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Sample records for two-dimensional discrete element

  1. Stabilized Discretization in Spline Element Method for Solution of Two-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the poor geometric adaptability of spline element method, a geometric precision spline method, which uses the rational Bezier patches to indicate the solution domain, is proposed for two-dimensional viscous uncompressed Navier-Stokes equation. Besides fewer pending unknowns, higher accuracy, and computation efficiency, it possesses such advantages as accurate representation of isogeometric analysis for object boundary and the unity of geometry and analysis modeling. Meanwhile, the selection of B-spline basis functions and the grid definition is studied and a stable discretization format satisfying inf-sup conditions is proposed. The degree of spline functions approaching the velocity field is one order higher than that approaching pressure field, and these functions are defined on one-time refined grid. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed through the Nitsche variational principle in weak form due to the lack of interpolation properties of the B-splines functions. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified with some examples.

  2. Spiral waves are stable in discrete element models of two-dimensional homogeneous excitable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A. B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    The spontaneous breakup of a single spiral wave of excitation into a turbulent wave pattern has been observed in both discrete element models and continuous reaction-diffusion models of spatially homogeneous 2D excitable media. These results have attracted considerable interest, since spiral breakup is thought to be an important mechanism of transition from the heart rhythm disturbance ventricular tachycardia to the fatal arrhythmia ventricular fibrillation. It is not known whether this process can occur in the absence of disease-induced spatial heterogeneity of the electrical properties of the ventricular tissue. Candidate mechanisms for spiral breakup in uniform 2D media have emerged, but the physical validity of the mechanisms and their applicability to myocardium require further scrutiny. In this letter, we examine the computer simulation results obtained in two discrete element models and show that the instability of each spiral is an artifact resulting from an unphysical dependence of wave speed on wave front curvature in the medium. We conclude that spiral breakup does not occur in these two models at the specified parameter values and that great care must be exercised in the representation of a continuous excitable medium via discrete elements.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Particle Flow Motion in a Two-Dimensional Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor with Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular pebble-bed nuclear reactor (MPBNR technology is promising due to its attractive features such as high fuel performance and inherent safety. Particle motion of fuel and graphite pebbles is highly associated with the performance of pebbled-bed modular nuclear reactor. To understand the mechanism of pebble’s motion in the reactor, we numerically studied the influence of number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles, funnel angle of the reactor, height of guide ring on the distribution of pebble position, and velocity by means of discrete element method (DEM in a two-dimensional MPBNR. Velocity distributions at different areas of the reactor as well as mixing characteristics of fuel and graphite pebbles were investigated. Both fuel and graphite pebbles moved downward, and a uniform motion was formed in the column zone, while pebbles motion in the cone zone was accelerated due to the decrease of the cross sectional flow area. The number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles and the height of guide ring had a minor influence on the velocity distribution of pebbles, while the variation of funnel angle had an obvious impact on the velocity distribution. Simulated results agreed well with the work in the literature.

  4. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of chimney fluidization in a granular medium using a combination of discrete element and lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Jeff; Philippe, Pierre; Bonelli, Stéphane; Radjaï, Farhang; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2018-05-01

    We present here a numerical study dedicated to the fluidization of a submerged granular medium induced by a localized fluid injection. To this end, a two-dimensional (2D) model is used, coupling the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the discrete element method (DEM) for a relevant description of fluid-grains interaction. An extensive investigation has been carried out to analyze the respective influences of the different parameters of our configuration, both geometrical (bed height, grain diameter, injection width) and physical (fluid viscosity, buoyancy). Compared to previous experimental works, the same qualitative features are recovered as regards the general phenomenology including transitory phase, stationary states, and hysteretic behavior. We also present quantitative findings about transient fluidization, for which several dimensionless quantities and scaling laws are proposed, and about the influence of the injection width, from localized to homogeneous fluidization. Finally, the impact of the present 2D geometry is discussed, by comparison to the real three-dimensional (3D) experiments, as well as the crucial role of the prevailing hydrodynamic regime within the expanding cavity, quantified through a cavity Reynolds number, that can presumably explain some substantial differences observed regarding upward expansion process of the fluidized zone when the fluid viscosity is changed.

