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Sample records for two-dimensional magnetic lattice

  1. Dynamic Effective Medium Theory for Two-Dimensional Non-Magnetic Metamaterial Lattices using Multipole Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Chremmos, Ioannis; Giamalaki, Melpomeni; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a formulation for deriving effective medium properties of infinitely periodic two-dimensional metamaterial lattice structures beyond the static and quasi-static limits. We utilize the multipole expansions, where the polarization currents associated with the supported Bloch modes are expressed via the electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole moments per unit length. We then propose a method to calculate the Bloch modes based on the lattice geometry and individual unit element structure. The results revert to well-known formulas in the quasistatic limit and are useful for the homogenization of nanorod-type metamaterials which are frequently used in optical applications.

  2. Quantum spin liquid and magnetic order in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice: Considering the distorted kagome lattice of volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Li Ern; Hwang, Kyusung; Mizoguchi, Tomonari; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-07-01

    The Kagome-lattice-based material, volborthite, Cu3V2O7(OH) 2.2 H2O , has been considered as a promising platform for discovery of unusual quantum ground states due to the frustrated nature of spin interaction. We explore possible quantum spin liquid and magnetically ordered phases in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice, which is described by the plane group p 2 g g , consistent with the spatial anisotropy of the spin model derived from density functional theory (DFT) for volborthite. Using the projective symmetry group (PSG) analysis and Schwinger boson mean field theory, we classify possible spin liquid phases with bosonic spinons and investigate magnetically ordered phases connected to such states. It is shown, in general, that only translationally invariant mean field spin liquid ansatzes are allowed in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattices. We study the mean field phase diagram of the DFT-derived spin model and find that possible quantum spin liquid phases are connected to two types of magnetically ordered phases, a coplanar incommensurate (q ,0 ) spiral order as the ground state and a closely competing coplanar commensurate (π ,π ) spin density wave order. In addition, periodicity enhancement of the two-spinon continuum, a consequence of symmetry fractionalization, is found in the spin liquid state connected to the (π ,π ) spin density wave order. We discuss relevance of these results to recent and future experiments on volborthite.

  3. Magnetic properties of two dimensional silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes-based kagome lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaowei [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Zhou Jian [Peking University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Qian, E-mail: qianwang2@pku.edu.cn [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) magnetic kagome lattices are constructed using silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes (SiC-TNFs). Two types of structures with alternating Si and C atoms are studied: the first one is constructed using the C-edged SiC-TNFs as the building blocks and C atoms as the linkers of kagome sites (TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N}) while the second one is composed of the Si-edged SiC-TNFs with Si atoms as linkers (TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N}). Using density functional theory-based calculations, we show that the fully relaxed TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N} retains the morphology of regular kagome lattice and is ferromagnetism. On the other hand, the TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure is deformed and antiferromagnetic. However, the ground state of TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure can be transformed from the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state by applying tensile strain. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the SiC-TNFs-based kagome lattices can be ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  4. Ground State and Collective Modes of Magnetic Dipoles Fixed on Two-Dimensional Lattice Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, John; Kalman, Gabor; Hartmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2006-10-01

    In complex (dusty) plasmas the grains may be endowed with intrinsic dipole moments. We present here our results of theoretical calculations accompanied by and Molecular Dynamics simulation findings on the ground state configuration and on the collective modes mode spectrum of a system of magnetic dipoles, interacting via the magnetic dipole pair-dipole potential, fixed on two-dimensional (2D) lattice sites. In particular, we We study a family of lattices that can be characterized by two parameters: (parallelogram)---the aspect ratio, c/a, and the rhombic angle, phi. The The new collective modes of in the system associated with the dipole-dipole interaction are the angular oscillations (or wobbling) of the direction of the dipoles about their equilibrium configurations. We identify in-plane and out-of-plane modes and display their dispersions. Orders of magnitudes of the parameters of the system relevant to possible future experiments will be discussed. JD Feldmann, G J Kalman and M Rosenberg, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4549-4553

  5. Partition function for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field-A heuristic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The exact partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model pertaining to square lattices is derived for N sites in the case of a non-vanishing magnetic field.When the magnetic field is zero,the partition functions estimated from the present analysis are identical with those arising from Onsager's exact solution.

  6. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  7. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  8. Partition Function for Two-Dimensional Nearest Neighbour Ising Model in a Non-Zero Magnetic Field for a Square Lattice of 16 Sites

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An explicit expression for the partition function of two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising models in the presence of a magnetic field is derived by a systematic enumeration of all the spin configurations pertaining to a square lattice of sixteen sites. The critical temperature is shown to be in excellent agreement with the reported values while the corresponding dimensionless magnetic field is obtained as 0.004.

  9. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  10. Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.

  11. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  12. Two-dimensional chiral topological superconductivity in Shiba lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Wang, Zhijun; MacDonald, A. H.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The chiral p-wave superconductor is the archetypal example of a state of matter that supports non-Abelian anyons, a highly desired type of exotic quasiparticle. With this, it is foundational for the distant goal of building a topological quantum computer. While some candidate materials for bulk chiral superconductors exist, they are subject of an ongoing debate about their actual paring state. Here we propose an alternative route to chiral superconductivity, consisting of the surface of an ordinary superconductor decorated with a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic impurities. We furthermore identify a promising experimental platform to realize this proposal.

  13. Magnetic phases of the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 on a triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We have carried out Cu,6563 NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 45 T on a single crystal of a multiferroic triangular antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The measurements were performed for magnetic fields aligned along the crystal c axis. Field and temperature evolution of the spectral shape demonstrates a number of phase transitions. It was found that the 3D magnetic ordering takes place in the low field range (H ≲15 T). At higher fields magnetic structures form within individual triangular planes whereas the spin directions of the magnetic ions from neighboring planes are not correlated. It is established that the 2D-3D transition is hysteretic in field and temperature. Line-shape analysis reveals several possible magnetic structures existing within individual planes for different phases of CuCrO2. Within certain regions on the magnetic H -T phase diagram of CuCrO2 a 3D magnetic ordering with tensor order parameter is expected.

  14. Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.

  15. Two dimensional axisymmetric smooth lattice Ricci flow

    CERN Document Server

    Brewin, Leo

    2015-01-01

    A lattice based method will be presented for numerical investigations of Ricci flow. The method will be applied to the particular case of 2-dimensional axially symmetric initial data on manifolds with S^2 topology. Results will be presented that show that the method works well and agrees with results obtained using contemporary finite difference methods.

  16. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2002-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  17. Pseudo-two-dimensional random dimer lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naether, U., E-mail: naether@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mejía-Cortés, C.; Vicencio, R.A. [Departamento de Física and MSI – Nucleus for Advanced Optics, Center for Optics and Photonics (CEFOP), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-05

    We study the long-time wave transport in correlated and uncorrelated disordered 2D arrays. When a separation of dimensions is applied to the model, we find that the previously predicted 1D random dimer phenomenology also appears in so-called pseudo-2D arrays. Therefore, a threshold behavior is observed in terms of the effective size for eigenmodes, as well as in long-time dynamics. A minimum system size is required to observe this threshold, which is very important when considering a possible experimental realization. For the long-time evolution, we find that for correlated lattices a super-diffusive long-range transport is observed. For completely uncorrelated disorder 2D transport becomes sub-diffusive within the localization length and for random binary pseudo-2D arrays localization is observed.

  18. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  19. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  20. Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjit MUSIK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.

  1. Dielectric-barrier discharges in two-dimensional lattice potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Josiah

    2011-01-01

    We use a pin-grid electrode to introduce a corrugated electrical potential into a planar dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) system, so that the amplitude of the applied electric field has the profile of a two-dimensional square lattice. The lattice potential provides a template for the spatial distribution of plasma filaments in the system and has pronounced effects on the patterns that can form. The positions at which filaments become localized within the lattice unit cell vary with the width of the discharge gap. The patterns that appear when filaments either overfill or under-fill the lattice are reminiscent of those observed in other physical systems involving 2d lattices. We suggest that the connection between lattice-driven DBDs and other areas of physics may benefit from the further development of models that treat plasma filaments as interacting particles.

  2. Two-Dimensional Breather Lattice Solutions and Compact-Like Discrete Breathers and Their Stability in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic β-FPU Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We restrict our attention to the discrete two-dimensional monatomic β-FPU lattice. We look for twodimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers by using trying method and analyze their stability by using Aubry's linearly stable theory. We obtain the conditions of existence and stability of two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in the discrete twodimensional monatomic β-FPU lattice.

  3. Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.

  4. Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.

  5. Electronic Transmission Properties of Two-Dimensional Quasi-Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志林; 傅秀军; 刘有延

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the tight binding model, the electronic transmission properties of two-dimensional Penrose lattices with free boundary conditions are studied using the generalized eigenfunction method (Phys. Rev. B 60(1999)13444). The electronic transmission coefficients for Penrose lattices with different sizes and widths are calculated, and the result shows strong energy dependence because of the quasiperiodic structure and quantum coherent effect. Around the Fermi level E = 0, there is an energy region with zero transmission amplitudes,which suggests that the studied systems are insulating. The spatial distributions of several typical electronic states with different transmission coefficients are plotted to display the propagation process.

  6. Tensor renormalization group approach to two-dimensional classical lattice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael; Nave, Cody P

    2007-09-21

    We describe a simple real space renormalization group technique for two-dimensional classical lattice models. The approach is similar in spirit to block spin methods, but at the same time it is fundamentally based on the theory of quantum entanglement. In this sense, the technique can be thought of as a classical analogue of the density matrix renormalization group method. We demonstrate the method - which we call the tensor renormalization group method - by computing the magnetization of the triangular lattice Ising model.

  7. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  8. The characters of nonlinear vibration in the two-dimensional discrete monoatomic lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2005-01-01

    The two-dimensional discrete monoatomic lattice is analyzed. Taking nearest-neighbor interaction into account, the characters of the nonlinear vibration in two-dimensional discrete monoatomic lattice are described by the two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Considering the quartic nonlinear potential, the two-dimensional discrete-soliton trains and the solutions perturbed by the neck mode are presented.

  9. Self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a two-dimensional strongly type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Duan, Wenye; Maniv, Tsofar

    2017-01-01

    A self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a 2D strong type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields reveals a novel quantum mixed state around the semiclassical Hc 2, characterized by a well-defined Landau-Bloch band structure in the quasiparticle spectrum and suppressed order-parameter amplitude, which sharply crossover into the well-known semiclassical (Helfand-Werthamer) results upon decreasing magnetic field. Application to the 2D superconducting state observed recently on the surface of the topological insulator Sb2Te3 accounts well for the experimental data, revealing a strong type-II superconductor, with unusually low carrier density and very small cyclotron mass, which can be realized only in the strong coupling superconductor limit.

  10. Many body localization in two dimensional square and triangular lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Paredes, R

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold interacting Bose atoms placed in disordered two dimensional optical lattices with square and triangular symmetries are found to be localized above a certain disorder strength amplitude. From a Gross-Pitaevskii mean analysis we determine the localization length as a function of the disorder strength and investigate the energy spectrum in terms of the disorder magnitude. We found that the localization length is observed to decrease faster in triangular geometries than in square ones. In the presence of a harmonic confinement localization is observed at the center of the trap. The analysis of the energy spectrum reveals that discrete energy levels acquire a finite width that is always smaller than the distance among energy levels.

  11. Compact triplexer in two-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Ren; Jianping Ma; Hao Wen; Yali Qin; Zhefu Wu; Weisheng Hu; Chun Jiang; Yaohui Jin

    2011-01-01

    We design a contpact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs). A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides. Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained. The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finites-difference time-domain method. The footprint of the triplexer is about 12× 9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -4O dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device ii future fiber-to-the-home networks.%@@ We design a compact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs).A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides.Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained.The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.The footprint of the triplexer is about 12×9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -40 dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device in future fiber-to-the-home networks.

  12. Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; QIANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).

  13. Hofstadter butterfly evolution in the space of two-dimensional Bravais lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, F.; Oktel, M. Ö.

    2017-06-01

    The self-similar energy spectrum of a particle in a periodic potential under a magnetic field, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, is determined by the lattice geometry as well as the external field. Recent realizations of artificial gauge fields and adjustable optical lattices in cold-atom experiments necessitate the consideration of these self-similar spectra for the most general two-dimensional lattice. In a previous work [F. Yılmaz et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 063628 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.063628], we investigated the evolution of the spectrum for an experimentally realized lattice which was tuned by changing the unit-cell structure but keeping the square Bravais lattice fixed. We now consider all possible Bravais lattices in two dimensions and investigate the structure of the Hofstadter butterfly as the lattice is deformed between lattices with different point-symmetry groups. We model the optical lattice with a sinusoidal real-space potential and obtain the tight-binding model for any lattice geometry by calculating the Wannier functions. We introduce the magnetic field via Peierls substitution and numerically calculate the energy spectrum. The transition between the two most symmetric lattices, i.e., the triangular and the square lattices, displays the importance of bipartite symmetry featuring deformation as well as closing of some of the major energy gaps. The transitions from the square to rectangular lattice and from the triangular to centered rectangular lattices are analyzed in terms of coupling of one-dimensional chains. We calculate the Chern numbers of the major gaps and Chern number transfer between bands during the transitions. We use gap Chern numbers to identify distinct topological regions in the space of Bravais lattices.

  14. Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum of Ultracold Atoms on the Two-Dimensional Kagome Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing-Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum of ultracold atoms on the two-dimensional Kagome optical lattice under an effective magnetic field,which can be realized with laser beams.We derive the generalized Harper's equations from the Schr(o)dinger equation.The energy spectrum with a fractal band structure is obtained by numerically solving the generalized Harper's equations.We analyze the properties of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum and discuss its observability.

  15. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

  16. Tunable band topology reflected by fractional quantum Hall States in two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Liu, Zhao; Cao, Junpeng; Fan, Heng

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional lattice models subjected to an external effective magnetic field can form nontrivial band topologies characterized by nonzero integer band Chern numbers. In this Letter, we investigate such a lattice model originating from the Hofstadter model and demonstrate that the band topology transitions can be realized by simply introducing tunable longer-range hopping. The rich phase diagram of band Chern numbers is obtained for the simple rational flux density and a classification of phases is presented. In the presence of interactions, the existence of fractional quantum Hall states in both |C| = 1 and |C| > 1 bands is confirmed, which can reflect the band topologies in different phases. In contrast, when our model reduces to a one-dimensional lattice, the ground states are crucially different from fractional quantum Hall states. Our results may provide insights into the study of new fractional quantum Hall states and experimental realizations of various topological phases in optical lattices.

  17. Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Modes with Deformed Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiang-Hua; ZHENG Wan-Hua; MA Xiao-Tao; REN Gang; XIA Jian-Bai

    2005-01-01

    @@ A numerical study of the defect modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed triangular lattice is presented by using the supercell method and the finite-difference time-domain method We find the stretch or shrink of the lattice can bring the change not only on the frequencies of the defect modes but also on their magnetic field distributions. We obtain the separation of the doubly degenerate dipole modes with the change of the lattice and find that both the stretch and the shrink of the lattice can make the dipole modes separate large enough to realize the single-mode emission. These results may be advantageous to the manufacture of photonic crystal lasers and provide a new way to realize the single-mode operation in photonic crystal lasers.

  18. Long-range ferrimagnetic order in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girovsky, Jan; Nowakowski, Jan; Ali, Md. Ehesan; Baljozovic, Milos; Rossmann, Harald R.; Nijs, Thomas; Aeby, Elise A.; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Siewert, Dorota; Srivastava, Gitika; Wäckerlin, Christian; Dreiser, Jan; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Jung, Thomas A.; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2017-05-01

    Realization of long-range magnetic order in surface-supported two-dimensional systems has been challenging, mainly due to the competition between fundamental magnetic interactions as the short-range Kondo effect and spin-stabilizing magnetic exchange interactions. Spin-bearing molecules on conducting substrates represent a rich platform to investigate the interplay of these fundamental magnetic interactions. Here we demonstrate the direct observation of long-range ferrimagnetic order emerging in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice. The lattice consists of paramagnetic hexadeca-fluorinated iron phthalocyanine (FeFPc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules co-assembled into a checkerboard pattern on single-crystalline Au(111) substrates. Remarkably, the remanent magnetic moments are oriented in the out-of-plane direction with significant contribution from orbital moments. First-principles calculations reveal that the FeFPc-MnPc antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbour coupling is mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction via the Au substrate electronic states. Our findings suggest the use of molecular frameworks to engineer novel low-dimensional magnetically ordered materials and their application in molecular quantum devices.

  19. Long-range ferrimagnetic order in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girovsky, Jan; Nowakowski, Jan; Ali, Md Ehesan; Baljozovic, Milos; Rossmann, Harald R; Nijs, Thomas; Aeby, Elise A; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Siewert, Dorota; Srivastava, Gitika; Wäckerlin, Christian; Dreiser, Jan; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Oppeneer, Peter M; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2017-05-22

    Realization of long-range magnetic order in surface-supported two-dimensional systems has been challenging, mainly due to the competition between fundamental magnetic interactions as the short-range Kondo effect and spin-stabilizing magnetic exchange interactions. Spin-bearing molecules on conducting substrates represent a rich platform to investigate the interplay of these fundamental magnetic interactions. Here we demonstrate the direct observation of long-range ferrimagnetic order emerging in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice. The lattice consists of paramagnetic hexadeca-fluorinated iron phthalocyanine (FeFPc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules co-assembled into a checkerboard pattern on single-crystalline Au(111) substrates. Remarkably, the remanent magnetic moments are oriented in the out-of-plane direction with significant contribution from orbital moments. First-principles calculations reveal that the FeFPc-MnPc antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbour coupling is mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction via the Au substrate electronic states. Our findings suggest the use of molecular frameworks to engineer novel low-dimensional magnetically ordered materials and their application in molecular quantum devices.

  20. Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl

    2014-05-01

    In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.

  1. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2016-10-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a rectangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  2. Two-Dimensional Lattice Gravity as a Spin System

    CERN Document Server

    Beirl, W; Riedler, J

    1994-01-01

    Quantum gravity is studied in the path integral formulation applying the Regge calculus. Restricting the quadratic link lengths of the originally triangular lattice the path integral can be transformed to the partition function of a spin system with higher couplings on a Kagome lattice. Various measures acting as external field are considered. Extensions to matter fields and higher dimensions are discussed.

  3. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the

  4. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r

  5. Thermal diode from two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen

    2011-06-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising models consisting of two weakly coupled dissimilar segments, coupled to heat baths with different temperatures at the two ends, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The heat rectifying effect, namely asymmetric heat conduction, is clearly observed. The underlying mechanisms are the different temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity κ at two dissimilar segments and the match (mismatch) of flipping frequencies of the interface spins.

  6. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  7. Two-dimensional magnetostriction under vector magnetic characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, D.; Enokizono, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional magnetostriction of electrical steel sheet under vector magnetic characteristic. In conventional measurement method using Single Sheet Tester, the magnetic flux density, the magnetic field strength, and the magnetostriction have been measured in one direction. However, an angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector exists because the magnetic property is vector quantity. An angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the direction of maximum magnetostriction also exists. We developed a new measurement method, which enables measurement of these angles. The vector magnetic characteristic and the two-dimensional magnetostriction have been measured using the new measurement method. The BH and Bλ curves considering the angles are shown in this paper. The analyzed results considering the angles are also made clear.

  8. Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2013-01-01

    of split ring resonators and provide a quantitative comparison of measured and calculated transmission spectra at normal incidence as a function of lattice density, showing excellent agreement. We further show angle-dependent transmission calculations for circularly polarized light and compare...

  9. Piecewise parabolic negative magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron gas with triangular antidot lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budantsev, M. V., E-mail: budants@isp.nsc.ru; Lavrov, R. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Pokhabov, D. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15

    Extraordinary piecewise parabolic behavior of the magnetoresistance has been experimentally detected in the two-dimensional electron gas with a dense triangular lattice of antidots, where commensurability magnetoresistance oscillations are suppressed. The magnetic field range of 0-0.6 T can be divided into three wide regions, in each of which the magnetoresistance is described by parabolic dependences with high accuracy (comparable to the experimental accuracy) and the transition regions between adjacent regions are much narrower than the regions themselves. In the region corresponding to the weakest magnetic fields, the parabolic behavior becomes almost linear. The observed behavior is reproducible as the electron gas density changes, which results in a change in the resistance by more than an order of magnitude. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior, including so-called 'memory effects,' are discussed.

  10. Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.

  11. Two-dimensional Chern semimetals on the Lieb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Giandomenico; Meichanetzidis, Konstantinos

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose a simple model that supports Chern semimetals. These gapless topological phases share several properties with the Chern insulators like a well-defined Chern number associated with each band, topologically protected edge states and topological phase transitions that occur when the bands touch each, with linear dispersion around the contact points. The tight-binding model, defined on the Lieb lattice with intra-unit-cell and suitable nearest-neighbor hopping terms between three different species of spinless fermions, supports a single Dirac-like point. The dispersion relation around this point is fully relativistic and the 3 ×3 matrices in the corresponding effective Hamiltonian satisfy the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau algebra. We show the robustness of the topologically protected edge states by employing the entanglement spectrum. Moreover, we prove that the Chern number of the lowest band is robust with respect to weak disorder. For its simplicity, our model can be naturally implemented in real physical systems like cold atoms in optical lattices.

  12. Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, D., E-mail: david.marcos@me.com [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Widmer, P. [Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Rico, E. [IPCMS (UMR 7504) and ISIS (UMR 7006), University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Hafezi, M. [Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park 20742 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rabl, P. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Wiese, U.-J. [Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Zoller, P. [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

  13. Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases in two-dimensional square lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, J. E.; Törmä, P.

    2016-10-01

    We consider a two-component gas of fermions in optical lattices in the presence of a population imbalance within a mean-field theory. We study phase transitions from a normal gas of unpaired fermions to a superfluid phase of Bose-condensed Cooper pairs. The possibility of Cooper pairs with a nonzero centre-of-mass momentum is included, which corresponds to a so-called Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. We find that for population-imbalanced systems such states can form the ground state. The FF and LO state are compared and it is shown that actually the LO state is energetically more favourable. We complete the mean-field phase diagram for the LO phase and show that it is qualitatively in excellent agreement with recent diagrammatic Monte Carlo calculations. Subsequently, we calculate the atomic density modulations in the LO phase.

  14. Negative Dispersion of Lattice Waves in a Two-Dimensional Yukawa System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳红; 刘斌; 杨思泽; 王龙

    2002-01-01

    Collective motion modes existing in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The dispersion relations of transverse and longitudinal lattice waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the parallel longitudinal wave is demonstrated by the simulation, and is explained by a physical model.

  15. Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or

  16. Two-dimensional ion trap lattice on a microchip for quantum simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, R C; Weidt, S; Lake, K; Srinivasan, P; Webster, S C; Kraft, M; Hensinger, W K

    2013-01-01

    Using a controllable quantum system it is possible to simulate other highly complex quantum systems efficiently overcoming an in-principle limitation of classical computing. Trapped ions constitute such a highly controllable quantum system. So far, no dedicated architectures for the simulation of two-dimensional spin lattices using trapped ions in radio-frequency ion traps have been produced, limiting the possibility of carrying out such quantum simulations on a large scale. We report the operation of a two-dimensional ion trap lattice integrated in a microchip capable of implementing quantum simulations of two-dimensional spin lattices. Our device provides a scalable microfabricated architecture for trapping such ion lattices with coupling strengths between neighbouring ions sufficient to provide a powerful platform for the implementation of quantum simulations. In order to realize this device we developed a specialist fabrication process that allows for the application of very large voltages. We fabricated ...

  17. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  18. Magnetization of two-dimensional superconductors with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kashurnikov, V A; Zyubin, M V

    2002-01-01

    The new method for modeling the layered high-temperature superconductors magnetization with defects, based on the Monte-Carlo algorithm, is developed. Minimization of the free energy functional of the vortex two-dimensional system made it possible to obtain the equilibrium vortex density configurations and calculate the magnetization of the superconductor with the arbitrary defects distribution in the wide range of temperatures. The magnetic induction profiles and magnetic flux distribution inside the superconductor, proving the applicability of the Bean model, are calculated

  19. Creating tuneable microwave media from a two-dimensional lattice of re-entrant posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    The potential capabilities of resonators based on two dimensional arrays of re-entrant posts is demonstrated. Such posts may be regarded as magnetically coupled lumped element microwave harmonic oscillators, arranged in a 2D lattices structure, which is enclosed in a 3D cavity. By arranging these elements in certain 2D patterns, we demonstrate how to achieve certain requirements with respect to field localisation and device spectra. Special attention is paid to symmetries of the lattices, mechanical tuning, design of areas of high localisation of magnetic energy; this in turn creates unique discrete mode spectra. We demonstrate analogies between systems designed on the proposed platform and well known physical phenomena such as polarisation, frustration, and Whispering Gallery Modes. The mechanical tunability of the cavity with multiple posts is analysed, and its consequences to optomechanical applications is calculated. One particular application to quantum memory is demonstrated with a cavity design consisting of separate resonators analogous to discrete Fabry-Pérot resonators. Finally, we propose a generalised approach to a microwave system design based on the concept of Programmable Cavity Arrays.

  20. Creating tuneable microwave media from a two-dimensional lattice of re-entrant posts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-11-28

    The potential capabilities of resonators based on two dimensional arrays of re-entrant posts is demonstrated. Such posts may be regarded as magnetically coupled lumped element microwave harmonic oscillators, arranged in a 2D lattices structure, which is enclosed in a 3D cavity. By arranging these elements in certain 2D patterns, we demonstrate how to achieve certain requirements with respect to field localisation and device spectra. Special attention is paid to symmetries of the lattices, mechanical tuning, design of areas of high localisation of magnetic energy; this in turn creates unique discrete mode spectra. We demonstrate analogies between systems designed on the proposed platform and well known physical phenomena such as polarisation, frustration, and Whispering Gallery Modes. The mechanical tunability of the cavity with multiple posts is analysed, and its consequences to optomechanical applications is calculated. One particular application to quantum memory is demonstrated with a cavity design consisting of separate resonators analogous to discrete Fabry–Pérot resonators. Finally, we propose a generalised approach to a microwave system design based on the concept of Programmable Cavity Arrays.

  1. Tunable spin wave spectra in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with varying lattice symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, R.; Barman, S.; Saha, S.; Barman, A., E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Otani, Y. [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Ferromagnetic antidot lattices are important systems for magnetic data storage and magnonic devices, and understanding their magnetization dynamics by varying their structural parameters is an important problems in magnetism. Here, we investigate the variation in spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with lattice symmetry. By varying the bias magnetic field values in a broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer, we observed a stark variation in the spin wave spectrum with the variation of lattice symmetry. The simulated mode profiles showed further difference in the spatial nature of the modes between different lattices. While for square and rectangular lattices extended modes are observed in addition to standing spin wave modes, all modes in the hexagonal, honeycomb, and octagonal lattices are either localized or standing waves. In addition, the honeycomb and octagonal lattices showed two different types of modes confined within the honeycomb (octagonal) units and between two such consecutive units. Simulated internal magnetic fields confirm the origin of such a wide variation in the frequency and spatial nature of the spin wave modes. The tunability of spin waves with the variation of lattice symmetry is important for the design of future magnetic data storage and magnonic devices.

  2. Quantum search on the two-dimensional lattice using the staggered model with Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, R.; Fernandes, T. D.

    2017-04-01

    Quantum search on the two-dimensional lattice with one marked vertex and cyclic boundary conditions is an important problem in the context of quantum algorithms with an interesting unfolding. It avails to test the ability of quantum walk models to provide efficient algorithms from the theoretical side and means to implement quantum walks in laboratories from the practical side. In this paper, we rigorously prove that the recent-proposed staggered quantum walk model provides an efficient quantum search on the two-dimensional lattice, if the reflection operators associated with the graph tessellations are used as Hamiltonians, which is an important theoretical result for validating the staggered model with Hamiltonians. Numerical results show that on the two-dimensional lattice staggered models without Hamiltonians are not as efficient as the one described in this paper and are, in fact, as slow as classical random-walk-based algorithms.

  3. Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.

  4. Properties of the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice with interlayer coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löw

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of the two-dimensional S=1/2 (quantum antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice with and without interlayer coupling are studied by means of a continuous Euclidean time Quantum Monte-Carlo algorithm. The internal energy, the magnetic susceptibility and the staggered magnetization are determined in the full temperature range. For the two-dimensional system the ground-state energy/bond is found to be E0hc=-0.36303(13, and the zero temperature staggered magnetization mst=0.2681(8. For coupled planes of honeycomb systems a phase transition from an ordered phase to a disordered phase is found at T/J=0.695(10.

  5. Two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion H- in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of H- in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  6. Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, Henrike; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Neshev, Dragomir N; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Pertsch, Thomas; Peschel, Ulf; Lederer, Falk

    2006-02-10

    We report on the first experimental observation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional periodic systems. We study the propagation of an optical beam in a square lattice superimposed on a refractive index ramp. We observe oscillations of the beam inside the first Brilloin zone and tunneling of light from the first to the higher-order bands of the lattice band gap spectrum.

  7. Topological phase transitions driven by next-nearest-neighbor hopping in two-dimensional lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugeling, W.; Everts, J.C.; de Morais Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    For two-dimensional lattices in a tight-binding description, the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, acting as a complex next-nearest-neighbor hopping, opens gaps that exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. In this paper, we study the effect of a real next-nearest-neighbor hopping term on the band structu

  8. Lattice gas dynamics: application to driven vortices in two dimensional superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcheva, Violeta; Wang, Albert T J; Teitel, S

    2004-06-18

    A continuous time Monte Carlo lattice gas dynamics is developed to model driven steady states of vortices in two dimensional superconducting networks. Dramatic differences are found when compared to a simpler Metropolis dynamics. Subtle finite size effects are found at low temperature, with a moving smectic that becomes unstable to an anisotropic liquid on sufficiently large length scales.

  9. Dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional lattice at non-zero temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Louise G.; Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We examine density-ordered and superfluid phases of fermionic dipoles in a two-dimensional square lattice at nonzero temperature. The critical temperature of the density-ordered phases is determined and is shown to be proportional to the coupling strength for strong coupling. We calculate...

  10. Lattice Methods for Pricing American Strangles with Two-Dimensional Stochastic Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to extend the lattice method proposed by Ritchken and Trevor (1999 for pricing American options with one-dimensional stochastic volatility models to the two-dimensional cases with strangle payoff. This proposed method is compared with the least square Monte-Carlo method via numerical examples.

  11. Quantum computing via defect states in two-dimensional antidot lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-12-01

    We propose a new structure suitable for quantum computing in a solid-state environment: designed defect states in antidot lattices superimposed on a two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. State manipulation can be obtained with gate control. Model calculations indicate that it is feasible to fabricate structures whose energy level structure is robust against thermal dephasing.

  12. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  13. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    We compute the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy within two-dimensional Rashba models. For a ferromagnetic free-electron Rashba model, the magnetic anisotropy is exactly zero regardless of the strength of the Rashba coupling, unless only the lowest band is occupied. For this latter case, the model predicts in-plane anisotropy. For a more realistic Rashba model with finite band width, the magnetic anisotropy evolves from in-plane to perpendicular and back to in-plane as bands are progressively filled. This evolution agrees with first-principles calculations on the interfacial anisotropy, suggesting that the Rashba model captures energetics leading to anisotropy originating from the interface provided that the model takes account of the finite Brillouin zone. The results show that the electron density modulation by doping or an external voltage is more important for voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy than the modulation of the Rashba parameter.

  14. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model. II The triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2016-12-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a triangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  15. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model, III. The hexagonal lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2017-02-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a hexagonal lattice which has the particular feature that need four types of dynamical variables. This example shows additional features to the general procedure and some extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  16. Magnetic reconnection in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, S; Matthaeus, W H; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Dmitruk, P

    2009-03-20

    Systematic analysis of numerical simulations of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence reveals the presence of a large number of X-type neutral points where magnetic reconnection occurs. We examine the statistical properties of this ensemble of reconnection events that are spontaneously generated by turbulence. The associated reconnection rates are distributed over a wide range of values and scales with the geometry of the diffusion region. Locally, these events can be described through a variant of the Sweet-Parker model, in which the parameters are externally controlled by turbulence. This new perspective on reconnection is relevant in space and astrophysical contexts, where plasma is generally in a fully turbulent regime.

  17. On two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, two theoretical approaches for the calculation of the rate of quasi-stationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform anomalous resistivity are considered in the framework of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In the first, 'global' equations approach, the MHD equations are approximately solved for a whole reconnection layer, including the upstream and downstream regions and the layer center. In the second, 'local' equations approach, the equations are solved across the reconnection layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. Both approaches give the same approximate answer for the reconnection rate. Our theoretical model is in agreement with the results of recent simulations of reconnection with spatially nonuniform resistivity.

  18. Two-dimensional Talbot self-imaging via Electromagnetically induced lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Wang, Wei; Ahmed, Irfan; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Mahesar, Abdul Rasheed; Xiao, Min

    2017-02-01

    We propose a lensless optical method for imaging two-dimensional ultra-cold atoms (or molecules) in which the image can be non-locally observed by coincidence recording of entangled photon pairs. In particular, we focus on the transverse and longitudinal resolutions of images under various scanning methods. In addition, the role of the induced nonmaterial lattice on the image contrast is investigated. Our work shows a non-destructive and lensless way to image ultra-cold atoms or molecules that can be further used for two-dimensional atomic super-resolution optical testing and sub-wavelength lithography.

  19. Tuning of band gaps for a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal with a rectangular lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yize Wang; Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Kikuo Kishimoto; Wenhu Huang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the elastic wave propagation in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal is studied by considering the mechanic-electric coupling. The gener-alized eigenvalue equation is obtained by the relation of the mechanic and electric fields as well as the Bloch-Floquet the-orem. The band structures of both the in-plane and anti-plane modes are calculated for a rectangular lattice by the plane-wave expansion method. The effects of the lattice constant ratio and the piezoelectricity with different filling fractions are analyzed. The results show that the largest gap width is not always obtained for a square lattice. In some situations, a rectangular lattice may generate larger gaps. The band gap characteristics are influenced obviously by the piezoelectric-ity with the larger lattice constant ratios and the filling frac-tions.

  20. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  1. Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-09-15

    We study numerically and experimentally magnetic metamaterials based on cut-wire pairs instead of split-ring resonators. The cut-wire pair planar structure is extended in order to create a truly two-dimensional metamaterial suitable for scaling to optical frequencies. We fabricate the cut-wire metamaterial operating at microwave frequencies with lattice spacing around 10% of the free-space wavelength, and find good agreement with direct numerical simulations. Unlike the structures based on split-ring resonators, the nearest-neighbor coupling in cut-wire pairs can result in a magnetic stop-band with propagation in the transverse direction.

  2. Periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic breathers in two-dimensional discrete β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Using numerical method,we investigate whether periodic,quasiperiodic,and chaotic breathers are supported by the two-dimensional discrete Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice with linear dispersion term.The spatial profile and time evolution of the two-dimensional discrete β-FPU lattice are segregated by the method of separation of variables,and the numerical simulations suggest that the discrete breathers (DBs) are supported by the system.By introducing a periodic interaction into the linear interaction between the atoms,we achieve the coupling of two incommensurate frequencies for a single DB,and the numerical simulations suggest that the quasiperiodic and chaotic breathers are supported by the system,too.

  3. Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to $0.890\\pm0.001$. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated phot...

  4. The mean field study of phase transitions in two dimensional Kagome lattice under local anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mortezapour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this work we investigated the critical properties of the anti-ferromagnetic XY model on a two dimensional Kagome lattice under single-ion easy-axes anisotropy. Employing the mean field theory, we found that this model shows a second order phase transition from disordered to all-in all-out state for any value of anisotropy.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Majorana lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata

    2017-07-01

    We study interacting Majorana fermions in two dimensions as a low-energy effective model of a vortex lattice in two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. For that purpose, we implement ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation to the Majorana fermion system in which the path-integral measure is given by a semipositive Pfaffian. We discuss spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry at finite temperatures.

  6. Closed-form evaluation of two-dimensional static lattice sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, S.; Drygas, P.; Mityushev, V.

    2016-11-01

    Closed-form formulae for the conditionally convergent two-dimensional (2D) static lattice sums S2 (for conductivity) and T2 (for elasticity) are deduced in terms of the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind. The obtained formulae yield asymptotic analytical formulae for the effective tensors of 2D composites with circular inclusions up to the third order in concentration. Exact relations between S2 and T2 for different lattices are established. In particular, the value S2=π for the square and hexagonal arrays is discussed and T2=π/2 for the hexagonal is deduced.

  7. Competitive irreversible random one-, two-, three-, . . . point adsorption on two-dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.; Nord, R. S.

    1985-02-01

    An analytic treatment of competitive, irreversible (immobile) random one-, two-, three-, . . . point adsorption (or monomer, dimer, trimer, . . . filling) on infinite, uniform two-dimensional lattices is provided by applying previously developed truncation schemes to the hierarchial form of the appropriate master equations. The behavior of these processes for two competing species is displayed by plotting families of ``filling trajectories'' in the partial-coverage plane for various ratios of adsorption rates. The time or coverage dependence of various subconfiguration probabilities can also be analyzed. For processes where no one-point (monomer) adsorption occurs, the lattice cannot fill completely; accurate estimates of the total (and partial) saturation coverages can be obtained.

  8. Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Yang, Jianke; Musslimani, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optically induced waveguide array are reported. In the strong localization regime, the fundamental soliton is largely confined to one lattice site, while the vortex state comprises of four fundamental modes superimposed in a square configuration with a phase structure that is topologically equivalent to the conventional vortex. However, in the weak localization regime, both the fundamental and vortex solitons spread over many lattice sites. We further show that fundamental and vortex solitons are stable against small perturbations in the strong localization regime.

  9. Configurational entropy of a set of dipoles placed on a two-dimensional lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammig Quiña, P. L.; Irurzun, I. M.; Mola, E. E.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we calculate the configurational entropy of an arbitrary number of dipoles placed on a square lattice. We use a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) space to capture the main features determining the occupation statistics of this system. We show that our result is in agreement with both, lattice-gas predictions at low coverages and the exact value derived in the close-packed limit as well. Therefore our equation provides a substantial improvement to the most recent calculations based on semiempirical models and Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Heteroepitaxial growth modes with dislocations in a two-dimensional elastic lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Hiroyasu; Uwaha, Makio; Saito, Yukio

    2008-11-01

    We study equilibrium shapes of adsorbate crystals by allowing a possibility of dislocations on an elastic substrate in a two-dimensional lattice model. The ground state energy is calculated numerically with the use of an elastic lattice Green's function. From the equilibrium shapes determined for various coverages, we infer the growth mode. As the misfit parameter increases, the growth mode changes from the Frank-van der Merwe (FM) to the Stranski-Krastanov (SK), further to the FM with dislocations for a parameter range of ordinary semiconductor materials. Conceivable growth modes such as the SK with dislocations appear in a parameter range between the SK and the FM with dislocations.

  11. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  12. Boundaries determine the formation energies of lattice defects in two-dimensional buckled materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sandeep K.; Juričić, Vladimir; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2016-07-01

    Lattice defects are inevitably present in two-dimensional materials, with direct implications on their physical and chemical properties. We show that the formation energy of a lattice defect in buckled two-dimensional crystals is not uniquely defined as it takes different values for different boundary conditions even in the thermodynamic limit, as opposed to their perfectly planar counterparts. Also, the approach to the thermodynamic limit follows a different scaling: inversely proportional to the logarithm of the system size for buckled materials, rather than the usual power-law approach. In graphene samples of ˜1000 atoms, different boundary conditions can cause differences exceeding 10 eV. Besides presenting numerical evidence in simulations, we show that the universal features in this behavior can be understood with simple bead-spring models. Fundamentally, our findings imply that it is necessary to specify the boundary conditions for the energy of the lattice defects in the buckled two-dimensional crystals to be uniquely defined, and this may explain the lack of agreement in the reported values of formation energies in graphene. We argue that boundary conditions may also have an impact on other physical observables such as the melting temperature.

  13. The focusing effect of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals with gradually varying lattice constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bakhshi Garmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.

  14. Designing artificial two dimensional electron lattice on metal surface: a Kagome-like lattice as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua

    2016-07-07

    Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.

