral, two-dimensional Markov chains, absorbed in the sense that 0 is an absorbing state for each component of the process.

  8. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter's troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equi...

  9. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used...... for prediction purposes. However, we suggest that life insurance companies use the estimation technique and the cross-validation for bandwidth selection when analyzing their portfolio mortality. The non-parametric approach may give valuable information prior to developing more sophisticated prediction models...

  10. Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao

    2006-01-01

    The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.

  11. Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.

  12. Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjit MUSIK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.

  13. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  14. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  15. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  16. Two-dimensional magnetostriction under vector magnetic characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, D.; Enokizono, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional magnetostriction of electrical steel sheet under vector magnetic characteristic. In conventional measurement method using Single Sheet Tester, the magnetic flux density, the magnetic field strength, and the magnetostriction have been measured in one direction. However, an angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector exists because the magnetic property is vector quantity. An angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the direction of maximum magnetostriction also exists. We developed a new measurement method, which enables measurement of these angles. The vector magnetic characteristic and the two-dimensional magnetostriction have been measured using the new measurement method. The BH and Bλ curves considering the angles are shown in this paper. The analyzed results considering the angles are also made clear.

  17. Phase separation under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwata, H

    2001-05-01

    The spinodal decomposition of a two-dimensional binary fluid under Poiseuille flow is studied by numerical simulation. We investigated time dependence of domain sizes in directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow. In an effective region of the flow, the power-law growth of a characteristic length in the direction parallel to the flow changes from the diffusive regime with the growth exponent alpha=1/3 to a new regime. The scaling invariance of the growth in the perpendicular direction is destroyed after the diffusive regime. A recurrent prevalence of thick and thin domains which determines log-time periodic oscillations has not been observed in our model. The growth exponents in the infinite system under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow are obtained by the renormalization group.

  18. Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.

  19. Enstrophy inertial range dynamics in generalized two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We show that the transition to a k-1 spectrum in the enstrophy inertial range of generalized two-dimensional turbulence can be derived analytically using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovianized (EDQNM) closure. The governing equation for the generalized two-dimensional fluid system includes a nonlinear term with a real parameter α . This parameter controls the relationship between the stream function and generalized vorticity and the nonlocality of the dynamics. An asymptotic analysis accounting for the overwhelming dominance of nonlocal triads allows the k-1 spectrum to be derived based upon a scaling analysis. We thereby provide a detailed analytical explanation for the scaling transition that occurs in the enstrophy inertial range at α =2 in terms of the spectral dynamics of the EDQNM closure, which extends and enhances the usual phenomenological explanations.

  20. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  1. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  2. Two-dimensional model of elastically coupled molecular motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Wei; Wen Shu-Tang; Chen Gai-Rong; Li Yu-Xiao; Cao Zhong-Xing; Li Wei

    2012-01-01

    A flashing ratchet model of a two-headed molecular motor in a two-dimensional potential is proposed to simulate the hand-over-hand motion of kinesins.Extensive Langevin simulations of the model are performed.We discuss the dependences of motion and efficiency on the model parameters,including the external force and the temperature.A good qualitative agreement with the expected behavior is observed.

  3. Conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding center plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1972-01-01

    The Kubo method is used to calculate the electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional, strongly magnetized plasma. The particles interact through (logarithmic) electrostatic potentials and move with their guiding center drift velocities (Taylor-McNamara model). The thermal equilibrium dc conductivity can be evaluated analytically, but the ac conductivity involves numerical solution of a differential equation. Both conductivities fall off as the inverse first power of the magnetic field strength.

  4. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  5. Cryptography Using Multiple Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a symmetric key block cipher cryptosystem is proposed, involving multiple two-dimensional chaotic maps and using 128-bits external secret key. Computer simulations indicate that the cipher has good diffusion and confusion properties with respect to the plaintext and the key. Moreover, it produces ciphertext with random distribution. The computation time is much less than previous related works. Theoretic analysis verifies its superiority to previous cryptosystems against different types of attacks.

  6. A UNIVERSAL VARIATIONAL FORMULATION FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL FLUID MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉欢

    2001-01-01

    A universal variational formulation for two dimensional fluid mechanics is obtained, which is subject to the so-called parameter-constrained equations (the relationship between parameters in two governing equations). By eliminating the constraints, the generalized variational principle (GVPs) can be readily derived from the formulation. The formulation can be applied to any conditions in case the governing equations can be converted into conservative forms. Some illustrative examples are given to testify the effectiveness and simplicity of the method.

  7. Extraction of plant proteins for two-dimensional electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, Fabienne

    1988-01-01

    Three different extraction procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of plant proteins are compared: (i) extraction of soluble proteins with a nondenaturing Tris-buffer, (ii) denaturing extraction in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated temperature allowing the solubilization of membrane proteins in addition to a recovery of soluble proteins, and (iii) a trichloroacetic acid-acetone procedure allowing the direct precipitation of total proteins.

  8. Lyapunov Computational Method for Two-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Mabrouk, Anouar Ben

    2010-01-01

    A numerical method is developed leading to Lyapunov operators to approximate the solution of two-dimensional Boussinesq equation. It consists of an order reduction method and a finite difference discretization. It is proved to be uniquely solvable and analyzed for local truncation error for consistency. The stability is checked by using Lyapunov criterion and the convergence is studied. Some numerical implementations are provided at the end of the paper to validate the theoretical results.

  9. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra

    2012-08-01

    Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.

  10. А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.

  11. Chronology Protection in Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mishima, T; Mishima, Takashi; Nakamichi, Akika

    1994-01-01

    The global structure of 1 + 1 dimensional compact Universe is studied in two-dimensional model of dilaton gravity. First we give a classical solution corresponding to the spacetime in which a closed time-like curve appears, and show the instability of this spacetime due to the existence of matters. We also observe quantum version of such a spacetime having closed timelike curves never reappear unless the parameters are fine-tuned.

  12. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  13. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175

    2009-01-01

    We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  14. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Krivonos, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756[hep-th], with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written it terms of the oscillator variables.

  15. Multiple Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F

    1992-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of {\\it multiple} $q=2,3,4$ state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the $c>1$ region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for $c>1$. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for $c>1$.

  16. Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    1992-07-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.

  17. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama

    2005-06-01

    We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.

  18. Thermal diode from two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen

    2011-06-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising models consisting of two weakly coupled dissimilar segments, coupled to heat baths with different temperatures at the two ends, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The heat rectifying effect, namely asymmetric heat conduction, is clearly observed. The underlying mechanisms are the different temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity κ at two dissimilar segments and the match (mismatch) of flipping frequencies of the interface spins.

  19. Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.

  20. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.