  5. Magnus force in discrete and continuous two-dimensional superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecse, Z.; Khlebnikov, S.

    2005-01-01

    Motion of vortices in two-dimensional superfluids in the classical limit is studied by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically on a uniform lattice. We find that, in the presence of a superflow directed along one of the main lattice periods, vortices move with the superflow on fine lattices but perpendicular to it on coarse ones. We interpret this result as a transition from the full Magnus force in a Galilean-invariant limit to vanishing effective Magnus force in a discrete system, in agreement with the existing experiments on vortex motion in Josephson junction arrays

  6. Transient, two-dimensional, discrete-element, far-field model for thermal impact analysis of power plant discharges in coastal and offshore regions. Part I. General description of the mathematical model and the results of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.

    1975-02-01

    A far-field mathematical model is presented for numerical simulation of short-time (within tidal cycle) transient, two-dimensional temperature distributions in large coastal and offshore regions resulting from the condenser cooling water discharges of power plants. The Eulerian FLIDE (fluid-in-discrete-element) formulation employs the integral forms of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy in variable-sized discrete elements that span the specific flow region. The contributions of vertical variations of the velocity components and temperature are rigorously incorporated in the development of depth-averaged, two-dimensional energy transport fluxes by spatially integrating the conservation equations over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete elements. The general mathematical formulation considers completely arbitrary, transient oceanic flow conditions, which include periodic tidal, geostrophic, and wind-induced currents, as locally specified inputs to the model. The thermal impact of a hypothetical, multiunit generating station in a coastal region is analyzed where the oceanic flow conditions are assumed to be strictly periodic tidal currents within any appreciable net drift of sufficient duration to remove the heated effluent. The numerical simulation indicates that the periodic flow conditions cause considerable variations in the temperature distributions during the day and the tidal cycles, which result in severe recirculation and re-entrainment of the heated water between the intakes and the discharges of the different units. This leads to a gradual, long-term increase of the temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the discharge structures and also in the far-field zone. (U.S.)

  7. ABOUT SOLUTION OF MULTIPOINT BOUNDARY PROBLEMS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH THE USE OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND DISCRETE-CONTINUAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PART 2: SPECIAL ASPECTS OF FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Akimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.

  8. Discrete formulation for two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosoughi, Naser E-mail: vosoughi@mehr.sharif.edu; Salehi, Ali A.; Shahriari, Majid

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new numerical method for neutronic calculation in a reactor core. This method can produce the final finite form of the neutron diffusion equation by classifying the neutronic variables and using two kinds of cell complexes without starting from the conventional differential form of the neutron diffusion equation. The method with linear interpolation produces the same convergence as the linear continuous finite element method. The quadratic interpolation is proven; the convergence order depends on the shape of the dual cell. The maximum convergence order is achieved by choosing the dual cell based on two Gauss' points. The accuracy of the method was examined with a well-known IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.

  9. Discrete formulation for two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali A.; Shahriari, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new numerical method for neutronic calculation in a reactor core. This method can produce the final finite form of the neutron diffusion equation by classifying the neutronic variables and using two kinds of cell complexes without starting from the conventional differential form of the neutron diffusion equation. The method with linear interpolation produces the same convergence as the linear continuous finite element method. The quadratic interpolation is proven; the convergence order depends on the shape of the dual cell. The maximum convergence order is achieved by choosing the dual cell based on two Gauss' points. The accuracy of the method was examined with a well-known IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method

  10. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Xu; Qiang, Tian

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  11. Finite element solution of two dimensional time dependent heat equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaz

    1999-01-01

    A Microsoft Windows based computer code, named FHEAT, has been developed for solving two dimensional heat problems in Cartesian and Cylindrical geometries. The programming language is Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. The code makes use of Finite element formulation for spatial domain and Finite difference formulation for time domain. Presently the code is capable of solving two dimensional steady state and transient problems in xy- and rz-geometries. The code is capable excepting both triangular and rectangular elements. Validation and benchmarking was done against hand calculations and published results. (author)

  12. Discrete elastic model for two-dimensional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, Yves; Glaser, Matthew A; Clark, Noel A