  15. Dispersion of guided modes in two-dimensional split ring lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Lunnemann, Per

    2014-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical point-dipole method that uses Ewald lattice summation to find the dispersion relation of guided plasmonic and bianisotropic modes in metasurfaces composed of 2D periodic lattices of arbitrarily strongly scattering magneto-electric dipole scatterers. This method takes into account all retarded electrodynamic interactions as well as radiation damping selfconsistently. As illustration we analyze the dispersion of plasmon nanorod lattices, and of 2D split ring resonator lattices. Plasmon nanorod lattices support transverse and longitudinal in-plane electric modes. Scatterers that have an in-plane electric and out-of-plane magnetic polarizability, but without intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling, result in two bands that are mixtures of the bands of electric-only and magnetic-only lattices. Thereby bianisotropy through mutual coupling, in absence of building-block bianisotropy, is evident. Once strong bi-anisotropy is included in each building block, the Bloch modes become even more stro...

  16. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  17. Theoretical and numerical investigation of HF elastic wave propagation in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, B.; Tian, B. Y.; Aubry, D.

    2013-12-01

    The elastic wave propagation phenomena in two-dimensional periodic beam lattices are studied by using the Bloch wave transform. The numerical modeling is applied to the hexagonal and the rectangular beam lattices, in which, both the in-plane (with respect to the lattice plane) and out-of-plane waves are considered. The dispersion relations are obtained by calculating the Bloch eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. The frequency bandgaps are observed and the influence of the elastic and geometric properties of the primitive cell on the bandgaps is studied. By analyzing the phase and the group velocities of the Bloch wave modes, the anisotropic behaviors and the dispersive characteristics of the hexagonal beam lattice with respect to the wave propagation are highlighted in high frequency domains. One important result presented herein is the comparison between the first Bloch wave modes to the membrane and bending/transverse shear wave modes of the classical equivalent homogenized orthotropic plate model of the hexagonal beam lattice. It is shown that, in low frequency ranges, the homogenized plate model can correctly represent both the in-plane and out-of-plane dynamic behaviors of the beam lattice, its frequency validity domain can be precisely evaluated thanks to the Bloch modal analysis. As another important and original result, we have highlighted the existence of the retropropagating Bloch wave modes with a negative group velocity, and of the corresponding "retro-propagating" frequency bands.

  18. Tunable spin wave dynamics in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanodot lattices by varying dot shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahato, Bipul Kumar; Rana, Bivas; Kumar, Dheeraj; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sugimoto, Satoshi [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Otani, YoshiChika [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate tunable spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanodot lattices by varying dot shape. A single collective mode in elliptical dot lattices transforms into three distinct modes for the half-elliptical, rectangular, and diamond dot lattices, albeit with different peak frequencies and intensities. A drastic change is observed for the triangular dots, where eight modes covering a broad band are observed. Using micromagnetic simulations, we characterized the modes as different localized, extended, and quantized modes, whose frequencies and spatial profiles are determined by a combination of internal field profiles within the nanodots and the stray magnetic field within the lattice.

  19. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.

  20. Quantum State Transfer in a Two-dimensional Regular Spin Lattice of Triangular Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Miki, Hiroshi; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Quantum state transfer in a triangular domain of a two-dimensional, equally-spaced, spin lat- tice with non-homogeneous nearest-neighbor couplings is analyzed. An exact solution of the one- excitation dynamics is provided in terms of 2-variable Krawtchouk orthogonal polynomials that have been recently defined. The probability amplitude for an excitation to transit from one site to another is given. For some values of the parameters, perfect transfer is shown to take place from the apex of the lattice to the boundary hypotenuse.

  1. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Peng-Jen Chen; Horng-Tay Jeng

    2016-01-01

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications ...

  2. Hamiltonian dynamics of the two-dimensional lattice {phi}{sup 4} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiani, Lando [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA/ISAS), Trieste (Italy); Casetti, Lapo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Unita di Ricerca del Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Pettini, Marco [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy)

    1998-04-17

    The Hamiltonian dynamics of the classical {phi}{sup 4} model on a two-dimensional square lattice is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The macroscopic observables are computed as time averages. The results clearly reveal the presence of the continuous phase transition at a finite energy density and are consistent both qualitatively and quantitatively with the predictions of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The Hamiltonian microscopic dynamics also exhibits critical slowing down close to the transition. Moreover, the relationship between chaos and the phase transition is considered, and interpreted in the light of a geometrization of dynamics. (author)

  3. Restoration of supersymmetry in two-dimensional SYM with sixteen supercharges on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giguère, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We perform lattice simulations of two-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with sixteen supercharges with a lattice action which has two exact supercharges (Sugino lattice action). According to the gauge/gravity duality, the theory at finite temperature is expected to be well described by the corresponding black 1-branes, at low temperature in the large N limit. We aim to confirm the duality conjecture by comparing the lattice results with the theoretical predictions obtained in the gravity side. In this article, at the beginning of this study, we examine the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identity to test whether the lattice action reproduces the correct continuum theory. Numerical results of the SUSY WTI strongly suggest us that any cut-off effects, which break supersymmetry, disappear in the continuum limit. In addition, we study the issue of degenerate vacua and find that the admissiblilty condition or any other constraints of the link fields which guarantee the unique vacuum are not always needed.

  4. Restoration of supersymmetry in two-dimensional SYM with sixteen supercharges on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giguère, Eric [Department of Physics, University of Hokkaido,Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kadoh, Daisuke [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK),Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-05-18

    We perform lattice simulations of two-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with sixteen supercharges with a lattice action which has two exact supercharges (Sugino lattice action). According to the gauge/gravity duality, the theory at finite temperature is expected to be well described by the corresponding black 1-branes, at low temperature in the large N limit. We aim to confirm the duality conjecture by comparing the lattice results with the theoretical predictions obtained in the gravity side. In this article, at the beginning of this study, we examine the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identity to test whether the lattice action reproduces the correct continuum theory. Numerical results of the SUSY WTI strongly suggest us that any cut-off effects, which break supersymmetry, disappear in the continuum limit. In addition, we study the issue of degenerate vacua and find that the admissiblilty condition or any other constraints of the link fields which guarantee the unique vacuum are not always needed.

  5. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  6. Hydration of an apolar solute in a two-dimensional waterlike lattice fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pretti, M

    2005-05-01

    In a previous work, we investigated a two-dimensional lattice-fluid model, displaying some waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The model, defined on a triangular lattice, is now extended to aqueous solutions with apolar species. Water molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three equivalent bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. The insertion of inert molecules displays typical signatures of hydrophobic hydration: large positive transfer free energy, large negative transfer entropy (at low temperature), strong temperature dependence of the transfer enthalpy and entropy, i.e., large (positive) transfer heat capacity. Model properties are derived by a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster.

  7. Entanglement entropy for a Maxwell field: Numerical calculation on a two dimensional lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy (EE) for a Maxwell field in 2+1 dimensions. We do numerical calculations in two dimensional lattices. This gives a concrete example of the general results of our recent work on entropy for lattice gauge fields using an algebraic approach. To evaluate the entropies we extend the standard calculation methods for the entropy of Gaussian states in canonical commutation algebras to the more general case of algebras with center and arbitrary numerical commutators. We find that while the entropy depends on the details of the algebra choice, mutual information has a well defined continuum limit. We study several universal terms for the entropy of the Maxwell field and compare with the case of a massless scalar field. We find some interesting new phenomena: An "evanescent" logarithmically divergent term in the entropy with topological coefficient which does not have any correspondence with ultraviolet entanglement in the universal quantities, and a non standard way in which strong subaddi...

  8. Competitive irreversible random one-, two-, three-,. point adsorption on two-dimensional lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.W.; Nord, R.S.

    1985-02-15

    An analytic treatment of competitive, irreversible (immobile) random one-, two-, three-, . . . point adsorption (or monomer, dimer, trimer, . . . filling) on infinite, uniform two-dimensional lattices is provided by applying previously developed truncation schemes to the hierarchial form of the appropriate master equations. The behavior of these processes for two competing species is displayed by plotting families of ''filling trajectories'' in the partial-coverage plane for various ratios of adsorption rates. The time or coverage dependence of various subconfiguration probabilities can also be analyzed. For processes where no one-point (monomer) adsorption occurs, the lattice cannot fill completely; accurate estimates of the total (and partial) saturation coverages can be obtained.

  9. Spin superconductivity in the frustrated two-dimensional antiferromagnet in the square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    We use the SU(2) Schwinger boson formalism to study the spin transport in the two-dimensional S = 1 / 2 frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a square lattice, considering the second-neighbors interactions in the diagonal. We have obtained a spin superfluid behavior for the spin transport to this system similar to obtained recently to the triangular lattice. We consider an antiferromagnetic inter-chain coupling on the diagonal, J2 > 0 , and the nearest-neighbor coupling antiferromagnetic J1 > 0 . We also have in the critical temperature T0, where the correlation length ξ → 0 , that the system suffers a transition from an ordered ground state to a disordered ground state.

  10. Vector meson masses in two-dimensional SU(NC) lattice gauge theory with massive quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jun-Qin

    2008-01-01

    Using an improved lattice Hamiltonian with massive Wilson quarks a variational method is applied to study the dependence of the vector meson mass Mv on the quark mass m and the Wilson parameter r in in the scaling window 1 ≤ 1/g2 ≤ 2, Mv/g is approximately linear in m, but Mv/g obviously does not depend on r (this differs from the quark condensate). Particularly for m → 0 our numerical results agree very well with Bhattacharya's analytical strong coupling result in the continuum, and the value of ((e)Mv/(e)m) |mm=0 in two-dimensional SU(NC) lattice gauge theory is very close to that in Schwinger model.

  11. Two-dimensional-lattice spin models with long-range antiferromagnetic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.

    1991-10-01

    We consider a classical system, consisting of m-component unit vectors (m=2,3), associated with a two-dimensional lattice \\{uk||k∈openZ2\\} and interacting via translationally and rotationally invariant antiferromagnetic pair potentials of the long-range form W=Wjk=ɛ||xj-xk||-puj.uk, p>2, where ɛ is a positive quantity, setting energy and temperature scales (i.e., T*=kBT/ɛ), and xk are the coordinates of the lattice sites. A spin-wave approach predicts orientational disorder (in the thermodynamic limit) at all finite temperatures and for all p>2 this agrees with available rigorous results for p>=4, whereas no such theorems are known in the literature when 22.

  12. Piezoelectricity in two-dimensional materials: Comparative study between lattice dynamics and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K. H.; ćakır, D.; Sevik, C.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-03-01

    The elastic constant C11 and piezoelectric stress constant e1 ,11 of two-dimensional (2D) dielectric materials comprising h-BN, 2 H -MoS2 , and other transition-metal dichalcogenides and dioxides are calculated using lattice dynamical theory. The results are compared with corresponding quantities obtained with ab initio calculations. We identify the difference between clamped-ion and relaxed-ion contributions with the dependence on inner strains which are due to the relative displacements of the ions in the unit cell. Lattice dynamics allows us to express the inner-strain contributions in terms of microscopic quantities such as effective ionic charges and optoacoustical couplings, which allows us to clarify differences in the piezoelectric behavior between h-BN and MoS2. Trends in the different microscopic quantities as functions of atomic composition are discussed.

  13. Conical wave propagation and diffraction in two-dimensional hexagonally packed granular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C; Kevrekidis, P G; Ablowitz, M J; Ma, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear mechanisms for conical wave propagation in two-dimensional lattices are explored in the realm of phononic crystals. As a prototypical example, a statically compressed granular lattice of spherical particles arranged in a hexagonal packing configuration is analyzed. Upon identifying the dispersion relation of the underlying linear problem, the resulting diffraction properties are considered. Analysis both via a heuristic argument for the linear propagation of a wave packet and via asymptotic analysis leading to the derivation of a Dirac system suggests the occurrence of conical diffraction. This analysis is valid for strong precompression, i.e., near the linear regime. For weak precompression, conical wave propagation is still possible, but the resulting expanding circular wave front is of a nonoscillatory nature, resulting from the complex interplay among the discreteness, nonlinearity, and geometry of the packing. The transition between these two types of propagation is explored.

  14. Identification of the dynamics of a two-dimensional grid structure using least square lattice filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Sundararajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    The basic theory of least square lattice filters and their use in identification of structural dynamics systems is summarized. Thereafter, this theory is applied to a two-dimensional grid structure made of overlapping bars. Previously, this theory has been applied to an integral beam. System identification results are presented for both simulated and experimental tests and they are compared with those predicted using finite element modelling. The lattice filtering approach works well for simulated data based on finite element modelling. However, considerable discrepancy exists between estimates obtained from experimental data and the finite element analysis. It is believed that this discrepancy is the result of inadequacies in the finite element modelling to represent the damped motion of the laboratory apparatus.

  15. Suppression of photothermal convection of microparticles in two dimensional nanoplasmonic optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chung; Yossifon, Gilad; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal convection has been a major obstacle for stable particle trapping in plasmonic optical tweezer at high optical power. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to suppress the plasmonic photothermal convection by using vanishingly small thermal expansion coefficient of water at low temperature. A simple square nanoplasmonic array is illuminated with a loosely Gaussian beam to produce a two dimensional optical lattice for trapping of micro particles. We observe stable particle trapping due to near-field optical gradient forces at elevated optical power at low temperature. In contrast, for the same optical power at room temperature, the particles are convected away from the center of the optical lattice without their accumulation. This technique will greatly increase usable optical power and enhance the trapping capability of plasmonic optical tweezer.

  16. An improvement of the lattice theory of dislocation for a two-dimensional triangular crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    The structure of dislocation in a two-dimensional triangular crystal has been studied theoretically on the basis of atomic interaction and lattice statics. The theory presented in this paper is an improvement to that published previously.Within a reasonable interaction approximation, a new dislocation equation is obtained, which remedies a fault existing in the lattice theory of dislocation. A better simplification of non-diagonal terms of the kernel is given. The solution of the new dislocation equation asymptotically becomes the same as that obtained in the elastic theory, and agrees with experimental data. It is found that the solution is formally identical with that proposed phenomenologically by Foreman et al, where the parameter can be chosen freely, but cannot uniquely determined from theory. Indeed, if the parameter in the expression of the solution is selected suitably, the expression can be well applied to describe the fine structure of the dislocation.

  17. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S.; Alet, Fabien

    2004-07-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof’ev and Svistunov [N. Prokof’ev and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)]. The algorithm is defined on the dual lattice and is formulated in terms of bond variables and can therefore be generalized to other two-dimensional models that can be formulated in terms of bond variables. We also discuss two related algorithms formulated on the direct lattice, applicable in any dimension. These latter algorithms turn out to be less efficient but of considerable intrinsic interest. We show how such algorithms quite generally can be “directed” by minimizing the probability for the worms to erase themselves. Explicit proofs of detailed balance are given for all the algorithms. In terms of computational efficiency the dual geometrical worm algorithm is comparable to well known cluster algorithms such as the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms, however, it is quite different in structure and allows for a very simple and efficient implementation. The dual algorithm also allows for a very elegant way of calculating the domain wall free energy.

  18. Bandgaps and directional properties of two-dimensional square beam-like zigzag lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, Siegen 57068 (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper we propose four kinds of two-dimensional square beam-like zigzag lattice structures and study their bandgaps and directional propagation of elastic waves. The band structures are calculated by using the finite element method. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane waves are investigated simultaneously via the three-dimensional Euler beam elements. The mechanism of the bandgap generation is analyzed by studying the vibration modes at the bandgap edges. The effects of the geometry parameters of the xy- and z-zigzag lattices on the bandgaps are investigated and discussed. Multiple complete bandgaps are found owing to the separation of the degeneracy by introducing bending arms. The bandgaps are sensitive to the geometry parameters of the periodic systems. The deformed displacement fields of the harmonic responses of a finite lattice structure subjected to harmonic loads at different positions are illustrated to show the directional wave propagation. An extension of the proposed concept to the hexagonal lattices is also presented. The research work in this paper is relevant to the practical design of cellular structures with enhanced vibro-acoustics performance.

  19. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a `natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang

    2001-07-01

    One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as `natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices.

  20. Analysis of Photonic Band Gaps in a Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice with Superconducting Hollow Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Valencia, B. F.; Calero, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use the plane wave expansion method to calculate photonic band structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals which consist of high-temperature superconducting hollow rods arranged in a triangular lattice. The variation of the photonic band structure with respect to both, the inner radius and the system temperature, is studied, taking into account temperatures below the critical temperature of the superconductor in the low frequencies regime and assuming E polarization of the incident light. Permittivity contrast and nontrivial geometry of the hollow rods lead to the appearance of new band gaps as compared with the case of solid cylinders. Such band gaps can be modulated by means of the inner radius and system temperature.

  1. Two-dimensional novel optical lattices with multi-well traps for cold atoms or molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfa Lu; Xianming Ji; Jianping Yin

    2006-01-01

    We propose some new schemes to constitute two-dimensional (2D) array of multi-well optical dipole traps for cold atoms (or molecules) by using an optical system consisting of a binary π-phase grating and a 2D array of rectangle microlens. We calculate the intensity distribution of each optical well in 2D array of multi-well traps and its geometric parameters and so on. The proposed 2D array of multi-well traps can be used to form novel 2D optical lattices with cold atoms (or molecules), and form various novel optical crystals with cold atoms (or molecules), or to perform quantum computing and quantum information processing on an atom chip, even to realize an array of all-optical multi-well atomic (or molecular) BoseEinstein condensates (BECs) on an all-optical integrated atom (or molecule) chip.

  2. Pair formation in Fermi systems with population imbalance in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrouni, George

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss pairing in fermionic systems in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with population imbalance. This will be done in the context of the attractive fermionic Hubbard model using the Stochastic Green Function algorithm in d=1 while for d=2 we use Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo. This is the first exact QMC study examining the effects of finite temperature which is very important in experiments on ultra-cold atoms. Our results show that, in the ground state, the dominant pairing mechanism is at nonzero center of mass momentum, i.e. FFLO. I will then discuss the effect of finite temperature in the uniform and confined systems and present finite temperature phase diagrams. The numerical results will be compared with experiments. With M. J. Wolak (CQT, National University of Singapore) and V. G. Rousseau (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University).

  3. Duality and Fisher zeros in the two-dimensional Potts model on a square lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Marco; Canfora, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    A phenomenological approach to the ferromagnetic two-dimensional (2D) Potts model on square lattice is proposed. Our goal is to present a simple functional form that obeys the known properties possessed by the free energy of the q-state Potts model. The duality symmetry of the 2D Potts model together with the known results on its critical exponent α allows us to fix consistently the details of the proposed expression for the free energy. The agreement of the analytic ansatz with numerical data in the q=3 case is very good at high and low temperatures as well as at the critical point. It is shown that the q>4 cases naturally fit into the same scheme and that one should also expect a good agreement with numerical data. The limiting q=4 case is shortly discussed.

  4. Magnon Breakdown in a Two Dimensional Triangular Lattice Heisenberg Antiferromagnet of Multiferroic LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joosung; Le, Manh Duc; Jeong, Jaehong; Lee, Jung-hyun; Woo, Hyungje; Song, Wan-Young; Perring, T. G.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Cheong, S.-W.; Park, Je-Geun

    2013-12-01

    The breakdown of magnons, the quasiparticles of magnetic systems, has rarely been seen. By using an inelastic neutron scattering technique, we report the observation of spontaneous magnon decay in multiferroic LuMnO3, a simple two dimensional Heisenberg triangular lattice antiferromagnet, with large spin S=2. The origin of this rare phenomenon lies in the nonvanishing cubic interaction between magnons in the spin Hamiltonian arising from the noncollinear 120° spin structure. We observed all three key features of the nonlinear effects as theoretically predicted: a rotonlike minimum, a flat mode, and a linewidth broadening, in our inelastic neutron scattering measurements of single crystal LuMnO3. Our results show that quasiparticles in a system hitherto thought of as “classical” can indeed break down.

  5. Magnon breakdown in a two dimensional triangular lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet of multiferroic LuMnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joosung; Le, Manh Duc; Jeong, Jaehong; Lee, Jung-hyun; Woo, Hyungje; Song, Wan-Young; Perring, T G; Buyers, W J L; Cheong, S-W; Park, Je-Geun

    2013-12-20

    The breakdown of magnons, the quasiparticles of magnetic systems, has rarely been seen. By using an inelastic neutron scattering technique, we report the observation of spontaneous magnon decay in multiferroic LuMnO3, a simple two dimensional Heisenberg triangular lattice antiferromagnet, with large spin S=2. The origin of this rare phenomenon lies in the nonvanishing cubic interaction between magnons in the spin Hamiltonian arising from the noncollinear 120° spin structure. We observed all three key features of the nonlinear effects as theoretically predicted: a rotonlike minimum, a flat mode, and a linewidth broadening, in our inelastic neutron scattering measurements of single crystal LuMnO3. Our results show that quasiparticles in a system hitherto thought of as "classical" can indeed break down.

  6. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  7. E and S hysteresis model for two-dimensional magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, N

    2000-01-01

    We define an effective hysteresis model of two-dimensional magnetic properties for the magnetic field analysis. Our hysteresis model is applicable to both alternating and rotating flux conditions. Moreover, we compare the calculated results with the measured ones, and verify the accuracy of this model. We can calculate iron losses in the magnetic materials exactly. As a result, it is shown that the hysteresis model is generally applicable to two-dimensional magnetic properties of some kinds of magnetic materials.

  8. Studies of two-dimensional MoGe superconductors in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitulnik, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Yazdani, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Urbach, J.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); White, W.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Beasley, M.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1994-03-01

    The H-T phase diagram of two-dimensional amorphous MoGe superconductors is studied near H[sub c2] and near the melting line of the vortex lattice. Good agreement with the lowest Landau level approximation is found for the broadening of the specific heat in a field. We also find that melting of the vortex lattice can be observed only on short enough length scales, shorter than the disorder-mediated lattice correlation length. (orig.)

  9. Robustness and breakup of the spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice network of neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The robustness and breakup of spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice networks of neurons are investigated. The effect of small- world type connection is often simplified with local regular connection and the long-range connection with certain probability. The network effect on the development of spiral wave can be better described by local regular connection and changeable long-range connection probability than fixed long-range connection probability because the long-range probability could be changeable in realistic biological system. The effect from the changeable probability for long-range connection is simplified by multiplicative noise. At first, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed by using appropriate initial values, parameters and no-flux boundary conditions, and then the effect of networks is investigated. Extensive numerical studies show that spiral wave keeps its alive and robust when the intensity of multiplicative noise is below a certain threshold, otherwise, the breakup of spiral wave occurs. A statistical factor of synchronization in two-dimensional array is defined to study the phase transition of spiral wave by checking the membrane potentials of all neurons corresponding to the critical parameters(the intensity of noise or forcing current)in the curve for factor of synchronization. The Hindmarsh-Rose model is investigated, the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model in the presence of the channel noise is also studied to check the model independence of our conclusions. And it is found that breakup of spiral wave is easier to be induced by the multiplicative noise in presence of channel noise.

  10. Dispersion of guided modes in two-dimensional split ring lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2014-01-01

    -plane electric modes. Scatterers that have an in-plane electric and out-of-plane magnetic polarizability, but without intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling, result in two bands that are mixtures of the bands of electric-only and magnetic-only lattices. Thereby, bianisotropy through mutual coupling, in absence...... of building-block bianisotropy, is evident. Once strong bianisotropy is included in each building block, the Bloch modes become even more strongly magnetoelectric. Our results are important to understand spatial dispersion and bianisotropy of metasurface and metamaterial designs....

  11. Periodic, Quasiperiodic and Chaotic Discrete Breathers in a Parametrical Driven Two-Dimensional Discrete Klein-Gordon Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang; LUO Jun

    2009-01-01

    @@ We study a two-dimensional lattice of anharmonic oscillators with only quartic nearest-neighbor interactions, in which discrete breathers can be explicitly constructed by an exact separation of their time and space dependence. DBs can stably exist in the two-dimensional Klein-Gordon lattice with hard on-site potential. When a parametric driving term is introduced in the factor multiplying the harmonic part of the on-site potential of the system, we can obtain the stable quasiperiodic discrete breathers and chaotic discrete breathers by changing the amplitude of the driver.

  12. Evidence of two-dimensional quantum Wigner Crystal in a zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-01

    In disorder-dominated cases, Anderson localization occurs as a result of destructive interference effects caused by (short-ranged) random disorders. On the other hand, in interaction-dominated scenarios, striking manifestations of quantum physics emerge in response to strong inter-particle Coulomb energy (EC). The most prominent interaction-driven effect is the Wigner crystallization (WC) of electrons, an electron solid made up with spatially separated charges settling in a form of a lattice. The classical version of the crystallization, with the Debye temperature ΘD two-dimensional (2D) electrons on helium surfaces (EHS). However, the more desired quantum version with the Fermi energy EF <magnetic field. We present a transport study of ultra-high quality dilute two-dimensional hole (2DH) systems in a genuine interaction-driven regime. A high resolution dc VI measurement reveals a pA level threshold transport accompanied by resistivity oscillations, indicating the coexistence of a pinned quantum WC with discrete edge filaments of unpinned carriers. NSF DMR 1105183

  13. Two-dimensional inverted pendulum using repulsive magnetic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eirich, Max; Ishino, Yuji; Takasaki, Masaya; Mizuno, Takeshi [Saitama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The active control of two-degree-of-freedom motion of the repulsive levitated object (floator) is studied. In this system of permanent magnets, the vertical motions of the rotor are passively supported by repulsive forces between the permanent magnets. The inclination angle is actively stabilized using the motion control of additional magnets. (orig.)

  14. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  15. Thermodynamic magnetization of a strongly interacting two-dimensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Teneh, N.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Reznikov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report thermodynamic magnetization measurements of a 2-dimensional electron gas for several high mobility Si-MOSFETs. The low-temperature magnetization is shown to be strongly sub-linear function of the magnetic field. The susceptibility determined from the zero-field slope diverges as 1/T^{\\alpha}, with \\alpha=2.2-2.6 even at high electron densities, in apparent contradiction with the Fermi-liquid picture.

  16. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate a spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90{\\deg} bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  17. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@physics.iitd.ac.in; Joseph, Joby, E-mail: joby@physics.iitd.ac.in [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  18. Magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems and Shear viscosity and spin diffusion in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küppersbusch, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of the thesis I derive a full quantitative formula which describes the amplitude and frequency of magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems. The investigations are on the basis of graphene, but they generally also hold for other two-dimensional Dirac systems. Starting

  19. Negative refraction and imaging of acoustic waves in a two-dimensional square chiral lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    The negative refraction behavior and imaging effect for acoustic waves in a kind of two-dimensional square chiral lattice structure are studied in this paper. The unit cell of the proposed structure consists of four zigzag arms connected through a thin circular ring at the central part. The relation of the symmetry of the unit cell and the negative refraction phenomenon is investigated. Using the finite element method, we calculate the band structures and the equi-frequency surfaces of the system, and confirm the frequency range where the negative refraction is present. Due to the rotational symmetry of the unit cell, a phase difference is induced to the waves propagating from a point source through the structure to the other side. The phase difference is related to the width of the structure and the frequency of the source, so we can get a tunable deviated imaging. This kind of phenomenon is also demonstrated by the numerical simulation of two Gaussian beams that are symmetrical about the interface normal with the same incident angle, and the different negative refractive indexes are presented. Based on this special performance, a double-functional mirror-symmetrical slab is proposed for realizing acoustic focusing and beam separation.

  20. The sequence d(CGGCGGCCGC) self-assembles into a two dimensional rhombic DNA lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkadesh, S.; Mandal, P.K. [CAS in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Gautham, N., E-mail: n_gautham@hotmail.com [CAS in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first crystal structure of a four-way junction with sticky ends. {yields} Four junction structures bind to each other and form a rhombic cavity. {yields} Each rhombus binds to others to form 'infinite' 2D tiles. {yields} This is an example of bottom-up fabrication of a DNA nano-lattice. -- Abstract: We report here the crystal structure of the partially self-complementary decameric sequence d(CGGCGGCCGC), which self assembles to form a four-way junction with sticky ends. Each junction binds to four others through Watson-Crick base pairing at the sticky ends to form a rhombic structure. The rhombuses bind to each other and form two dimensional tiles. The tiles stack to form the crystal. The crystal diffracted in the space group P1 to a resolution of 2.5 A. The junction has the anti-parallel stacked-X conformation like other junction structures, though the formation of the rhombic net noticeably alters the details of the junction geometry.

  1. High applicability of two-dimensional phosphorous in Kagome lattice predicted from first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-03-16

    A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications for solar cell devices. The nearly dispersionless top valence band of the ML Kagome-P with high density of states at the Fermi level leads to superconductivity with Tc of ~9 K under the optimal hole doping concentration. We also propose that the Kagome-P can be fabricated through the manipulation of the substrate-induced strain during the process of the sample growth. Our work demonstrates the high applicability of the Kagome-P in the fields of electronics, photovoltaics, and superconductivity.

  2. Non-equilibrium relaxation in a two-dimensional stochastic lattice Lotka-Volterra model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Täuber, Uwe C.

    We employ Monte Carlo simulations to study a stochastic Lotka-Volterra model on a two-dimensional square lattice with periodic boundary conditions. There are stable states when the predators and prey coexist. If the local prey carrying capacity is finite, there emerges an extinction threshold for the predator population at a critical value of the predation rate. We investigate the non-equilibrium relaxation of the predator density in the vicinity of this critical point. The expected power law dependence between the relaxation time and predation rate is observed (critical slowing down). The numerically determined associated critical exponents are in accord with the directed percolation universality class. Following a sudden predation rate change to its critical value, one observes critical aging for the predator density autocorrelation function with a universal scaling exponent. This aging scaling signature of the absorbing state phase transition emerges at significantly earlier times than stationary critical power laws, and could thus serve as an advanced indicator of the population's proximity to its extinction threshold. This research is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-09ER46613.

  3. The two-dimensional magnetic change process of grain-oriented silicon steel under tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akihiko; Nakata, Kumi; Murashige, Shinichi

    1996-07-01

    The effect of tensile stress on the magnetization properties of silicon steel samples declined from the rolling direction has been investigated. The locus for the two-dimensional magnetization change was measured. The locus of magnetization due to magnetic field without stress was different from that under tension. The locus of magnetization with tension has two knees which correspond to the two knees of the hysteresis curve with tension. These results indicate the essential importance of investigations of the two-dimensional magnetization process.

  4. Surface Reconstruction-Induced Coincidence Lattice Formation Between Two-Dimensionally Bonded Materials and a Three-Dimensionally Bonded Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, Jos E.; Momand, Jamo; Bragaglia, Valeria; Wang, Ruining; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Kooi, Bart J.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Sb2Te3 films are used for studying the epitaxial registry between two-dimensionally bonded (2D) materials and three-dimensional bonded (3D) substrates. In contrast to the growth of 3D materials, it is found that the formation of coincidence lattices between Sb2Te3 and Si(111) depends on the geometry

  5. Fabrication of deep-profile Al-doped ZnO one- and two-dimensional lattices as plasmonic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Takayama, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report on fabrication of deep-profile one- and two-dimensional lattices made from Al-doped ZnO (AZO). AZO is considered as an alternative plasmonic material having the real part of the permittivity negative in the near infrared range. The exact position of the plasma frequency...

  6. Two-dimensional Kagome phosphorus and its edge magnetism: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guodong; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-07-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we predict a new two-dimensional phosphorus allotrope with the Kagome-like lattice(Kagome-P). It is an indirect gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.64 eV. The gap decreases sensitively with the compressive strain. In particular, shrinking the lattice beyond 13% can drive it into metallic state. In addition, both the AA and AB stacked Kagome-P multi-layer structures exhibit a bandgap much smaller than 1.64 eV. Edges in the Kagome-P monolayer probably suffer from the edge reconstruction. An isolated zigzag edge can induce antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a magnetic transition temperature of 23 K. More importantly, when applying a stretching strain beyond 4%, such an edge turns to possess a ferromagnetic ground state. A very narrow zigzag-edged Kagome-P ribbon displays the spin moment distribution similar to the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon because of the coupling between the opposites edges. But the inter-edge coupling in the Kagome-P ribbon vanishes more rapidly as the ribbon width increases. These properties make it a promising material in spintronics.

  7. Two-dimensional Kagome phosphorus and its edge magnetism: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guodong; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-06-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we predict a new two-dimensional phosphorus allotrope with the Kagome-like lattice(Kagome-P). It is an indirect gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.64 eV. The gap decreases sensitively with the compressive strain. In particular, shrinking the lattice beyond 13% can drive it into metallic state. In addition, both the AA and AB stacked Kagome-P multi-layer structures exhibit a bandgap much smaller than 1.64 eV. Edges in the Kagome-P monolayer probably suffer from the edge reconstruction. An isolated zigzag edge can induce antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a magnetic transition temperature of 23 K. More importantly, when applying a stretching strain beyond 4%, such an edge turns to possess a ferromagnetic ground state. A very narrow zigzag-edged Kagome-P ribbon displays the spin moment distribution similar to the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon because of the coupling between the opposites edges. But the inter-edge coupling in the Kagome-P ribbon vanishes more rapidly as the ribbon width increases. These properties make it a promising material in spintronics.

  8. Critical properties of a two-dimensional Ising magnet with quasiperiodic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G. A.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Alves, T. F. A.

    2016-04-01

    We address the study of quasiperiodic interactions on a square lattice by using an Ising model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions following a quasiperiodic Fibonacci sequence in both directions of a square lattice. We applied the Monte Carlo method, together with the Metropolis algorithm, to calculate the thermodynamic quantities of the system. We obtained the Edwards-Anderson order parameter qEA, the magnetic susceptibility χ , and the specific heat c in order to characterize the universality class of the phase transition. We also use the finite size scaling method to obtain the critical temperature of the system and the critical exponents β ,γ , and ν . In the low-temperature limit we obtained a spin-glass phase with critical temperature around Tc≈2.274 , and the critical exponents β ,γ , and ν , indicating that the quasiperiodic order induces a change in the universality class of the system. Also, we discovered a spin-glass ordering in a two-dimensional system which is rare and, as far as we know, the unique example is an under-frustrated Ising model.

  9. Two dimensional model of a permanent magnet spur gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Thorleif; Andersen, Torben Ole; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents calculation and measurement results of a high-performance permanent-magnetic gear. The analyzed permanent-magnetic gear has a gear ratio of 5.5 and is able to deliver 27 N/spl middot/m. The analysis has shown that special attention needs to be paid to the system where the gear...... is to be installed because of a low natural torsion spring constant. The analyzed gear was also constructed in practice in order to validate the analysis and predict the efficiency. The measured torque from the magnetic gear was only 16 N/spl middot/m reduced by the large end-effects. A systematic analysis...... of the loss components in the magnetic gear is also performed in order to figure out why the efficiency for the actual construction was only 81%. A large magnetic loss component originated in the bearings, where an unplanned extra bearing was necessary due to mechanical problems. Without the losses...

  10. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Himadri R., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  11. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    We study the effects of a synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network model. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator lattice, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the model exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterized by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points can be preserved by breaking the space-inversion symmetry. Implementing both the synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction requires a certain nonreciprocity.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of atomically thin two-dimensional magnetic iron phosphorus trisulfide (FePS3) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingzhi; Du, Kezhao; Liu, Yu Yang Fredrik; Hu, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qing; Owen, Man Hon Samuel; Lu, Xin; Gan, Chee Kwan; Sengupta, Pinaki; Kloc, Christian; Xiong, Qihua

    2016-09-01

    Metal phosphorous trichalcogenide is an important group of layered two-dimensional (2D) materials with potentially diverse applications in low-dimensional magnetic and spintronic devices. Herein we present a comprehensive investigation on the lattice dynamics and spin-phonon interactions of mechanically exfoliated atomically thin 2D magnetic material—iron phosphorus trisulfide (FePS3) by Raman spectroscopy and first principle calculations. Layer-number and temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy suggests a magnetic persistence in FePS3 even down to monolayer regime through the spin-phonon coupling, while the Néel temperature decreases from 117 K in bulk to 104 K in monolayer sample. Our studies advocate the intriguing magnetic properties in 2D crystals and suggest that FePS3 is a promising candidate material for future magnetic applications.

  13. Photonic band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xiang-Hua; Zheng Wan-Hua; Ma Xiao-Tao; Ren Gang; Xia Jian-Bai

    2005-01-01

    Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.

  14. A discussion of $Bl$ conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shisong; Huang, Songling

    2015-01-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant $h$. In watt balances, the $1/r$ magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor $Bl$ independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal $r$ and vertical $z$) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the $r$ symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the $Bl$ conservation is shown. By using either Gauss's law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the $Bl$ conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized $Bl$ conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  15. The magnetic properties of a quasi-two-dimensional spin 1 easy axis Heisenberg antiferromagnet with competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Griffith Mendonça A., E-mail: griffith_mas@hotmail.com; Pires, A.S.T.

    2014-03-15

    The Neel and collinear ordered phases of the two-dimensional S=1 antiferromagnet with next and next near neighbor exchange interactions and easy axis single ion anisotropy, on the square lattice, are studied at low temperature using a Modified Spin Wave Theory. We calculate the low-temperature quantities as a function of the temperature, frustration and anisotropy. We calculate also the phase diagram at T=0. We found a disordered phase separating the Neel and collinear phases. - Highlights: • The phase diagrams in zero temperature. • The critical temperature was studied as a function of frustration and D. • The sublattice magnetizations and the gap were studied.

  16. The Bargmann type reduction for some Lax integrable two-dimensional generalization of the relativistic Toda lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ye. Hentosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of applying the method of reducing upon finite-dimensional invariant subspaces, generated by the eigenvalues of the associated spectral problem, to some two-dimensional generalization of the relativistic Toda lattice with the triple matrix Lax type linearization is investigated. The Hamiltonian property and Lax-Liouville integrability of the vector fields, given by this system, on the invariant subspace related with the Bargmann type reduction are found out.

  17. Second-Order Phase Transition in the Two-Dimensional Classical Lattice Coulomb Gas of Half-Integer Charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗孟波; 陈庆虎; 许祝安; 焦正宽

    2001-01-01

    The second-order phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) classical Coulomb gas of half-integer charges on a square lattice is investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the finite-size scaling analysis,we estimate the second-order phase transition temperature Tc and the static critical exponents β and v with a new numerical analysis method. More precise critical temperature Tc = 0.1311(2) and critical exponents β/ν = 0.1152(12) and ν = 0.857(15) are obtained. The estimated value of ν indicates that the charge lattice melting transition is different from the pure 2D Ising transition.

  18. Absolute band gaps of a two-dimensional triangular-lattice dielectric photonic crystal with different shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Absolute band gaps of a two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal are calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method in this paper.Through calculating the photonic band structures of the triangular-lattice photonic crystal consisting of Ge rods immersed in air with different shapes,it is found that a large absolute band gap of 0.098 (2c/a) can be obtained for the structures with hollow triangular Ge rods immersed in air,corresponding to 19.8% of the middle frequency.The influence of the different factors on the width of the absolute band gaps is also discussed.

  19. Coexistence of Incommensurate Magnetism and Superconductivity in the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamase, Hiroyuki; Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter

    2016-03-04

    We analyze the competition of magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model with a moderate interaction strength, including the possibility of incommensurate spiral magnetic order. Using an unbiased renormalization group approach, we compute magnetic and superconducting order parameters in the ground state. In addition to previously established regions of Néel order coexisting with d-wave superconductivity, the calculations reveal further coexistence regions where superconductivity is accompanied by incommensurate magnetic order.

  20. Short-range magnetic order in two-dimensional cobalt-ferrite nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M; Viota, J.L.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zeijlmans Van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic order in two-dimensional islands of spherical 21 nm cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles is studied by magnetic force microscopy and spectroscopy. Images obtained at a temperature of 105 K clearly reveal the presence of repulsive and attractive areas on top of the islands. Monte Carlo

  1. Generation and enumeration of compact conformations on the two-dimensional triangular and three-dimensional fcc lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, Myron; Sen, Taner Z.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    We enumerated all compact conformations within simple geometries on the two-dimensional (2D) triangular and three-dimensional (3D) face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. These compact conformations correspond mathematically to Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits and are frequently used as simple models of proteins. The shapes that were studied for the 2D triangular lattice included m ×n parallelograms, regular equilateral triangles, and various hexagons. On the 3D fcc lattice we generated conformations for a limited class of skewed parallelepipeds. Symmetries of the shape were exploited to reduce the number of conformations. We compared surface to volume ratios against protein length for compact conformations on the 3D cubic lattice and for a selected set of real proteins. We also show preliminary work in extending the transfer matrix method, previously developed by us for the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices, to the 2D triangular lattice. The transfer matrix method offers a superior way of generating all conformations within a given geometry on a lattice by completely avoiding attrition and reducing this highly complicated geometrical problem to a simple algebraic problem of matrix multiplication.

  2. Generation and enumeration of compact conformations on the two-dimensional triangular and three-dimensional fcc lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, Myron; Sen, Taner Z; Jernigan, Robert L; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2007-07-28

    We enumerated all compact conformations within simple geometries on the two-dimensional (2D) triangular and three-dimensional (3D) face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. These compact conformations correspond mathematically to Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits and are frequently used as simple models of proteins. The shapes that were studied for the 2D triangular lattice included mxn parallelograms, regular equilateral triangles, and various hexagons. On the 3D fcc lattice we generated conformations for a limited class of skewed parallelepipeds. Symmetries of the shape were exploited to reduce the number of conformations. We compared surface to volume ratios against protein length for compact conformations on the 3D cubic lattice and for a selected set of real proteins. We also show preliminary work in extending the transfer matrix method, previously developed by us for the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices, to the 2D triangular lattice. The transfer matrix method offers a superior way of generating all conformations within a given geometry on a lattice by completely avoiding attrition and reducing this highly complicated geometrical problem to a simple algebraic problem of matrix multiplication.

  3. Giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of an individual atom on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-08-01

    Exploring magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in otherwise nonmagnetic two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, is at the heart of spintronics research. Herein, using first-principles calculations we explore the possibility of reaching an atomic-scale perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by carefully exploring the large spin-orbit coupling, orbital magnetism, and ligand field in a suitable choice of a two-dimensional structure with transition metal adatoms. More specifically, we demonstrate perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energies up to an order of 100 meV per atom in individual ruthenium and osmium adatoms at a monosulfur vacancy in molybdenum disulfide. We further propose a phenomenological model where a spin state transition that involves hybridization between molybdenum a1 and adatomic e' orbitals is a possible mechanism for magnetization reversal from an in-plane to perpendicular orientation.

  4. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of tunnelling into a two-dimensional electron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reker, T.; Chung, Y.C.; Im, H.; Klipstein, P.C.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Shtrikman, Hadas [Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2002-06-10

    Tunnelling between a three-dimensional emitter contact and a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is studied in magnetic fields aligned perpendicular to the barriers of a double-barrier heterostructure. The differential conductance around the Fermi energy exhibits a magnetic-field-dependent pseudogap. This pseudogap is shown to be thermally activated and to depend on the two-dimensional electron density. We attribute this pseudogap to an extra energy that an electron tunnelling from the emitter into the 2DES has to overcome as a result of the correlated state of the 2DES. (author)

  5. Cluster algorithm for two-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R.

    1992-03-01

    We use gauge fixing to rewrite the two-dimensional U(1) pure gauge model with Wilson action and periodic boundary conditions as a nonfrustrated XY model on a closed chain. The Wolff single-cluster algorithm is then applied, eliminating critical slowing down of topological modes and Polyakov loops.

  6. Two-Dimensional Programmable Manipulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Torti, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A novel device is designed for on-chip selective trap and two-dimensional remote manipulation of single and multiple fluid-borne magnetic particles using field controlled magnetic domain walls in circular nanostructures. The combination of different ring-shaped nanostructures and field sequences...... allows for remote manipulation of magnetic particles with high-precision along any arbitrary pathway on a chip surface....

  7. Temperature Dependence of Magnetization at Zero Applied Magnetic Field in Nearly Two Dimensional Ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Chomsin S.; Fujii, Muneaki

    2012-12-01

    NMR measurement have been made at low temperatures on the crystal structure of K2CuF4 and (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 at zero applied magnetic field. 63Cu, 65Cu and 35Cl NMR have been used to measure spontaneous magnetization at the temperature range 2 K down to 30 mK. We have made the NMR experiments using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator by conventional pulsed NMR method without external magnetic field. The magnetization at zero applied magnetic field in the nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet K2CuF4 of the experimental data is in a good agreement with Yamaji-Kondo theory and θc = 0.3, which is applied the double-time Green's function method incorporated with Tyablikov's decoupling. For temperature 1.1 K down to 0.26 K, the spontaneous magnetization of (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 is support (t log t')-formalism from the spin wave theory.

  8. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    The Halbach cylinder is a construction of permanent magnets used in applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus, accelerator magnets and magnetic cooling devices. In this paper the analytical expression for the magnetic vector potential, magnetic flux density and magnetic field for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer $p$. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero except for the case where $p$ for the inner magnet is one minus $p$ for the outer magnet. Also the force is shown never to be balancing. The torque is shown to be zero unless the inner magnet $p$ is equal to minus the outer magnet $p$. Thus there can never be a force and a torque in the same system.

  9. Design, fabrication, and characterization of lightweight and broadband microwave absorbing structure reinforced by two dimensional composite lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingji; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2012-07-01

    Microwave absorbing structures (MASs) reinforced by two dimensional (2D) composite lattice elements have been designed and fabricated. The density of these MASs is lower than 0.5 g/cm3. Experimental measurements show that the sandwich structure with glass fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) lattice core can serve as a broadband MAS with its reflectivity below -10 dB over the frequency range of 4-18 GHz. The low permittivity GFRC is indicated to be the proper material for both the structural element of the core and the transparent face sheet. Calculations by the periodic moment method (PMM) demonstrate that the 2D Kagome lattice performs better for microwave absorbing than the square one at relatively low frequencies. The volume fraction and cell size of the structural element are also revealed to be key factors for microwave absorbing performance.

  10. Analysis of two-dimensional photonic band gap structure with a rhombus lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limei Qi; Ziqiang Yang; Xi Gao; Zheng Liang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The relative band gap for a rhombus lattice photonic crystal is studied by plane wave expansion method and high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) simulation. General wave vectors in the first Briliouin zone are derived. The relative band gap as a function of air-filling factor and background material is investigated, respectively, and the nature of photonic band gap for different lattice angles is analyzed by the distribution of electric energy. These results would provide theoretical instruction for designing optical integrated devices using photonic crystal with a rhombus lattice.

  11. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer p. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero...

  12. Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlangeli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization

  13. A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, AJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2015 A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet Andries J. Groblera, Stanley Robert Holmb, and George van Schoorc a School of Electrical, Electronic...

  14. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nizhankovskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of the chemical potential of electrons in a GaAs-AlGa1−As heterojunction was measured in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T at several temperatures from 2.17 to 12.3 K. A thermodynamic equation of state of two-dimensional electron gas well describes the experimental results.

  15. Two new integrable cases of two-dimensional quantum mechanics with a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    Two integrable cases of two-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a magnetic field are proposed. Using the polar coordinates and the symmetrical gauge, we will obtain solutions of these equations through biconfluent and confluent Heun functions. The quantization rules will be derived for both systems under consideration.

  16. Two-dimensional stress—magnetization effects of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akihiko; Murashige, Shinichi; Uehara, Yuji

    1994-05-01

    Changes in the magnetization vector due to tensile stress under a constant magnetic field for grain-oriented silicon-iron sheet strip samples cut at various angles from the rolling direction have been investigated. In a low magnetic field, where the magnetization is less than 1.5 T, the magnetization vector lies in the direction of the sample length and the magnetization decreases with the application of tension. Beyond that magnetic field, the magnetization vector showed a two-dimensional hysteresis loop due to the application of tension. The maximum transverse magnetization change appeared in a 10° sample, where the rotation angle of the magnetization vector was 2.5°.

  17. Two-Dimensional Anharmonic Crystal Lattices: Solitons, Solectrons, and Electric Conduction

    OpenAIRE

    Velarde, Manuel G.; Ebeling, Werner; Chetverikov, Alexander P.

    2011-01-01

    Reported here are salient features of soliton-mediated electron transport in anharmonic crystal lattices.After recalling how an electron-soliton bound state (solectron) can be formed we comment on consequences like electron surfing on a sound wave and balistic transport, possible percolation in 2d lattices, and a novel form of electron pairing with strongly correlated electrons both in real space and momentum space.

  18. Percolation in spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on two-dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woosik; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2015-11-01

    We study the spatial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game with updates of imitation max on triangular, hexagonal, and square lattices. We use the weak prisoner's dilemma game with a single parameter b . Due to the competition between the temptation value b and the coordination number z of the base lattice, a greater variety of percolation properties is expected to occur on the lattice with the larger z . From the numerical analysis, we find six different regimes on the triangular lattice (z =6 ). Regardless of the initial densities of cooperators and defectors, cooperators always percolate in the steady state in two regimes for small b . In these two regimes, defectors do not percolate. In two regimes for the intermediate value of b , both cooperators and defectors undergo percolation transitions. The defector always percolates in two regimes for large b . On the hexagonal lattice (z =3 ), there exist two distinctive regimes. For small b , both the cooperators and the defectors undergo percolation transitions while only defectors always percolate for large b . On the square lattice (z =4 ), there exist three regimes. Combining with the finite-size scaling analyses, we show that all the observed percolation transitions belong to the universality class of the random percolation. We also show how the detailed growth mechanism of cooperator and defector clusters decides each regime.

  19. Dynamics of two-dimensional complex plasmas in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, T; Bonitz, M

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional complex plasma layer containing charged dust particles in a perpendicular magnetic field. Computer simulations of both one-component and binary systems are used to explore the equilibrium particle dynamics in the fluid state. The mobility is found to scale with the inverse of the magnetic field strength (Bohm diffusion) for strong fields. For bidisperse mixtures, the magnetic field dependence of the long-time mobility depends on the particle species providing an external control of their mobility ratio. For large magnetic fields, even a two-dimensional model porous matrix can be realized composed by the almost immobilized high-charge particles which act as obstacles for the mobile low-charge particles.

  20. Prediction of two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors: Doped monolayer MoS2 systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2013-03-05

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: monolayer MoS2 doped by transition metals. Doping of transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups results in nonmagnetic states, since the number of valence electrons is smaller or equal to that of Mo. Doping of atoms from the VIIB to IIB groups becomes energetically less and less favorable. Magnetism is observed for Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cd, and Hg doping, while for the other dopants from these groups it is suppressed by Jahn-Teller distortions. Analysis of the binding energies and magnetic properties indicates that (Mo,X)S2 (X=Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  1. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  2. Hydrogenated bilayer wurtzite SiC nanofilms: a two-dimensional bipolar magnetic semiconductor material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-01-14

    Recently, a new kind of spintronics material, bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

  3. Bloch waves in an arbitrary two-dimensional lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2016-01-01

    We study waves governed by the planar Helmholtz equation, propagating in an infinite lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers, the periodicity being comparable to the wavelength. Applying the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the scatterers are effectively replaced by asymptotic point constraints. The resulting coarse-grained Bloch-wave dispersion problem is solved by a generalised Fourier series, whose singular asymptotics in the vicinities of scatterers yield the dispersion relation governing modes that are strongly perturbed from plane-wave solutions existing in the absence of the scatterers; there are also empty-lattice waves that are only weakly perturbed. Characterising the latter is useful in interpreting and potentially designing the dispersion diagrams of such lattices. The method presented, that simplifies and expands on Krynkin & McIver [Waves Random Complex, 19 347 2009], could be applied in the future to study more sophisticated designs entailing resonant subwavelength elements di...

  4. Auxetic two-dimensional lattice with Poisson's Ratio arbitrarily close to -1

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, L

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new lattice structure having macroscopic Poisson's ratio arbitrarily close to the stability limit -1. We tested experimentally the effective Poisson's ratio of the micro-structured medium; the uniaxial test has been performed on a thermoplastic lattice produced with a 3d printing technology. A theoretical analysis of the effective properties has been performed and the expression of the macroscopic constitutive properties is given in full analytical form as a function of the constitutive properties of the elements of the lattice and on the geometry of the microstructure. The analysis has been performed on three micro-geometry leading to an isotropic behaviour for the cases of three-fold and six-fold symmetry and to a cubic behaviour for the case of four-fold symmetry.

  5. Average site perimeter of directed animals on the two-dimensional lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Bacher, Axel

    2009-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial (bijective) methods that enable us to compute the average value of three parameters of directed animals of a given area, including the site perimeter. Our results cover directed animals of any one-line source on the square lattice and its bounded variants, and we give counterparts for most of them in the triangular lattices. We thus prove conjectures by Conway and Le Borgne. The techniques used are based on Viennot's correspondence between directed animals and heaps of pieces (or elements of a partially commutative monoid).

  6. Anisotropic States of Two-Dimensional Electrons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettouhami, A. M.; Doiron, C. B.; Klironomos, F. D.; Côté, R.; Dorsey, Alan T.

    2006-05-01

    We study the collective states formed by two-dimensional electrons in Landau levels of index n≥2 near half filling. By numerically solving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for a set of oblique two-dimensional lattices, we find that the stripe state is an anisotropic Wigner crystal (AWC), and determine its precise structure for varying values of the filling factor. Calculating the elastic energy, we find that the shear modulus of the AWC is small but finite (nonzero) within the HF approximation. This implies, in particular, that the long-wavelength magnetophonon mode in the stripe state vanishes like q3/2 as in an ordinary Wigner crystal, and not like q5/2 as was found in previous studies where the energy of shear deformations was neglected.

  7. Guide modes in photonic crystal heterostructures composed of rotating non-circular air cylinders in two-dimensional lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Yun Song; Wang Fu He

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the properties of guide modes localized at the interfaces of photonic crystal (PC) heterostructures which are composed of two semi-infinite two-dimensional PCs consisting of non-circular air cylinders with different rotating angles embedded in a homogeneous host dielectric. Photonic band gap structures are calculated with the use of the plane-wave expansion method in combination with a supercell technique. We consider various configurations, for instance, rectangular (square) lattice-rectangular (square) air cylinders, and different rotating angles of the cylinders in the lattices on either side of the interface of a heterostructure. We find that the absolute gap width and the number of guide modes strongly depend on geometric and physical parameters of the heterostructures. It is anticipated that the guide modes in such heterostructures can be engineered by adjusting parameters.

  8. Normally attracting manifolds and periodic behavior in one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled map lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia

    1994-12-01

    We consider diffusively coupled logistic maps in one- and two-dimensional lattices. We investigate periodic behaviors as the coupling parameter varies, i.e., existence and bifurcations of some periodic orbits with the largest domain of attraction. Similarity and differences between the two lattices are shown. For small coupling the periodic behavior appears to be characterized by a number of periodic orbits structured in such a way to give rise to distinct, reverse period-doubling sequences. For intermediate values of the coupling a prominent role in the dynamics is played by the presence of normally attracting manifolds that contain periodic orbits. The dynamics on these manifolds is very weakly hyperbolic, which implies long transients. A detailed investigation allows the understanding of the mechanism of their formation. A complex bifurcation is found which causes an attracting manifold to become unstable.

  9. Periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic discrete breathers in a parametrical driven two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We study a two-dimensional (2D) diatomic lattice of anharmonic oscillators with only quartic nearest-neighbor interactions, in which discrete breathers (DBs) can be explicitly constructed by an exact separation of their time and space dependence. DBs can stably exist in the 2D discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice with hard and soft on-site potentials. When a parametric driving term is introduced in the factor multiplying the harmonic part of the on-site potential of the system, we can obtain the stable quasiperiodic discrete breathers (QDBs) and chaotic discrete breathers (CDBs) by changing the amplitude of the driver. But the DBs and QDBs with symmetric and anti-symmetric profiles that are centered at a heavy atom are more stable than at a light atom, because the frequencies of the DBs and QDBs centered at a heavy atom are lower than those centered at a light atom.

  10. Noise Threshold for a Fault-Tolerant Two-Dimensional Lattice Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Svore, K M; Terhal, B M; Svore, Krysta M.; Vincenzo, David P. Di; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of quantum computation in which the set of operations is limited to nearest-neighbor interactions on a 2D lattice. We model movement of qubits with noisy SWAP operations. For this architecture we design a fault-tolerant coding scheme using the concatenated [[7,1,3

  11. Programming Self-Assembly of DNA Origami Honeycomb Two-Dimensional Lattices and Plasmonic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Gaitanaros, Stavros; Lee, Seungwoo; Bathe, Mark; Shih, William M; Ke, Yonggang

    2016-06-22

    Scaffolded DNA origami has proven to be a versatile method for generating functional nanostructures with prescribed sub-100 nm shapes. Programming DNA-origami tiles to form large-scale 2D lattices that span hundreds of nanometers to the micrometer scale could provide an enabling platform for diverse applications ranging from metamaterials to surface-based biophysical assays. Toward this end, here we design a family of hexagonal DNA-origami tiles using computer-aided design and demonstrate successful self-assembly of micrometer-scale 2D honeycomb lattices and tubes by controlling their geometric and mechanical properties including their interconnecting strands. Our results offer insight into programmed self-assembly of low-defect supra-molecular DNA-origami 2D lattices and tubes. In addition, we demonstrate that these DNA-origami hexagon tiles and honeycomb lattices are versatile platforms for assembling optical metamaterials via programmable spatial arrangement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into cluster and superlattice geometries.

  12. Design of a Photonic-Crystal Channel-Drop Filter Based on the Two-Dimensional Triangular-Lattice Hole Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu; Hwan; Hwang; G.; Hugh; Song; Chanmook; Lim; Soan; Kim; Kyung-Won; Chun; Mahn; Yong; Park

    2003-01-01

    A channel-drop filter has been designed based on the two-dimensional triangular-lattice hole photonic-crystal structure, which consists of two line defects and two point defects, by a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation.

  13. Two-dimensional lattice solitons in polariton condensates with spin-orbit coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2016-01-01

    We study two-dimensional fundamental and vortex solitons in polariton condensates with spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman splitting evolving in square arrays of microcavity pillars. Due to repulsive excitonic nonlinearity such states are encountered in finite gaps in the spectrum of the periodic array. Spin-orbit coupling between two polarization components stemming from TE-TM energy splitting of the cavity photons acting together with Zeeman splitting lifts the degeneracy between vortex solitons with opposite topological charges and makes their density profiles different for a fixed energy. This results in formation of four distinct families of vortex solitons with topological charges m=+-1, all of which can be stable. At the same time, only two stable families of fundamental gap solitons characterized by domination of different polarization components are encountered.

  14. Phase diagram of the two-dimensional O(3) model from dual lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Kloiber, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin

    2016-01-01

    We have simulated the asymptotically free two-dimensional O(3) model at nonzero chemical potential using the model's dual representation. We first demonstrate how the latter solves the sign (complex action) problem. The system displays a crossover at nonzero temperature, while at zero temperature it undergoes a quantum phase transition when mu reaches the particle mass (generated dynamically similar to QCD). The density follows a square root behavior universal for repulsive bosons in one spatial dimension. We have also measured the spin stiffness, known to be sensitive to the spatial correlation length, using different scaling trajectories to zero temperature and infinite size. It points to a dynamical critical exponent z=2. Comparisons to thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze are shown as well.

  15. Photonic Weyl point in a two-dimensional resonator lattice with a synthetic frequency dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Xiao, Meng; Yuan, Luqi; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-01

    Weyl points, as a signature of 3D topological states, have been extensively studied in condensed matter systems. Recently, the physics of Weyl points has also been explored in electromagnetic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. These structures typically have complex three-dimensional geometries, which limits the potential for exploring Weyl point physics in on-chip integrated systems. Here we show that Weyl point physics emerges in a system of two-dimensional arrays of resonators undergoing dynamic modulation of refractive index. In addition, the phase of modulation can be controlled to explore Weyl points under different symmetries. Furthermore, unlike static structures, in this system the non-trivial topology of the Weyl point manifests in terms of surface state arcs in the synthetic space that exhibit one-way frequency conversion. Our system therefore provides a versatile platform to explore and exploit Weyl point physics on chip.

  16. Unconventional phases in quantum spin and pseudospin systems in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cenke

    Several examples of quantum spin systems and pseudo spin systems have been studied, and unconventional states of matters and phase transitions have been realized in all these systems under consideration. In the p +/- ip superconductor Josephson lattice and the p--band cold atomic system trapped in optical lattices, novel phases which behave similarly to 1+1 dimensional systems are realized, despite the fact that the real physical systems are in two or three dimensional spaces. For instance, by employing a spin-wave analysis together with a new duality transformation, we establish the existence and stability of a novel gapless "critical phase", which we refer to as a "bond algebraic liquid". This novel critical phase is analogous to the 1+1 dimensional algebraic boson liquid phase. The reason for the novel physics is that there is a quasilocal gauge symmetry in the effective low energy Hamiltonian. In a spin-1 system on the kagome lattice, and a hard-core boson system on the honeycomb lattice, the low energy physics is controlled by two components of compact U(1) gauge symmetries that emerge at low energy. Making use of the confinement nature of the 2+1 dimensional compact gauge theories and the powerful duality between gauge theories and height field theories, the crystalline phase diagrams are studied for both systems, and the transitions to other phases are also considered. These phase diagrams might be accessible in strongly correlated materials, or atomic systems in optical lattices. A novel quantum ground state of matter is realized in a bosonic model on three dimensional fcc lattice with emergent low energy excitations. The novel phase obtained is a stable gapless boson liquid phase, with algebraic boson density correlations. The stability of this phase is protected against the instanton effect and superfluidity by self-duality and large gauge symmetries on both sides of the duality. The gapless collective excitations of this phase closely resemble the

  17. Fabrication of deep-profile Al-doped ZnO one- and two-dimensional lattices as plasmonic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Flemming; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Takayama, Osamu; Larsen, Pernille V.; Mar, Mikkel D.; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we report on fabrication of deep-profile one- and two-dimensional lattices made from Al-doped ZnO (AZO). AZO is considered as an alternative plasmonic material having the real part of the permittivity negative in the near infrared range. The exact position of the plasma frequency of AZO is doping concentration dependent, allowing for tuning possibilities. In addition, the thickness of the AZO film also affects its material properties. Physical vapor deposition techniques typically applied for AZO coating do not enable deep profiling of a plasmonic structure. Using the atomic layer deposition technique, a highly conformal deposition method, allows us to fabricate high-aspect ratio structures such as one-dimensional lattices with a period of 400 nm and size of the lamina of 200 nm in width and 3 μm in depth. Thus, our structures have an aspect ratio of 1:15 and are homogeneous on areas of 2×2 cm2 and more. We also produce two-dimensional arrays of circular nanopillars with similar dimensions. Instead of nanopillars hollow tubes with a wall thickness on demand from 20 nm up to a complete fill can be fabricated.

  18. General model for a entanglement-enhanced composed quantum game on a two-dimensional lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Sładkowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a method of analyzing entanglement enhanced quantum games on regular lattices of agents. Our method is valid for setups with periodic and non-periodic boundary conditions. To demonstrate our approach we study two different types games, namely the prisoner's dilemma game and a cooperative Parrondo's game. In both cases we obtain results showing, that entanglement is a crucial resource necessary for the agents to achieve positive capital gain.

  19. Scaling and universality in the two-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Dudalev, Michael Yu; Bazhanov, Vladimir V; Batchelor, Murray T

    2010-06-01

    The scaling function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the square and triangular lattices is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer-matrix approach. The use of Aharony-Fisher nonlinear scaling variables allowed us to perform calculations sufficiently away from the critical point and to confirm all predictions of the scaling and universality hypotheses. Our results are in excellent agreement with quantum field theory calculations of Fonseca and Zamolodchikov as well as with many previously known exact and numerical calculations, including susceptibility results by Barouch, McCoy, Tracy, and Wu.

  20. Three-dimensional vortex solitons in quasi-two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2007-08-01

    We consider the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a quasi-2D square-lattice potential (which corresponds to the optical lattice trapping a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate, or, in some approximation, to a photonic-crystal fiber, in terms of nonlinear optics). Stable 3D solitons, with embedded vorticity S=1 and 2, are found by means of the variational approximation and in a numerical form. They are built, basically, as sets of four fundamental solitons forming a rhombus, with phase shifts piS2 between adjacent sites, and an empty site in the middle. The results demonstrate two species of stable 3D solitons, which were not studied before, viz., localized vortices ("spinning light bullets," in terms of optics) with S>1 , and vortex solitons (with any S not equal 0 ) supported by a lattice in the 3D space. Typical scenarios of instability development (collapse or decay) of unstable localized vortices are identified too.

  1. Suppression method of low-frequency noise for two-dimensional integrated magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takayuki; Sakairi, Yusuke; Mori, Akihiro; Masuzawa, Toru

    2017-04-01

    A new correlated double sampling method for two-dimensional magnetic sensors was proposed. In this method, output from a magnetic sensor is controlled by adjusting the drain bias of a MOSFET used as a Hall element. The two-dimensional integrated magnetic sensor used for the demonstration of correlated double sampling was composed of a 64 × 64 array of Hall sensors and fabricated by a 0.18 µm CMOS standard process. The size of a Hall element was 2.7 × 2.7 µm2. The dimensions of one pixel in which a Hall element was embedded were 7 × 7 µm2. The magnitude of residual noise after correlated double sampling with drain bias control was 0.81 mVp–p. This value is 16% of the original low-frequency noise. From the experimental results, the proposed correlated double sampling method is found to be suitable for low-frequency noise suppression in the two-dimensional magnetic sensors.

  2. Two-dimensional model of intrinsic magnetic flux losses in helical flux compression generators

    CERN Document Server

    Haurylavets, V V

    2012-01-01

    Helical Flux Compression Generators (HFCG) are used for generation of mega-amper current and high magnetic fields. We propose the two dimensional HFCG filament model based on the new description of the stator and armature contact point. The model developed enables one to quantitatively describe the intrinsic magnetic flux losses and predict the results of experiments with various types of HFCGs. We present the effective resistance calculations based on the non-linear magnetic diffusion effect describing HFCG performance under the strong conductor heating by currents.

  3. Boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with inhomogeneous nearest-neighbor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzola, Alessandro

    1994-11-01

    An explicit formula for the boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with a strip of inhomogeneous interactions is obtained by means of a transfer matrix mean-field method introduced by Lipowski and Suzuki. There is clear numerical evidence that the formula is exact By taking the limit where the width of the strip approaches infinity and the interactions have well defined bulk limits, I arrive at the boundary magnetization for a model which includes the Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model. The rich critical behavior of the latter magnetization is thereby rederived with little effort.

  4. Analysis of optomechanical coupling in two-dimensional square lattice phoxonic crystal slab cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jallal, Said; Oudich, Mourad; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Laude, Vincent; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Martínez, Alejandro; Escalante, José María; Makhoute, Abdelkader

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate phonon-photon interaction in cavities created in a phoxonic crystal slab constituted by a two-dimensional (2D) square array of holes in a silicon membrane. The structure without defects provides 2D band gaps for both electromagnetic and elastic waves. We consider two types of cavities, namely, an L3 cavity (a row of three holes is removed) and a cross-shape cavity, which both possess highly confined phononic and photonic localized modes suitable for enhancing their interaction. In our theoretical study, we take into account two mechanisms that contribute to optomechanical interaction, namely, the photoelastic and the interface motion effects. We show that, depending on the considered pair of photonic and phononic modes, the two mechanisms can have similar or very different magnitudes, and their contributions can be either in or out of phase. We find out that only acoustic modes with a specific symmetry are allowed to couple with photonic cavity modes. The coupling strength is quantified by two different methods. In the first method, we compute a direct estimation of coupling rates by overlap integrals, while in the second one, we analyze the temporal modulation of the resonant photonic frequency by the phonon-induced acoustic vibrational motion during one acoustic period. Interestingly, we obtain high optomechanical interaction, with the coupling rate reaching more than 2.4 MHz for some specific phonon-photon pairs.

  5. Critical Behavior of Spatial Evolutionary Game with Altruistic to Spiteful Preferences on Two-Dimensional Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2016-10-01

    Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11504384

  6. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  7. Floating zone growth and magnetic properties of Y2C two-dimensional electride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shigeki; Hirata, Kazuto; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    The floating zone method was used to obtain single crystals several mm in size of the low-temperature rhombohedral form of Y2C rather than its typical rocksalt-type cubic form. This was achieved through optimization of the chemical compositions of the starting materials with the aim of producing a two-dimensional electride material. The crystals obtained exhibited a paramagnetic temperature-dependence at 1.8-300 K, with no trace of any obvious magnetic ordering.

  8. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. ...

  9. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolov, I. V.

    2017-03-01

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.

  10. First-order phase transitions in repulsive rigid k-mers on two-dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinetti, P. M.; Romá, F.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2012-02-01

    In a previous paper [F. Romá, A. J. Ramirez-Pastor, and J. L. Riccardo, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035444 (2005)], the critical behavior of repulsive rigid rods of length k (k-mers) on a square lattice at half coverage has been studied by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The obtained results indicated that (1) the phase transition occurring in the system is a second-order phase transition for all adsorbate sizes k; and (2) the universality class of the transition changes from 2D Ising-type for monomers (k = 1) to an unknown universality class for k ≥ 2. In the present work, we revisit our previous results together with further numerical evidences, resulting from new extensive MC simulations based on an efficient exchange algorithm and using high-performance computational capabilities. In contrast to our previous conclusions (1) and (2), the new numerical calculations clearly support the occurrence of a first-order phase transition for k ≥ 2. In addition, a similar scenario was found for k-mers adsorbed on the triangular lattice at coverage k/(2k+1).

  11. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows with high Mach number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Yu, Xijun; Li, Yingjun

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present an improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible Navier-Stokes system with high Mach number. The model is composed of three components: (i) the discrete-velocity-model by M. Watari and M. Tsutahara [Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 036306], (ii) a modified Lax-Wendroff finite difference scheme where reasonable dissipation and dispersion are naturally included, (iii) artificial viscosity. The improved model is convenient to compromise the high accuracy and stability. The included dispersion term can effectively reduce the numerical oscillation at discontinuity. The added artificial viscosity helps the scheme to satisfy the von Neumann stability condition. Shock tubes and shock reflections are used to validate the new scheme. In our numerical tests the Mach numbers are successfully increased up to 20 or higher. The flexibility of the new model makes it suitable for tracking shock waves with high accuracy and for investigating nonlinear nonequilibrium complex systems.

  12. From Discreteness to Continuity: Dislocation Equation for Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-Feng

    2007-01-01

    @@ A systematic method from the discreteness to the continuity is presented for the dislocation equation of the triangular lattice. A modification of the Peierls equation has been derived strictly. The modified equation includes the higher order corrections of the discrete effect which are important for the core structure of dislocation. It is observed that the modified equation possesses a universal form which is model-independent except the factors.The factors, which depend on the detail of the model, are related to the derivatives of the kernel at its zero point in the wave-vector space. The results open a way to deal with the complicated models because what one needs to do is to investigate the behaviour near the zero point of the kernel in the wave-vector space instead of calculating the kernel completely.

  13. Spectroscopy of Dipolar Fermions in Layered Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    term. We approximate Vαβ(j,ρ) by Vαβ(j,ρ) ≈ γαβU(j,ρ) (8) and Vsf by Vsf(j,ρ) ≈ ηU(j,ρ), (9) with U(j,ρ) = δ0j 1 ρ3 + A + (1 − δ0j ) 1 − 3( ( jdl )2 ρ2... jdl )2 ) [ρ2 + ( jdl )2]3/2 , (10) where γαβ = dααdββ/(4π 0), η = | ∫ dzw∗1(z)w2(z)|2d212/(4π 0), and dl is the lattice spacing, where A ∼ 3, with...3( ( jdl )2 ρ2+( jdl )2 ) [ρ2 + ( jdl )2]3/2 ] = 2π3/2 √ m β n (γ12 − γ11 + η) (thermal), (28) 033608-5 HAZZARD, GORSHKOV, AND REY PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84

  14. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with a hexagonal lattice: Room-temperature quantum spin Hall insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Li, Xiao; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    So far, several transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC)-based two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) have been discovered, all of them based on a tetragonal lattice. However, in 2D crystals, the hexagonal rather than the tetragonal symmetry is the most common motif. Here, based on first principles calculations, we propose a class of stable 2D TMDCs of composition MX2(M =Mo ,W ;X =S ,Se ,Te ) with a hexagonal lattice. They are all in the same stability range as other 2D TMDC allotropes that have been demonstrated experimentally, and they are identified to be practical 2D TIs with large band gaps ranging from 41 to 198 meV, making them suitable for applications at room temperature. Besides, in contrast to tetragonal 2D TMDCs, their hexagonal lattice will greatly facilitate the integration of theses novel TI state van der Waals crystals with other hexagonal or honeycomb materials and thus provide a route for 2D material-based devices for wider nanoelectronic and spintronic applications. The nontrivial band gaps of both WS e2 and WT e2 2D crystals are 198 meV, which are larger than that in any previously reported TMDC-based TIs. These large band gaps entirely stem from the strong spin orbit coupling strength within the d orbitals of Mo/W atoms near the Fermi level. Our findings broaden the scientific and technological impact of both 2D TIs and TMDCs.

  15. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  16. Thermodynamic magnetization of two-dimensional electron gas measured over wide range of densities

    OpenAIRE

    Reznikov, M.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Teneh, N.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of dm/dn in Si MOSFET, where m is the magnetization of the two-dimensional electron gas and n is its density. We extended the density range of measurements from well in the metallic to deep in the insulating region. The paper discusses in detail the conditions under which this extension is justified, as well as the corrections one should make to extract dm/dn properly. At low temperatures, dm/dn was found to be strongly nonlinear already in weak magnetic fields, on a sc...

  17. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a 'natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Jian [Theory Group, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: jdai@mail.phy.pku.edu.cn; Song Xingchang [Theory Group, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: songxc@ibm320h.phy.pku.edu.cn

    2001-07-13

    One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as 'natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices. (author)

  18. Two-dimensional Tissue Image Reconstruction Based on Magnetic Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dedkova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new possibilities within two-dimensional reconstruction of internal conductivity distribution. In addition to the electric field inside the given object, the injected current causes a magnetic field which can be measured either outside the object by means of a Hall probe or inside the object through magnetic resonance imaging. The Magnetic Resonance method, together with Electrical impedance tomography (MREIT, is well known as a bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images with a good spatial resolution from the measurements of internal magnetic flux density produced by externally injected currents. A new algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction, which utilizes the internal current information with respect to corresponding boundary conditions and the external magnetic field, was developed. A series of computer simulations has been conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm within the process of estimating electrical conductivity changes in the lungs, heart, and brain tissues captured in two-dimensional piecewise homogeneous chest and head models. The reconstructed conductivity distribution using the proposed method is compared with that using a conventional method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The acquired experience is discussed and the direction of further research is proposed.

  19. Finite-Difference Lattice Boltzmann Scheme for High-Speed Compressible Flow: Two-Dimensional Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yan-Biao; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ying-Jun

    2008-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann (LB) modeling of high-speed compressible flows has long been attempted by various authors. One common weakness of most of previous models is the instability problem when the Mach number of the flow is large. In this paper we present a finite-difference LB model, which works for flows with flexible ratios of specific heats and a wide range of Mach number, from 0 to 30 or higher. Besides the discrete-velocity-model by Watari [Physica A 382 (2007) 502], a modified Lax Wendroff finite difference scheme and an artificial viscosity are introduced. The combination of the finite-difference scheme and the adding of artificial viscosity must find a balance of numerical stability versus accuracy. The proposed model is validated by recovering results of some well-known benchmark tests: shock tubes and shock reflections. The new model may be used to track shock waves and/or to study the non-equilibrium procedure in the transition between the regular and Mach reflections of shock waves, etc.

  20. Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We show the presence of Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice. The Weyl points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone and Fermi-arc surface states are clearly demonstrated in the quasienergy spectrum of the system in the Weyl phase. In addition, chiral surface states coexist in this phase. The Floquet-topological-insulator phase is characterized by the winding number of two in the reflection matrices of the semi-infinite system and resulting two gapless surface states in the quasienergy g ap of the bulk. The phase diagram of the system is derived in the two-parameter space of hopping S-matrices among the rings. We also discuss a possible optical realization of the system together with the introduction of synthetic gauge fields.

  1. Localization of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a two-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Kui-Tian, E-mail: kuitianxi@gmail.com; Li, Jinbin, E-mail: jinbin@nuaa.edu.cn; Shi, Da-Ning, E-mail: shi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    We consider a weakly interacting two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in a two-dimensional (2D) quasi-periodic bichromatic optical lattice (BOL). The problem is studied by means of split-step Crank–Nicolson method. The effects of weak intra- and inter-component interactions on localization of a two-component BEC are investigated. It is shown that in the quasi-2D regime, due to the enhanced disorder, there is no symmetry breaking like that in the one-dimensional (1D) case under a sine-typed potential, while configurations of density profiles are also quite different from that in the 1D case. By modulating interactions, the interplay of disorder and weak repulsive or attractive interactions is studied in detail. The cases with sine- and cosine-typed potentials acting on components 1 and 2 respectively are also discussed.

  2. Identification of the dynamics of a two-dimensional grid structure using least square lattice filters. [for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Sundararajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is doubtful whether the dynamics of large space structures (LSS) can be predicted well enough for control system design applications. Hence, dynamic modeling from on-orbit measurements followed by a modification of the control system is of interest, taking into account the utilization of adaptive control concepts. The present paper is concerned with the model determination phase of the adaptive control problem. Using spectral decoupling to determine mode shapes, mode frequency and damping data can be obtained with the aid of an equation error parameter identification method. This method employs a second-order auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model to represent the natural mode amplitudes. The discussed procedure involves an extension of the application of the least square lattice filter in system identification to a nonintegral, two-dimensional grid structure made of overlapping bars.

  3. Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    We show the presence of Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice. The Weyl points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone and Fermi-arc surface states are clearly demonstrated in the quasienergy spectrum of the system in the Floquet-Weyl phase. In addition, chiral surface states coexist in this phase. The Floquet-topological-insulator phase is characterized by the winding number of two in the reflection matrices of the semi-infinite system and resulting two gapless surface states in the quasienergy gap of the bulk. The phase diagram of the system is derived in the two-parameter space of hopping S-matrices among the rings. We also discuss a possible optical realization of the system together with the introduction of synthetic gauge fields.

  4. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.

  5. A novel two-dimensional MgB6 crystal: metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Yi; Li, Xian-Bin; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Nian-Ke; Wang, Yeliang; Zhang, Shengbai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-14

    Based on first-principles calculations, we designed for the first time a boron-kagome-based two-dimensional MgB6 crystal, in which two boron kagome layers sandwich a triangular magnesium layer. The two-dimensional lattice is metallic with several bands across the Fermi level, and among them a Dirac point appears at the K point of the first Brillouin zone. This metal-stabilized boron kagome system displays electron-phonon coupling, with a superconductivity critical transition temperature of 4.7 K, and thus it is another possible superconducting Mg-B compound besides MgB2. Furthermore, the proposed 2D MgB6 can also be used for hydrogen storage after decoration with Ca. Up to five H2 molecules can be attracted by one Ca with an average binding energy of 0.225 eV. The unique properties of 2D MgB6 will spur broad interest in nanoscience and technology.

  6. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Luukko, P J J

    2013-01-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy.

  7. Collective behaviour in two-dimensional cobalt nanoparticle assemblies observed by magnetic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntes, Victor F; Gorostiza, Pau; Aruguete, Deborah M; Bastus, Neus G; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2004-04-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles in the development of ultra-high-density recording media is the subject of intense research. Much of the attention of this research is devoted to the stability of magnetic moments, often neglecting the influence of dipolar interactions. Here, we explore the magnetic microstructure of different assemblies of monodisperse cobalt single-domain nanoparticles by magnetic force microscopy and magnetometric measurements. We observe that when the density of particles per unit area is higher than a determined threshold, the two-dimensional self-assemblies behave as a continuous ferromagnetic thin film. Correlated areas (similar to domains) of parallel magnetization roughly ten particles in diameter appear. As this magnetic percolation is mediated by dipolar interactions, the magnetic microstructure, its distribution and stability, is strongly dependent on the topological distribution of the dipoles. Thus, the magnetic structures of three-dimensional assemblies are magnetically soft, and an evolution of the magnetic microstructure is observed with consecutive scans of the microscope tip.

  8. Experimentally determining the exchange parameters of quasi-two dimensional Heisenbert magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sengupta, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cox, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harrison, N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goddard, P A [UNIV OF OXFORD; Lancaster, T [UNIV OF OXFORD; Blundell, S J [UNIV OF OXFORD; Pratt, F L [RUTHERFORD APPLETON LAB; Manson, J L [EASTERN WASHINGTON UNIV; Southerland, H I [EASTERN WASHINGTON UNIV; Schlueter, J A [ANL

    2008-01-01

    Though long-range magnetic order cannot occur at temperatures T > 0 in a perfect two-dimensional (2D) Heisenberg magnet, real quasi-2D materials will invariably possess nonzero inter-plane coupling J{sub {perpendicular}} driving the system to order at elevated temperatures. This process can be studied using quantum Monte Carlo calculations. However, it is difficult to test the results of these calculations experimentally since for highly anisotropic materials in which the in-plane coupling is comparable with attainable magnetic fields J{sub {perpendicular}} is necessarily very small and inaccessible directly. In addition, because of the large anisotropy, the Neel temperatures are low and difficult to determine from thermodynamic measurements. Here, we present an elegant method of assessing the calculations via two independent experimental probes: pulsed-field magnetization in fields of up to 85 T, and muon-spin rotation.