    2006-04-01

    We present a network model for the study of melting and liquid structure in two dimensions, the first in which the presence and energy of topological defects (dislocations and disclinations) and of geometrical defects (elemental voids) can be independently controlled. Interparticle interaction is via harmonic springs and control is achieved by Monte Carlo moves which springs can either be orientationally "flipped" between particles to generate topological defects, or can be "popped" in force-free shape, to generate geometrical defects. With the geometrical defects suppressed the transition to the liquid phase occurs via disclination unbinding, as described by the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young model and found in soft potential two-dimensional (2D) systems, such as the dipole-dipole potential [H. H. von Grünberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 255703 (2004)]. By contrast, with topological defects suppressed, a disordering transition, the Glaser-Clark condensation of geometrical defects [M. A. Glaser and N. A. Clark, Adv. Chem. Phys. 83, 543 (1993); M. A. Glaser, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), Vol. 52, p. 141], produces a state that accurately characterizes the local liquid structure and first-order melting observed in hard-potential 2D systems, such as hard disk and the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) potentials (M. A. Glaser and co-workers, see above). Thus both the geometrical and topological defect systems play a role in melting. The present work introduces a system in which the relative roles of topological and geometrical defects and their interactions can be explored. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of this model in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and present the phase diagram as well as various thermodynamic, statistical, and structural quantities as a function of the relative populations of geometrical and topological defects. The model exhibits a rich phase behavior including hexagonal and square crystals, expanded crystal, dodecagonal quasicrystal

  13. Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.

  14. Two-dimensional parasitic capacitance extraction for integrated circuit with dual discrete geometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Dan; Ren Zhuoxiang; Qu Hui; Xu Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Capacitance extraction is one of the key issues in integrated circuits and also a typical electrostatic problem. The dual discrete geometric method (DGM) is investigated to provide relative solutions in two-dimensional unstructured mesh space. The energy complementary characteristic and quick field energy computation thereof based on it are emphasized. Contrastive analysis between the dual finite element methods and the dual DGMs are presented both from theoretical derivation and through case studies. The DGM, taking the scalar potential as unknown on dual interlocked meshes, with simple form and good accuracy, is expected to be one of the mainstreaming methods in associated areas. (paper)

  15. Discrete elements method of neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper a new neutron transport method, called discrete elements (L N ) is derived and compared to discrete ordinates methods, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is based on discretizing the Boltzmann equation over a set of elements of angle. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost-effective than discrete ordinates, in terms of accuracy versus execution time and storage, for the cases tested. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, the L N method is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution

  16. TRIDENT: a two-dimensional, multigroup, triangular mesh discrete ordinates, explicit neutron transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.J.; Miller, W.F. Jr.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.

    1977-03-01

    TRIDENT solves the two-dimensional-multigroup-transport equations in rectangular (x-y) and cylindrical (r-z) geometries using a regular triangular mesh. Regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k/sub eff/ and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, white, or source boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic-distributed sources are permitted. The discrete-ordinates approximation is used for the neutron directional variables. An option is included to append a fictitious source to the discrete-ordinates equations that is defined such that spherical-harmonics solutions (in x-y geometry) or spherical-harmonics-like solutions (in r-z geometry) are obtained. A spatial-finite-element method is used in which the angular flux is expressed as a linear polynomial in each triangle that is discontinous at triangle boundaries. Unusual Features of the program: Provision is made for creation of standard interface output files for S/sub N/ constants, angle-integrated (scalar) fluxes, and angular fluxes. Standard interface input files for S/sub N/ constants, inhomogeneous sources, cross sections, and the scalar flux may be read. Flexible edit options as well as a dump and restart capability are provided

  17. Resonance and web structure in discrete soliton systems: the two-dimensional Toda lattice and its fully discrete and ultra-discrete analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruno, Ken-ichi; Biondini, Gino

    2004-01-01

    We present a class of solutions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice equation, its fully discrete analogue and its ultra-discrete limit. These solutions demonstrate the existence of soliton resonance and web-like structure in discrete integrable systems such as differential-difference equations, difference equations and cellular automata (ultra-discrete equations)

  18. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.