  9. Donor-bound electron states in a two-dimensional quantum ring under uniform magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Bo-Yong; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Liu Yu-Min; Han Li-Hong; Yao Wen-Jie; Feng Hao; Ye Han

    2011-01-01

    The electron states in a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs quantum ring are theoretically studied in effective mass approximation. On-centre donor impurity and uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the ring plane are taken into account. The energy spectrum with different angular momentum changes dramatically with the geometry of the ring.The donor impurity reduces the energies with an almost fixed value; however, the magnetic field alters energies in a more complex way. For example, energy levels under magnetic field will cross each other when increasing the inner radius and outer radius of the ring, leading to the fact that the arrangement of energy levels is distinct in certain geometry of the ring. Moreover, energy levels with negative angular momentum exhibit the non-monotonous dependence on the increasing magnetic field.

  10. Transport Properties of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Antiparallel Magnetic-Electric Barrier Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Yun-Xia; CHENG Ze

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically transport properties of two-dimensional electron gases through antiparallel magnetic electric barrier structures. Two kinds of magnetic barrier configurations are employed: one is that the strength of the double δ-function in opposite directions is equal and the other is that the strength is unequal. Similarities and differences of electronic transports are presented. It is found that the transmission and the conductance depend strongly on the shape of the magnetic barrier and the height of the electric barrier. The results indicate that this system does not possess any spin filtering and spin polarization and electron gases can realize perfect resonant tunneling and wave-vector filtering properties. Moreover, the strength of the effect of the inhomogeneous magnetic field on the transport properties is discussed.

  11. Relativistic Two-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator Plus Cornell Potentials in External Magnetic and AB Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein-Gordon (KG equation for the two-dimensional scalar-vector harmonic oscillator plus Cornell potentials in the presence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB flux fields is solved using the wave function ansatz method. The exact energy eigenvalues and the wave functions are obtained in terms of potential parameters, magnetic field strength, AB flux field, and magnetic quantum number. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies are compared with the results in the absence of both magnetic field (ωL = 0 and AB flux field (ξ=0 cases. Effect of external fields on the nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and wave function solutions is also precisely presented. Some special cases like harmonic oscillator and Coulombic fields are also studied.

  12. Tuning Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Dysprosium Layer Compound through Guest Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Jian; Meng, Yin-Shan; Sun, Hao-Ling; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Sun, Jun-Liang; Gao, Song

    2016-08-15

    A novel two-dimensional dysprosium(III) complex, [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF·H2O·2CH3OH (1), has been successfully synthesized from a new pyridine-N-oxide (PNO)-containing ligand, namely, N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)pyridine-N-oxidecarbohydrazide (H2L). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that complex 1 is composed of a dinuclear dysprosium subunit, which is further extended by the PNO part of the ligand to form a two-dimensional layer. Magnetic studies indicate that complex 1 shows well-defined temperature- and frequency-dependent signals under a zero direct-current (dc) field, typical of slow magnetic relaxation with an effective energy barrier Ueff of 33.6 K under a zero dc field. Interestingly, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that compound 1 undergoes a reversible phase transition that is induced by the desorption and absorption of methanol and water molecules. Moreover, the desolvated sample [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF (1a) also exhibits slow magnetic relaxation but with a higher anisotropic barrier of 42.0 K, indicating the tuning effect of solvent molecules on slow magnetic relaxation.

  13. Two-dimensional O(3) model at nonzero density: From dual lattice simulations to repulsive bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Gattringer, Christof; Kloiber, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of the O(3) nonlinear sigma model in 1 +1 dimensions at nonzero chemical potential (equivalent to a magnetic field). In its conventional field theory representation the model suffers from a sign problem. By dualizing the model, we are able to fully access the nonzero density regime of an asymptotically free theory with dynamical mass gap at arbitrary chemical potential values. We find a quantum phase transition at zero temperature where as a function of the chemical potential the density assumes a nonzero value. Measuring the spin stiffness we present evidence for a corresponding dynamical critical exponent z close to 2. The low energy O(3) model is conjectured to be described by a massive boson triplet with repulsive interactions. We confirm the universal square-root behavior expected for such a system at low density (and temperature) and compare our data to the results of Bethe Ansatz solutions of the relativistic and nonrelativistic one-dimensional Bose gas. We also comment on a potential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition at nonzero density.

  14. Two-dimensional intra-band solitons in lattice potentials with local defects and self-focusing nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly known that stable bright solitons in periodic potentials, which represent gratings in photonics/plasmonics, or optical lattices in quantum gases, exist either in the spectral semi-infinite gap (SIG) or in finite bandgaps. Using numerical methods, we demonstrate that, under the action of the cubic self-focusing nonlinearity, defects in the form of "holes" in two-dimensional (2D) lattices support continuous families of 2D solitons \\textit{embedded} into the first two Bloch bands of the respective linear spectrum, where solitons normally do not exist. The two families of the \\textit{embedded defect solitons} (EDSs) are found to be continuously linked by the branch of \\textit{gap defect solitons} (GDSs) populating the first finite bandgap. Further, the EDS branch traversing the first band links the GDS family with the branch of regular defect-supported solitons populating the SIG. Thus, we construct a continuous chain of regular, embedded, and gap-mode solitons ("superfamily") threading the entire ...

  15. Fluctuations in an ordered c (2×2) two-dimensional lattice-gas system with repulsive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrakis, P.; Chumak, A. A.; Maragakis, M.

    2005-06-01

    Fluctuations of the particle density in an ordered c(2×2) two-dimensional lattice-gas system are studied both analytically and by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The ordering is caused by a strong interparticle repulsive interaction resulting in the second order phase transition. The lattice of adsorption sites is divided into two sublattices (almost filled and almost empty sublattices) each of which contains a small number of structural “defects,” i.e., vacancies and excess particles. The relaxation of the correlation function of fluctuations turns out to be governed by two different functions. This peculiarity is to be contrasted with the traditional fluctuation theory which predicts the existence of a single damping constant, determined by the collective diffusion coefficient. A specific thesis of the proposed approach is that transport phenomena in ordered systems may be described in terms of both displacements and generation-recombination of structural defects. Accordingly, the correlation function of fluctuations depends on diffusion coefficients of two defect species as well as on the generation-recombination frequency. Our theory reduces to the usual one when fluctuations occur under local equilibrium conditions, i.e., for a sufficiently large size of probe areas and not too great values of interaction parameter. The analytical results agree well with those obtained in the Monte Carlo framework.

  16. Transport properties of magnetic-codoped two-dimensional hole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Stefan; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Hansen, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The interaction of localized magnetic moments with a two dimensional hole system (2DHS) is studied with low-temperature magneto-transport measurements on molecular beam epitaxially grown InAs or InAlGaAs quantum-well structures that are C-modulation and Mn co-doped. Measurements in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the 2DHS reveal the typical transport behaviour of a two-dimensional charge carrier system indicated by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and quantum-Hall plateaus. Investigations at milli-Kelvin temperatures show a metal-insulator transition in the low field region. The fully spin-polarized quantum Hall state at filling factor {nu}=1 is very pronounced, i.e. over a field range of more than 4 T the longitudinal resistance vanishes and the Hall resistance is constant. Surprisingly, the {nu}=2 state seems to be fully suppressed whereas the {nu}=3 state is clearly resolved by an indistinct structure in the Hall resistance and a minimum in the longitudinal resistance. Transport measurements in tilted magnetic fields are carried out to resolve the nature of the observed quantum-Hall states.

  17. Origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, P. S.; Kim, Ju H.; Brooks, J. S.

    1997-11-01

    We investigate the origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2. A tight-binding model based on their realistic band structure is constructed and solved numerically to compute the field dependence of the magnetization. The present model provides a natural description for the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown between coexisting closed and open Fermi surfaces and accounts for the experimentally observed frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. We find that the appearance of these anomalous frequencies in the dHvA signal is a quantum-mechanical effect which arises from differences in field dependence of the states in the two partially occupied bands near the Fermi level.

  18. Fermionic response from fractionalization in an insulating two-dimensional magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, J.; Knolle, J.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Motome, Y.; Moessner, R.

    2016-10-01

    Conventionally ordered magnets possess bosonic elementary excitations, called magnons. By contrast, no magnetic insulators in more than one dimension are known whose excitations are not bosons but fermions. Theoretically, some quantum spin liquids (QSLs)--new topological phases that can occur when quantum fluctuations preclude an ordered state--are known to exhibit Majorana fermions as quasiparticles arising from fractionalization of spins. Alas, despite much searching, their experimental observation remains elusive. Here, we show that fermionic excitations are remarkably directly evident in experimental Raman scattering data across a broad energy and temperature range in the two-dimensional material α-RuCl3. This shows the importance of magnetic materials as hosts of Majorana fermions. In turn, this first systematic evaluation of the dynamics of a QSL at finite temperature emphasizes the role of excited states for detecting such exotic properties associated with otherwise hard-to-identify topological QSLs.

  19. Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution some recent investigations of two- dimensional thermal convection relevant to ordinary fluids as well as magnetized plasmas are reviewed. An introductory discussion is given of the physical mechanism for baroclinic vorticity generation and convective motions in stratified...... fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states....... The global bursting is interpreted in terms of a predator-prey regulation from the point of view of energetics. Finally, a discussion is given of the relevance of these phenomena to a variety of magnetized plasma experiments....

  20. Zero-differential resistance state of two-dimensional electron systems in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A A; Zhang, Jing-qiao; Vitkalov, Sergey; Kalagin, A K; Bakarov, A K

    2007-09-14

    We report the observation of a zero-differential resistance state (ZDRS) in response to a direct current above a threshold value I>I th applied to a two-dimensional system of electrons at low temperatures in a strong magnetic field. Entry into the ZDRS, which is not observable above several Kelvins, is accompanied by a sharp dip in the differential resistance. Additional analysis reveals an instability of the electrons for I>I th and an inhomogeneous, nonstationary pattern of the electric current. We suggest that the dominant mechanism leading to the new electron state is a redistribution of electrons in energy space induced by the direct current.

  1. Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance of Neutral Donors Interacting with a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Morton, J. J. L.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, A.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.

    2011-04-20

    We have measured the electrically detected magnetic resonance of donor-doped silicon field-effect transistors in resonant X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavities. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) resonance signal increases by two orders of magnitude from X- to W-band, while the donor resonance signals are enhanced by over one order of magnitude. Bolometric effects and spin-dependent scattering are inconsistent with the observations. We propose that polarization transfer from the donor to the 2DEG is the main mechanism giving rise to the spin resonance signals.

  2. Stellar fibril magnetic systems. II - Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations. III - Convective counterflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic fibrils in the convective zone of a star is investigated analytically, deriving mean-field equations for the two-dimensional transverse motion of an incompressible fluid containing numerous small widely spaced circular cylinders. The equations of Parker (1982) are extended to account for the inertial effects of local flow around the cylinders. The linear field equation for the stream function at the onset of convection is then rewritten, neglecting large-scale heat transport, and used to construct a model of convective counterflow. The Kelvin impulse and fluid momentum, convective motion initiated by a horizontal impulse, and the effects of a viscous boundary layer are considered in appendices.

  3. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    CERN Document Server

    Kolokolov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time what contradicts to the statements present in literature. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. These tensors demonstrate highly intermittent statistics of the field fluctuations both in space and time.

  4. Three-dimensional magnetic interactions in quasi-two-dimensional PdAs2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Wu, Y.; Cao, H. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Yan, J.-Q.

    2017-06-01

    Millimeter-sized PdAs2O6 single crystals are grown using the vapor transport technique. The magnetic order at {{T}\\text{N}}=140 K is studied by measuring magnetic properties, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. The anisotropic magnetic susceptibility and a metamagnetic transition observed in magnetic fields above 20 kOe suggest that the magnetic moment lies in the ab plane, consistent with the magnetic structure determined by neutron single crystal diffraction. Below 140 K, Pd2+ ions order ferromagnetically in the ab plane but antiferromagnetically along the crystallographic c axis. The ordered moment is refined to be 2.09(2) {μ\\text{B}} /Pd2+ using the fitted magnetic form factor of Pd2+ . A weak λ-type anomaly around T N was observed in specific heat and the magnetic entropy change across T N is 1.72 J mol-1 K.This small entropy change and the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility support the presence of short range correlations in a wide temperature range {{T}\\text{N}} 250 K. The comparison with SrRu2O6 suggests that the magnetic interactions in PdAs2O6 are dominated by Pd-(O-\\text{As}\\text{As} -O)-Pd super-superexchange and three dimensional despite the quasi-two-dimensional arrangement of magnetic ions. The comparison with NiAs2O6 suggests that increasing covalency of isostructural compounds is an effective approach to design and to discover new materials with higher magnetic order temperatures in the localized regime.

  5. Magnetic and Structural Studies on Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Co, Cr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Masakazu; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Ueda, Yutaka; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We report magnetic and structural studies on the two-dimensional antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Cr, Co), prepared by topochemical reactions of a layered perovskite RbLaNb2O7. Electron diffraction of these oxyhalides revealed a superstructure with a √{2}a × √{2}a cell for M = Mn and Co, and a 2a × 2a cell for M = Cr, indicating that the MCl networks are distorted from an ideal square lattice. Neutron diffraction experiments showed that M = Mn and Co exhibit a (π 0 π ) antiferromagnetic order as observed for the S = 1/2 counterparts. (CoCl)LaNb2O7 with a strong spin anisotropy shows an antiferro to weak-ferromagnetic transition at low field, followed by novel two-step metamagnetic transitions likely associated with a 1/2 plateau for 27-54 T. Possible spin structures under magnetic field are discussed in terms of an Ising-type model. By contrast, (CrCl)LaNb2O7 exhibits a (π π π ) order, which is the first observation among related oxyhalides, and a spin-flop transition at 12 T due to a weak spin anisotropy. These results suggest that a slight difference in the MCl structure and spin anisotropy provides a crucial influence on the magnetic properties.

  6. Spin dynamics and magnetic correlation length in two-dimensional quantum heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta; Ciabattoni; Cuccoli; Mognaschi; Rigamonti; Tognetti; Verrucchi

    2000-01-10

    The correlated spin dynamics and temperature dependence of the correlation length xi(T) in two-dimensional quantum (S = 1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnets (2DQHAF) on a square lattice are discussed in light of experimental results of proton spin lattice relaxation in copper formiate tetradeuterate. In this compound the exchange constant is much smaller than the one in recently studied 2DQHAF, such as La2CuO4 and Sr2CuO2Cl2. Thus the spin dynamics can be probed in detail over a wider temperature range. The NMR relaxation rates turn out to be in excellent agreement with a theoretical mode-coupling calculation. The deduced temperature behavior of xi(T) is in agreement with high-temperature expansions, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, and the pure quantum self-consistent harmonic approximation. Contrary to the predictions of the theories based on the nonlinear sigma model, no evidence of crossover between different quantum regimes is observed.

  7. Elastic wave band gaps tuned by configuring radii of rods in two-dimensional phononic crystals with a hybrid square-like lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongqiang; Zhao, Haojiang; Zhang, Yingying; Guo, Honghwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-12-01

    The plane wave expansion (PWE) method is used to calculate the band gaps of two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PCs) with a hybrid square-like (HSL) lattice. Band structures of both XY-mode and Z-mode are calculated. Numerical results show that the band gaps between any two bands could be maximized by altering the radius ratio of the inclusions at different positions. By comparing with square lattice and bathroom lattice, the HSL lattice is more efficient in creating larger gaps.

  8. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring network lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction are implemented in the stacked two-dimensional ring network model proposed by the present author. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator network, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the system exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterization by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes in the rings. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points ...

  9. Zigzag antiferromagnetic ground state with anisotropic correlation lengths in the quasi-two-dimensional honeycomb lattice compound N a2C o2Te O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Kumar, Amit; Ritter, C.

    2017-03-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic ground state, and the temperature-dependent microscopic spin-spin correlations of the frustrated honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet N a2C o2Te O6 have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. A long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering has been found below TN˜24.8 K . The magnetic ground state, determined to be zigzag antiferromagnetic and characterized by a propagation vector k =(1 /2 0 0 ) , occurs due to the competing exchange interactions up to third-nearest neighbors within the honeycomb lattice. The exceptional existence of a limited magnetic correlation length along the c axis (perpendicular to the honeycomb layers in the a b planes) has been found even at 1.8 K, well below the TN˜24.8 K . The observed limited correlation along the c axis is explained by the disorder distribution of the Na ions within the intermediate layers between honeycomb planes. The reduced ordered moments mCo (1 )=2.77 (3 ) μB/C o2 + and mCo (2 )=2.45 (2 ) μB/C o2 + at 1.8 K reflect the persistence of spin fluctuations in the ordered state. Above TN˜24.8 K , the presence of short-range magnetic correlations, manifested by broad diffuse magnetic peaks in the diffraction patterns, has been found. Reverse Monte Carlo analysis of the experimental diffuse magnetic scattering data reveals that the spin correlations are mainly confined within the two-dimensional honeycomb layers (a b plane) with a correlation length of ˜12 Å at 25 K. The nature of the spin arrangements is found to be similar in both the short-range and long-range ordered magnetic states. This implies that the short-range correlation grows with decreasing temperature and leads to the zigzag AFM ordering at T ≤TN . The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the magnetic correlations over the temperature range above and below the TN and their relation to the crystal structure. The role of intermediate soft Na layers on the magnetic coupling between honeycomb planes is

  10. Axisymmetric Two-Dimensional Computation of Magnetic Field Dragging in Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we model a geometrically thin accretion disk interacting with an externally imposed, uniform, vertical magnetic field. The accretion flow in the disk drags and distorts field lines, amplifying the magnetic field in the process. Inside the disk the radial component of the field is sheared into a toroidal component. The aim of this work is to establish the character of the resultant magnetic field and its dependence on the disk's parameters. We concentrate on alpha-disks driven by turbulent viscosity. Axisymmetric, two-dimensional solutions are obtained without taking into account the back-reaction of the magnetic field on the structure of the disk. The character of the magnetic field depends strongly on the magnitude of the magnetic Prandtl number, P . We present two illustrative examples of viscous disks: a so-called 'standard' steady state model of a disk around a compact star (e.g., cataclysmic variable), and a steady state model of a proto-planetary disk. In both cases, P = 1, P = 10(sup -1), and P = 10(sup -2) scenarios are calculated. Significant bending and magnification of the magnetic field is possible only for disks characterized by P of the order of 10(sup -2). In such a case, the field lines are bent sufficiently to allow the development of a centrifugally driven wind. Inside the disk the field is dominated by its toroidal component. We also investigate the dragging of the magnetic field by a nonviscous protoplanetary disk described by a phenomenological model. This scenario leads to large distortion and magnification of the magnetic field.

  11. Shear viscosity of a two-dimensional emulsion of drops using a multiple-relaxation-time-step lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I; Xu, X; Burgin, K

    2017-02-01

    An extended Benzi-Dellar lattice Boltzmann equation scheme [R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Europhys. Lett. 13, 727 (1990)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/13/8/010; R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Phys. Rep. 222, 145 (1992)PRPLCM0370-157310.1016/0370-1573(92)90090-M; P. J. Dellar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036309 (2002)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309] is developed and applied to the problem of confirming, at low Re and drop fluid concentration, c, the variation of effective shear viscosity, η_{eff}=η_{1}[1+f(η_{1},η_{2})c], with respect to c for a sheared, two-dimensional, initially crystalline emulsion [here η_{1} (η_{2}) is the fluid (drop fluid) shear viscosity]. Data obtained with our enhanced multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method, using average shear stress and hydrodynamic dissipation, agree well once appropriate corrections to Landau's volume average shear stress [L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1966)] are applied. Simulation results also confirm the expected form for f(η_{i},η_{2}), and they provide a reasonable estimate of its parameters. Most significantly, perhaps, the generality of our data supports the validity of Taylor's disputed simplification [G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 138, 133 (1932)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1932.0175] to reduce the effect of one hydrodynamic boundary condition (on the continuity of the normal contraction of stress) to an assumption that interfacial tension is sufficiently strong to maintain a spherical drop shape.

  12. Shear viscosity of a two-dimensional emulsion of drops using a multiple-relaxation-time-step lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.; Xu, X.; Burgin, K.

    2017-02-01

    An extended Benzi-Dellar lattice Boltzmann equation scheme [R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Europhys. Lett. 13, 727 (1990), 10.1209/0295-5075/13/8/010; R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Phys. Rep. 222, 145 (1992), 10.1016/0370-1573(92)90090-M; P. J. Dellar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036309 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309] is developed and applied to the problem of confirming, at low Re and drop fluid concentration, c , the variation of effective shear viscosity, ηeff=η1[1 +f (η1,η2) c ] , with respect to c for a sheared, two-dimensional, initially crystalline emulsion [here η1 (η2) is the fluid (drop fluid) shear viscosity]. Data obtained with our enhanced multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method, using average shear stress and hydrodynamic dissipation, agree well once appropriate corrections to Landau's volume average shear stress [L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1966)] are applied. Simulation results also confirm the expected form for f (ηi,η2) , and they provide a reasonable estimate of its parameters. Most significantly, perhaps, the generality of our data supports the validity of Taylor's disputed simplification [G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 138, 133 (1932), 10.1098/rspa.1932.0175] to reduce the effect of one hydrodynamic boundary condition (on the continuity of the normal contraction of stress) to an assumption that interfacial tension is sufficiently strong to maintain a spherical drop shape.

  13. Zigzag nanoribbons of two-dimensional silicene-like crystals: magnetic, topological and thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Michał; Barnaś, Józef; Swirkowicz, Renata

    2015-12-01

    The effects of electron-electron and spin-orbit interactions on the ground-state magnetic configuration and on the corresponding thermoelectric and spin thermoelectric properties in zigzag nanoribbons of two-dimensional hexagonal crystals are analysed theoretically. The thermoelectric properties of quasi-stable magnetic states are also considered. Of particular interest is the influence of Coulomb and spin-orbit interactions on the topological edge states and on the transition between the topological insulator and conventional gap insulator states. It is shown that the interplay of both interactions also has a significant impact on the transport and thermoelectric characteristics of the nanoribbons. The spin-orbit interaction also determines the in-plane magnetic easy axis. The thermoelectric properties of nanoribbons with in-plane magnetic moments are compared to those of nanoribbons with edge magnetic moments oriented perpendicularly to their plane. Nanoribbons with ferromagnetic alignment of the edge moments are shown to reveal spin thermoelectricity in addition to the conventional one.

  14. Phase transitions in a two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Potts model on a triangular lattice with next-nearest neighbor interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, A. B., E-mail: b-albert78@mail.ru; Magomedov, M. A.; Murtazaev, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Amirkhanov Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Proshkin, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Phase transitions (PTs) and frustrations in two-dimensional structures described by a three-vertex antiferromagnetic Potts model on a triangular lattice are investigated by the Monte Carlo method with regard to nearest and next-nearest neighbors with interaction constants J{sub 1} and J{sub 2}, respectively. PTs in these models are analyzed for the ratio r = J{sub 2}/J{sub 1} of next-nearest to nearest exchange interaction constants in the interval |r| = 0–1.0. On the basis of the analysis of the low-temperature entropy, the density of states function of the system, and the fourth-order Binder cumulants, it is shown that a Potts model with interaction constants J{sub 1} < 0 and J{sub 2} < 0 exhibits a first-order PT in the range of 0 ⩽ r < 0.2, whereas, in the interval 0.2 ⩽ r ⩽ 1.0, frustrations arise in the system. At the same time, for J{sub 1} > 0 and J{sub 2} < 0, frustrations arise in the range 0.5 < |r| < 1.0, while, in the interval 0 ⩽ |r| ⩽ 1/3, the model exhibits a second-order PT.

  15. Quasilongitudinal soliton in a two-dimensional strongly coupled complex dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samiran

    2014-09-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment.

  16. Zero-differential conductance of two-dimensional electrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. A.; Byrnes, Sean; Dietrich, Scott; Vitkalov, Sergey; Marchishin, I. V.; Dmitriev, D. V.

    2013-02-01

    An electronic state with zero-differential conductance is found in nonlinear response to an electric field E applied to two dimensional Corbino discs of highly mobile carriers placed in quantizing magnetic fields. The state occurs above a critical electric field E>Eth at low temperatures and is accompanied by an abrupt dip in the differential conductance. The proposed model considers a local instability of the electric field E as the origin of the observed phenomenon. Comparison between the observed electronic state and the state with zero differential resistance, occurring in Hall bar geometry, indicates that the nonlinear response of edge states and/or skipping orbits is not essential in the studied samples. The result confirms that quantal heating is the dominant nonlinear mechanism leading to electronic states with both zero differential resistance and conductance.

  17. Two-dimensional mathematical model of a reciprocating room-temperature Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    heat exchanger. The model simulates the different steps of the AMR refrigeration cycle and evaluates the performance in terms of refrigeration capacity and temperature span between the two heat exchangers. The model was used to perform an analysis of an AMR with a regenerator made of gadolinium...... and water as the heat transfer fluid. The results show that the AMR is able to obtain a no-load temperature span of 10.9 K in a 1 T magnetic field with a corresponding work input of 93.0 kJ m−3 of gadolinium per cycle. The model shows significant temperature differences between the regenerator and the heat...... transfer fluid during the AMR cycle. This indicates that it is necessary to use two-dimensional models when a parallel-plate regenerator geometry is used....

  18. Lattice Wave of Magnetized Spherical Dust in Radio-Frequency Sheath with Negative Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lattice wave of magnetized spherical dust in radio-frequency sheath with negative ions is investigated. The dispersion relation of two-dimensional hexagonal lattice horizontal wave and the influence of negative ions and magnetic field intensity on the wave are also investigated. The results show that for two-dimensional hexagonal horizontal lattice wave, negative ions reduce the wave frequency at the range of long-wavelength, whereas raising the wave frequency at the range of short-wavelength and magnetic held contributes to dropping the wave frequency a little.

  19. Exact two-dimensionalization of low-magnetic-Reynolds-number flows subject to a strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of flows, including turbulent flows, driven by a horizontal body-force and subject to a vertical magnetic field, with the following question in mind: for very strong applied magnetic field, is the flow mostly two-dimensional, with remaining weak three-dimensional fluctuations, or does it become exactly 2D, with no dependence along the vertical? We first focus on the quasi-static approximation, i.e. the asymptotic limit of vanishing magnetic Reynolds number Rm << 1: we prove that the flow becomes exactly 2D asymptotically in time, regardless of the initial condition and provided the interaction parameter N is larger than a threshold value. We call this property "absolute two-dimensionalization": the attractor of the system is necessarily a (possibly turbulent) 2D flow. We then consider the full-magnetohydrodynamic equations and we prove that, for low enough Rm and large enough N, the flow becomes exactly two-dimensional in the long-time limit provided the initial vertically-de...

  20. Soliton assisted control of source to drain electron transport along natural channels - crystallographic axes - in two-dimensional triangular crystal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, A. P.; Ebeling, W.; Velarde, M. G.

    2016-09-01

    We present computational evidence of the possibility of fast, supersonic or subsonic, nearly loss-free ballistic-like transport of electrons bound to lattice solitons (a form of electron surfing on acoustic waves) along crystallographic axes in two-dimensional anharmonic crystal lattices. First we study the structural changes a soliton creates in the lattice and the time lapse of recovery of the lattice. Then we study the behavior of one electron in the polarization field of one and two solitons with crossing pathways with suitably monitored delay. We show how an electron surfing on a lattice soliton may switch to surf on the second soliton and hence changing accordingly the direction of its path. Finally we discuss the possibility to control the way an excess electron proceeds from a source at a border of the lattice to a selected drain at another border by following appropriate straight pathways on crystallographic axes.

  1. Hydrogen Bonding and Multiphonon Structure in One- and Two-Dimensional Polymeric Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musfeldt, J. L.; Brown, S.; Cao, J.; Conner, M. M.; McConnell, A. C.; Southerland, H. I.; Manson, J. L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Phillips, M. D.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the temperature dependent infrared vibrational spectra of a family of chemically related coordination polymeric magnets based upon two different bridging anions, fluoride (F^-) and bifluoride (HF2^-), in copper-pyrazine complexes including Cu(HF2)(pyz)2BF4, Cu(HF2)(pyz)2ClO4, and CuF2(H2O)(pyz)). We compare our results with several one- and two-dimensional prototype materials including Cu(NO3)2(pyz) and Cu(ClO4)(pyz) 2. Unusual low temperature hydrogen bonding, local structural transitions associated with stronger low-temperature hydrogen bonding, and striking multiphonon effects that derive from coupling of an infrared-active fundamental with strong Raman-active modes of the pyrazine building-block molecule are observed. Based on the spectroscopic evidence, these interactions are common to this family of coordination polymers and work to stabilize the low temperature magnetic state. Similar interactions are likely to be present in other molecule-based magnets.

  2. Low-energy properties of two-dimensional magnetic nanostructures: interparticle interactions and disorder effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P J; Pastor, G M [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2003-06-01

    The low-energy properties of two-dimensional ensembles of dipole-coupled magnetic nanoparticles are studied as a function of structural disorder and particle coverage. Already small deviations from a square particle arrangement lift the degeneracies of the microvortex (MV) magnetic configuration and result in a strongly inhomogeneous magnetic order of the particle ensemble. The energy distribution of metastable states is determined. For a low degree of disorder a strongly asymmetric shape with a pronounced peak of the ground-state energy results. In contrast, for a strong disorder a Gaussian-like distribution is obtained. The average dipole energy barE{sub dip} decreases with increasing structural disorder. Above a coverage-dependent degree of disorder barE{sub dip} resembles the average dipole energy of a random particle set-up, for which a simple scaling behaviour is derived. The role of vacancies has been studied for a square particle array by determining the angular distribution of the preferred MV angle as a function of the vacancy concentration. Preferred angles along the axial as well as along the diagonal directions of the square array are obtained. A corresponding investigation for disturbed square arrays yields preferred MV angles only along the axial directions. The effect of dipole-quadrupole corrections resulting from the finite size of the particles is quantified.

  3. Excited states of two-dimensional hydrogen atom in tilted magnetic field: Quantum chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Eugene A.; Koval, Oksana A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current work is the research of the influence of a tilted magnetic field direction on the spectrum and the energy level spacing distribution of a two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom and of an exciton in GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum well. It was discovered that the quantum chaos (QC) is initiated with an increasing angle α between the magnetic field direction and the normal to the atomic plane. It is characterized by the repulsion of levels leading to the eliminating of the shell structure and by changing the spectrum statistical properties. The statement about the initiation of chaos and its dominance over regular motion with increasing angle α is confirmed by the results of our calculations of the classical dynamics presented in this paper. The evolution of the spatial distribution of the square of the absolute value of the wave function at an increasing angle α was observed. The differences of calculated dependencies of energies for various excited states on the tilt angle at a wide range of the magnetic field strength were described.

  4. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  5. Quantum and thermal phase transitions in a bosonic atom-molecule mixture in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Forges de Parny, L.; Rousseau, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    We study the ground state and the thermal phase diagram of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model, with U(1 ) ×Z2 symmetry, describing atoms and molecules on a two-dimensional optical lattice interacting via a Feshbach resonance. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory, we show that the conversion between the two species, coherently coupling the atomic and molecular states, has a crucial impact on the Mott-superfluid transition and stabilizes an insulating phase with a gap controlled by the conversion term—the Feshbach insulator—instead of a standard Mott-insulating phase. Depending on the detuning between atoms and molecules, this model exhibits three phases: the Feshbach insulator, a molecular condensate coexisting with noncondensed atoms, and a mixed atomic-molecular condensate. Employing finite-size scaling analysis, we observe three-dimensional (3D) X Y (3D Ising) transition when U(1 ) (Z2) symmetry is broken, whereas the transition is first order when both U(1 ) and Z2 symmetries are spontaneously broken. The finite-temperature phase diagram is also discussed. The thermal disappearance of the molecular superfluid leads to a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition with unusual universal jump in the superfluid density. The loss of the quasi-long-range coherence of the mixed atomic and molecular superfluid is more subtle since only atoms exhibit conventional Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless criticality. We also observe a signal compatible with a classical first-order transition between the mixed superfluid and the normal Bose liquid at low temperature.

  6. Two Dimensional Incommensurate Spin Excitations and Lattice Fluctuations in La2 - x Bax CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, J. J.; Carlo, J. P.; van Gastel, G.; Zhao, Y.; Kallin, A. B.; Mazurek, E.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Savicii, A.; Granroth, G. E.; Yamani, Z.; Tun, Z.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2013-03-01

    'Hour-glass' shaped dispersions of antiferromagnetic (AF) spin fluctuations are a robust feature common to many high temperature superconductors. In 214 cuprates, these phenomena are well known to display a strong dependence on the concentration of holes that are introduced into the copper oxide planes by doping. The incommensurability (IC) of the two dimensional magnetic order in this system is sensitive to hole concentration. Here, we present a series of neutron scattering measurements on single crystals of La2 - x Bax CuO4 (LBCO), with 0 . 035 <= x <= 0 . 095 , a doping range that spans the transition from diagonal to parallel IC ordering wavevectors, and from non-superconducting to superconducting ground states. Our measurements map out the evolution of the spin excitations for energies below ~ 50 meV, and focus on an enhancement in the scattered intensity centered in the 17-20 meV at the AF IC positions. This regime corresponds to the approximate crossing of very dispersive spin excitations and weakly dispersive low lying optic phonons in LBCO. NSERC, Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy

  7. Experimental study of two-dimensional quantum Wigner solid in zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    At temperatures T → 0, strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron systems manifest characteristic insulating behaviors that are key for understanding the nature of the ground state in light of the interplay between disorder and electron-electron interaction. In contrast to the hopping conductance demonstrated in the insulating side of the metal-to-insulator transition, the ultra-high quality 2D systems exhibit nonactivated T-dependence of the conductivity even for dilute carrier concentrations down to 7×10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. The apparent metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) occurs for a large r{sub s} value around 40 for which a Wigner Crystalllization is expected. The magnetoresistance for a series of carrier densities in the vicinity of the transition exhibits a characteristic sign change in weak perpendicular magnetic field. Within the Wigner Crystallization regime (with r{sub s} > 40), we report an experimental observation of a characteristic nonlinear threshold behavior from a high-resolution dc dynamical response as an evidence for aWigner crystallization in high-purity GaAs 2D hole systems in zero magnetic field. The system under an increasing current drive exhibits voltage oscillations with negative differential resistance. They confirm the coexistence of a moving crystal along with striped edge states as observed for electrons on helium surfaces. Moreover, the threshold is well below the typical classical levels due to a different pinning and depinning mechanism that is possibly related to quantum processes.

  8. Experimental study of two-dimensional quantum Wigner solid in zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    At temperatures T → 0, strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron systems manifest characteristic insulating behaviors that are key for understanding the nature of the ground state in light of the interplay between disorder and electron-electron interaction. In contrast to the hopping conductance demonstrated in the insulating side of the metal-to-insulator transition, the ultra-high quality 2D systems exhibit nonactivated T-dependence of the conductivity even for dilute carrier concentrations down to 7×108 cm-2. The apparent metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) occurs for a large rs value around 40 for which a Wigner Crystalllization is expected. The magnetoresistance for a series of carrier densities in the vicinity of the transition exhibits a characteristic sign change in weak perpendicular magnetic field. Within the Wigner Crystallization regime (with rs > 40), we report an experimental observation of a characteristic nonlinear threshold behavior from a high-resolution dc dynamical response as an evidence for aWigner crystallization in high-purity GaAs 2D hole systems in zero magnetic field. The system under an increasing current drive exhibits voltage oscillations with negative differential resistance. They confirm the coexistence of a moving crystal along with striped edge states as observed for electrons on helium surfaces. Moreover, the threshold is well below the typical classical levels due to a different pinning and depinning mechanism that is possibly related to quantum processes.

  9. Scaling behavior of the dipole-coupling energy in two-dimensional disordered magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P. J.; Pastor, G. M.

    2003-11-01

    Numerical calculations of the average dipole-coupling energy Edip in two-dimensional disordered magnetic nanostructures are performed as a function of the particle coverage C. We observe that Edip scales as Edip∝Cα* with an unusually small exponent α*≃0.8 1.0 for coverages C≲20%. This behavior is shown to be primarily given by the contributions of particle pairs at short distances, which is intrinsically related to the presence of an appreciable degree of disorder. The value of α* is found to be sensitive to the magnetic arrangement within the nanostructure and to the degree of disorder. For large coverages C≳20% we obtain Edip∝Cα with α=3/2, in agreement with the straightforward scaling of the dipole coupling as in a periodic particle setup. Taking into account the effect of single-particle anisotropies, we show that the scaling exponent can be used as a criterion to distinguish between weakly interacting (α*≃1.0) and strongly interacting (α*≃0.8) particle ensembles as a function of coverage.

  10. Self Organized Criticality in a two dimensional Cellular Automaton model of a magnetic flux tube with background flow

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition to Self Organized Criticality in a two-dimensional model of a flux tube with a background flow. The magnetic induction equation, represented by a partial differential equation with a stochastic source term, is discretized and implemented on a two dimensional cellular automaton. The energy released by the automaton during one relaxation event is the magnetic energy. As a result of the simulations we obtain the time evolution of the energy release, of the system control parameter, of the event lifetime distribution and of the event size distribution, respectively, and we establish that a Self Organized Critical state is indeed reached by the system. Moreover, energetic initial impulses in the magnetohydrodynamic flow can lead to one dimensional signatures in the magnetic two dimensional system, once the Self Organized Critical regime is established. The applications of the model for the study of Gamma Ray Bursts is briefly considered, and it is shown that some astrophysical paramet...

  11. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2013-03-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy. Catalogue identifier: AENR_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11310 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97720 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ and Python. Computer: Tested on x86 and x86-64 architectures. Operating system: Tested under Linux with the g++ compiler. Any POSIX-compliant OS with a C++ compiler and the required external routines should suffice. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, with OpenMP. RAM: 1 MB or more, depending on system size. Classification: 7.3. External routines: FFTW3 (http://www.fftw.org), CBLAS (http://netlib.org/blas), LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack), HDF5 (http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5), OpenMP (http://openmp.org), TCLAP (http://tclap.sourceforge.net), Python (http://python.org), Google Test (http://code.google.com/p/googletest/) Nature of problem: Numerical calculation

  12. Effect of a Two-Dimensional Periodic Dielectric Background on Complete Photonic Band Gap in Complex Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; SHI Jun-Jie

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional photonic crystal model with a periodic square dielectric background is proposed.The photonic band modulation effects due to the two-dimensional periodic background are investigated jn detail.It is found that periodic modulation of the dielectric background greatly alters photonic band structures,especially for the Epolarization modes.The number,width and position of the photonic band gaps sensitively depend on the dielectric constants of the two-dimensional periodic background.Complete band gaps are found,and the dependence of the widths of these gaps on the structural and material parameters of the two alternating rods/holes is studied.

  13. Experimental study of two-dimensional turbulence properties in a plane duct in an azimuthal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votsish, A.D.; Kolesnikov, Yu.B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for an experimental study of two-dimensional turbulent flow with shifts in a plane duct in an azimuthal magnetic field. The turbulent flow was shown to become practically equal to zero in a sufficiently strong field whereas the intensity of the pulsation rate has a finite value. This is explained by the fact that the magnetic field transforms the structure of turbulence into a two-dimensional structure whose maintenance merely requires an insignificant portion of medium flow energy. 4 illustrations, 8 references.

  14. Emergence of a two-dimensional macrospin liquid in a highly frustrated three-dimensional quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkenk, Tycho S.; Coester, Kris; Buhrandt, Stefan; Fritz, Lars; Schmidt, Kai P.

    2017-02-01

    The classical Ising model on the frustrated three-dimensional (3D) swedenborgite lattice has disordered spin liquid ground states for all ratios of inter- and intraplanar couplings. Quantum fluctuations due to a transverse field give rise to several exotic phenomena. In the limit of weakly coupled kagome layers we find a 3D version of disorder by disorder degeneracy lifting. For large out-of-plane couplings one-dimensional macrospins are formed, which realize a disordered macrospin liquid phase on an emerging two-dimensional triangular lattice. We speculate about a possibly exotic version of quantum criticality that connects the polarized phase to the macrospin liquid.

  15. Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.

  16. Ionothermal Synthesis and Magnetic Studies of Novel Two-Dimensional Metal-Formate Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderone, P.; Feygenson, M.; Forster, P.M.; Borkowski, L.A.; Teat, S.J. Aronson, M.C.; Parise, J.B.

    2011-03-21

    Five novel two-dimensional frameworks containing formate-bridged metal-centered octahedra are synthesized ionothermally from two ionic liquids previously unused as solvents in hybrid synthesis, 2-hydroxyethylammonium (HEA) formate, and 1-hydroxy-3-proplyammonium (HPA) formate. Templating effects of the cation from each ionic liquid drive the formation of different structures. [NH{sub 3}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH]{sub 2}[M(CHO{sub 2}){sub 4}] (1: M = Co, 2: M = Ni) exhibit the same stoichiometry and connectivity as their manganese analogue (3: M = Mn), but the manganese form exhibits a different topology from 1 and 2. [NH{sub 3}C{sub 3}H6OH][M(CHO{sub 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)] (4: M = Co, 5: M = Mn) were synthesized using the HPA formate ionic liquid with a metal-formate connectivity related to those of 1-3. Canted antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at low temperatures (1: T{sub N} = 7.0 K, 2: T{sub N} = 4.6 K, 3: T{sub N} = 8.0 K, 4: T{sub N} = 7.0 K, 5: T{sub N} = 9.2 K), similar to the magnetic properties previously reported for other metal-formate hybrid materials.

  17. Ionothermal synthesis and magnetic studies of novel two-dimensional metal-formate frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Paul J; Forster, Paul M; Borkowski, Lauren A; Teat, Simon J; Feygenson, Mikhail; Aronson, Meigan C; Parise, John B

    2011-03-21

    Five novel two-dimensional frameworks containing formate-bridged metal-centered octahedra are synthesized ionothermally from two ionic liquids previously unused as solvents in hybrid synthesis, 2-hydroxyethylammonium (HEA) formate, and 1-hydroxy-3-proplyammonium (HPA) formate. Templating effects of the cation from each ionic liquid drive the formation of different structures. [NH(3)C(2)H(4)OH](2)[M(CHO(2))(4)] (1: M = Co, 2: M = Ni) exhibit the same stoichiometry and connectivity as their manganese analogue (3: M = Mn), but the manganese form exhibits a different topology from 1 and 2. [NH(3)C(3)H(6)OH][M(CHO(2))(3)(H(2)O)] (4: M = Co, 5: M = Mn) were synthesized using the HPA formate ionic liquid with a metal-formate connectivity related to those of 1-3. Canted antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at low temperatures (1: T(N) = 7.0 K, 2: T(N) = 4.6 K, 3: T(N) = 8.0 K, 4: T(N) = 7.0 K, 5: T(N) = 9.2 K), similar to the magnetic properties previously reported for other metal-formate hybrid materials.

  18. Application of two-dimensional J-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to differentiation of beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Alfi [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wilson, Erica G. [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kim, Hye Kyong [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lefeber, Alfons W.M. [Division of NMR, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Erkelens, Cornelis [Division of NMR, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Choi, Young Hae [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Verpoorte, Robert [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-02-16

    A number of ingredients in beer that directly or indirectly affect its quality require an unbiased wide-spectrum analytical method that allows for the determination of a wide array of compounds for its efficient control. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a method that clearly meets this description as the broad range of compounds in beer is detectable. However, the resulting congestion of signals added to the low resolution of {sup 1}H NMR spectra makes the identification of individual components very difficult. Among two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques that increase the resolution, J-resolved NMR spectra were successfully applied to the analysis of 2-butanol extracts of beer as overlapping signals in {sup 1}H NMR spectra were fully resolved by the additional axis of the coupling constant. Principal component analysis based on the projected J-resolved NMR spectra showed a clear separation between all of the six brands of pilsner beer evaluated in this study. The compounds responsible for the differentiation were identified by 2D NMR spectra including correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation spectra together with J-resolved spectra. They were identified as nucleic acid derivatives (adenine, uridine and xanthine), amino acids (tyrosine and proline), organic acid (succinic and lactic acid), alcohol (tyrosol and isopropanol), cholines and carbohydrates.

  19. Zero temperature magnetic phase diagram of Wigner crystal in anisotropic two-dimensional electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Chenggang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: zcf@ornl.gov; Bhatt, Ravin N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, and Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    We study the effect of mass anisotropy on the magnetic ordering of the Wigner crystal phase of low density electron systems in two dimensions at T=0. We apply the instanton approximation to various ring exchange processes, which includes the lowest order Gaussian fluctuations beyond the WKB approximation. The multi-particle exchange frequencies are calculated with effective mass anisotropy, both with and without ensuing lattice distortions. We find that when sufficient mass anisotropy is present, the two-spin exchange process between the nearest neighbors becomes more frequent than the three particle processes. Therefore, its corresponding antiferromagnetic exchange exceeds the ferromagnetic exchange from the three-spin process and becomes dominant. Numerical diagonalization of small clusters with two, three, and four-spin exchange terms shows a transition from a ferromagnetic to an antiferromagnetic ground state with increasing mass anisotropy.

  20. Self-organization of topological defects for a triangular-lattice magnetic dots array subject to a perpendicular magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khymyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The regular array of magnetic particles (magnetic dots of the form of a two-dimensional triangular lattice in the presence of external magnetic field demonstrates complicated magnetic structures. The magnetic symmetry of the ground state for such a system is lower than that for the underlying lattice. Long range dipole-dipole interaction leads to a specific antiferromagnetic order in small fields, whereas a set of linear topological defects appears with the growth of the magnetic field. Self-organization of such defects determines the magnetization process for a system within a wide range of external magnetic fields.

  1. Metastability of the Two-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model with Zero Chemical Potential and Small Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, C.; Lemire, P.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model with zero chemical potential and small magnetic field evolving on a large but finite torus. We obtain sharp estimates for the transition time, we characterize the set of critical configurations, and we prove the metastable behavior of the dynamics as the temperature vanishes.

  2. Pattern formation and coarse-graining in two-dimensional colloids driven by multiaxial magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin; Osterman, Natan; Babič, Dušan; Likos, Christos N; Dobnikar, Jure; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2014-05-13

    We study the pattern formation in a two-dimensional system of superparamagnetic colloids interacting via spatially coherent induced interactions driven by an external precessing magnetic field. On the pair level, upon changing the opening angle of the external field, the interactions smoothly vary from purely repulsive (opening angle equal to zero) to purely attractive (time-averaged pair interactions at an opening angle of 90°). In the experiments, we observed ordered hexagonal crystals at the repulsive end and coarsening frothlike structures for purely attractive interactions. In both of these limiting cases, the dense colloidal systems can be sufficiently accurately described by assuming pairwise additivity of the interaction potentials. However, for a range of intermediate angles, pronounced many-body depolarization effects compete with the direct induced interactions, resulting in inherently anisotropic effective interactions. Under such conditions, we observed the decay of hexagonal order with the concomitant formation of short chains and percolated networks of chains coexisting with free colloids. In order to describe and investigate these systems theoretically, we developed a coarse-grained model of a binary mixture of patchy and nonpatchy particles with the ratio of patchy and nonpatchy colloids as the order parameter. Combining genetic algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations, we optimized the model parameters and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed sequence of colloidal structures. The results offer new insight into the anisotropy induced by the many-body effects. At the same time, they allow for a very efficient description of the system by means of a pairwise-additive Hamiltonian, whereupon the original, one-component system features a two-component mixture of isotropic and patchy colloids.

  3. Two-dimensional resonant magnetic soft X-ray scattering set-up for extreme sample environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Stefan; Mocuta, Cristian; Merlet, Frederic; Barbier, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    The newly built MagSAXS (magnetic small-angle X-ray scattering) set-up dedicated to the direct two-dimensional measurement of magnetic scattering using polarized synchrotron radiation in extreme sample environments is presented. Pure optical transport of the image is used to record the magnetic scattering with a two-dimensional CCD visible-light camera. The set-up is able to probe magnetic correlation lengths from the micrometer down to the nanometer scale. A detailed layout is presented along with preliminary results obtained at several beamlines at Synchrotron SOLEIL. The presented examples underline the wide range of possible applications spanning from correlation lengths determination to Fourier transform holography.

  4. Analytic solution of a relativistic two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, V.M. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Fisica; Pino, R. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Fisica]|[Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Apdo 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)

    1998-01-26

    We obtain exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Pauli-Schroedinger equations for a two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the presence of a constant magnetic field. Analytic solutions for the energy spectrum are obtained for particular values of the magnetic field strength. The results are compared to those obtained in the non-relativistic and spinless case. We obtain that the relativistic spectrum does not present s states. (orig.). 7 refs.

  5. Peierls-Nabarro energy surfaces and directional mobility of discrete solitons in two-dimensional saturable nonlinear Schr\\"odinger lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Naether, Uta; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of directional mobility of discrete solitons in two-dimensional rectangular lattices, in the framework of a discrete nonlinear Schr\\"odinger model with saturable on-site nonlinearity. A numerical constrained Newton-Raphson method is used to calculate two-dimensional Peierls-Nabarro energy surfaces, which describe a pseudopotential landscape for the slow mobility of coherent localized excitations, corresponding to continuous phase-space trajectories passing close to stationary modes. Investigating the two-parameter space of the model through independent variations of the nonlinearity constant and the power, we show how parameter regimes and directions of good mobility are connected to existence of smooth surfaces connecting the stationary states. In particular, directions where solutions can move with minimum radiation can be predicted from flatter parts of the surfaces. For such mobile solutions, slight perturbations in the transverse direction yield additional transverse oscillations w...

  6. Complete Proton and Carbon Assignment of Triclosan via One- and Two- Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students from an upper-division undergraduate spectroscopy class analyzed one- and two-dimensional 400 MHz NMR spectroscopic data from triclosan in CDCl3. Guided assignment of all proton and carbon signals was completed via 1D proton and carbon, nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe), distortionless enhanc...

  7. Determination of the Critical Exponents for the Isotropic-Nematic Phase Transition in a System of Long Rods on Two-dimensional Lattices: Universality of the Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Matoz-Fernandez, D. A.; Linares, D. H.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis have been carried out to study the critical behavior and universality for the isotropic-nematic phase transition in a system of long straight rigid rods of length $k$ ($k$-mers) on two-dimensional lattices. The nematic phase, characterized by a big domain of parallel $k$-mers, is separated from the isotropic state by a continuous transition occurring at a finite density. The determination of the critical exponents, along with the behavi...

  8. Similarity between the superconductivity in the graphene with the spin transport in the two-dimensional antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    We have used the Dirac's massless quasi-particles together with the Kubo's formula to study the spin transport by electrons in the graphene monolayer. We have calculated the electric conductivity and verified the behavior of the AC and DC currents of this system, that is a relativistic electron plasma. Our results show that the AC conductivity tends to infinity in the limit ω → 0 , similar to the behavior obtained for the spin transport in the two-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice. We have made a diagrammatic expansion for the Green's function and we have not gotten significative change in the results.

  9. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0lungs, tissue-air interfaces, surgical implants, etc., lead to fluctuations and losses of local homogeneity. A new method dubbed “long-lived-coherence correlation spectroscopy” (LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  10. Quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of spin triplets in the dimerized quantum magnet Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Makiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masaaki; Jaime, Marcelo; Radtke, Guillaume; Saúl, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized single crystals of composition Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2 and investigated their quantum magnetic properties. The crystal structure is closely related to that of the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) dimerized magnet BaCuSi2O6 also known as Han purple. Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2 has a singlet ground state with an excitation gap of Δ /kB=20.8 K. The magnetization curves for two different field directions almost perfectly coincide when normalized by the g factor except for a small jump anomaly for a magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis. The magnetization curve with a nonlinear slope above the critical field is in excellent agreement with exact-diagonalization calculations based on a 2D coupled spin-dimer model. Individual exchange constants are also evaluated using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT results demonstrate a 2D exchange network and weak frustration between interdimer exchange interactions, supported by weak spin-lattice coupling implied from our magnetostriction data. The magnetic-field-induced spin ordering in Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2 is described as the quasi-2D Bose-Einstein condensation of triplets.

  11. First-principles design of a half-filled flat band of the kagome lattice in two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Soejima, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Naoto; Hirai, Daisuke; Dincǎ, Mircea; Aoki, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We design from first principles a type of two-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) using phenalenyl-based ligands to exhibit a half-filled flat band of the kagome lattice, which is one of a family of lattices that show Lieb-Mielke-Tasaki's flat-band ferromagnetism. Among various MOFs, we find that trans-Au-THTAP (THTAP=trihydroxytriaminophenalenyl) has such an ideal band structure, where the Fermi energy is adjusted right at the flat band due to unpaired electrons of radical phenalenyl. The spin-orbit coupling opens a band gap giving a nonzero Chern number to the nearly flat band, as confirmed by the presence of the edge states in first-principles calculations and by fitting to the tight-binding model. This is a novel and realistic example of a system in which a nearly flat band is both ferromagnetic and topologically nontrivial.

  12. Frustrated Magnetism in Low-Dimensional Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Mayra

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation we present the results of a theoretical investigation of spin models on two-dimensional and quasi one-dimensional lattices, all unified under the concept of quantum frustrated antiferromagnetism, and all discussing various aspects of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice. In the Introduction (Chapter 1), we discuss at some length such concepts as frustration and superexchange, among others, which are of common relevance in the rest of the chapters. In Chapter 2, we study the effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions on the zero-temperature magnetic susceptibility of systems whose low energy can be described by short-range valence bond states. Our work shows that this treatment is consistent with the experimentally observed non-vanishing susceptibility---in the specified temperature limit---of the spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnetic compound ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, also known as herbertsmithite. Although the objective of this work is explaining the aforementioned characteristic of the experimental system, our methods are more general and we apply them to the checkerboard and Shastry-Sutherland lattices as well. In Chapter 3, we discuss our findings in the study of ghost-mediated domain wall interactions in the diamondback ladder. These domain walls are the the spin excitations---the kinks and the antikinks---separating the ground states along one chain of the ladder. While as individual entities an antikink is energy costly and a kink energy free, our study finds that both interact via the ghosts that they produce in the opposite side of the ladder from where they are located. Through the study of these ghosts, we find that domain walls proliferate in the system above a critical value of the system's coupling constants. It is this proliferation that makes their treatment as free, non-interacting particles impossible, so we study here their interactions both quantitatively and qualitatively, in a region where the latter are

  13. Aerosol assisted fabrication of two dimensional ZnO island arrays and honeycomb patterns with identical lattice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Numata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional island arrays and honeycomb patterns consisting of ZnO nanocrystal clusters were fabricated on predefined TiO2 seed patterns prepared by vacuum free, aerosol assisted wet-chemical synthesis. The TiO2 seed patterns were prepared by applying an aerosol of a water soluble titanium complex on hexagonally close-packed polystyrene bead arrays for different lengths of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a dot array grows into a honeycomb shape as increasing amounts of the precursor were deposited. ZnO nucleation on substrates with a dot array and honeycomb patterns resulted in the formation of two discrete patterns with contrasting fill fractions of the materials.

  14. Zero modes of the Dirac operator on a noncompact two-dimensional surface in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitenko, Y.A. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR (UA))

    1989-09-01

    We investigate zero modes of the two-dimensional Dirac operator on a noncompact singly connected surface in an external magnetic field. The number of square-integrable zero modes is shown to be determined by global characteristics of the external field and surface: the flux of the magnetic field through the surface and the Gauss curvature integrated over the surface. The equivalence of the square integrability condition for the noncompact surface to the conditions of the index theorem for a closed compact surface is discussed.

  15. Arsenic-bridged magnetic interactions in an emerging two-dimensional FeAs nanostructure on MnAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Christian; Ferrari, Valeria; Llois, Ana Maria

    2015-08-01

    The extreme case of an Fe monolayer deposited onto a manganese arsenide (MnAs) substrate is analyzed using density functional theory. We find that an FeAs quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnetic surface nanostructure emerges. This nanostructure, which is magnetically nearly decoupled from the substrate, is due to bonding effects arising from the arsenic atoms bridging the Fe magnetic interactions. These interactions are studied and modeled using a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian. They display an angular dependence which is characteristic of superexchange-like interactions, which are of the same order of magnitude as those appearing in Fe-based pnictides.

  16. Dynamic effect of overhangs and islands at the depinning transition in two-dimensional magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N J; Zheng, B

    2010-09-01

    With the Monte Carlo methods, we systematically investigate the short-time dynamics of domain-wall motion in the two-dimensional random-field Ising model with a driving field (DRFIM). We accurately determine the depinning transition field and critical exponents. Through two different definitions of the domain interface, we examine the dynamics of overhangs and islands. At the depinning transition, the dynamic effect of overhangs and islands reaches maximum. We argue that this should be an important mechanism leading the DRFIM model to a different universality class from the Edwards-Wilkinson equation with quenched disorder.

  17. The effect of the lateral interactions on the critical behavior of long straight rigid rods on two-dimensional lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ramirez-Pastor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis, the critical behavior of attractive rigid rods of length $k$ ($k$-mers on square lattices at intermediate density has been studied. A nematic phase, characterized by a big domain of parallel $k$-mers, was found. This ordered phase is separated from the isotropic state by a continuous transition occurring at a intermediate density $heta_c$, which increases linearly with the magnitude of the lateral interactions.

  18. Tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with square-like Archimedean lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin, E-mail: hanlor@163.com, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Jiang, Yu-Chi [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.

  19. Tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with square-like Archimedean lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.

  20. Local membrane length conservation in two-dimensional vesicle simulation using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I; Lishchuk, S V; Spencer, T J; Pontrelli, G; Evans, P C

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for applying a class of velocity-dependent forces within a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation simulation that is designed to recover continuum regime incompressible hydrodynamics. This method is applied to the problem, in two dimensions, of constraining to uniformity the tangential velocity of a vesicle membrane implemented within a recent multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation method, which avoids the use of Lagrangian boundary tracers. The constraint of uniform tangential velocity is carried by an additional contribution to an immersed boundary force, which we derive here from physical arguments. The result of this enhanced immersed boundary force is to apply a physically appropriate boundary condition at the interface between separated lattice fluids, defined as that region over which the phase-field varies most rapidly. Data from this enhanced vesicle boundary method are in agreement with other data obtained using related methods [e.g., T. Krüger, S. Frijters, F. Günther, B. Kaoui, and J. Harting, Eur. Phys. J. 222, 177 (2013)10.1140/epjst/e2013-01834-y] and underscore the importance of a correct vesicle membrane condition.

  1. General velocity, pressure, and initial condition for two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipour, Omid Reza; Niazmand, Hamid; Succi, Sauro

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to implement initial and boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method is presented. The main idea is to approximate the nonequilibrium component of distribution functions as a third-order power series in the lattice velocities and formulate a procedure to determine boundary node distributions by using fluid variables, consistent with such an expansion. The velocity shift associated with the body force effects is included in this scheme, along with an approximation to determine the mass density in complex geometries. Different strategies based on the present scheme are developed to implement velocity and pressure conditions for arbitrarily shaped boundaries, using the D2Q9, D3Q15, D3Q19 and D3Q27 lattices, in two and three space dimensions, respectively. The proposed treatment is tested against several well-established problems, showing second-order spatial accuracy and often improved behavior as compared to various existing methods, with no appreciable computational overhead.

  2. Two dimensional electron gas confined over a spherical surface: Magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, A; Crespo, P [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-CSIC-ADIF, Las Rozas. P. O. Box 155, Madrid 28230 (Spain) and Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense (Spain); Garcia, M A, E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC c/Kelsen, 5 Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    Magnetism of capped nanoparticles, NPs, of non-magnetic substances as Au and ZnO is briefly reviewed. The source of the magnetization is discussed on the light of recent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments. As magnetic dichroism analysis has pointed out impurity atoms bonded to the surface act as donor or acceptor of electrons that occupy the surface states. It is proposed that mesoscopic collective orbital magnetic moments induced at the surface states can account for the experimental magnetism characteristic of these nanoparticles. The total magnetic moment of the surface originated at the unfilled Fermi level can reach values as large as 10{sup 2} or 10{sup 3} Bohr magnetons.

  3. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, N G; Pȩkalski, J; Ciach, A

    2014-04-28

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases-the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  4. Effect of long range spatial correlations on the lifetime statistics of an emitter in a two-dimensional disordered lattice

    CERN Document Server

    de Sousa, N; García-Martín, A; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Marqués, M I

    2014-01-01

    The effect of spatial correlations on the Purcell effect in a bidimensional dispersion of resonant nanoparticles is analyzed. We perform extensive calculations of the fluorescence decay rate of a point emitter embedded in a system of nanoparticles statistically distributed according to a sim- ple 2D lattice-gas model near the critical point. For short range correlations (high temperature thermalization) the Purcell factors present a non-Gaussian long-tailed statistics which evolves to- wards a bimodal distribution as approaching the critical point where the spatial correlation length diverges. Our results suggest long range correlations as a possible origin of the large fluctuations of experimental decay rates in disordered metal films.

  5. One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, J. M.; Chang, K.; Armijo, J.; Cujia, K.; Rosskopf, T.; Maze, J. R.; Degen, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure.

  6. Spin-orbital exchange of strongly interacting fermions in the p band of a two-dimensional optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Zhao, Erhai; Liu, W Vincent

    2015-03-13

    Mott insulators with both spin and orbital degeneracy are pertinent to a large number of transition metal oxides. The intertwined spin and orbital fluctuations can lead to rather exotic phases such as quantum spin-orbital liquids. Here, we consider two-component (spin 1/2) fermionic atoms with strong repulsive interactions on the p band of the optical square lattice. We derive the spin-orbital exchange for quarter filling of the p band when the density fluctuations are suppressed, and show that it frustrates the development of long-range spin order. Exact diagonalization indicates a spin-disordered ground state with ferro-orbital order. The system dynamically decouples into individual Heisenberg spin chains, each realizing a Luttinger liquid accessible at higher temperatures compared to atoms confined to the s band.

  7. Critical Behavior of Gaussian Model on X Fractal Lattices in External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; KONG Xiang-Mu; HUANG Jia-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Using the renormalization group method, the critical behavior of Gaussian model is studied in external magnetic fields on X fractal lattices embedded in two-dimensional and d-dimensional (d > 2) Euclidean spaces, respectively. Critical points and exponents are calculated. It is found that there is long-range order at finite temperature for this model, and that the critical points do not change with the space dimensionality d (or the fractal dimensionality dr). It is also found that the critical exponents are very different from results of Ising model on the same lattices, and that the exponents on X lattices are different from the exact results on translationally symmetric lattices.

  8. Tuning the electronic structures and magnetism of two-dimensional porous C2N via transition metal embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Xiong, Wenqi; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Jia, Yu

    2016-08-10

    Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetism are investigated in 3d transition metal (TM)-embedded porous two-dimensional (2D) C2N monolayers. Numerical results indicate that except Mn and Co atoms, other TM atoms can be embedded stably in the 2D C2N monolayer. Moreover, the magnetic moments of the TM-embedded C2N monolayer depend highly on the atomic number of the TM atoms. The Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni atom-embedded C2N monolayers possess a ferromagnetic ground state, while embedding Cu can induce paramagnetic characteristics in the 2D C2N monolayer. Meanwhile, the Zn-embedded C2N monolayer exhibits a nonmagnetic ground state. These results indicate that the magnetism of 2D C2N monolayers can be tuned via embedding TM atoms.

  9. Analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-05-15

    The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

  10. Study on two-dimensional equilibrium structure of magnetized complex plasmas based on a Langevin dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Yang, Fang; Liu, Songfen; Shi, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin dynamics simulation method is used to study the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium structure of complex plasmas while considering an external magnetic field. The traditional Yukawa potential and a modified Yukawa potential according to Shukla et al. [Phys. Lett. A 291, 413 (2001); Shukla and Mendonca, Phys. Scr. T113 82 (2004)] and Salimullah et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3047 (2003)] respectively, are employed to account for the interaction of the charged dust particles. It is found that the collisions between neutral gas and charged dust particles have minor effects on the 2D equilibrium structure of the system. Based on the modified Yukawa potential, studies on the 2D equilibrium structure show that the traditional Yukawa potential is still suitable for describing the magnetized complex plasmas, even if the shielding distance of charged dust particles is affected by the strong external magnetic field.

  11. Temperature and magnetic field effects on electron transport through DNA molecules in a two-dimensional four-channel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D

    2013-06-01

    We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.

  12. Particle in short-range potential in two dimensional structure in magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, S. P.; Pavlova, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    An exact solution is given for the problem of determining the ground state of a charge particle in a zero range force field located in a quantum well and in a magnetic field. The dependence of the electron's ground state on the potential depth and the magnetic field is investigated in a semiconducto

  13. Two-dimensional electric current effects on a magnetized plasma in contact with a surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumack, A. E.; de Blank, H. J.; Westerhout, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant electric fields both parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field have been observed and modeled self-consistently in an ITER divertor relevant plasma–wall experiment. Due to magnetization, electric current is found to penetrate the plasma beam outside of the cascaded arc plasma source

  14. Critical properties of XY model on two-dimensional layered magnetic films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi; Liu Xiao-Yan; Sun Lei; Zhang Xing; Han Ru-Qi

    2006-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the classical XY model on triangular lattices of ultra-thin film structures with middle ferromagnetic layers sandwiched between two antiferromagnetic layers. The internal energy,the specific heat, the chirality and the chiral susceptibility are calculated in order to clarify phase transitions and critical phenomena. From the finite-size scaling analyses, the values of critical exponents are determined. In a range of interaction parameters, we find that the chirality steeply goes up as temperature increases in a temperature range;correspondingly the value of a critical exponent for this change is estimated.

  15. Two-dimensional magnetic modeling of ferromagnetic materials by using a neural networks based hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Laudani, A.; Lozito, G.M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via V. Volterra 62, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. That approach aims to be coupled together with numerical treatments of magnetic hysteresis such as FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, allowing a complete computer simulation with acceptable run times. The proposed Hybrid Neural System consists of four inputs representing the magnetic induction and magnetic field components at each time step and it is trained by 2D and scalar measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the Hybrid Neural System returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. Within the Hybrid Neural System, a suitably trained neural network is used for predicting the hysteretic behavior of the material to be modeled. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for symmetric, non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  16. A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Laudani, A.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. Such approach to the problem seems promising in order to couple the numerical treatment of magnetic hysteresis to FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, making possible a full computer simulation in a reasonable time. The neural system proposed consists of four inputs representing the magnetic field and the magnetic inductions components at each time step and it is trained by 2-d measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the neural system returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. A suitable partitioning of the neural system, described in the paper, makes the computing process rather fast. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  17. Spin-zero anomaly in the magnetic quantum oscillations of a two-dimensional metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitza, J; Ignatchik, O; Bergk, B [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Gvozdikov, V M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Hagel, J [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Meeson, P J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Schlueter, J A [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Davis, H; Winter, R W; Gard, G L [Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)], E-mail: J.Wosnitza@fzd.de

    2008-08-15

    We report on an anomalous behavior of the spin-splitting zeros in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal of a quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor. The zeros as well as the angular dependence of the amplitude of the second harmonic deviate remarkably from the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) prediction. In contrast, the angular dependence of the fundamental dHvA amplitude as well as the spin-splitting zeros of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) signal follow the LK theory. We can explain this behavior of the dHvA signal by small chemical-potential (CP) oscillations and find a very good agreement between theory and experiment. A detailed wave-shape analysis of the dHvA oscillations corroborates the existence of an oscillating CP. We discuss the absence of the above spin-zero effect in the SdH signal and argue that in {beta}-prime-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} it can be explained by an incoherent variable range hopping interlayer transport which is insensitive to the small CP oscillations.

  18. Spin-zero anomaly in the magnetic quantum oscillations of a two-dimensional metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitza, J.; Gvozdikov, V. M.; Hagel, J.; Meeson, P. J.; Schlueter, J. A.; Ignatchick, O.; Winter, R. W.; Gard, G. L.; Davis, H.; Bergk, B.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Dresden; Max-Planck Inst. Phys. Complex Systems; Univ. Bristol; Portland State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    We report on an anomalous behavior of the spin-splitting zeros in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal of a quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor. The zeros as well as the angular dependence of the amplitude of the second harmonic deviate remarkably from the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) prediction. In contrast, the angular dependence of the fundamental dHvA amplitude as well as the spin-splitting zeros of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) signal follow the LK theory. We can explain this behavior of the dHvA signal by small chemical-potential (CP) oscillations and find a very good agreement between theory and experiment. A detailed wave-shape analysis of the dHvA oscillations corroborates the existence of an oscillating CP. We discuss the absence of the above spin-zero effect in the SdH signal and argue that in {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} it can be explained by an incoherent variable range hopping interlayer transport which is insensitive to the small CP oscillations.

  19. Absence of localization in disordered two-dimensional electron gas at weak magnetic field and strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.

    2016-09-01

    The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.

  20. Magnetic breakdown phenomenon in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors: A quantum model inspired by a realistic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju H.; Han, S. Y.; Brooks, J. S.

    1999-08-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 by constructing a tight-binding model based on a realistic band structure which is derived from the crystallographic data. We solve the model numerically to compute the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and show that the present model accounts naturally for the experimentally observed magnetization oscillation frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. The computed values of the fundamental and magnetic breakdown frequencies with no adjustable parameters are close to the experimentally measured values. For completeness, we carry out the computation for both canonical (fixed number of particles) and grand canonical (fixed chemical potential) ensembles, and show that the forbidden frequencies appear in both cases. Hence, the appearance of anomalous frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen effect has a quantum-mechanical origin and arises from the interplay of electronic states from two partially occupied bands near the Fermi energy as a function of magnetic field. We also compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization and apply ad hoc the Lifshitz-Kosevich analysis to the amplitudes of the Fourier components at moderately high temperatures. This yields effective mass values for α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 in good agreement with experimental values.

  1. The two-dimensional 4-state Potts model in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, Bertrand; Shchur, Lev

    2013-01-01

    We present a solution of the non-linear renormalization group equations leading to the dominant and subdominant singular behaviours of physical quantities (free energy density, correlation length, internal energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility and magnetocaloric coefficient) at the critical temperature in a non- vanishing magnetic field. The solutions i) lead to exact cancellation of logarithmic corrections in universal amplitude ratios and ii) prove recently proposed relations among logarithmic exponents.

  2. Magnetic order and Mott transition on the checkerboard lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nyayabanta; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2017-03-01

    The checkerboard lattice, with alternating ‘crossed’ plaquettes, serves as the two dimensional analog of the pyrochlore lattice. The corner sharing plaquette structure leads to a hugely degenerate ground state, and no magnetic order, for classical spins with short range antiferromagnetic interaction. For the half-filled Hubbard model on this structure, however, we find that the Mott insulating phase involves virtual electronic processes that generate longer range and multispin couplings. These couplings lift the degeneracy, selecting a ‘flux like’ state in the Mott insulator. Increasing temperature leads, strangely, to a sharp crossover from this state to a ‘120 degree’ correlated state and then a paramagnet. Decrease in the Hubbard repulsion drives the system towards an insulator-metal transition—the moments reduce, and a spin disordered state wins over the flux state. Near the insulator-metal transition the electron system displays a pseudogap extending over a large temperature window.

  3. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual

  4. On the origin of magnetic anisotropy in two dimensional CrI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, J. L.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of ferromagnetic order in a monolayer of CrI3 has been recently reported, with a Curie temperature of 45 K and off-plane easy axis. Here we study the origin of magnetic anisotropy, a necessary ingredient to have magnetic order in two dimensions, combining two levels of modeling, density functional calculations and spin model Hamiltonians. We find two different contributions to the magnetic anisotropy of the material, favoring off-plane magnetization and opening a gap in the spin wave spectrum. First, ferromagnetic super-exchange across the ≃90 degree Cr-I-Cr bonds, are anisotropic, due to the spin-orbit interaction of the ligand I atoms. Second, a much smaller contribution that comes from the single ion anisotropy of the S  =  3/2 Cr atom. Our results permit to establish the XXZ Hamiltonian, with a very small single ion anisotropy, as the adequate spin model for this system. Using spin wave theory we estimate the Curie temperature and we highlight the essential role played by the gap that magnetic anisotropy induces on the magnon spectrum.

  5. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and thermal bistability in a magnetic two-dimensional hole system

    CERN Document Server

    Wurstbauer, Ursula; Weiss, Dieter; Dietl, Tomasz; Wegscheider, Werner; 10.1038/nphys1782

    2011-01-01

    Colossal negative magnetoresistance and the associated field-induced insulator-to-metal transition, the most characteristic features of magnetic semiconductors, are observed in n-type rare earth oxides and chalcogenides, p-type manganites, n-type and p-type diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) as well as in quantum wells of n-type DMS. Here, we report on magnetostransport studies of Mn modulation-doped InAs quantum wells, which reveal a magnetic field driven and bias voltage dependent insulator-to-metal transition with abrupt and hysteretic changes of resistance over several orders of magnitude. These phenomena coexist with the quantised Hall effect in high magnetic fields. We show that the exchange coupling between a hole and the parent Mn acceptor produces a magnetic anisotropy barrier that shifts the spin relaxation time of the bound hole to a 100 s range in compressively strained quantum wells. This bistability of the individual Mn acceptors explains the hysteretic behaviour while opening prospects for i...

  6. Absorption induced modulation of magnetism in two-dimensional metal-phthalocyanine porous sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2013-05-28

    Metal-phthalocyanine porous sheets have uniformly dispersed metal sites in Pc framework, making absorption happen naturally. Here, we explore the effects of absorption of chlorine atoms on magnetism in transition metal embedded phthalocyanine (poly-TMPc) sheets with TM = Cr, Mn, and Fe. We show that when one Cl is absorbed on the TM, the strong square planar crystal field becomes weak in a square pyramidal configuration and the TM is in the +3 oxidized state, resulting in the magnetic moment of 3, 4, and 5 μB for Cr, Mn, and Fe, respectively, with weak antiferromagnetic couplings. When another Cl is introduced to the TM on the other side, it extracts one electron from the Pc framework making the substrate p-doped. The magnetic coupling is antiferromagnetic for poly-CrPc-2Cl and the poly-FePc-2Cl, while it becomes ferromagnetic for poly-MnPc-2Cl, suggesting that absorption can effectively modulate the bonding environment and tune the magnetic properties of the systems, and the controlled absorption can be used to tailor materials.

  7. The effect of magnetic field on mean flow generation by rotating two-dimensional convection

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the significant interaction of convection, rotation and magnetic field in many astrophysical objects, we investigate the interplay between large-scale flows driven by rotating convection and an imposed magnetic field. We utilise a simple model in two dimensions comprised of a plane layer that is rotating about an axis inclined to gravity. It is known that this setup can result in strong mean flows; we numerically examine the effect of an imposed horizontal magnetic field on such flows. We show that increasing the field strength in general suppresses the time-dependent mean flows, but in some cases it organises them leading to stronger time-averaged flows. Further, we discuss the effect of the field on the correlations responsible for driving the flows and the competition between Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. A change in behaviour is observed when the (fluid and magnetic) Prandtl numbers are decreased. In the smaller Prandtl number regime, it is shown that significant mean flows can persist even ...

  8. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-14

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the "Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry" technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.

  9. Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Stability of Two-dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C S; Yasin, E

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic structures have been observed in many regions of space plasmas, including the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the auroral acceleration region, and in association with shocks, turbulence, and magnetic reconnection. Due to potentially large amplitude of electric fields within these structures, their effects on particle heating, scattering, or acceleration can be important. One possible theoretical description of some of these structures is the concept of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes, which are exact nonlinear solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in collisionless kinetic theory. BGK modes have been studied extensively for many decades, predominately in one dimension (1D), although there have been observations showing that some of these structures have clear 3D features. While there have been approximate solutions of higher dimensional BGK modes, an exact 3D BGK mode solution in a finite magnetic field has not been found yet. Recently we have constructed exact solutions of 2D B...

  10. Microemulsion phases in one and two dimensional magnetic models with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erik; Bhatt, R. N.; Huse, David

    2007-03-01

    Spivak and Kivelson have proposed that the first order phase transition between the Wigner crystal and Fermi liquid phases of the interacting electron gas in two dimensions is pre-empted by a series of microemulsion phases characterized by phase separation on the mesoscopic scale, which may be responsible for the anomalous conductivity. We have studied analogous classical magnetic models in one and two dimensions. In particular, we present an exact analytical solution of a one dimensional classical ferromagnetic Ising spin chain frustrated by a long range antiferromagnetic interaction, which clearly exhibits such phase separation in which the mesoscale varies continuously with applied magnetic field. We describe these phases in the 1D model and consider extensions to stripe and bubble phases in two dimensions. B. Spivak and S. A.Kivelson, Physical Review B, 70 155114 (2004) K. Ng and D. Vanderbilt, Physical Review B, 52 2177 (1995)

  11. Unusual onset of p-element magnetization in a two dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Samir F.

    2016-10-01

    Based on density functional theory electronic and magnetic structure characterizations an unusual onset of spin polarization of p states is demonstrated leading to a stable ferromagnetic order within a carbon layered honeycomb-like compound. Specifically structural relaxation of formerly studied C2N in 3D network and devised here in 2D layered AlB2-type derived structure shows that the resulting ordered compound maintains the hexagonal crystal symmetry with an exceptionally large c/a ratio leading to strong localization of N states along c and letting magnetization develop within N-pz orbitals with 1.1 μB per formula unit. Anisotropic antibonding interactions between C and N layers allow interpreting the results. The compound is energetically characterized in ferromagnetic ground state versus less stable anti-ferromagnetic order.

  12. Two-dimensional nonstationary flow of a conducting fluid, induced by a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, A.B.

    1977-07-01

    An examination is made of a full induction problem on the planar movement of a conducting fluid in a rotating magnetic field. The solution to this problem is sought by the method of degradation into Fourier series by harmonics of the rotating field. The initial system of partial differential equations is reduced to the system 2+1 of normal differential equations that bind the amplitudes of function harmonics and electrical vector potential. A solution to the problem for small anti ..omega.. was found with an accuracy up to the second approximation. The unsteadiness of flow was found to be manifested in a form of induced cross-sectional waves, traveling along the stream tubes of this flow at a speed that is equal to the phase velocity of the magnetic field. The appearance of wave effects is explained by considerations of symmetry. 5 references, 1 figure.

  13. Second constant of motion for two-dimensional positronium in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, G

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical work indicates that the classical motion of positronium in a constant magnetic field does not exhibit chaotic behavior if the system is confined to two dimensions. One would therefore expect this system to possess a second constant of the motion in addition to the total energy. In this paper we construct a generalization of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and show that a component of this vector is a constant of the motion.

  14. Tunability of band structures in a two-dimensional magnetostrictive phononic crystal plate with stress and magnetic loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Shi, Yang [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-26

    Considering the magneto-mechanical coupling of magnetostrictive material, the tunability of in-plane wave propagation in two-dimensional Terfenol-D/epoxy phononic crystal (PC) plate is investigated theoretically by the plane wave expansion method. Two Schemes, i.e. magnetic field is rotated in x–y plane and x–z plane, are studied, respectively. The effects of amplitude and direction of magnetic field, pre-stress and geometric parameters are discussed. For Scheme-I, band gap reaches the maximum at an optimal angle 45° of magnetic field. However, the optimal angle is 0° for Scheme-II, because band gap decreases monotonically until disappears with the increasing angle. For both cases, higher-order band gaps generate and become stronger as magnetic field amplitude increases, while increasing compressive pre-stress has the opposite effect. Meanwhile, filling fraction plays a key role in controlling band gaps. These results provide possibility for intelligent regulation and optimal design of PC plates. - Highlights: • The in-plane wave propagation in phononic crystal thin plate is tuned theoretically. • Magnetostrictive material is introduced in the study. • The effects of magnetic field and pre-stress are considered. • The variations of band gaps with external stimuli are discussed.