  19. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  20. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  1. Inverse Problem for Two-Dimensional Discrete Schr`dinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Serdyukova, S I

    2000-01-01

    For two-dimensional discrete Schroedinger equation the boundary-value problem in rectangle M times N with zero boundary conditions is solved. It's stated in this work, that inverse problem reduces to reconstruction of C symmetric five-diagonal matrix with given spectrum and given first k(M,N), 1<-kelements of C together with "lacking" (N-k) components can be determined by solving the system of the additional conditions, the compatibility conditions and the orthonormality conditions coupled with relations determining elements of C matrix by eigenvalues and components of basic eigenvectors. We succeeded to clear the statement of the problem to the end in the process of concrete calculations. Deriving and solving the huge polynomial systems had been perfor...

  2. Periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic breathers in two-dimensional discrete β-Fermi—Pasta—Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Using numerical method, we investigate whether periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic breathers are supported by the two-dimensional discrete Fermi—Pasta—Ulam (FPU) lattice with linear dispersion term. The spatial profile and time evolution of the two-dimensional discrete β-FPU lattice are segregated by the method of separation of variables, and the numerical simulations suggest that the discrete breathers (DBs) are supported by the system. By introducing a periodic interaction into the linear interaction between the atoms, we achieve the coupling of two incommensurate frequencies for a single DB, and the numerical simulations suggest that the quasiperiodic and chaotic breathers are supported by the system, too. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  3. Two-dimensional discrete dislocation models of deformation in polycrystalline thin metal films on substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmaier, Alexander; Buehler, Markus J.; Gao, Huajian

    2005-01-01

    The time-dependent irreversible deformation of polycrystalline thin metal films on substrates is investigated using two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics models incorporating essential parameters determined from atomistic studies. The work is focused on the mechanical properties of uncapped films, where diffusive processes play an important role. The simulations incorporate dislocation climb along the grain boundary as well as conservative glide. Despite of severe limitations of the two-dimensional dislocation models, the simulation results are found to largely corroborate experimental findings on different dominant deformation mechanisms at different film thicknesses

  4. Some efficient Lagrangian mesh finite elements encoded in ZEPHYR for two dimensional transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordant, Maurice.

    1981-04-01

    To solve a multigroup stationary neutron transport equation in two-dimensional geometries (X-Y), (R-O) or (R-Z) generally on uses discrete ordinates and rectangular meshes. The way to do it is then well known, well documented and somewhat obvious. If one needs to treat awkward geometries or distorted meshes, things are not so easy and the way to do it is no longer straightforward. We have studied this problem at Limeil Nuclear Center and as an alternative to Monte Carlo methods and code we have implemented in ZEPHYR code at least two efficient finite element solutions for Lagrangian meshes involving any kind of triangles and quadrilaterals

  5. Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.

  6. Cryptanalysis of a cryptosystem based on discretized two-dimensional chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solak, Ercan; Cokal, Cahit

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an encryption algorithm based on two-dimensional discretized chaotic maps was proposed [Xiang et al., Phys. Lett. A 364 (2007) 252]. In this Letter, we analyze the security weaknesses of the proposal. Using the algebraic dependencies among system parameters, we show that its effective key space can be shrunk. We demonstrate a chosen-ciphertext attack that reveals a portion of the key

  7. The discrete cones method for two-dimensional neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Maynard, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    A novel method, the discrete cones method (DC/sub N/), is proposed as an alternative to the discrete ordinates method (S/sub N/) for solutions of the two-dimensional neutron transport equation. The new method utilizes a new concept, discrete cones, which are made by partitioning a unit spherical surface that the direction vector of particles covers. In this method particles in a cone are simultaneously traced instead of those in discrete directions so that an anomaly of the S/sub N/ method, the ray effects, can be eliminated. The DC/sub N/ method has been formulated for X-Y geometry and a program has been creaed by modifying the standard S/sub N/ program TWOTRAN-II. Our sample calculations demonstrate a strong mitigation of the ray effects without a computing cost penalty

  8. A class of conservative Hamiltonians with exactly integrable discrete two-dimensional parametric maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikande, Alain M; Njumbe, E Epie

    2010-01-01

    A class of discrete conservative Hamiltonians with completely integrable two-dimensional (2D) mappings is constructed whose generic models are three families of non-integrable discrete Hamiltonians with on-site potentials whose double-well shapes vary. Unlike the discrete 2D mappings associated with the generic models, which all display pitchfork bifurcations towards randomly pinned states with chaotic features, for the derived models the pitchfork bifurcation leads to fixed points always surrounded by periodic trajectories. A nonlinear stability analysis reveals a finite crossover on the bifurcation line at which the pitchfork transition takes the maps from regular real periodic trajectories towards a regime dominated by a cluster of periodic point trajectories representing the allowed real solutions. The rich variety of structures displayed by the new class of discrete maps, combined with their complete integrability, offer rich perspectives for theoretical modelling of a wide class of systems undergoing structural instabilities without noticeable chaotic precursors.