  15. Effective mass theory of a two-dimensional quantum dot in the presence of magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Himanshu Asnani; Raghu Mahajan; Praveen Pathak; Vijay A Singh

    2009-09-01

    The effective mass of electrons in low-dimensional semiconductors is position-dependent. The standard kinetic energy operator of quantum mechanics for this position-dependent mass is non-Hermitian and needs to be modified. This is achieved by imposing the BenDaniel–Duke (BDD) boundary condition. We have investigated the role of this boundary condition for semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in one, two and three dimensions. In these systems the effective mass m i inside the dot of size R is different from the mass m o outside. Hence a crucial factor in determining the electronic spectrum is the mass discontinuity factor = /} . We have proposed a novel quantum scale, , which is a dimensionless parameter proportional to 220, where 0 represents the barrier height. We show both by numerical calculations and asymptotic analysis that the ground state energy and the surface charge density, (ρ()), can be large and dependent on . We also show that the dependence of the ground state energy on the size of the dot is infraquadratic. We also study the system in the presence of magnetic field . The BDD condition introduces a magnetic length-dependent term $(\\sqrt{\\hbar /eB})$ into and hence the ground state energy. We demonstrate that the significance of BDD condition is pronounced at large and large magnetic fields. In many cases the results using the BDD condition is significantly different from the non-Hermitian treatment of the problem.

  16. Ba8CoNb6O24 : A spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the two-dimensional limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawl, R.; Ge, L.; Agrawal, H.; Kamiya, Y.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Butch, N. P.; Sun, X. F.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Oitmaa, J.; Batista, C. D.; Mourigal, M.; Zhou, H. D.; Ma, J.

    2017-02-01

    The perovskite Ba8CoNb6O24 comprises equilateral effective spin-1/2 Co2 + triangular layers separated by six nonmagnetic layers. Susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements combined with high-temperature series expansions and spin-wave calculations confirm that Ba8CoNb6O24 is basically a two-dimensional magnet with no detectable spin anisotropy and no long-range magnetic ordering down to 0.06 K. In other words, Ba8CoNb6O24 is very close to be a realization of the paradigmatic spin-1/2 triangular Heisenberg model, which is not expected to exhibit symmetry breaking at finite temperatures according to the Mermin and Wagner theorem.

  17. Calculation of generalized spin stiffness constant of strongly correlated doped quantum antiferromagnet on two-dimensional lattice and it's application to effective exchange constant for semi-itinerant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Suraka; Chaudhury, Ranjan

    2016-11-01

    The generalized spin stiffness constant for a doped quantum antiferromagnet has been investigated both analytically and numerically as a function of doping concentration at zero temperature, based on the strongly correlated t-J model on two-dimensional square lattice. The nature of the theoretical dependence of the stiffness constant on doping shows a striking similarity with that of the effective exchange constant, obtained from the combination of other theoretical and experimental techniques in the low doping region. This correspondence once again establishes that spin stiffness can very well play the role of an effective exchange constant even in the strongly correlated semi-itinerant systems. Our theoretical plot of the stiffness constant against doping concentration in the whole doping region exhibits the various characteristic features like a possible crossover in the higher doping regions and persistence of short range ordering even for very high doping with the complete vanishing of spin stiffness occurring only close to 100% doping. Our results receive very good support from various other theoretical approaches and also brings out a few limitations of some of them. Our detailed analysis highlights the crucial importance of the study of spin stiffness for the proper understanding of magnetic correlations in a semi-itinerant magnetic system described by the strongly correlated t-J model. Moreover, our basic formalism can also be utilized for determination of the effective exchange constant and magnetic correlations for itinerant magnetic systems, in general in a novel way.

  18. Simulations of super-structure domain walls in two dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Beleggia, Marco; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    taking the role of the atomic spins. The coupling is, however, different. The superspins interact only by dipolar interactions as exchange coupling between individual nanoparticles may be neglected due to interparticle spacing. We observe that it is energetically favorable to introduce domain walls...... oriented along the long dimension of nanoparticle assemblies rather than along the short dimension. This is unlike what is typically observed in continuous magnetic materials, where the exchange interaction introduces an energetic cost proportional to the area of the domain walls. Structural disorder...

  19. From Complex Magnetism Ordering to Simple Ferromagnetism in Two-Dimensional LaCrSb{sub 3} by Hole Doping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haijie; Narayan, Awadhesh; Fang, Lei; Calta, Nicholas P.; Shi, Fengyuan; Chung, Duck Young; Wagner, Lucas; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-10-11

    Competing orders widely exist in many material systems, such as superconductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity; LaCrSb3 is a highly anisotropic magnetic material in which the spins are aligned ferromagnetically in one direction and canted antiferromagnetically in another in the Cr-Sb chains. Hole doping with Sr2+ and Ca2+ in the La site suppresses the antiferromagnetic correlations and transforms the anisotropic magnetic order into a ferromagnetic lattice in all directions. First-principles density functional theory calculations show that the canted magnetic order becomes energetically less favorable compared to the FM order upon hole doping. Doping in the La site is an effective approach to modulate the competing orders in LaCrSb3.

  20. Trapping ultracold atoms in a sub-micron-period triangular magnetic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tran, T.; Surendran, P.; Herrera, I.; Balcytis, A.; Nissen, D.; Albrecht, M.; Sidorov, A.; Hannaford, P.

    2017-07-01

    We report the trapping of ultracold 87Rb atoms in a 0.7-μ m-period two-dimensional triangular magnetic lattice on an atom chip. The magnetic lattice is created by a lithographically patterned magnetic Co/Pd multilayer film plus bias fields. Rubidium atoms in the |F =1 , mF=-1 > low-field seeking state are trapped at estimated distances down to about 100 nm from the chip surface and with calculated mean trapping frequencies up to about 800 kHz . The measured lifetimes of the atoms trapped in the magnetic lattice are in the range 0.4-1.7 ms , depending on distance from the chip surface. Model calculations suggest the trap lifetimes are currently limited mainly by losses due to one-dimensional thermal evaporation following loading of the atoms from the Z -wire trap into the very tight magnetic lattice traps, rather than by fundamental loss processes such as surface interactions, three-body recombination, or spin flips due to Johnson magnetic noise. The trapping of atoms in a 0.7 -μ m -period magnetic lattice represents a significant step toward using magnetic lattices for quantum tunneling experiments and to simulate condensed matter and many-body phenomena in nontrivial lattice geometries.

  1. Two-dimensional 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of roasted coffee bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-09-14

    Coffee was characterized by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To identify the coffee components, a detailed and approximately 90% signal assignment was carried out using various two-dimensional NMR spectra and a spiking method, in which authentic compounds were added to the roasted coffee bean extract (RCBE) sample. A total of 24 coffee components, including 5 polysaccharide units, 3 stereoisomers of chlorogenic acids, and 2 stereoisomers of quinic acids, were identified with the NMR spectra of RCBE. On the basis of the signal assignment, state analyses were further launched for the metal ion-citrate complexes and caffeine-chlorogenate complexes. On the basis of the signal integration, the coffee components were successfully quantified. This NMR methodology yielded detailed information on RCBE using only a single observation and provides a systemic approach for the analysis of other complex mixtures.

  2. Magnetic translation symmetry on the lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Ken-ichi; Okamoto, Tomohiro; Fujiwara, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic translation symmetry on a finite periodic square lattice is investigated for an arbitrary uniform magnetic field in arbitrary dimensions. It can be used to classify eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian. The system can be converted to another system of half or lower dimensions. A higher dimensional generalization of Harper equation is obtained for tight-binding systems.

  3. Zero-energy states bound to a magnetic {pi}-flux vortex in a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesaros, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.mesaros@bc.edu [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Slager, Robert-Jan; Zaanen, Jan; Juricic, Vladimir [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-02-21

    We show that the existence of a pair of zero-energy modes bound to a vortex carrying a {pi}-flux is a generic feature of the topologically non-trivial phase of the M-B model, which was introduced to describe the topological band insulator in HgTe quantum wells. We explicitly find the form of the zero-energy states of the corresponding Dirac equation, which contains a novel momentum-dependent mass term and describes a generic topological transition in a band insulator. The obtained modes are exponentially localized in the vortex-core, with the dependence of characteristic length on the parameters of the model matching the dependence extracted from a lattice version of the model. We consider in full generality the short-distance regularization of the vector potential of the vortex, and show that a particular choice yields the modes localized and simultaneously regular at the origin. Finally, we also discuss a realization of two-dimensional spin-charge separation through the vortex zero-modes.

  4. Two-dimensional model of the Penning discharge in a cylindrical chamber with the axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2017-08-01

    The drift-diffusion model of a Penning discharge in molecular hydrogen under pressures of about 1 Torr with regard to the external electric circuit has been proposed. A two-dimensional axially symmetric discharge geometry with a cylindrical anode and flat cathodes perpendicular to the symmetry axis has been investigated. An external magnetic field of about 0.1 T is applied in the axial direction. Using the developed drift-diffusion model, the electrodynamic structure of a Penning discharge in the pressure range of 0.5-5 Torr at a current source voltage of 200-500 V is numerically simulated. The evolution of the discharge electrodynamic structure upon pressure variations in zero magnetic field (the classical glow discharge mode) and in the axial magnetic field (Penning discharge) has been studied using numerical experiments. The theoretical predictions of the existence of an averaged electron and ion motion in a Penning discharge both in the axial and radial directions and in the azimuthal direction have been confirmed by the calculations.

  5. Evidence for nanoscale two-dimensional Co clusters in CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J O; Newville, M; Maranville, B B; Bordel, C; Hellman, F; Harris, V G

    2010-04-14

    The length scale of the local chemical anisotropy responsible for the growth-temperature-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of face-centered cubic CoPt(3) alloy films was investigated using polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). These x-ray measurements were performed on a series of four (111) CoPt(3) films epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrates. The EXAFS data show a preference for Co-Co pairs parallel to the film plane when the film exhibits magnetic anisotropy, and random chemical order otherwise. Furthermore, atomic pair correlation anisotropy was evidenced only in the EXAFS signal from the next neighbors to the absorbing Co atoms and from multiple scattering paths focused through the next neighbors. This suggests that the Co clusters are no more than a few atoms in extent in the plane and one monolayer in extent out of the plane. Our EXAFS results confirm the correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional Co segregation in CoPt(3) alloy films, and establish a length scale on the order of 10 Å for the Co clusters.

  6. Evidence for nanoscale two-dimensional Co clusters in CoPt{sub 3} films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J O [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newville, M [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Maranville, B B; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bordel, C [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harris, V G, E-mail: cbordel@berkeley.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    The length scale of the local chemical anisotropy responsible for the growth-temperature-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of face-centered cubic CoPt{sub 3} alloy films was investigated using polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). These x-ray measurements were performed on a series of four (111) CoPt{sub 3} films epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrates. The EXAFS data show a preference for Co-Co pairs parallel to the film plane when the film exhibits magnetic anisotropy, and random chemical order otherwise. Furthermore, atomic pair correlation anisotropy was evidenced only in the EXAFS signal from the next neighbors to the absorbing Co atoms and from multiple scattering paths focused through the next neighbors. This suggests that the Co clusters are no more than a few atoms in extent in the plane and one monolayer in extent out of the plane. Our EXAFS results confirm the correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional Co segregation in CoPt{sub 3} alloy films, and establish a length scale on the order of 10 A for the Co clusters.

  7. Exact diagonalization study of the spin-1 two-dimensional J{sub 1}–J{sub 3} Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P., E-mail: rubin@fi.tartu.ee; Sherman, A.

    2014-11-07

    The spin-1 Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice with the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic third-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, J{sub 1}=−(1−p)J and J{sub 2}=pJ, J>0(0≤p≤1), is studied with the use of the SPINPACK code. This model is applicable for the description of the magnetic properties of NiGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The ground, low-lying excited state energies and spin-spin correlation functions have been found for lattices with N=16 and N=20 sites with the periodic boundary conditions. These results are in qualitative agreement with earlier authors' results obtained with Mori's projection operator technique. - Highlights: • The S=1J{sub 1}–J{sub 3} Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice is studied. • The ferromagnetic nearest and AF 3rd-nearest-neighbor couplings are considered. • The exact diagonalization study of finite lattices was done. • The SPINPACK code using Lanczos' method is used for calculations. • The obtained results are in agreement with those obtained by Mori's approach.

  8. Magnetic switching of nanoscale antidot lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Lebecki, Kristof M; Skripnik, Maxim; Haering, Felix; Schütz, Gisela; Ziemann, Paul; Goering, Eberhard; Nowak, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Summary We investigate the rich magnetic switching properties of nanoscale antidot lattices in the 200 nm regime. In-plane magnetized Fe, Co, and Permalloy (Py) as well as out-of-plane magnetized GdFe antidot films are prepared by a modified nanosphere lithography allowing for non-close packed voids in a magnetic film. We present a magnetometry protocol based on magneto-optical Kerr microscopy elucidating the switching modes using first-order reversal curves. The combination of various magnetometry and magnetic microscopy techniques as well as micromagnetic simulations delivers a thorough understanding of the switching modes. While part of the investigations has been published before, we summarize these results and add significant new insights in the magnetism of exchange-coupled antidot lattices. PMID:27335762

  9. Magnetic switching of nanoscale antidot lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Wiedwald

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the rich magnetic switching properties of nanoscale antidot lattices in the 200 nm regime. In-plane magnetized Fe, Co, and Permalloy (Py as well as out-of-plane magnetized GdFe antidot films are prepared by a modified nanosphere lithography allowing for non-close packed voids in a magnetic film. We present a magnetometry protocol based on magneto-optical Kerr microscopy elucidating the switching modes using first-order reversal curves. The combination of various magnetometry and magnetic microscopy techniques as well as micromagnetic simulations delivers a thorough understanding of the switching modes. While part of the investigations has been published before, we summarize these results and add significant new insights in the magnetism of exchange-coupled antidot lattices.

  10. Magnetic translation group on Abrikosov lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic translational symmetry of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation describing quasiparticles in the vortex lattice state. Magnetic translation group is formulated for the quasiparticles and the generalized Bloch theorem is established. Projection operators are obtained and used to construct the symmetry adopted basis functions. Careful treatment of the phase of the pair potential and its quasiperiodicity enable us to get the magnetic Wannier functions, which are utilized to justify a part of Canel's assertion about the effective Hamiltonian theory.

  11. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation due to the translational diffusion of fluid confined to quasi-two-dimensional pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, D. A.; McDonald, P. J.; Howlett, N. C.

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxation experimentation is an effective technique for nondestructively probing the dynamics of proton-bearing fluids in porous media. The frequency-dependent relaxation rate T1-1 can yield a wealth of information on the fluid dynamics within the pore provided data can be fit to a suitable spin diffusion model. A spin diffusion model yields the dipolar correlation function G (t ) describing the relative translational motion of pairs of 1H spins which then can be Fourier transformed to yield T1-1. G (t ) for spins confined to a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) pore of thickness h is determined using theoretical and Monte Carlo techniques. G (t ) shows a transition from three- to two-dimensional motion with the transition time proportional to h2. T1-1 is found to be independent of frequency over the range 0.01-100 MHz provided h ≳5 nm and increases with decreasing frequency and decreasing h for pores of thickness h <3 nm. T1-1 increases linearly with the bulk water diffusion correlation time τb allowing a simple and direct estimate of the bulk water diffusion coefficient from the high-frequency limit of T1-1 dispersion measurements in systems where the influence of paramagnetic impurities is negligible. Monte Carlo simulations of hydrated Q2D pores are executed for a range of surface-to-bulk desorption rates for a thin pore. G (t ) is found to decorrelate when spins move from the surface to the bulk, display three-dimensional properties at intermediate times, and finally show a bulk-mediated surface diffusion (Lévy) mechanism at longer times. The results may be used to interpret NMR relaxation rates in hydrated porous systems in which the paramagnetic impurity density is negligible.

  12. Effects of anisotropy and magnetic fields on the specific heat of a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Li Yu-Qi; Pan Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects due to anisotropy and magnetic field interaction for a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot.The specific heat is studied with varying temperature,anisotropy,and magnetic field strength.The cases without and with the inclusion of the spin Zeeman interaction are considered.

  13. Magnetic field induced phase branches of the superconducting transition in two-dimensional square Π-loop arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dang-Ting; Tian Ye; Chen Geng-Hua; Yang Qian-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of explicit forms of free energy density for each possible arrangement of magnetization fluxes in large-scale two-dimensional (2D) square Π-loop arrays given by Li et al [2007 Chin.Phys.16 1450],the field-cooled superconducting phase transition is further investigated by analysing the free energy of the arrays with a simplified symmetrical model.Our analytical result is exactly the same as that obtained in Li's paper by means of numerical calculations.It is shown that the phase transition splits into two branches with either ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic flux ordering,which depends periodically on the strength of external magnetic flux φe through each loop and monotonically on the screen parameter β of the loops in the arrays.In principle,the diagram of the phase branches is similar to that of its one-dimensional counterpart.The influence of thermal fluctuation on the flux ordering during the transition from normal to superconducting states of the Π-loop arrays is also discussed.

  14. Two-dimensional inflow-wind solution of black hole accretion with an evenly symmetric magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mosallanezhad, Amin; Yuan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We solve the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations of black hole accretion with the presence of magnetic field. The field includes a turbulent component, whose role is represented by the viscosity, and a large-scale ordered component. The latter is further assumed to be evenly symmetric with the equatorial plane. The equations are solved in the $r-\\theta$ plane of a spherical coordinate by assuming time-steady and radially self-similar. An inflow-wind solution is found. Around the equatorial plane, the gas is inflowing; while above and below the equatorial plane at a certain critical $\\theta$ angle, $\\theta\\sim 47^{\\circ}$, the inflow changes its direction of radial motion and becomes wind. The driving forces are analyzed and found to be the centrifugal force and the gradient of gas and magnetic pressure. The properties of wind are also calculated. The specific angular momentum of wind is found to be significantly larger than that of inflow, thus wind can transfer angular momentum outward. These...

  15. Tailoring the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Sheets and Ribbons by Fluorination

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming

    2016-07-12

    Fluorination has been instrumental for tuning the properties of several two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2. However, its potential application has not yet been explored in 2D silicon carbide (SiC), a promising material for nanoelectronic devices. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of fully and partially fluorinated 2D SiC sheets and nanoribbons by means of density functional theory combined with cluster expansion calculations. We find that fully fluorinated 2D SiC exhibits chair configurations and a nonmagnetic semiconducting behavior. Fluorination is shown to be an efficient approach for tuning the band gap. Four ground states of partially fluorinated SiC, SiCF2x with x = 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, are obtained by cluster expansion calculations. All of them exhibit nanoroad patterns, with the x = 0.5 structure identified as the most stable one. The x = 0.0625 structure is a nonmagnetic metal, while the other three are all ferromagnetic half-metals, whose properties are not affected by the edge states. We propose an effective approach for modulating the electronic and magnetic behavior of 2D SiC, paving the way to applications of SiC nanostructures in integrated multifunctional and spintronic nanodevices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. Effects of antidot shape on the spin wave spectra of two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Ruma; Laha, Pinaki; Das, Kaustuv; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2013-12-23

    We show that the optically induced spin wave spectra of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) antidot lattices can be tuned by changing the antidot shape. The spin wave spectra also show an anisotropy with the variation of the in-plane bias field orientation. Analyses show this is due to various quantized and extended modes, whose nature changes with the antidot shape and bias field orientation as a result of the variation of the internal magnetic field profile. The observed variation and anisotropy in the spin waves with the internal and external parameters are important for their applications in magnonic devices.

  17. Magnetic translation algebra with or without magnetic field in the continuum or on arbitrary Bravais lattices in any dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic translation algebra plays an important role in the quantum Hall effect. Murthy and Shankar, arXiv:1207.2133, have shown how to realize this algebra using fermionic bilinears defined on a two-dimensional square lattice. We show that, in any dimension d, it is always possible to close the magnetic translation algebra using fermionic bilinears, whether in the continuum or on the lattice. We also show that these generators are complete in even, but not odd, dimensions, in the sense that any fermionic Hamiltonian in even dimensions that conserves particle number can be represented in terms of the generators of this algebra, whether or not time-reversal symmetry is broken. As an example, we reproduce the f-sum rule of interacting electrons at vanishing magnetic field using this representation. We also show that interactions can significantly change the bare bandwidth of lattice Hamiltonians when represented in terms of the generators of the magnetic translation algebra.

  18. Single-ion magnet behaviour in mononuclear and two-dimensional dicyanamide-containing cobalt(ii) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switlicka-Olszewska, Anna; Palion-Gazda, Joanna; Klemens, Tomasz; Machura, Barbara; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2016-06-21

    Three cobalt(ii) complexes of formulae [Co(dca)2(bim)4] (), [Co(dca)2(bim)2]n () and [Co(dca)2(bmim)2]n () [dca = dicyanamide, bim = 1-benzylimidazole and bmim = 1-benzyl-2-methylimidazole] were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound is a mononuclear species where the cobalt(ii) ion is six-coordinate with four bim molecules in the equatorial positions [Co-Nbim = 2.1546(15) and 2.1489(15) Å] and two trans-positioned dca ligands [Co-Ndca = 2.1575(18) Å] in the axial sites of a somewhat distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of and consist of two-dimensional grids of cobalt(ii) ions where each metal atom is linked to the other four metal centres by single dca bridges exhibiting the μ1,5-dca coordination mode [Co-Ndca = 2.190(3)-2.220(3) () and 2.127(3)-2.153(3) Å ()]. Two trans-coordinated bim ()/bmim () molecules achieve the six-coordination around each cobalt(ii) ion [Co-Nbim = 2.128(3)-2.134(4) Å () and Co-Nbmim = 2.156(3)-2.163(39) Å ()]. The values of the cobalt-cobalt separation through the single dca bridges are 8.927(2) and 8.968(2) Å in and 8.7110(5) and 8.7158(5) Å in . Magnetic susceptibility measurements for in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K reveal that these compounds behave as magnetically isolated high-spin cobalt(ii) ions with a significant orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements for show a frequency dependence of out-of-phase susceptibility under static applied fields in the range of 500-2500 G, a feature which is characteristic of the single-ion magnet behaviour (SIM) of the Co(ii) ion in them. The values of the energy barrier for the magnetic relaxation (Ea) are 5.45-7.74 (), 4.53-9.24 () and 11.48-15.44 cm(-1) (). They compare well with those previously reported for the analogous dca-bridged 2D compound [Co(dca)2(atz)2]n () (Ea = 5.1 cm(-1) under an applied static field of 1000 G), which was the subject of a

  19. Diverse effects of two-dimensional and step flow growth mode induced microstructures on the magnetic anisotropies of SrRuO[subscript3] thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y.Z.; Chmaissem, O.; Kolesnik, S.; Ullah, A.; Lurio, L.B.; Brown, D.E.; Brady, J.; Dabrowski, B.; Kimball, C.W.; Haji-Sheikh, M.; Genis, A.P. (NIU)

    2010-12-03

    Geometrical anisotropy axes of diverse SrRuO{sub 3} (SRO) films grown by random and directional two-dimensional and step flow modes are determined and their characteristic angular magnetizations are understood in terms of growth mode induced structural effects. Two-dimensional SRO films possess single-crystal-like structural qualities. Angular magnetization measurements show sharp minima and indicate the films easy axis to be in the [310] direction. In contrast, examination of step flow SRO films shows the presence of degenerate multiple in-plane domains and the anisotropy axis in a direction close to [110] even though directional surface steps are clearly visible.

  20. Nanosheets of Two-Dimensional Magnetic and Conducting Fe(II)/Fe(III) Mixed-Valence Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Samia; Abhervé, Alexandre; Gómez-Claramunt, Patricia; Vallés-García, Cristina; Gómez-García, Carlos J

    2017-08-09

    We report the synthesis, magnetic properties, electrical conductivity, and delamination into thin nanosheets of two anilato-based Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed-valence two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Compounds [(H3O)(H2O)(phenazine)3][Fe(II)Fe(III)(C6O4X2)3]·12H2O [X = Cl (1) and Br (2)] present a honeycomb layered structure with an eclipsed packing that generates hexagonal channels containing the water molecules. Both compounds show ferrimagnetic ordering at ca. 2 K coexisting with electrical conductivity (with room temperature conductivities of 0.03 and 0.003 S/cm). Changing the X group from Cl to Br leads to a decrease in the ordering temperature and room temperature conductivity that is correlated with the decrease of the electronegativity of X. Despite the ionic charge of the anilato-based layers, these MOFs can be easily delaminated in thin nanosheets with the thickness of a few monolayers.

  1. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Pham, Dang-Lan [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software Town, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: hoanglv@hcmup.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity.

  2. Destruction of Magnetic Long-Range Order by Hole-Induced Skyrmions in Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Tomoharu; Morinari, Takao

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the rapid destruction of antiferromagnetic long-range order in hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors, we study the effect of skyrmions on the magnetic long-range order (MLRO). Here we assume that either a skyrmion or antiskyrmion is introduced by a doped hole. Our numerical simulation indicates that in the case of isolated skyrmions, there is an abrupt disappearance of MLRO for doping concentration x < 1.0 × 10-4. In the case of skyrmion-antiskyrmion pairs, the critical doping concentration xc for the suppression of MLRO is given as a function of the separation of the pairs. For a moderate separation of 3-4 lattice constants, we find that the critical doping is consistent with the experimental value.

  3. Spirals and Skyrmions in two dimensional oxide heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W Vincent; Balents, Leon

    2014-02-14

    We construct the general free energy governing long-wavelength magnetism in two dimensional oxide heterostructures, which applies irrespective of the microscopic mechanism for magnetism. This leads, in the relevant regime of weak but non-negligible spin-orbit coupling, to a rich phase diagram containing in-plane ferromagnetic, spiral, cone, and Skyrmion lattice phases, as well as a nematic state stabilized by thermal fluctuations.

  4. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2017-03-07

    Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)}4C6](BF4)2·2(CH3OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)}4C6](PF6)2·2(CH3OH) (2) (salen(2-) = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6(2-) = C6H12(COO)2(2-)), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H2O)]X (X(-) = BF4(-) and PF6(-)) and C6H12(CO2(-))2 (C6(2-)) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ(4)-type C6(2-) ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C6H12 linkers of C6(2-) moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF4(-) and PF6(-), respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF4(-) is smaller than that of PF6(-), intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn(III) out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn(III) ion, the [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of TN = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

  5. Tricritical wetting in the two-dimensional Ising magnet due to the presence of localized non-magnetic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2016-03-31

    Fixed vacancies (non-magnetic impurities) are placed along the centre of Ising strips in order to study the wetting behaviour in this confined system, by means of numerical simulations analysed with the aid of finite size scaling and thermodynamic integration methods. By considering strips of size L × M (L interface between magnetic domains of different orientation (driven by the corresponding surface fields), which are the precursors of the wetting transitions that occur in the thermodynamic limit. By placing vacancies or equivalently non-magnetic impurities along the centre of the sample, we found that for low vacancy densities the wetting transitions are of second order, while by increasing the concentration of vacancies the transitions become of first order. Second- and first-order lines meet in tricritical wetting points (H(tric)(SW), T(tric)(W)), where H(tric)(SW) and T(Tric)(W) are the magnitude of the surface field and the temperature, respectively. In the phase diagram, tricritical points shift from the high temperature and weak surface field regime at large vacancy densities to the T --> 0, H(tric)(SW) --> 1 limit for low vacancy densities. By comparing the locations of the tricritical points with those corresponding to the case of mobile impurities, we conclude that in order to observe similar effects, in the latter the required density of impurities is much smaller (e.g. by a factor 3-5). Furthermore, a proper density of non magnetic impurities placed along the centre of a strip can effectively pin rather flat magnetic interfaces for suitable values of the competing surface fields and temperature.

  6. Negative differential conductivity induced current instability in two-dimensional electron gas system in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ping; Komiyama, Susumu; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2015-03-01

    High mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structure in high magnetic field (B) exhibits interring nonlinear response either under microwave radiation or to a dc electric field (E). It is general believed that this kind nonlinear behavior is closely related to the occurrence of negative-differential conductance (NDC) in the presence of strong B and E. We observe a new type NDC state driven by a direct current above a threshold value (Ith) applied to a 2DEG as a function of B at relatively high temperatures (T). A current instability is observed in 2DEG system at high B ~6-8 T and at high T ~ 20- 30 K while the applied current is over Ith. The longitudinal voltage Vxx shows sub-linear behavior with the increase of I. As the current exceed Ith, Vxx suddenly drops a ΔVxx and becomes irregular associated with the appearance of hysteresis with sweeping I. We find that Ith increases with the increase of B and of T; meanwhile, ΔVxx is larger at higher B but lower T. Data analysis suggest that the onset of voltage fluctuation can be described by a NDC model proposed by Kurosawa et al. in 1976. The general behaviors of T and B dependence of current instability are analog to those recently reported at lower both T and B. This consistence suggests the same genuine mechanism of NDC phenomena observed in 2DEG system.

  7. Fate of the cluster state on the square lattice in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kalis, H; Orus, R; Schmidt, K P

    2012-01-01

    The cluster state represents a highly entangled state which is one central object for measurement-based quantum computing. Here we study the robustness of the cluster state on the two-dimensional square lattice at zero temperature in the presence of external magnetic fields by means of different types of high-order series expansions and variational techniques using infinite Projected Entangled Pair States (iPEPS). The phase diagram displays a first-order phase transition line ending in two critical end points. Furthermore, it contains a characteristic self-dual line in parameter space allowing many precise statements. The self-duality is shown to exist on any lattice topology.

  8. Heat capacity and magnetic phase transition of two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Yuji [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyazaki@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Qi [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Qing-sen [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Matsumoto, Tetsuya [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Miyasaka, Hitoshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Matsumoto, Naohide [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sorai, Michio [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-06-15

    Heat capacities of the two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}] [3-MeOsalen N,N'-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneaminato) dianion], were measured at the temperatures from 0.5 to 300 K by adiabatic calorimetry. An antiferromagnetic phase transition was observed at T {sub N} = 8.29 K. Above T {sub N}, a heat capacity tail arising from the short-range-order effect of the spins was found, which is characteristic of two-dimensional magnets. The magnetic enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to be {delta}H = 373 J mol{sup -1} and {delta}S = 31.3 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively. The experimental magnetic entropy is in good agreement with {delta}S = R ln (5 x 5 x 2) (=32.5 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}; R being the gas constant), which is expected for the metal complex with two Mn(III) ions in high spin state (spin quantum number S = 2) and one Fe(III) ion in low spin state (S = 1/2). The spin wave analysis suggests that the complex shows three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order below T {sub N}. The heat capacity tail above T {sub N} was decreased by grinding and pressurizing the crystal. This mechanochemical effect would originate in the increase of lattice defects and imperfections in the crystal lattice, leading to decrease of the magnetic heat capacity and hence the magnetic enthalpy and entropy.

  9. Edge magnetism of Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Hikihara, Toshiya; Lee, Yen-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Hau

    2017-03-07

    Edge magnetism in graphene sparks intense theoretical and experimental interests. In the previous study, we demonstrated the existence of collective excitations at the zigzag edge of the honeycomb lattice with long-ranged Néel order. By employing the Schwinger-boson approach, we show that the edge magnons remain robust even when the long-ranged order is destroyed by spin fluctuations. Furthermore, in the effective field-theory limit, the dynamics of the edge magnon is captured by the one-dimensional relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is intriguing that the boundary field theory for the edge magnon is tied up with its bulk counterpart. By performing density-matrix renormalization group calculations, we show that the robustness may be attributed to the closeness between the ground state and the Néel state. The existence of edge magnon is not limited to the honeycomb structure, as demonstrated in the rotated-square lattice with zigzag edges as well. The universal behavior indicates that the edge magnons may attribute to the uncompensated edges and can be detected in many two-dimensional materials.

  10. Superconducting magnets for the LHC main lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2004-01-01

    The main lattice of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will employ about 1600 main magnets and more than 4000 corrector magnets. All superconducting and working in pressurized superfluid helium bath, these impressive line of magnets will fill more than 20 km of the underground tunnel. With almost 70 main dipoles already delivered and 10 main quadrupoles almost completed, we passed the 5% of the production and now all manufacturers have fully entered into series production. In this paper the most critical issues encountered in the ramping up in such a real large scale fabrication will be addressed: uniformity of the coil size and of prestress, special welding technique, tolerances on curvature (dipoles) or straightness (quadrupoles) and of the cold mass extremities, harmonic content and, most important, the integrated field uniformity among magnets. The actual limits and the solution for improvements will be discussed. Finally a realistic schedule based on actual achievements is presented.

  11. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...

  12. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional XY model at zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G; Niedermayer, F; Rácz, Z; Riveros, A; Zambrano, D

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical XY model on an L×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution Φ_{L}(y) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of Φ_{L}(y), and the limit distribution Φ_{L→∞}(y)=Φ_{0}(y) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections Φ_{L}(y)-Φ_{0}(y)≈a_{1}(L)Φ_{1}(y)+a_{2}(L)Φ_{2}(y) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a_{1}(L) scales as ln(L/L_{0})/L^{2} and the shape correction function Φ_{1}(y) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ_{1}(y)=[yΦ_{0}(y)+Φ_{0}^{'}(y)]^{'}. Thus, Φ_{1}(y) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a_{2}(L)∝1/L^{2} and one finds that a_{2}Φ_{2}(y)≪a_{1}Φ_{1}(y) already for small system size (L>10). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the XY model at low temperatures, including T=0.

  13. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  14. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.

  15. Discovery of hard-magnetic domains in two-dimensional arrays of soft-magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Shuangshuang; Wang, Tiantian; Chen, Kezheng, E-mail: kchen@qust.edu.cn [Lab of Functional and Biomedical Nanomaterials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2015-08-21

    In this study, abnormal hard-magnetic domains were discovered in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C composite material, in which well-ordered 16-nm-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cubes were tightly embedded into carbon sheets of tens of nanometers thick. It was found that ca. 40 columns of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocubes magnetically self-assembled into a single strip-type domain with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. More strikingly, remarkable domain misalignments, which were very similar to common edge dislocations among atomic planes in crystal lattices, were clearly observed and termed as “domain dislocation” in this work. The hard-magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C material, including large coercivity of 2150 Oe, high M{sub R}/M{sub S} value of 0.9, and strong anisotropy energy of 3.772 × 10{sup 5} erg/cm{sup 3}, were further ascertained by carefully designed electromagnetic absorption contrast experiments. It is anticipated that the discovery of hard-magnetic domains and domain dislocations within 2-D arrays of soft-magnetic nanomaterials will shed new light on the development of high-density perpendicular magnetic recording industry.

  16. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H1,δH1,H1,δH1,..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ3), H1tr/J=3, δtr=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×Tcb. Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H1w) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.44.1165 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ≪M, e.g., [H1(x,λ)>0], one can obtain the effective field Heff at a λ coarse-grained level given by Heff=(1)/(λ)∑x=1

  17. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H(1),δH(1),H(1),δH(1),..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ3), H(1)(tr)/J=3, δ(tr)=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×T(cb). Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H(1w)) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ0], one can obtain the effective field H(eff) at a λ coarse-grained level given by H(eff)=1/λ∑(x=1)(λ)H(1)(x,λ). Then we conjectured that the

  18. Accurate iterative solution of the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey) and Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey)]. E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com; Boztosun, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, we present the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field by using the asymptotic iteration method. The binding energy eigenvalues in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields ({gamma}<>0) are obtained within the framework of this iterative approach for 1S, 2P{sup -} and 3D{sup -} levels. The energy eigenvalues for the non-magnetic field case ({gamma}=0) are also determined and the results are compared with the values in weak and strong magnetic fields. The effect of the magnetic field strength on the energy eigenvalues are determined explicitly and excellent agreement with the findings of other methods is obtained.

  19. Two-dimensional percolation transition at finite temperature: Phase boundary for in-plane magnetism in films with two atomic layers of Fe on W(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, R.; Venus, D.

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) percolation transition in Fe/W(110) ultrathin magnetic films occurs when islands in the second atomic layer percolate and resolve a frustrated magnetic state to produce long-range in-plane ferromagnetic order. Novel measurements of percolation using the magnetic susceptibility χ (θ ) as the films are deposited at a constant temperature, allow the long-range percolation transition to be observed as a sharp peak consistent with a critical phase transition. The measurements are used to trace the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase boundary between the T =0 percolation magnetic transition and the thermal Curie magnetic transition of the undiluted film. A quantitative comparison to critical scaling theory is made by fitting the functional form of the phase boundary. The fitted parameters are then used in theoretical expressions for χ (T ) in the critical region of the paramagnetic state to provide an excellent, independent representation of the experimental measurements.

  20. Single-ion-magnet behavior in a two-dimensional coordination polymer constructed from Co(II) nodes and a pyridylhydrazone derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sun, Lin; Zhou, Huiliang; Cen, Peipei; Jin, Xiaoyong; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Hu, Qilin

    2015-09-21

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer, [Co(ppad)2]n (1), resulted from the assembly of Co(II) ions based on a versatile ligand termed N(3)-(3-pyridoyl)-3-pyridinecarboxamidrazone. Alternating/direct-current magnetic studies of compound 1 indicate that the spatially separated high-spin Co(II) ions act as single-ion magnets (SIMs). The present work represents the first case of a 2D Co(II)-based SIM composed of a monocomponent organic spacer.

  1. Indirect exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in the two-dimensional topological insulator based on CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovich, P. D.; Kurilovich, V. D.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study indirect exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in the (001) CdTe/HgTe/CdTe symmetric quantum well. We consider low temperatures and the case of the chemical potential placed in the energy gap of the two-dimensional quasiparticle spectrum. We find that the indirect exchange interaction is suppressed exponentially with the distance between magnetic impurities. The presence of inversion asymmetry results in oscillations of the indirect exchange interaction with the distance and generates additional terms which are noninvariant under rotations in the (001) plane. The indirect exchange interaction matrix has complicated structure with some terms proportional to the sign of the energy gap.

  2. Large Bi-Polar Signature in a Perpendicular Electric Field of Two-Dimensional Electrostatic Solitary Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection: Statistics and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-You; Zhang, Shi-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Hong

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) with a large perpendicular component which is a bi-polar waveform structure are observed in the boundary layer within the magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail. Such ESWs are called two-dimensional ESWs. A Singe-reconnection-based-statistical study of two-dimensional ESWs shows that: (1) ESWs can be continuously observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) associated with the magnetic reconnection diffusion region, and their amplitude ranges are mainly from several tens to hundreds of μV/m (2) both one-dimension-like ESWs (very small magnitude on E⊥) and two-dimension-like ESWs (large magnitude on E⊥, which are even comparable to that in the E‖) are observed within a small time interval; (3) within the observation time spans, more than 61% of ESWs are regarded as two-dimensional ESWs for the I2D > 20%. We discuss the bi-polar structure in E⊥. The observation of ESWs with a large bi-polar structure in the perpendicular electric field gives evidence that the unique waveform differs from previous understanding from observations and simulations which suggests that it should be a uni-polar waveform structure in the E⊥ of ESWs.

  3. Numerical study of magnetization plateaus in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the checkerboard lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    We present numerical evidence that the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the two-dimensional checkerboard lattice exhibits several magnetization plateaus for m =0 , 1 /4 , 1 /2 , and 3 /4 , where m is the magnetization normalized by its saturation value. These incompressible states correspond to somewhat similar valence-bond crystal phases that break lattice symmetries, though they are different from the already established plaquette phase for m =0 . Our results are based on exact diagonalization as well as density-matrix renormalization-group large-scale simulations and interpreted in terms of simple parameter-free trial wave functions.

  4. Random site dilution properties of frustrated magnets on a hierarchical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-24

    We present a method to analyze the magnetic properties of frustrated Ising spin models on specific hierarchical lattices with random dilution. Disorder is induced by dilution and geometrical frustration rather than randomness in the internal couplings of the original Hamiltonian. The two-dimensional model presented here possesses a macroscopic entropy at zero temperature in the large size limit, very close to the Pauling estimate for spin-ice on the pyrochlore lattice, and a crossover towards a paramagnetic phase. The disorder due to dilution is taken into account by considering a replicated version of the recursion equations between partition functions at different lattice sizes. An analysis to first order in replica number allows a systematic reorganization of the disorder configurations, leading to a recurrence scheme. This method is numerically implemented to evaluate thermodynamical quantities such as specific heat and susceptibility in an external field.

  5. Magnetic Imaging of Applied and Propagating Action Currents in Cardiac Tissue Slices: Determination of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivities in a Two-Dimensional Bidomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Daniel Joseph

    We describe the first, high-resolution magnetic images of applied currents and propagating action currents in slices of canine cardiac tissue. This tissue was maintained in vitro at 37^circC. Our main conclusions are summarized as follows: the action currents produce magnetic fields which are measurable; during the initial stages of the propagating action potential, small, expanding, quatrefoil loops of current develop; the magnetic fields produced by repolarization currents are larger than previously anticipated. Most of the current associated with the propagating action potential is confined within the wavefront and should be magnetically silent; however, differences in the intracellular and extracellular electrical conductivities, in both the longitudinal and transverse fiber directions, are great enough that expanding quatrefoil current densities are associated with the wavefront and produce measurable magnetic fields. Since action currents are affected by the electrical conductivities, it is of interest to determine their values, which depend not only upon the tissue characteristics, but also on the mathematical model used to interpret the measured data. In our analysis of current injection, we use the anisotropic bidomain model which incorporates a passive, linear membrane. We introduce theoretical techniques to calculate the anisotropic conductivities of a two-dimensional bidomain. To apply these techniques to magnetic fields resulting from current injection into cardiac tissue slices, we need to improve the higher spatial frequency content of our present measurements. This may be done by measuring the magnetic field closer to the cardiac slice (presently 2.5 mm), decreasing the sampling interval of the measurement, and increasing the sampling area of the field. Magnetic fields are produced by propagating action currents, which are in turn the result of the propagating action potential. From the magnetic field, we directly image isochronal transmembrane

  6. High magnetic field magnetization of a new triangular lattice antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Stritzinger, Laurel Elaine Winter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-23

    In CsV(MoO4)2, the magnetic V3+ ions with octahedral oxygen-coordination form a geometrically frustrated triangular lattice. So fare, there is no magnetic properties reported on it. Recently, we successfully grew single crystals of CsV(MoO4)2 by using flux method. The susceptibility shows a sharp drop around 24 K, representing a long range magnetic ordering. To understand the physical properties of this new triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), we pursued high field magnetization measurements to answer two questions: (i) what is the saturation field, which will be very useful to calculate the exchange interaction of the system? (ii) Will it exhibit spin state transition, such as the up up down phase with 1/3-saturation moment as other TLAFs? Recently, we performed VSM measurements in Cell 8, Tallahassee, NHMFL, the results show that the magnetization reaches 0.38 MuB at 34 T, which is just 19% of the full moment of 2 MuB for V3+ (3d2) ions. Apparently we need higher field to reach 1/3 value or full moment.

  7. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A., E-mail: ahierro@fc.up.pt; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo S/N, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología—CINN (CSIC—Universidad de Oviedo—Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnológico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Teixeira, J. M. [IN-IFIMUP, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Vélez, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo S/N, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  8. A Basic Experiment on Two-Dimensional Force of HTSC-Bulk in DC Magnetic-Field

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 欣二郎; 松田, 茂雄; 松本, 洋和

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTSC) bulk can levitate stably on a track which consists of permanent magnets of the same polarity. This is because HTSC-bulk has a pinning force which keeps from vertical displacement due to the weight. We have proposed a new LSM theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing force in using armature travelling-magnetic-field instead of permanent magnets. However, the lift force enough to levitate the vehicle on the ground ...

  9. Myocardial Damage Detected by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with Extracardiac Sarcoidosis: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Takashi; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging via the differences in myocardial deformation in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis who showed no structural and functional abnormalities in the heart. Forty-five patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with abnormal electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, including ventricular arrhythmias, heart block, regional wall motion abnormalities, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, were excluded. Ten age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited as a control group. Comprehensive echocardiography and DE magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain were consecutively assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic software in a 16-segment model of the left ventricle in accordance to the presence (DE+) or absence (DE-) of DE. Among the 45 patients, 36 segments in 13 patients showed DE. DE+ segments had lower peak circumferential strain than DE- and control segments (-14 ± 5% vs -28 ± 7% vs -30 ± 7%, P speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by DE magnetic resonance imaging in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Linear stability of horizontal, laminar fully developed, quasi-two-dimensional liquid metal duct flow under a transverse magnetic field and heated from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tony; Pothérat, Alban; Sheard, Gregory J.

    2017-03-01

    This study considers the linear stability of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flows subjected to a transverse magnetic field, to understand the instabilities that arise from the complex interaction between the effects of shear, thermal stratification, and magnetic damping. This fundamental study is motivated in part by the desire to enhance heat transfer in the blanket ducts of nuclear fusion reactors. In pure magnetohydrodynamic flows, the imposed transverse magnetic field causes the flow to become quasi-two-dimensional and exhibit disturbances that are localized to the horizontal walls. However, the vertical temperature stratification in Rayleigh-Bénard flows feature convection cells that occupy the interior region, and therefore the addition of this aspect provides an interesting point for investigation. The linearized governing equations are described by the quasi-two-dimensional model proposed by Sommeria and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 507 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082001177], which incorporates a Hartmann friction term, and the base flows are considered fully developed and one-dimensional. The neutral stability curves for critical Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, Rec and Rac, respectively, as functions of Hartmann friction parameter H have been obtained over 10-2≤H ≤104 . Asymptotic trends are observed as H →∞ following Rec∝H1 /2 and Rac∝H . The linear stability analysis reveals multiple instabilities which alter the flow both within the Shercliff boundary layers and the interior flow, with structures consistent with features from plane Poiseuille and Rayleigh-Bénard flows.

  11. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  12. Photonic Crystals: Two-Dimensional Programmable Manipulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles on-Chip (Adv. Mater. 15/2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Torti, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    P. Vavassori and co-workers demonstrate on page 2384 that field-controlled displacement of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nano-ring structures allows for capture and 2-dimensional remote manipulation of fluidborne magnetic nanoparticles over a chip surface....

  13. Magnetic Torque Studies in Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the magnetic torque τ of the organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 have been performed to investigate the magnetic properties. In the magnetic field dependence of τ, a very sharp structure is observed at ˜1.2 T, resulting from the spin-flop transition. A step-like behavior associated with small hysteresis appears at ˜10 T, which is caused by the antiferromagnetic insulator-paramagnetic metal (AFI-PM) transition. In the angular dependence of τ for magnetic fields in the b*-c plane, it is found that the zero-crossing angles significantly change with field and temperature. The changes provide reasonable evidence of the antiferromagnetic order of the π spins (not the Fe 3d spins) in the AFI phase. The AFI-PM transition field has a minimum when the magnetization of the 3d spins has a maximum as a function of field angle.

  14. Description and results of a two-dimensional lattice physics code benchmark for the Canadian Pressure Tube Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (PT-SCWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Langton, S.E.; Ball, M.R.; Novog, D.R.; Buijs, A., E-mail: hummeld@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Discrepancies have been observed among a number of recent reactor physics studies in support of the PT-SCWR pre-conceptual design, including differences in lattice-level predictions of infinite neutron multiplication factor, coolant void reactivity, and radial power profile. As a first step to resolving these discrepancies, a lattice-level benchmark problem was designed based on the 78-element plutonium-thorium PT-SCWR fuel design under a set of prescribed local conditions. This benchmark problem was modeled with a suite of both deterministic and Monte Carlo neutron transport codes. The results of these models are presented here as the basis of a code-to-code comparison. (author)

  15. Investigating the sign problem for two-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ and $\\mathcal{N}=(8,8)$ lattice super Yang--Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Galvez, Richard; Joseph, Anosh; Mehta, Dhagash

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been some controversy in the literature concerning the existence of a fermion sign problem in the $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ supersymmetric Yang--Mills (SYM) theories on the lattice. In this work, we address this issue by conducting Monte Carlo simulations not only for $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ but also for $\\mathcal{N}=(8,8)$ SYM in two dimensions for the U(N) theories with N=2, using the new ideas derived from topological twisting followed by geometric discretization. Our results from simulations provide the evidence that these theories do {\\it not} suffer from a sign problem as the continuum limit is approached. These results thus boost confidence that these new lattice formulations can be used successfully to explore the nonperturbative aspects of the four-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory.

  16. Density of Zeros on the Lee-Yang circle obtained from magnetization data of a two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Binek, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide an experimental access to the statistical theory of Lee and Yang (1952) the density function g(theta) of zeros on the Lee-Yang circle has been determined for the first time by analyzing isothermal magnetization data, m(H), of the Ising ferromagnet FeCl2 in axial magnetic fields, H, at temperatures 34 < T < 99K. The validity of our approach is demonstrated by the perfect agreement of magnetic specific heat data as calculated from g(theta) and m(H) via Maxwells relation, res...

  17. Study on the flow behavior of ferrofluids in a two-dimensional channel (1st report). Magnetic field of various derections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukio; Ishibashi, Yukio; Saito, Eiji; Saito, Toshio

    1988-02-25

    For elucidation of the flow behavior of a magnetic fluid as a one-phase fluid, water base ferrofluids were introduced in a two-dimensional channel and the action of a uniform vertical magnetic field axial magnetic field, and both fields inclined at various angles to examine the laminar flow region. The ferrofluids used in the experiment were prepared by dispersing 17.5 weight % of Fe/sub 3/ O/sub 4/ fine particles of about 100A in diameter into ion-exchange water, and adding an anionic sodium oleate to stabilize the dispersion. Under no action of the magnetic fields, ferrofluids having a higher concentration than the above value exhibited plastic fluid. As the direction of the magnetic field acting on the fluid approached the vertical, so the pressure loss was increased. The pipe friction coefficient could be expressed by the empirical formula of which the variables are the ratios of inertia force/viscous force and magnetic force/viscous force, and the inclination of the magnetic poles. (15 figs, 14 refs)

  18. Quantum Hall effect in a bulk antiferromagnet EuMnBi2 with magnetically confined two-dimensional Dirac fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Atsushi; Shiogai, Junichi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Awaji, Satoshi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    For the innovation of spintronic technologies, Dirac materials, in which low-energy excitation is described as relativistic Dirac fermions, are one of the most promising systems because of the fascinating magnetotransport associated with extremely high mobility. To incorporate Dirac fermions into spintronic applications, their quantum transport phenomena are desired to be manipulated to a large extent by magnetic order in a solid. We report a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect in a layered antiferromagnet EuMnBi2, in which field-controllable Eu magnetic order significantly suppresses the interlayer coupling between the Bi layers with Dirac fermions. In addition to the high mobility of more than 10,000 cm(2)/V s, Landau level splittings presumably due to the lifting of spin and valley degeneracy are noticeable even in a bulk magnet. These results will pave a route to the engineering of magnetically functionalized Dirac materials.

  19. Numerical Examination of the Stability of an Exact Two-dimensional Solution for Flux Pile-up Magnetic Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, S; Tanuma, S; Shibata, K; Takahashi, M; Tanigawa, T; Sasaqui, T; Noro, A; Uehara, K; Takahashi, K; Taniguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and tearing instabilities are likely to be important for the process of fast magnetic reconnection that is believed to explain the observed explosive energy release in solar flares. Theoretical studies of the instabilities, however, typically invoke simplified initial magnetic and velocity fields that are not solutions of the governing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. In the present study, the stability of a reconnecting current sheet is examined using a class of exact global MHD solutions for steady state incompressible magnetic reconnection (Craig & Henton 1995). Numerical simulation indicates that the outflow solutions where the current sheet is formed by strong shearing flows are subject to the KH instability. The inflow solutions where a fast and weakly sheared inflow leads to a strong magnetic field pile-up at the entrance to the sheet are shown to be tearing unstable. Although the observed instability of the solutions can be interpreted qualitatively by applying standa...

  20. Exact solution to two-dimensional isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field in non-commutative phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gao-Feng; LONG Chao-Yun; LONG Zheng-Wen; QIN Shui-Jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field is researched in the non-commutative phase space;the corresponding exact energy is obtained,and the analytic eigenfunction is presented in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function.It is shown that in the non-commutative space,the isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field has the similar behaviors to the Landau problem.

  1. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and √3 × √3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional √3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  2. Wake effect and stopping power for a charged ion moving in magnetized two-component plasmas: two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2010-08-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) model is proposed to study the wake field and stopping power induced by a nonrelativistic charged particle moving perpendicular to the external magnetic field in two-component plasmas. The effects of the magnetic field on the wake potential and the stopping due to the polarization of both the plasma ions and electrons are discussed. The velocity fields of plasma ions and electrons are investigated, respectively, in the weak and strong magnetic field cases. Our simulation results show that in the case of weak magnetic field and high ion velocity, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures and the opening cone angles decrease with the increasing ion velocity. As the magnetic field becomes strong, the wakes lose their typical V-shaped structures and become highly asymmetrical. Similar results can be obtained in the case of low ion velocity and strong magnetic field. In addition, stopping power is calculated and compared with previous one-dimensional and full three-dimensional PIC results.

  3. Study of Landau spectrum for a two-dimensional random magnetic field; Etude du spectre de Landau pour un champ magnetique aleatoire en dimension deux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtlehner, C. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-09-24

    This thesis deals with the two-dimensional problem of a charged particle coupled to a random magnetic field. Various situations are considered, according to the relative importance of the mean value of field and random component. The last one is conceived as a distribution of magnetic impurities (punctual vortex), having various statistical properties (local or non-local correlations, Poisson distribution, etc). The study of this system has led to two distinct situations: - the case of the charged particle feeling the influence of mean field that manifests its presence in the spectrum of broadened Landau levels; - the disordered situation in which the spectrum can be distinguished from the free one only by a low energy Lifshits behaviour. Additional properties are occurring in the limit of `strong` mean field, namely a non-conventional low energy behaviour (in contrast to Lifshits behaviour) which was interpreted in terms of localized states. (author) 78 refs.

  4. Two-Dimensional MHD Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection Triggered by A Supernova Shock in Interstellar Medium, Generation of X-Ray Gas in Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, S; Kudoh, T; Shibata, K; Tanuma, Syuniti; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-01-01

    We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. We found that the magnetic reconnection starts long after a supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) Tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock, and the current sheet becomes thin in its nonlinear stage. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) ``Secondary tearing-mode instability'' occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs and anomalous resistivity sets in, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. Petschek type reconnection starts and heats interste...

  5. Design of a new two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: Mn-doped GaN monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Xiong, Zhihua; Luo, Lan; Sun, Zhenhui; Qin, Zhenzhen; Chen, Lanli; Wu, Ning

    2017-02-01

    To meet the need of low-dimensional spintronic devices, we investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped GaN monolayer using first-principles method. We find the nonmagnetic GaN monolayer exhibits half-metallic ferromagnetism by Mn doping due to double-exchange mechanism. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic coupling in Mn-doped GaN monolayer is enhanced with tensile strain and weakened with compressive strain. What is more, the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transformation occurs under compressive strain of -9.5%. These results provide a feasible approach for fabrication of a new GaN monolayer based diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  6. Dilution Effects on Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnets with Non-Magnetic Spin-Gapped Ground State

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Chitoshi; Todo, Synge; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    Dilution effects on spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with a non-magnetic spin-gapped ground state are studied by means of the qunatum Monte Carlo simulation. In the site-diluted system, an antiferromagnetic long-range order (AF-LRO) is induced at an infinitesimal concentration of dilution due to an effective coupling $\\tilde{J}_{mn}$ between induced magnetic moments. In the bond-diluted case, on the other hand, the AF-LRO is not induced up to a certain concentration of dilution du...

  7. Exponential suppression of interlayer conductivity in very anisotropic quasi-two-dimensional compounds in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, P.D., E-mail: grigorev@itp.ac.ru [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    It is shown that in rather strong magnetic field the interlayer electron conductivity is exponentially damped by the Coulomb barrier arising from the formation of polaron around each localized electron state. The theoretical model is developed to describe this effect, and the calculation of the temperature and field dependence of interlayer magnetoresistance is performed. The results obtained agree well with the experimental data in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and in strongly anisotropic organic metals. The proposed theory allows to use the experiments on interlayer magnetoresistance to investigate the electron states, localized by magnetic field and disorder.

  8. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of transition-metal atom adsorbed two-dimensional GaAs nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia; Xiang, Gang; Yu, Tian; Lan, Mu; Zhang, Xi

    2016-09-01

    By using first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, the electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transitional metal (TM) atoms (from Sc to Zn) adsorbed monolayer GaAs nanosheets (GaAsNSs) are systematically investigated. Upon TM atom adsorption, GaAsNS, which is a nonmagnetic semiconductor, can be tuned into a magnetic semiconductor (Sc, V, and Fe adsorption), a half-metal (Mn adsorption), or a metal (Co and Cu adsorption). Our calculations show that the strong p-d hybridization between the 3d orbit of TM atoms and the 4p orbit of neighboring As atoms is responsible for the formation of chemical bonds and the origin of magnetism in the GaAsNSs with Sc, V, and Fe adsorption. However, the Mn 3d orbit with more unpaired electrons hybridizes not only with the As 4p orbit but also with the Ga 4p orbit, resulting in a stronger exchange interaction. Our results may be useful for electronic and magnetic applications of GaAsNS-based materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174212).

  9. Visualization and quantification of four steps in magnetic field induced two-dimensional ordering of superparamagnetic submicron particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajula, Gnana Prakash; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2010-01-01

    We hereby report a methodology that permits a quantitative investigation of the temporal self-organization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in the presence of an external magnetic field. The kinetics of field-induced self-organization into linear chains, time-dependent chain-size distribution...

  10. Control of lattice spacing in a triangular lattice of feeble magnetic particles formed by induced magnetic dipole interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Hirota, Tsutomu Ando, Ryo Tanaka, Hitoshi Wada and Yoshio Sakka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied methods of controlling the spacing between particles in the triangular lattice formed by feeble magnetic particles through induced magnetic dipole interaction. Formation of a triangular lattice is described by the balance between the magnetic force and the interaction of induced magnetic dipoles. The intensity of the magnetic force is proportional to the volume of particles V and the difference in the magnetic susceptibilities between the particles and the surrounding medium Δχ. On the other hand, the intensity of the induced magnetic dipole interaction depends on the square of V and Δχ. Therefore, altering the magnetic susceptibility difference by changing the susceptibility of the surrounding medium, volume of the particles, and intensity and spatial distribution of the applied magnetic field effectively controls the distance between the particles. In this study, these three methods were evaluated through experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. The distance between the particles, i.e. the lattice constant of the triangular lattice, was varied from 1.7 to 4.0 in units of the particle diameter. Formation of self-organized triangular lattice through the induced magnetic dipole interaction is based on magnetism, a physical property that all materials have. Therefore, this phenomenon is applicable to any materials of any size. Consequently, structure formation through induced magnetic dipole interaction is a potential way of fabricating materials with ordered structures.

  11. Simulating high Reynolds number flow in two-dimensional lid-driven cavity by multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai Zhen-Hua; Shi Bao-Chang; Zheng Lin

    2006-01-01

    By coupling the non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme for boundary condition with the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, this paper finds that the stability of the multi-relaxation-time model can be improved greatly, especially on simulating high Reynolds number (Re) flow. As a discovery, the super-stability analysed by Lallemand and Luo is verified and the complex structure of the cavity flow is also exhibited in our numerical simulation when Re is high enough. To the best knowledge of the authors, the maximum of Re which has been investigated by direct numerical simulation is only around 50 000 in the literature; however, this paper can readily extend the maximum to 1000 000 with the above combination.

  12. Disordered phase of the two-dimensional J{sub 1}–J{sub 2} Heisenberg antiferromagnet with S=1 on a square lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, A.S.T. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, CP 702, 30123-970 (Brazil); Lapa, R.S., E-mail: rodrigophc@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, CP 702, 30123-970 (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    We study the disordered phase of the J{sub 1}–J{sub 2} frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet with spin S=1 on a square lattice using a SU(3) Schwinger boson representation. In the approximation of Bose condensation and in a mean-field treatment of the four-operator terms, we calculate the gap as a function of J{sub 1}/J{sub 2}, and the quadrupole static structure factor at zero temperature. Our results indicate the existence of a nematic state in the paramagnetic phase. - Highlights: ► The disordered phase is studied. ► The energy gap in the paramagnetic phase is calculated. ► The static spin structure factor is calculated. ► The static quadrupole structure factor is calculated. ► The ground state energy is calculated.

  13. Driving magnetic order in a manganite by ultrafast lattice excitation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, M.; Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Moore, R.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Trigo, M.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Hill, J. P.; Cavalleri, A. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Hamburg); (Brookhaven Nat. Lab.); (Fritz-Haber-Inst. Max Planck Soc.); (Univ. Oxford); (Lawrence Berkeley Lab.); (SLAC Nat. Accel. Lab.); (Stanford Univ.); (European XFEL); (Diamond Light Source)

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond midinfrared pulses are used to directly excite the lattice of the single-layer manganite La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. Magnetic and orbital orders, as measured by femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction with an x-ray free-electron laser, are reduced within a few picoseconds. This effect is interpreted as a displacive exchange quench, a prompt shift in the equilibrium value of the magnetic- and orbital-order parameters after the lattice has been distorted. Control of magnetism through ultrafast lattice excitation may be of use for high-speed optomagnetism.

  14. Anisotropic electronic and magnetic properties of the quasi-two-dimensional heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, A. L.; Arko, A. J.; Sarrao, J. L.; Hundley, M. F.; Fisk, Z.

    2000-12-01

    We have used high pulsed magnetic fields to 50 T to observe de Haas--van Alphen oscillations in the tetragonal antiferromagnet CeRhIn{sub 5}, which has an enhanced value of the electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma}{approx}>420 mJ/molK{sup 2}. For Tmagnetic field are consistent with the existence of an anisotropic spin-density wave opening a gap in the Fermi surface. The low-temperature magnetization reveals a magnetic phase transition that appears to be first order in nature. Quantum oscillations, which are observed for Tmagnetic properties are anisotropic due to the quasi-two-dimensional crystal structure.

  15. A hybrid wavelet-based adaptive immersed boundary finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method for two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiongwei; Yao, Xiongliang; Wang, Zhikai; Liu, Minghao

    2017-03-01

    A second generation wavelet-based adaptive finite-difference Lattice Boltzmann method (FD-LBM) is developed in this paper. In this approach, the adaptive wavelet collocation method (AWCM) is firstly, to the best of our knowledge, incorporated into the FD-LBM. According to the grid refinement criterion based on the wavelet amplitudes of density distribution functions, an adaptive sparse grid is generated by the omission and addition of collocation points. On the sparse grid, the finite differences are used to approximate the derivatives. To eliminate the special treatments in using the FD-based derivative approximation near boundaries, the immersed boundary method (IBM) is also introduced into FD-LBM. By using the adaptive technique, the adaptive code requires much less grid points as compared to the uniform-mesh code. As a consequence, the computational efficiency can be improved. To justify the proposed method, a series of test cases, including fixed boundary cases and moving boundary cases, are invested. A good agreement between the present results and the data in previous literatures is obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the present AWCM-IB-LBM.

  16. Study the two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal band gap and coupling characters%二维三角形光子晶体带隙与耦合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未; 陈小玲

    2011-01-01

    利用二维三角晶格介质柱光子晶体TE偏振的禁带与介质柱半径的变化关系,分析了二维光子晶体的带隙分布及斜边耦合特性.结果表明,光子禁带的大小受到构成光子晶体的介电材料的空间排列分布以及介质柱半径大小的影响;束缚在光子晶体中的光波可以在波导和谐振腔中进行传输,达到选择输出光波的目的.%The paper study the relation between two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal band gap for TE polarizationand dielectric cylinder radius, and study distribution of two dimensional photonic crystal defect state. Results show, the photonic crystal band gaps were distributed by dielectric material space distribution and medium size of the radius; Tied in the photon crystals of light waves can transmission in waveguides and resonator cavity to select the output of light waves.

  17. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  18. Magnetic ground state of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuCl2)1+y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, T.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yoshino, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Nishio, Y.; Kajita, K.; Anyfantis, G. A.; Papavassiliou, G. C.; Murata, K.

    2006-11-01

    To understand the interplay between transport and magnetic properties, quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) organic conductor τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDTTTF)2(AuCl2)1+y was studied by measurements of electric resistivity ( ρa, ρc), magnetoresistance (MR), susceptibility (χ) and specific heat (C) in the temperature region between 1 K and 300 K. In spite of the fact that the drastic changes were observed in ρa, ρc, MR and χ at TC = 20 K, no anomaly was seen in C. The concentration of spins estimated from M-H curve is about 360 ppm, which is difficult to detect anomaly in C. These data suggest that the number of spins is very small in the ground state like spin-glass system.

  19. Numerical study of the effect of disorder and magnetic field on the quantum transport of two-dimensional nanostructures modeled by tight-binding approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Taghizdehsiskht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In recent years, semiconductor nanostructures have become the model systems of choice for investigation of electrical conduction on short length scales. Quantum transport is studied in a two dimensional electron gas because of the combination of a large Fermi wavelength and large mean free path. In the present work, a numerical method is implemented in order to contribute to the understanding of quantum transport in narrow channels in different conditions of disorder and magnetic fields. We have used an approach that has proved to be very useful in describing mesoscopic transport. We have assumed zero temperature and phase coherent transport. By using the trick that a conductor connected to infinite leads can be replaced by a finite conductor with the effect of the leads incorporated through a 'self-energy' function, a convenient method was provided for evaluating the Green's function of the whole device numerically. Then, Fisher-Lee relations was used for calculating the transmission coefficients through coherent mesoscopic conductors. Our calculations were done in a model system with Hard-wall boundary conditions in the transverse direction, and the Anderson model of disorder was used in disordered samples. We have presented the results of quantum transport for different strengths of disorder and introduced magnetic fields. Our results confirmed the Landauer formalism for calculation of electronic transport. We observed that weak localization effect can be removed by application of a weak perpendicular magnetic field. Finally, we numerically showed the transition to the integral quantum Hall effect regime through the suppression of backscattering on a disordered model system by calculating the two­ terminal conductance of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum conductor as a strong magnetic field is applied. Our results showed that this regime is entered when there is a negligible overlap between electron edge states localized at opposite sides of

  20. Magnetic properties of checkerboard lattice: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, A.; Masrour, R.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-06-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic mixed-spin Ising model in the checkerboard lattice are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The variation of total magnetization and magnetic susceptibility with the crystal field has been established. We have obtained a transition from an order to a disordered phase in some critical value of the physical variables. The reduced transition temperature is obtained for different exchange interactions. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. The multiples hysteresis cycle in checkerboard lattice are obtained. The multiples hysteresis cycle have been established. The ferrimagnetic mixed-spin Ising model in checkerboard lattice is very interesting from the experimental point of view. The mixed spins system have many technological applications such as in domain opto-electronics, memory, nanomedicine and nano-biological systems. The obtained results show that that crystal field induce long-range spin-spin correlations even bellow the reduced transition temperature.

  1. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  2. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  3. Structure and magnetic properties of the two-dimensional ferrimagnet (NEt4)[[Mn(salen)]2Fe(CN)6]: investigation of magnetic anisotropy on a single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Ieda, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Naohide; Sugiura, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2003-06-02

    The title compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(salen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (1), was synthesized via a 1:1 reaction of [Mn(salen)(H(2)O)]ClO(4) with (NEt(4))(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] in a methanol/ethanol medium (NEt(4)(+) = tetraethylammonium cation, salen(2)(-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylidene)iminate). The two-dimensional layered structure of 1 was revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis: 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with cell dimensions of a = 12.3660(8) A, b = 15.311(1) A, c = 12.918(1) A, beta = 110.971(4) degrees, Z = 2 and is isostructural to the previously synthesized compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(5-Clsalen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (5-Clsalen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylidene)iminate; Miyasaka, H.; Matsumoto, N.; Re, N.; Gallo, E.; Floriani, C. Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 670). The Mn ion is surrounded by an equatorial salen quadridentate ligand and two axial nitrogen atoms from the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) unit, the four Fe[bond]CN groups of which coordinate to the Mn ions of [Mn(salen)](+) units, forming a two-dimensional network having [[bond]Mn[bond]NC[bond]Fe[bond]CN[bond

  4. Zero-Field Magnetism of a Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, Determined by Muon Spin Rotation and Magnetization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miho; Uehara, Tomotaka; Taniguchi, Hiromi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Isao

    2015-05-01

    The zero-field magnetism of a two-dimensional noncollinear antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, has been investigated by magnetization and zero-field muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements. Low-field magnetization measurements enabled us to determine the magnetic transition temperature TN as 22.80 ± 0.02 K. Distinct muon spin precession signals appeared below 21.4 K. μSR spectra below 21.4 K were well described by two types of precession components and a relaxation one. The temperature dependence of internal field converted by μSR data was in good agreement with that of macroscopic residual magnetism. These results suggest that the tiny interlayer interaction, which has been suggested to be almost 106 times less than the intralayer exchange interaction, spontaneously causes the three-dimensional long-range order.

  5. Cerebral blood flow volume measurements of the carotid artery and ipsilateral branches using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    The optimal velocity encoding of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRA) in measuring cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) ranges from 60 to 80 cm/s. To verify the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) PC MRA, the present study localized the region of interest at blood vessels of the neck using PC MRA based on three-dimensional time-of-flight sequences, and the velocity encodingwas set to 80 cm/s. Results of the measurements showed that the error rate was 7.0 ± 6.0%in the estimation of BFV in the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery and the ipsilateralcommon carotid artery. There was no significant difference, and a significant correlation in BFV between internal carotid artery + external carotid artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery. Inaddition, the BFV of the common carotid artery was correlated with that of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The main error was attributed to the external carotid artery and its branches. Therefore,after selecting the appropriate scanning parameters and protocols, 2D PC MRA is more accuratein the determination of BFV in the carotid arteries.

  6. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property of a Two-dimensional Manganese Compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; WANG Wen-Guo; MA Cheng-Bing; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian; LIAO Dai-Zheng; LI Li-Cun

    2007-01-01

    A new two-dimensional polymeric manganese compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n 1 has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in space group Pbcn with a = 18.7158(2), b = 11.6919(3), c = 9.4799(2)(A), V = 2074.42(7)(A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 453.34, Dc = 1.452 g/cm3, μ = 0.670 mm-1 and F(000) = 932. The final refinement gave R = 0.0458 and wR = 0.1439 for 1358 observed reflections with Ⅰ> 2σ(Ⅰ). The complex consists of repeating units of Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine). Each Mn center is sixcoordinated by four carboxylate O atoms of four benzoate anions and two pyridyl N atoms from bipy ligands to furnish a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The two adjacent Mn atoms are connected by a pair of μ1,3-carboxylate groups to form infinite chains, which are further interlinked by bipy to complete a 2D grid network. The magnetic property of the polymeric complex has also been investigated.

  7. Tight-binding electrons on triangular and kagome lattices under staggered modulated magnetic fields: quantum Hall effects and Hofstadter butterflies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde, E-mail: yfwang_nju@hotmail.com [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, and Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2011-04-20

    We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength {phi}, and a staggered-flux part with strength {Delta}{phi}. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When {phi} is fixed, variation of {Delta}{phi} leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero {Delta}{phi}s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of {Delta}{phi} = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by {Delta}{phi}.

  8. Spiral Magnetic Order in the One-Dimensional Kondo Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-Rong; LI Zheng-Zhong; SHEN Rui

    2001-01-01

    The effects of c-f (conduction-f electrons) hybridization on the spiral spin magnetism in the one dimensional Kondo lattice are studied. By using the mean-field approximation, a close set of equations of the Green's functions with arbitrary wave vector Q for the spiral ordering of spins is deduced. The magnetic phase boundary between the spiral magnetism and ferromagnetism has been calculated approximately. From our qualitative results, one can find that the ferromagnetic region is enlarged due to the c f hybridization. Moreover, some new results reflecting the Kondo effect, such as the modified dispersion relation and the weakening of the localized magnetic moments are also obtained.

  9. Lattice studies of magnetic phenomena in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V; Teryaev, O V

    2012-01-01

    We review some experimental consequences of the presence of superstrong magnetic fields of order of the nuclear scale in noncentral heavy-ion collisions. We present lattice estimates for the strength of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) for different quark flavours and argue that the dependence of the anisotropy of the distribution of emitted hadrons on their flavor content might be used as another experimental evidence of the CME. Another possible effect of superstrong magnetic field might be the observed abnormal enhancement of dilepton yield. We show that the presence of the magnetic field leads to a specific anisotropy of the dilepton emission rate.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of the magnetized Coulomb crystal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhberov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It is thought that Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed lattice may form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we are trying to verify this prediction assuming that the direction of the magnetic field corresponds to the minimum of the zero-point energy. We also continue a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that the total Helmholtz free energy of the body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal is always lower than that of the Coulomb crystal with hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic lattice, which casts doubt on the hypothesis above.

  11. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  12. Magnetic fields in QCD vacuum: A lattice view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buividovich, P.V. [Regensburg University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We review the basic phenomena in QCD subject to strong magnetic fields which are accessible in experiment and can be also studied in lattice QCD simulations: enhanced fluctuations of electric current and electric dipole moment, the negative magnetoresistivity and the inverse magnetic catalysis. We comment on the possibility of experimental detection of negative magnetoresistivity by analysing the angular distributions of dilepton pairs in off-central heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic fields in QCD vacuum: A lattice view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    We review the basic phenomena in QCD subject to strong magnetic fields which are accessible in experiment and can be also studied in lattice QCD simulations: enhanced fluctuations of electric current and electric dipole moment, the negative magnetoresistivity and the inverse magnetic catalysis. We comment on the possibility of experimental detection of negative magnetoresistivity by analysing the angular distributions of dilepton pairs in off-central heavy-ion collisions.

  14. Intrinsic magnetization in the novel quasi-two-dimensional superconducting and magnetic Fe1+δTe1-xSex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Michioka, Chishiro; Matsui, Mami; Ohta, Hiroto; Yang, Jinhu; Fang, Minghu

    2011-06-01

    Intrinsic spin susceptibility of the novel layered superconducting and magnetic system Fe1+δTe1-xSex was investigated by means of the magnetization measurements in comparing with the 125Te NMR Knight shift 125K. The macroscopic uniform susceptibility in Fe1+δTe1-xSex consists of the itinerant magnetization originated in the Fe(1) site, localized one in the Fe(2) site and the ferromagnetic-like impurity which is frequently sandwiched by the thin film-like single crystals. Unlike the macroscopic magnetization, Knight shift 125K is mainly attributed to the itinerant magnetism of the Fe(1) site, which is important for the superconductivity and the magnetism in the Fe1+δTe1-xSex system. The magnetic susceptibility estimated in the high-field region agrees well with 125K. The uniform susceptibility of the superconducting Fe1+δTe1-xSex gradually decreases with decreasing temperature in the normal state accompanied by the growth of antiferromagnetic spin afluctuations.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetic and abundance mapping of the cool Ap star HD 24712 II. Two-dimensional Magnetic Doppler Imaging in all four Stokes parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Rusomarov, N; Ryabchikova, T; Piskunov, N

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present a magnetic Doppler imaging study from all Stokes parameters of the cool, chemically peculiar star HD 24712. This is the very first such analysis performed at a resolving power exceeding 10^5. Methods: The analysis is performed on the basis of phase-resolved observations of line profiles in all four Stokes parameters obtained with the HARPSpol instrument attached at the 3.6-m ESO telescope. We use the magnetic Doppler imaging code, INVERS10, which allows us to derive the magnetic field geometry and surface chemical abundance distributions simultaneously. Results: We report magnetic maps of HD 24712 recovered from a selection of FeI, FeII, NdIII, and NaI lines with strong polarization signals in all Stokes parameters. Our magnetic maps successfully reproduce most of the details available from our observation data. We used these magnetic field maps to produce abundance distribution map of Ca. This new analysis shows that the surface magnetic field of HD 24712 has a dominant dipolar component wit...

  16. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction: comparison of two dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 64-row multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Khoon LIEW; Kui Hian SIM; Rapaee ANNUAR; Tiong Kiam ONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tobias Seyfarth; Yean Yip FONG; Wei Ling CHAN; Choon Kiat ANG; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To compare left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) determined from 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-row MDCT) with those determined from two dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods Thirty-two patients with coronary artery disease underwent trans-thoracic 2D echo, CMR and contrast-enhanced 64-row MDCT for assessment of LVEF within 48 hours of each other. 64-row MDCT LVEF was derived using the Syngo Circulation software; CMR LVEF was by Area Length Ejection Fraction (ALEF) and Simpson method and 2D echo LVEF by Simpson method.Results The LVEF was 49.13 ± 15.91% by 2D echo, 50.72 ± 16.55% (ALEF method) and 47.65 ± 16.58%(Simpson method) by CMR and 50.00 ± 15.93% by 64-row MDCT. LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured with CMR using either the ALEF method (Pearson correlation r = 0.94, P <0.01) or Simpson method (r = 0.92, P<0.01). It also correlated well with LVEF measured using 2D echo (r = 0.80, P < 0.01). Conclusion LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured by CMR and 2D echo. The correlation between 64-row MDCT and CMR was better than the correlation between 2D echo with CMR. Standard data set from a 64-row MDCT coronary study can be reliably used to calculate the LVEF.

  17. Direct Analysis of Free and Sulfite-Bound Carbonyl Compounds in Wine by Two-Dimensional Quantitative Proton and Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Magiatis, Prokopios; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2015-11-03

    Recent developments that have accelerated 2D NMR methods and improved quantitation have made these methods accessible analytical procedures, and the large signal dispersion allows for the analysis of complex samples. Few natural samples are as complex as wine, so the application to challenges in wine analysis look promising. The analysis of carbonyl compounds in wine, key oxidation products, is complicated by a multitude of kinetically reversible adducts, such as acetals and sulfonates, so that sample preparation steps can generate complex interferences. These challenges could be overcome if the compounds could be quantified in situ. Here, two-dimensional ((1)H-(1)H) homonuclear and heteronuclear ((13)C-(1)H) single quantum correlations (correlation spectroscopy, COSY, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence, HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of undiluted wine samples were observed at natural abundance. These techniques achieve simultaneous direct identification and quantitation of acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, acetoin, methylglyoxal, and α-ketoglutaric acid in wine with only a small addition of D2O. It was also possible to observe and sometimes quantify the sulfite, hydrate, and acetal forms of the carbonyl compounds. The accuracy of the method was tested in wine samples by spiking with a mixture of all analytes at different concentrations. The method was applied to 15 wine samples of various vintages and grape varieties. The application of this method could provide a powerful tool to better understand the development, evolution, and perception of wine oxidation and insight into the impact of these sulfite bound carbonyls on antimicrobial and antioxidant action by SO2.

  18. Association of Lumbar Arterial Stenosis with Low Back Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Two-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkiakoski, A.; Niinimaeki, J.; Karppinen, J.; Korpelainen, R.; Haapea, M.; Natri, A.; Tervonen, O. (Inst. of Clinical Sciences, Dept. of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Recent studies indicate that diminished blood flow may cause low back symptoms and intervertebral disc degeneration. Purpose: To explore the association between lumbar arterial stenosis as detected by two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (2D TOF-MRA) and lumbar pain symptoms in an occupational cohort of middle-aged Finnish males. Material and Methods: 228 male subjects aged 36 to 55 years (mean 47 years) were imaged with 2D TOF-MRA. Additionally, 20 randomly selected subjects were scanned with contrast-enhanced MRA (ceMRA). In each subject, the first (L1) to fourth (L4) segmental lumbar arteries were evaluated for lumbar artery stenosis using a dichotomic scale. One subject was excluded because of poor image quality, reducing the study population to 227 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between arterial stenosis in 2D TOF-MRA and low back pain and sciatica symptoms (intensity, duration, frequency). Results: Comparing 2D TOF-MRA and ceMRA images, the kappa value (95% confidence interval) was 0.52 (0.31-0.73). The intraobserver reliability kappa value for 2D TOF-MRA was 0.85 (0.77-0.92), and interobserver kappa was 0.57 (0.49-0.65). The sensitivity of 2D TOF-MRA in detecting stenosis was 0.58, the accuracy 0.89, and the specificity 0.94. In 97 (43%) subjects all arteries were normal, whereas 130 (57%) had at least one stenosed artery. The left L4 artery was most often affected. The degree of arterial stenosis was associated with intensity of low back and sciatic pain, and sciatica pain duration during the past 3 months. Conclusion: 2D TOF-MRA is an acceptable imaging method for arterial stenosis compared to ceMRA. Arterial stenosis was associated with subjective pain symptoms, indicating a role of decreased nutrition in spinal disorders

  19. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lattice and Magnetic Effects on Multiferroic Transitions in Garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Despina; Kamazawa, K.; Proffen, T.

    2007-03-01

    The possible presence of ferroelectricity in a magnetically ordered state has attracted considerable attention particularly in ABO3 and AB2O5 systems with B = Mn. Evidence for strong coupling of the two order parameters has been provided in the so-called multiferroics, where the field-induced polarization leads to a giant magnetoelectric effect and a magneto-dielectric effect. It was recently shown that the ferrimagnetic garnet crystal of Tb3Fe5O12 exhibits a large magnetodielectric response as well when a very small magnetic field is applied (1). To understand the origin of the high sensitivity of the dielectric effect in garnets, we investigated the crystal and magnetic structures of Tb3(Fe/Ga)5O12 using pulsed neutron diffraction. The garnet crystal appears to be very close to a lattice instability and high-resolution diffraction showed that the lattice gradually changes symmetry from cubic to rhombohedral with cooling over a wide temperature range. At the same time, magnetic diffuse scattering is observed that goes away by 15 K. The role of the lattice and of local distortions in the magnetic polarization and the coupling of the magnetostriction to the dielectric effect will be discussed. (1) N. Hur et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 042901 (2005).