  9. Method for coupling two-dimensional to three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for radiation penetration studies. It is not feasible to solve some 3-D penetration problems with TORT, such as a building located a large distance from a point source, because (a) the discretized 3-D problem is simply too big to fit on the computer or (b) the computing time (and corresponding cost) is prohibitive. Fortunately, such problems can be solved with a hybrid approach by coupling a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the point source, which is assumed to be azimuthally symmetric, to a 3-D description of the building, the region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hybrid methodology along with its implementation and evaluation in the DOTTOR (Discrete Ordinates to Three-dimensional Oak Ridge Transport) code

  10. The discrete cones methods for two-dimensional neutral particle transport problems with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Maynard, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    One of the most widely applied deterministic methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron transport calculations is the discrete ordinates method (DSN). The DSN solution, however, fails to be accurate in a void due to the ray effect. In order to circumvent this drawback, the authors have been developing a novel approximation: the discrete cones method (DCN), where a group of particles in a cone are simultaneously traced instead of particles in discrete directions for the DSN method. Programs, which apply to the DSN method in a non-vacuum region and the DCN method in a void, have been written for transport calculations in X-Y coordinates. The solutions for test problems demonstrate mitigation of the ray effect in voids without loosing the computational efficiency of the DSN method

  11. Periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic discrete breathers in a parametrical driven two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein–Gordon lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Xu; Qiang, Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study a two-dimensional (2D) diatomic lattice of anharmonic oscillators with only quartic nearest-neighbor interactions, in which discrete breathers (DBs) can be explicitly constructed by an exact separation of their time and space dependence. DBs can stably exist in the 2D discrete diatomic Klein–Gordon lattice with hard and soft on-site potentials. When a parametric driving term is introduced in the factor multiplying the harmonic part of the on-site potential of the system, we can obtain the stable quasiperiodic discrete breathers (QDBs) and chaotic discrete breathers (CDBs) by changing the amplitude of the driver. But the DBs and QDBs with symmetric and anti-symmetric profiles that are centered at a heavy atom are more stable than at a light atom, because the frequencies of the DBs and QDBs centered at a heavy atom are lower than those centered at a light atom

  12. Dynamics in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the presence of point defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional discrete structures is studied in the framework of the generalized two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The nonlinear coupling in the form of the Ablowitz-Ladik nonlinearity and point impurities is taken into account. The stability properties...... of the stationary solutions are examined. The essential importance of the existence of stable immobile solitons in the two-dimensional dynamics of the traveling pulses is demonstrated. The typical scenario of the two-dimensional quasicollapse of a moving intense pulse represents the formation of standing trapped...... narrow spikes. The influence of the point impurities on this dynamics is also investigated....

  13. Discrete-to-continuum modelling of weakly interacting incommensurate two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Malena I; Golovaty, Dmitry; Wilber, J Patrick

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a continuum variational model for a two-dimensional deformable lattice of atoms interacting with a two-dimensional rigid lattice. The starting point is a discrete atomistic model for the two lattices which are assumed to have slightly different lattice parameters and, possibly, a small relative rotation. This is a prototypical example of a three-dimensional system consisting of a graphene sheet suspended over a substrate. We use a discrete-to-continuum procedure to obtain the continuum model which recovers both qualitatively and quantitatively the behaviour observed in the corresponding discrete model. The continuum model predicts that the deformable lattice develops a network of domain walls characterized by large shearing, stretching and bending deformation that accommodates the misalignment and/or mismatch between the deformable and rigid lattices. Two integer-valued parameters, which can be identified with the components of a Burgers vector, describe the mismatch between the lattices and determine the geometry and the details of the deformation associated with the domain walls.

  14. Basic problems solving for two-dimensional discrete 3 × 4 order hidden markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guo-gang; Gan, Zong-liang; Tang, Gui-jin; Cui, Zi-guan; Zhu, Xiu-chang

    2016-01-01

    A novel model is proposed to overcome the shortages of the classical hypothesis of the two-dimensional discrete hidden Markov model. In the proposed model, the state transition probability depends on not only immediate horizontal and vertical states but also on immediate diagonal state, and the observation symbol probability depends on not only current state but also on immediate horizontal, vertical and diagonal states. This paper defines the structure of the model, and studies the three basic problems of the model, including probability calculation, path backtracking and parameters estimation. By exploiting the idea that the sequences of states on rows or columns of the model can be seen as states of a one-dimensional discrete 1 × 2 order hidden Markov model, several algorithms solving the three questions are theoretically derived. Simulation results further demonstrate the performance of the algorithms. Compared with the two-dimensional discrete hidden Markov model, there are more statistical characteristics in the structure of the proposed model, therefore the proposed model theoretically can more accurately describe some practical problems.

  15. Timing comparison of two-dimensional discrete-ordinates codes for criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.F. Jr.; Alcouffe, R.E.; Bosler, G.E.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; O'dell, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The authors compare two-dimensional discrete-ordinates neutron transport computer codes to solve reactor criticality problems. The fundamental interest is in determining which code requires the minimum Central Processing Unit (CPU) time for a given numerical model of a reasonably realistic fast reactor core and peripherals. The computer codes considered are the most advanced available and, in three cases, are not officially released. The conclusion, based on the study of four fast reactor core models, is that for this class of problems the diffusion synthetic accelerated version of TWOTRAN, labeled TWOTRAN-DA, is superior to the other codes in terms of CPU requirements

  16. Generalized perturbation theory using two-dimensional, discrete ordinates transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Perturbation theory for changes in linear and bilinear functionals of the forward and adjoint fluxes in a critical reactor has been implemented using two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport theory. The computer program DOT IV was modified to calculate the generalized functions Λ and Λ*. Demonstration calculations were performed for changes in a reaction-rate ratio and a reactivity worth caused by system perturbations. The perturbation theory predictions agreed with direct calculations to within about 2%. A method has been developed for calculating higher lambda eigenvalues and eigenfunctions using techniques similar to those developed for generalized functions. Demonstration calculations have been performed to obtain these eigenfunctions

  17. Two-dimensional isostatic meshes in the finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Marín, Rubén; Samartín, Avelino

    2002-01-01

    In a Finite Element (FE) analysis of elastic solids several items are usually considered, namely, type and shape of the elements, number of nodes per element, node positions, FE mesh, total number of degrees of freedom (dot) among others. In this paper a method to improve a given FE mesh used for a particular analysis is described. For the improvement criterion different objective functions have been chosen (Total potential energy and Average quadratic error) and the number of nodes and dof's...

  18. The ADO-nodal method for solving two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Picoloto, C.B.; Cunha, R.D. da

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron transport. • Analytical Discrete Ordinates (ADO) nodal method. • Heterogeneous media fixed source problems. • Local solutions. - Abstract: In this work, recent results on the solution of fixed-source two-dimensional transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, are reported. Homogeneous and heterogeneous media problems are considered in order to incorporate the idea of arbitrary number of domain division into regions (nodes) when applying the ADO method, which is a method of analytical features, to those problems. The ADO-nodal formulation is developed, for each node, following previous work devoted to heterogeneous media problem. Here, however, the numerical procedure is extended to higher number of domain divisions. Such extension leads, in some cases, to the use of an iterative method for solving the general linear system which defines the arbitrary constants of the general solution. In addition to solve alternative heterogeneous media configurations than reported in previous works, the present approach allows comparisons with results provided by other metodologies generated with refined meshes. Numerical results indicate the ADO solution may achieve a prescribed accuracy using coarser meshes than other schemes.