  1. Lattice Field Theory Study of Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    DeTar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the simulation of the low-energy effective field theory (EFT) for graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field. Our fully nonperturbative calculation uses methods of lattice gauge theory to study the theory using a hybrid Monte Carlo approach. We investigate the phenomenon of magnetic catalysis in the context of graphene by studying the chiral condensate which is the order parameter characterizing the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. In the EFT, the symmetry breaking pattern is given by $U(4) \\to U(2) \\times U(2)$. We also comment on the difficulty, in this lattice formalism, of studying the time-reversal-odd condensate characterizing the ground state in the presence of a magnetic field. Finally, we study the mass spectrum of the theory, in particular the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) mode as well as the Dirac quasiparticle, which is predicted to obtain a dynamical mass.

  2. Quantum magnetotransport in a modulated two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-ik; Gumbs, Godfrey

    1997-09-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations of the magnetotransport coefficients of a modulated two-dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field are presented using the Kubo method. The model modulation potential used is such that the effect of the steepness of the potential and its strength on the band part of the longitudinal resistivity ρxxand the Hall resistivity ρxycould be studied. In the extreme limit of a very steep potential, a two-dimensional square array of antidots is simulated. Impurity scattering is included in the self-consistent t-matrix approximation. The results show that for a strong lateral superlattice potential, ρxyis quenched in the low magnetic field regime and as the magnetic field increases there is a large negative Hall resistivity. The intensity of this negative peak is suppressed as the strength of the modulation potential is decreased. It is also shown that the height of the negative peak depends on the steepness of the potential. The longitudinal resistivity also has some interesting features. There are Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and a double peak structure which depends on both the strength of the modulation potential as well as its slope. The numerical results show that the position and intensity of the lower peak is not very sensitive to a change in the strength of the lattice potential or its steepness. However, the upper peak is greatly reduced when the lattice potential is diminished in strength. The double peak feature in ρxxand the negative peak and quenching of the Hall effect at low magnetic fields have been observed experimentally for antidots in both the quasiclassical and quantum regimes.

  3. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  4. Left ventricular mechanics assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of high-resolution speckle tracking and feature tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Matthias; Keller, Marius; Greiner, Sebastian; Steen, Henning; Aus dem Siepen, Fabian; Riffel, Johannes; Katus, Hugo A; Buss, Sebastian J; Mereles, Derliz

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic function plays a central role in cardiac imaging. Calculation of ejection fraction (EF) is the current method of choice; however, its limited intermodal comparability represents a major drawback. The assessment of myocardial mechanics by strain imaging may better reflect the complex myocardial contractility. We aimed to evaluate different methods for quantification of LV strain on global and regional levels with a focus on the new non-proprietary feature tracking (FT) algorithm. Measurements of LV deformation were performed by means of high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and compared with values obtained by 2D feature tracking echocardiography (FT-E) and feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR). Assessments with echocardiography started within 30 min after CMR examination to minimize time-dependent variations in myocardial function. Forty-seven patients were included. Assessments by STE were -15.7 ± 5.0% for global longitudinal strain (GLS), -14.6 ± 4.5% for global circumferential strain (GCS), and 21.6 ± 13.3% for global radial strain (GRS), while values obtained with FT-E were -13.1 ± 4.0, -13.6 ± 4.0, 20.3 ± 9.5, and with FT-CMR -15.0 ± 4.0, -16.9 ± 5.4, and 35.0 ± 10.8, respectively. Linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis showed the best intramodal association for STE GLS and FT-E GLS (r = 0.88, bias = -2.7%, LOA = ±4.7%). The correlation for GCS and GRS was weaker, and for regional strain was poor. In contrast to EF, GLS showed a better intermodal correlation between echocardiography and CMR (r = 0.81 by speckle tracking, r = 0.8 by FT, and r = 0.78 by EF). In our study, measurement of global longitudinal LV strain using the new FT algorithm with CMR and echocardiography was comparable with measurements obtained by high-resolution STE. Compared with echocardiographic EF determination, FT-E GLS shows a better reproducibility and a better

  5. Spin frustration and magnetic ordering in triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jia; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Peng-Shuai; Pang, Fei; Munsie, Tim J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yu, Wei-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    We synthesized a quasi-two-dimensional distorted triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2 at low temperatures, whose magnetic properties were studied by dc susceptibility and magnetization techniques. The x-ray diffraction confirms the quality of our powder samples. The large Weiss constant θCW˜ -55 K and the low Neel temperature TN˜ 1.45 K give a frustration factor f = | θCW/TN | ≈ 38, suggesting that Ca3CoNb2O9 resides in strong frustration regime. Slightly below TN, deviation between the susceptibility data under zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) is observed. A new magnetic state with 1/3 of the saturate magnetization Ms is suggested in the magnetization curve at 0.46 K. Our study indicates that Ca3CoNb2O9 is an interesting material to investigate magnetism in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with weak anisotropy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374364 and 11222433), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00112). Research at McMaster University supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Work at North China Electric Power University supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  6. Single-Particle Quantum Dynamics in a Magnetic Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Marco

    2001-02-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a spinless charged-particle propagating through a magnetic lattice in a transport line or storage ring. Starting from the Klein-Gordon equation and by applying the paraxial approximation, we derive a Schroedinger-like equation for the betatron motion. A suitable unitary transformation reduces the problem to that of a simple harmonic oscillator. As a result we are able to find an explicit expression for the particle wavefunction.

  7. Commensurability oscillations in a two-dimensional lateral superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John; Long, Andrew; Grant, David; Chowdhury, Suja

    2000-03-01

    We have calculated and measured conduction in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a weak two-dimensional periodic potential and a normal magnetic field. Simulations with a potential Vx \\cos(2π x/a) + Vy \\cos(2π y/a) show the usual commensurability oscillations in ρ_xx(B) with Vx alone. The introduction of Vy suppresses these oscillations, rather than introducing the additional oscillations in ρ_yy(B) expected from previous perturbation theories. We explain this in terms of drift of the guiding center of cyclotron motion along contours of an effective potential: open orbits of the guiding center contribute to conduction but closed orbits do not. All orbits are closed in a symmetric superlattice with |V_x| = |V_y| and commensurability oscillations are therefore quenched. Experiments on etched superlattices confirm this picture. Conventional lattice-matched samples give a symmetric potential and weak oscillations; the symmetry is broken by the piezoelectric effect in stressed samples, leading to strong oscillations. Periodic modulation of the magnetic field can be treated in the same way, which explains previous experimental results.

  8. Lattice strain induced magnetism in substituted nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-10-01

    Strontium (Sr) substituted cobalt ferrite i.e. Co1-xSrxFe2O4 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1) have been synthesized by the citric acid modified sol-gel method. Crystal structure and phase purity have been studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD pattern using the space group Fd 3 bar m shows monotonically increasing of lattice parameter with the increase in Sr concentration. Magnetic hysteresis loops measurement has been carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) over a field range of ±1.5 T. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant were calculated by employing the Law of Approach (LA) to the saturation. It is observed that magnetocrystalline anisotropy has anomaly for x=0.01 (Co0.99Sr0.01Fe2O4) sample. Strain mediated modification of magnetic properties in Sr substituted cobalt ferrite has been observed. The saturation magnetization for doping concentration i.e. x=0.01 abruptly increase while for x>0.01 decreases with the increase in Sr concentration. A correlation between lattice strain and magnetic behavior in non-magnetic Sr- substituted nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite has been reported.

  9. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional X Y model at zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G.; Niedermayer, F.; Rácz, Z.; Riveros, A.; Zambrano, D.

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical X Y model on an L ×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution ΦL(y ) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of ΦL(y ) , and the limit distribution ΦL →∞(y ) =Φ0(y ) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections ΦL(y ) -Φ0(y ) ≈a1(L ) Φ1(y ) +a2(L ) Φ2(y ) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a1(L ) scales as ln(L /L0) /L2 and the shape correction function Φ1(y ) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ1(y ) =[yΦ0(y ) +Φ0'(y ) ] ' . Thus, Φ1(y ) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a2(L ) ∝1 /L2 and one finds that a2Φ2(y ) ≪a1Φ1(y ) already for small system size (L >10 ). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the X Y model at low temperatures, including T =0 .

  10. Magnetic Properties and Thermal Entanglement on a Triangulated Kagome Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ananikian, N S; Chakhmakhchyan, L A; Kocharian, A N

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic and entanglement thermal (equilibrium) properties in spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on a triangulated Kagome lattice are analyzed by means of variational mean-field like treatment based on Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. Because of the separable character of Ising-type exchange interactions between the Heisenberg trimers the calculation of quantum entanglement in a self-consistent field can be performed for each of the trimers individually. The concurrence in terms of three qubit isotropic Heisenberg model in effective Ising field is non-zero even in the absence of a magnetic field. The magnetic and entanglement properties exhibit common (plateau and peak) features observable via (antferromagnetic) coupling constant and external magnetic field. The critical temperature for the phase transition and threshold temperature for concurrence coincide in the case of antiferromagnetic coupling between qubits. The existence of entangled and disentangled phases in saturated and frustrated phases is establishe...

  11. Interplay between out-of-plane magnetic plasmon and lattice resonance for modified resonance lineshape and near-field enhancement in double nanoparticles array

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Pei; He, Jinna; Fan, Chunzhen; Cai, Genwang; Liang, Erjun

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional double nanoparticles (DNPs) arrays are demonstrated theoretically supporting the interaction of out-of-plane magnetic plasmons and in-plane lattice resonances, which can be achieved by tuning the nanoparticle height or the array period due to the height-dependent magnetic resonance and the periodicity-dependent lattice resonance. The interplay of the two plasmon modes can lead to a remarkable change in resonance lineshape and an improvement of magnetic field enhancement. Simultaneous electric field and magnetic field enhancements can be obtained in the gap regions between neighboring particles at two resonance frequencies as the interplay occurs, which present open cavities as electromagnetic field hot spots for potential applications on detection and sensing. The results not only offer an attractive way to tune the optical responses of plasmonic nanostructure, but also provide further insight into the plasmons interactions in periodic nanostructure or metamaterials comprising multiple element...

  12. Silicene and transition metal based materials: prediction of a two-dimensional piezomagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzade, Nelson Y; Obodo, Kingsley O; Adjokatse, Sampson K; Ashu, Akosa C; Amankwah, Emmanuel; Atiso, Clement D; Bello, Abdulhakeem A; Igumbor, Emmanuel; Nzabarinda, Stany B; Obodo, Joshua T; Ogbuu, Anthony O; Femi, Olu Emmanuel; Udeigwe, Josephine O; Waghmare, Umesh V [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2010-09-22

    We use first-principles density functional theory based calculations to determine the stability and properties of silicene, a graphene-like structure made from silicon, and explore the possibilities of modifying its structure and properties through incorporation of transition metal ions (M: Ti, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) in its lattice, forming MSi{sub 2}. While pure silicene is stable in a distorted honeycomb lattice structure obtained by opposite out-of-plane displacements of the two Si sub-lattices, its electronic structure still exhibits linear dispersion with the Dirac conical feature similar to graphene. We show that incorporation of transition metal ions in its lattice results in a rich set of properties with a clear dependence on the structural changes, and that CrSi{sub 2} forms a two-dimensional magnet exhibiting a strong piezomagnetic coupling.

  13. Perspectives for future light source lattices incorporating yet uncommon magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Leemann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although octupoles, decapoles, and longitudinal gradient bending magnets (LGB have been studied for many years, they are not usually included in light source lattices. They can, however, be beneficial in order to realize ultralow emittance and attain sufficient dynamic aperture. We present methods for achieving ultralow emittance and discuss optimization of the nonlinear dynamics with multipoles. We demonstrate how control of amplitude-dependent tune shift makes octupoles a powerful tool for dynamic aperture optimization. Control of higher-order chromaticity by octupoles and decapoles is straightforward; however, since this turns out to be not quite as efficient in high-brightness lattices with low arc dispersion, we apply it to a conventional lattice to demonstrate the potential. This paper also illustrates how high-field LGBs can be used to build a compact, bright hard x-ray source. Finally, we demonstrate in detail the application of octupoles as integral components of the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring lattice.

  14. Magnetization process and collective excitations in the S=1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Takuya; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Takuya; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2013-06-28

    We have performed high-field magnetization and electronic spin resonance (ESR) measurements on Ba3CoSb2O9 single crystals, which approximates the two-dimensional (2D) S=1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet. For an applied magnetic field H parallel to the ab plane, the entire magnetization curve including the plateau at one-third of the saturation magnetization (Ms) is in excellent agreement with the results of theoretical calculations except a small step anomaly near (3/5)Ms, indicative of a theoretically undiscovered quantum phase transition. However, for H∥c, the magnetization curve exhibits a cusp near Ms/3 owing to the weak easy-plane anisotropy and the 2D quantum fluctuation. From a detailed analysis of the collective ESR modes observed in the ordered state, combined with the magnetization process, we have determined all the magnetic parameters including the interlayer and anisotropic exchange interactions.

  15. Commensurate and incommensurate states of a spin density wave in a quasi-two-dimensional system with an anisotropic energy spectrum in an external magnetic field of arbitrary direction relative to magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palistrant, M. E., E-mail: mepalistrant@yandex.com; Ursu, V. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A theory of thermodynamic properties of a spin density wave (SDW) in a quasi-two-dimensional system (with a preset impurity concentration x) is constructed. We choose an anisotropic dispersion relation for the electron energy and assume that external magnetic field H has an arbitrary direction relative to magnetic moment M{sub Q}. The system of equations defining order parameters M{sub Q}{sup z}, M{sub Q}{sup {sigma}}, M{sub z}, and M{sup {sigma}} is constructed and transformed with allowance for the Umklapp processes. Special cases when H Double-Vertical-Line M{sub Q} and H Up-Tack M{sub Q} (H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0) are considered in detail as well as cases of weak fields H of arbitrary direction. The condition for the transition of the system to the commensurate and incommensurate states of the SDW is analyzed. The concentration dependence of magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is calculated, and the components of the order parameter for the incommensurate phase are determined. The phase diagram (T,{approx}x) is constructed. The effect of the magnetic field on magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is analyzed for H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0, and longitudinal magnetic susceptibility {chi} Double-Vertical-Line is calculated; this quantity demonstrates the temperature dependence corresponding to a system with a gap for x < x{sub c} and to a gapless state for x > x{sub c}. In the immediate vicinity of the critical impurity concentration (x {approx} x{sub c}), the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility acquires a local maximum. The effect of anisotropy of the electron energy spectrum on the investigated physical quantities is also analyzed.

  16. Frustrated square lattice Heisenberg model and magnetism in Iron Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John; Stone, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    We have measured spin excitations in iron telluride Fe1.1Te, the parent material of (1,1) family of iron-based superconductors. It has been recognized that J1-J2-J3 frustrated Heisenberg model on a square lattice might be relevant for the unusual magnetism and, perhaps, the superconductivity in cuprates [1,2]. Recent neutron scattering measurements show that similar frustrated model might also provide reasonable account for magnetic excitations in iron pnictide materials. We find that it also describes general features of spin excitations in FeTe parent compound observed in our recent neutron measurements, as well as in those by other groups. Results imply proximity of magnetic system to the limit of extreme frustration. Selection of spin ground state under such conditions could be driven by weak extrinsic interactions, such as lattice distortion, or strain. Consequently, different nonuniversal types of magnetic order could arise, both commensurate and incommensurate. These are not necessarily intrinsic to an ideal J1-J2-J3 model, but might result from lifting of its near degeneracy by weak extrinsic perturbations.

  17. Fingerprints of field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in quasi-two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg magnets Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 and Cu(tn)Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranová, Lucia; Orendáčová, Alžbeta; Čižmár, Erik; Tarasenko, Róbert; Tkáč, Vladimír; Orendáč, Martin; Feher, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Organo-metallic compounds Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 (en=C2H8N2) and Cu(tn)Cl2 (tn=C3H10N2) representing S=1/2 quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets with an effective intra-layer exchange coupling J/kB≈3 K, have been examined by specific heat measurements at temperatures down to nominally 50 mK and magnetic fields up to 14 T. A comparative analysis of magnetic specific heat in zero magnetic field revealed nearly identical contribution of short-range magnetic correlations and significant differences were observed at lowest temperatures. A phase transition to long-range order was observed in Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 at TC=0.9 K while hidden in Cu(tn)Cl2. A response of both compounds to the application of magnetic field has rather universal features characteristic for a field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition theoretically predicted for ideal two-dimensional magnets.

  18. The Magnetic Structure of Light Nuclei from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Emmanuel; Orginos, Kostas; Parreno, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J; Tiburzi, Brian C; Beane, Silas R

    2015-01-01

    Lattice QCD with background magnetic fields is used to calculate the magnetic moments and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons and of light nuclei with $A\\le4$, along with the cross-section for the $M1$ transition $np\\rightarrow d\\gamma$, at the flavor SU(3)-symmetric point where the pion mass is $m_\\pi\\sim 806$ MeV. These magnetic properties are extracted from nucleon and nuclear energies in six uniform magnetic fields of varying strengths. The magnetic moments are presented in a recent Letter. For the charged states, the extraction of the polarizability requires careful treatment of Landau levels, which enter non-trivially in the method that is employed. The nucleon polarizabilities are found to be of similar magnitude to their physical values, with $\\beta_p=5.22(+0.66/-0.45)(0.23) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$ and $\\beta_n=1.253(+0.056/-0.067)(0.055) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, exhibiting a significant isovector component. The dineutron is bound at these heavy quark masses and its magnetic polarizability, $\\beta...

  19. Lattice Calculation of the Strangeness Magnetic Moment of the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, S J; Williams, A G

    1998-01-01

    We report on a lattice QCD calculation of the strangeness magnetic moment of the nucleon. Our result is $G_M^s(0) = - 0.36 \\pm 0.20 $. The sea contributions from the u and d quarks are about 80% larger. However, they cancel to a large extent due to their electric charges, resulting in a smaller net sea contribution of $ - 0.097 \\pm 0.037 \\mu_N$ to the nucleon magnetic moment. As far as the neutron to proton magnetic moment ratio is concerned, this sea contribution tends to cancel out the cloud-quark effect from the Z-graphs and result in a ratio of $ -0.68 \\pm 0.04$ which is close to the SU(6) relation and the experiment. The strangeness Sachs electric mean-square radius $_E$ is found to be small and negative and the total sea contributes substantially to the neutron electric form factor.

  20. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. Magnetic charge lattices, moduli spaces and fusion rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampmeijer, L. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: leo.kampmeijer@uva.nl; Slingerland, J.K. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, School for Theoretical Physics, 10 Burlington Rd, Dublin (Ireland)], E-mail: slingerland@stp.dias.ie; Schroers, B.J. [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bernd@ma.hw.ac.uk; Bais, F.A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: bais@science.uva.nl

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the labelling and fusion properties of magnetic charge sectors consisting of smooth BPS monopoles in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with arbitrary gauge group G spontaneously broken to a subgroup H. The magnetic charges are restricted by a generalized Dirac quantization condition and by an inequality due to Murray. Geometrically, the set of allowed charges is a solid cone in the coroot lattice of G, which we call the Murray cone. We argue that magnetic charge sectors correspond to points in this cone divided by the Weyl group of H so that magnetic charge sectors are labelled by dominant integral weights of the dual group H*. We define generators of the Murray cone modulo Weyl group, and interpret the monopoles in the associated magnetic charge sectors as basic; monopoles in sectors with decomposable charges are interpreted as composite configurations. This interpretation is supported by the dimensionality of the moduli spaces associated to the magnetic charges and by classical fusion properties for smooth monopoles in particular cases. Throughout the paper we compare our findings with corresponding results for singular monopoles recently obtained by Kapustin and Witten.

  2. Geometric control of the magnetization reversal in antidot lattices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Weigand, Markus; Träger, Nick; Schütz, Gisela; Goering, Eberhard J.; Skripnik, Maxim; Nowak, Ulrich; Haering, Felix; Ziemann, Paul; Wiedwald, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    While the magnetic properties of nanoscaled antidot lattices in in-plane magnetized materials have widely been investigated, much less is known about the microscopic effect of hexagonal antidot lattice patterning on materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By using a combination of first-order reversal curve measurements, magnetic x-ray microscopy, and micromagnetic simulations we elucidate the microscopic origins of the switching field distributions that arise from the introduction of antidot lattices into out-of-plane magnetized GdFe thin films. Depending on the geometric parameters of the antidot lattice we find two regimes with different magnetization reversal processes. For small antidots, the reversal process is dominated by the exchange interaction and domain wall pinning at the antidots drives up the coercivity of the system. On the other hand, for large antidots the dipolar interaction is dominating which leads to fragmentation of the system into very small domains that can be envisaged as a basis for a bit patterned media.

  3. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  4. Tailoring magnetic energies to form dipole skyrmions and skyrmion lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, S. A.; Couture, S.; Chess, J. J.; Lee, J. C. T.; Kent, N.; Henze, D.; Sinha, S. K.; Im, M.-Y.; Kevan, S. D.; Fischer, P.; McMorran, B. J.; Lomakin, V.; Roy, S.; Fullerton, E. E.

    2017-01-01

    The interesting physics and potential memory technologies resulting from topologically protected spin textures such as skyrmions have prompted efforts to discover new material systems that can host these kinds of magnetic structures. Here, we use the highly tunable magnetic properties of amorphous Fe/Gd multilayer films to explore the magnetic properties that lead to dipole-stabilized skyrmions and skyrmion lattices that form from the competition of dipolar field and exchange energy. Using both real space imaging and reciprocal space scattering techniques, we determined the range of material properties and magnetic fields where skyrmions form. Micromagnetic modeling closely matches our observation of small skyrmion features (˜50 to 70 nm) and suggests that these classes of skyrmions have a rich domain structure that is Bloch-like in the center of the film and more Néel-like towards each surface. Our results provide a pathway to engineer the formation and controllability of dipole skyrmion phases in a thin film geometry at different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  5. Quantum Hall effect in kagome lattices under staggered magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-26

    The interplay of staggered magnetic field (SMF) and uniform magnetic field (UMF) on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in kagome lattices is investigated in the weak UMF limit. The topological band gaps coming from SMF are robust against UMF although the extended bands split into a series of Landau levels. With SMF applied, in the unconventional QHE region, one plateau of Hall conductance becomes wider and the others are compressed. Meanwhile, one of the two series of integer Hall plateaus splits and the resulting two series of Hall plateaus still exhibit the integer behavior. The Hall conductance varies with SMF step by step with the step height being e{sup 2}/h or 2e{sup 2}/h according to the QHE being conventional or unconventional. In the transitional regions, redistribution of Chern numbers happens even in the weak UMF limit. (paper)

  6. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  7. New structural information on a humic acid from two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J D; Xing, B; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2001-05-15

    New information on the chemical structure of a peat humic acid has been obtained using a series of two-dimensional 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR (HETCOR) experiments with different contact times and with spectral editing by dipolar dephasing and 13C transverse relaxation filtering. Carbon-bonded methyl groups (C-CH3) are found to be near both aliphatic and O-alkyl but not aromatic groups. The spectra prove that most OCH3 groups are connected directly with the aromatic rings, as is typical in lignin. As a result, about one-third of the aromatic C-O groups is not phenolic C-OH but C-OCH3. Both protonated and unprotonated anomeric O-C-O carbons are identified in the one- and two-dimensional spectra. COO groups are found predominantly in OCHn-COO environments, but some are also bonded to aromatic rings and aliphatic groups. All models of humic acids in the literature lack at least some of the features observed here. Compositional heterogeneity was studied by introducing 1H spin diffusion into the HETCOR experiment. Comparison with data for a synthetic polymer, polycarbonate, indicates that the separation between O-alkyl and aromatic groups in the humic acid is less than 1.5 nm. However, transverse 13C relaxation filtering under 1H decoupling reveals heterogeneity on a nanometer scale, with the slow-relaxing component being rich in lignin-like aromatic-C-O-CH3 moieties and poor in COO groups.

  8. Mott transition and magnetism on the anisotropic triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheche, S.; Reymbaut, A.; Charlebois, M.; Sénéchal, D.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Spin-liquid behavior was recently suggested experimentally in the moderately one-dimensional organic compound κ -H3 (Cat-EDT-TTF)2. This compound can be modeled by the one-band Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice with t'/t ≃1.5 , where t' is the minority hopping. It thus becomes important to extend previous studies, that were performed in the range 0 ≤t'/t ≤1.2 , to find out whether there is a regime where Mott insulating behavior can be found without long-range magnetic order. To this end, we study the above model in the range 1.2 ≤t'/t ≤2 using cluster dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT). We argue that it is important to choose a symmetry-preserving cluster rather than a quasi-one-dimensional cluster. We find that, upon increasing t'/t beyond t'/t ≈1.3 , the Mott transition at zero temperature is replaced by a first-order transition separating a metallic state from a collinear magnetic insulating state excluding the possibility to find a quantum spin liquid for the physically relevant value t'/t ≃1.5 . The phase diagram obtained in this study can provide a working basis for moderately one-dimensional compounds on the anisotropic triangular lattice.

  9. Wigner crystallization of electrons in deep traps in a two-dimensional dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaimeev, S. S., E-mail: shaimeev@isp.nsc.ru; Gritsenko, V. A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    A two-dimensional model is used to examine the spatial distribution of electrons in deep traps in a two-dimensional dielectric. When the trap concentration is much higher than the trapped electron concentration, Coulomb repulsion leads to the formation of a two-dimensional quasi-periodic hexagonal lattice of localized electrons (Wigner glass).

  10. Multiple-q states and the Skyrmion lattice of the triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet under magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Chung, Sungki; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2012-01-06

    Ordering of the frustrated classical Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with an incommensurate spiral structure is studied under magnetic fields by means of a mean-field analysis and a Monte Carlo simulation. Several types of multiple-q states including the Skyrmion-lattice state is observed in addition to the standard single-q state. In contrast to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction driven system, the present model allows both Skyrmions and anti-Skyrmions, together with a new thermodynamic phase where Skyrmion and anti-Skyrmion lattices form a domain state.

  11. Magnetic properties in kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the kagomé lattice have been studied with Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange interactions in a spin-7/2 Ising model using Monte Carlo simulations. The RKKY interaction between the two magnetic layers is considered for different distances. The magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities of this lattice are given for different triquadratic interactions around each triangular face. The critical temperature is obtained for a fixed size. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of kagomé lattice with RKKY interactions is obtained for different temperatures and for different crystal field with a fixed size of nonmagnetic layer.

  12. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  14. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  15. Symmetry considerations on the magnetization process of the Heisenberg model on the pyrochlore lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penc, Karlo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Shannon, Nic [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Motome, Yukitoshi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shiba, Hiroyuki [The Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2-31-22 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0034 (Japan)

    2007-04-11

    We present a detailed symmetry analysis of the degeneracy lifting due to higher order spin exchanges in the pyrochlore lattice in applied magnetic field. Under the assumption of the four-sublattice ordering, the criteria for a stable half-magnetization plateau are deduced. The higher order exchange terms may originate from spin-lattice coupling, or can describe quantum and thermal fluctuations.

  16. Intertwined lattice deformation and magnetism in monovacancy graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Haricharan; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2016-04-01

    Using density functional calculations we have investigated the local spin moment formation and lattice deformation in graphene when an isolated vacancy is created. We predict two competing equilibrium structures: a ground-state planar configuration with a saturated local moment of 1.5 μB and a metastable nonplanar configuration with a vanishing magnetic moment, at a modest energy expense of 50 meV. Though nonplanarity relieves the lattice of vacancy-induced strain, the planar state is energetically favored due to maximally localized defect states (v σ , v π ). In the planar configuration, charge transfer from itinerant (Dirac) states weakens the spin polarization of v π yielding a fractional moment, which is aligned parallel to the unpaired v σ electron through Hund's coupling. As a by-product, the Dirac states (d π ) of the two sublattices undergo a minor spin polarization and couple antiferromagnetically. In the nonplanar configuration, the absence of orthogonal symmetry allows interaction between v σ and local d π states, to form a hybridized v σ' state. The nonorthogonality also destabilizes the Hund's coupling, and an antiparallel alignment between v σ and v π lowers the energy. The gradual spin reversal of v π with increasing nonplanarity opens up the possibility of an intermediate structure with a balanced v π spin population. If such a structure is realized under external perturbations, diluted vacancy concentration may lead to v σ -based spin-1/2 paramagnetism. Carrier doping, electron or hole, does not alter the structural stability. However, the doping proportionately changes the occupancy of v π state and hence the net magnetic moment.

  17. Two-dimensional orbital-like magnetic order in the high-temperature La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balédent, V; Fauqué, B; Sidis, Y; Christensen, N B; Pailhès, S; Conder, K; Pomjakushina, E; Mesot, J; Bourges, P

    2010-07-09

    In high-temperature copper oxide superconductors, a novel magnetic order associated with the pseudogap phase has been identified in two different cuprate families over a wide region of temperature and doping. We report here the observation below 120 K of a similar magnetic ordering in the archetypal cuprate La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 (LSCO) system for x=0.085. In contrast with the previous reports, the magnetic ordering in LSCO is only short range with an in-plane correlation length of ∼10  A and is bidimensional (2D). Such a less pronounced order suggests an interaction with other electronic instabilities. In particular, LSCO also exhibits a strong tendency towards stripes ordering at the expense of the superconducting state.

  18. Two-Dimensional Wang-Landau Sampling of AN Asymmetric Ising Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Wang, Fugao; Landau, D. P.

    We study the critical endpoint behavior of an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling method to determine the density of states for this model. An accurate density of states allowed us to map out the phase diagram accurately and observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the derivative of the magnetization coexistence diameter near the critical endpoint, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions.

  19. Exact Propagator for the Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Charged Harmonic Oscillator in a Constant Magnetic Field and an Arbitrary Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Zhi-Yuan; YANG Tao; PAN Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated. Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.%The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated.Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.

  20. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

  1. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...

  2. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  3. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  4. Flexible Quasi-Two-Dimensional CoFe2O4 Epitaxial Thin Films for Continuous Strain Tuning of Magnetic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Shen, Lvkang; Liu, Ming; Li, Xin; Lu, Xiaoli; Lu, Lu; Ma, Chunrui; You, Caiyin; Chen, Aiping; Huang, Chuanwei; Chen, Lang; Alexe, Marin; Jia, Chun-Lin

    2017-08-22

    Epitaxial thin films of CoFe2O4 (CFO) have successfully been transferred from a SrTiO3 substrate onto a flexible polyimide substrate. By bending the flexible polyimide, different levels of uniaxial strain are continuously introduced into the CFO epitaxial thin films. Unlike traditional epitaxial strain induced by substrates, the strain from bending will not suffer from critical thickness limitation, crystalline quality variation, and substrate clamping, and more importantly, it provides a more intrinsic and reliable way to study strain-controlled behaviors in functional oxide systems. It is found that both the saturation magnetization and coercivity of the transferred films can be changed over the bending status and show a high accord with the movement of the curvature bending radius of the polyimide substrate. This reveals that the mechanical strain plays a critical role in tuning the magnetic properties of CFO thin films parallel and perpendicular to the film plane direction.

  5. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  6. Isolated structures in two-dimensional optical superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xin-Hao; Yang, Bao-Guo; Xu, Xia; Tang, Peng-Ju; Zhou, Xiao-Ji

    2017-10-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices". Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  7. Isolated Structures in Two-Dimensional Optical Superlattice

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Xinhao; Xu, Xia; Tang, Pengju; Zhou, Xiaoji

    2016-01-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices." Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  8. Model analysis of magnetic susceptibility of Sr2IrO4 : A two-dimensional Jeff=1/2 Heisenberg system with competing interlayer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Jackeli, George; Takagi, Hidenori

    2016-12-01

    We report the analysis of magnetic susceptibility χ (T ) of Sr2IrO4 single crystal in the paramagnetic phase. We formulate the theoretical susceptibility based on isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetism incorporating the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction exactly, and include the interlayer couplings in a mean-field approximation. χ (T ) above TN was found to be well described by the model, indicating the predominant Heisenberg exchange consistent with the microscopic theory. The analysis points to a competition of nearest and next-nearest-neighbor interlayer couplings, which results in the up-up-down-down configuration of the in-plane canting moments identified by the diffraction experiments.

  9. Two-dimensional coordination polymers constructed using, simultaneously, linear and angular spacers and cobalt(II) nodes. New examples of networks of single-ion magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Adrian E; Nica, Simona; Madalan, Augustin M; Shova, Sergiu; Vallejo, Julia; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Andruh, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Two novel bidimensional coordination polymers, [Co(azbbpy)(4,4'-bipy)0.5(DMF)(NCS)2]·MeOH (1) and [Co(azbbpy)(bpe)0.5(DMF)(NCS)2]·0.25H2O (2), resulted from the assembling of cobalt(II) ions by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)azulene, using either 4,4'-bipyridyl or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene as neutral spacers. The cobalt(II) nodes in 1 and 2 act as single-ion magnets (SIMs).

  10. Uniformly accurate Particle-in-Cell method for the long time solution of the two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation with uniform strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouseilles, Nicolas; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian; Zhao, Xiaofei

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we focus on the numerical resolution of the four dimensional phase space Vlasov-Poisson system subject to a uniform strong external magnetic field. To do so, we consider a Particle-in-Cell based method, for which the characteristics are reformulated by means of the two-scale formalism, which is well-adapted to handle highly-oscillatory equations. Then, a numerical scheme is derived for the two-scale equations. The so-obtained scheme enjoys a uniform accuracy property, meaning that its accuracy does not depend on the small parameter. Several numerical results illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  11. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  12. Two-dimensional imaging of edge-localized modes in KSTAR plasmas unperturbed and perturbed by n=1 external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Park, H. K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Einhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Einhoven (Netherlands); Lee, J. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Yoon, S. W. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: KSTAR Team

    2012-05-15

    The temporal evolution of edge-localized modes (ELMs) has been studied using a 2-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system in the KSTAR tokamak. The ELMs are observed to evolve in three distinctive stages: the initial linear growth of multiple filamentary structures having a net poloidal rotation, the interim state of regularly spaced saturated filaments, and the final crash through a short transient phase characterized by abrupt changes in the relative amplitudes and distance among filaments. The crash phase, typically consisted of multiple bursts of a single filament, involves a complex dynamics, poloidal elongation of the bursting filament, development of a fingerlike bulge, and fast localized burst through the finger. Substantial alterations of the ELM dynamics, such as mode number, poloidal rotation, and crash time scale, have been observed under external magnetic perturbations with the toroidal mode number n= 1.

  13. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  14. Real-space observation of magnetic excitations and avalanche behavior in artificial quasicrystal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajuskovic, V.; Barrows, F.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    Artificial spin ice lattices have emerged as model systems for studying magnetic frustration in recent years. Most work to date has looked at periodic artificial spin ice lattices. In this paper, we observe frustration effects in quasicrystal artificial spin ice lattices that lack translational symmetry and contain vertices with different numbers of interacting elements. We find that as the lattice state changes following demagnetizing and annealing, specific vertex motifs retain low-energy configurations, which excites other motifs into higher energy configurations. Additionally, we find that unlike the magnetization reversal process for periodic artificial spin ice lattices, which occurs through 1D avalanches, quasicrystal lattices undergo reversal through a dendritic 2D avalanche mechanism.

  15. Magnetic properties and concurrence for fluid {sup 3}He on kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananikian, N. S., E-mail: ananik@yerphi.am; Ananikian, L. N. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Armenia); Lazaryan, H. A. [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

    2012-10-15

    We present the results of magnetic properties and entanglement for kagome lattice using Heisenberg model with two- and three-site exchange interactions in strong magnetic field. Kagome lattice correspond to the third layer of fluid {sup 3}He absorbed on the surface of graphite. The magnetic properties and concurrence as a measure of pairwise thermal entanglement are studied by means of variational mean-field like treatment based on Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The system exhibits different magnetic behaviors depending on the values of the exchange parameters (J{sub 2}, J{sub 3}). We have obtained the magnetization plateaus at low temperatures. The central theme of the paper is comparing the entanglement and magnetic behavior for kagome lattice. We have found that in the antiferromagnetic region behavior of the concurrence coincides with the magnetic susceptibility one.

  16. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  17. Self-consistent model of a solid for the description of lattice and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.; Jaščur, M.

    2017-03-01

    In the paper a self-consistent theoretical description of the lattice and magnetic properties of a model system with magnetoelastic interaction is presented. The dependence of magnetic exchange integrals on the distance between interacting spins is assumed, which couples the magnetic and the lattice subsystem. The framework is based on summation of the Gibbs free energies for the lattice subsystem and magnetic subsystem. On the basis of minimization principle for the Gibbs energy, a set of equations of state for the system is derived. These equations of state combine the parameters describing the elastic properties (relative volume deformation) and the magnetic properties (magnetization changes). The formalism is extensively illustrated with the numerical calculations performed for a system of ferromagnetically coupled spins S=1/2 localized at the sites of simple cubic lattice. In particular, the significant influence of the magnetic subsystem on the elastic properties is demonstrated. It manifests itself in significant modification of such quantities as the relative volume deformation, thermal expansion coefficient or isothermal compressibility, in particular, in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. On the other hand, the influence of lattice subsystem on the magnetic one is also evident. It takes, for example, the form of dependence of the critical (Curie) temperature and magnetization itself on the external pressure, which is thoroughly investigated.

  18. Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.

  19. 高周疲劳损伤的磁记忆二维检测研究%Research of High-cycle Fatigue Damage by Two-dimensional Magnetic Memory Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任吉林; 陈曦; 罗声彩; 周培; 刘昌奎

    2012-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue tests of notched 40Cr steel specimens are carried out under three different fatigue stresses and two-dimensional metal magnetic memory testing (2-D MMMT). Two-dimensional signals are detected and analyzed by the method of Lissajous figure. The effects of stress concentration, fatigue damage and fatigue stress on two-dimensional magnetic signals are investigated, The relationship of the area of Lissajous figure and the degree of fatigue damage is analyzed. The results show that zero-crossing of the magnetic memory normal component and peak values of the magnetic memory tangential component appear in areas of stress concentration, and that the position of these phenomena drifts gradually closer to the notch root with the increase of fatigue damage. Location of the specimen damage can be characterized by the mutation peak characteristic of K curve of the normal component gradient and the tangential component gradient of magnetic memory signals. The maximum values of the normal component gradient and tangential component gradient of the magnetic memory signals increase gradually with the augmentation of the degree of fatigue damage in the whole trend. Therefore the maximum value is regarded as a characteristic quantity that reflects the degree of specimen damage, and the area of Lissajous figure has a good correlation with the degree of fatigue damage.%对40Cr钢缺口试件在三级应力水平下进行了高周疲劳试验和磁记忆二维检测(2- DMMMT),并引入李萨如图分析方法,研究应力集中、疲劳损伤及疲劳应力对二维磁信号的影响规律,分析李萨如图特征值与疲劳损伤程度之间的关系.结果表明:在应力集中部位会出现磁记忆法向分量过零点及切向分量峰值的现象,并且该现象的位置随着疲劳损伤程度的增加产生漂移,逐渐向缺口根部靠拢;可利用磁记忆信号切向分量梯度K曲线异变峰特征来表征构件损伤位置

  20. High-field magnetization of a two-dimensional spin frustration system, Ni{sub 5}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4}X{sub 2} (X = Br, Cl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, J L; Matsuda, Y H; Suga, K; Kindo, K; Takeyama, S [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Berger, H [Institutes of Physics of Complex Matter, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Yang, H D [Department of Physics, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-28

    The high-field magnetization, M(H), of Ni{sub 5}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4}X{sub 2} (X = Br, Cl) was measured by using a pulse magnet. These compounds have a two-dimensional crystal structure and a distorted Kagome spin frustrated system which is built from the Ni{sup 2+} ions (S = 1). The Neel transition temperatures are T{sub N}approx28 and 23 K for X = Br and Cl, respectively. When TT{sub N}, the field-dependent magnetization curves behave like a monotonically increasing straight line up to 55 T. The H{sub c} value is close to those obtained in previous spin resonance studies in which a model of a spin-flop scenario was proposed to explain the field-dependent resonance spectra. With the earlier model a further transition at around 23 T was predicted; however, our observations did not show any plateau behaviors, saturation or other anomalies up to 55 T, suggesting that the further transition possibly exists in a much higher field region.