  19. Discrete breathers in a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Imran A; Wattis, Jonathan A D

    2006-01-01

    Using asymptotic methods, we investigate whether discrete breathers are supported by a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice. A scalar (one-component) two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice is shown to model the charge stored within an electrical transmission lattice. A third-order multiple-scale analysis in the semi-discrete limit fails, since at this order, the lattice equations reduce to the (2 + 1)-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation which does not support stable soliton solutions for the breather envelope. We therefore extend the analysis to higher order and find a generalized (2 + 1)-dimensional NLS equation which incorporates higher order dispersive and nonlinear terms as perturbations. We find an ellipticity criterion for the wave numbers of the carrier wave. Numerical simulations suggest that both stationary and moving breathers are supported by the system. Calculations of the energy show the expected threshold behaviour whereby the energy of breathers does not go to zero with the amplitude; we find that the energy threshold is maximized by stationary breathers, and becomes arbitrarily small as the boundary of the domain of ellipticity is approached

  20. The finite element solution of two-dimensional transverse magnetic scattering problems on the connection machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, S.; Costillo, S.; Dalton, K.; Hensel, E.

    1990-01-01

    A study is conducted of the finite element solution of the partial differential equations governing two-dimensional electromagnetic field scattering problems on a SIMD computer. A nodal assembly technique is introduced which maps a single node to a single processor. The physical domain is first discretized in parallel to yield the node locations of an O-grid mesh. Next, the system of equations is assembled and then solved in parallel using a conjugate gradient algorithm for complex-valued, non-symmetric, non-positive definite systems. Using this technique and Thinking Machines Corporation's Connection Machine-2 (CM-2), problems with more than 250k nodes are solved. Results of electromagnetic scattering, governed by the 2-d scalar Hemoholtz wave equations are presented in this paper. Solutions are demonstrated for a wide range of objects. A summary of performance data is given for the set of test problems

  1. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method

  2. Calculation of large Reynolds number two-dimensional flow using discrete vortices with random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinazzo, F.; Saffman, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    The numerical calculation of two-dimensional rotational flow at large Reynolds number is considered. The method of replacing a continuous distribution of vorticity by a finite number, N, of discrete vortices is examined, where the vortices move under their mutually induced velocities plus a random component to simulate effects of viscosity. The accuracy of the method is studied by comparison with the exact solution for the decay of a circular vortex. It is found, and analytical arguments are produced in support, that the quantitative error is significant unless N is large compared with a characteristic Reynolds number. The mutually induced velocities are calculated by both direct summation and by the ''cloud in cell'' technique. The latter method is found to produce comparable error and to be much faster

  3. Flocking with discrete symmetry: The two-dimensional active Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, A P; Tailleur, J

    2015-10-01

    We study in detail the active Ising model, a stochastic lattice gas where collective motion emerges from the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. On a two-dimensional lattice, active particles undergo a diffusion biased in one of two possible directions (left and right) and align ferromagnetically their direction of motion, hence yielding a minimal flocking model with discrete rotational symmetry. We show that the transition to collective motion amounts in this model to a bona fide liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble. The phase diagram in the density-velocity parameter plane has a critical point at zero velocity which belongs to the Ising universality class. In the density-temperature "canonical" ensemble, the usual critical point of the equilibrium liquid-gas transition is sent to infinite density because the different symmetries between liquid and gas phases preclude a supercritical region. We build a continuum theory which reproduces qualitatively the behavior of the microscopic model. In particular, we predict analytically the shapes of the phase diagrams in the vicinity of the critical points, the binodal and spinodal densities at coexistence, and the speeds and shapes of the phase-separated profiles.

  4. Two-dimensional discrete ordinates photon transport calculations for brachytherapy dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, G.M.; Baker, R.S.; Little, R.C.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Williamson, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    The DANTSYS discrete ordinates computer code system is applied to quantitative estimation of water kerma rate distributions in the vicinity of discrete photon sources with energies in the 20- to 800-keV range in two-dimensional cylindrical r-z geometry. Unencapsulated sources immersed in cylindrical water phantoms of 40-cm diameter and 40-cm height are modeled in either homogeneous phantoms or shielded by Ti, Fe, and Pb filters with thicknesses of 1 and 2 mean free paths. The obtained dose results are compared with corresponding photon Monte Carlo simulations. A 210-group photon cross-section library for applications in this energy range is developed and applied, together with a general-purpose 42-group library developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, for DANTSYS calculations. The accuracy of DANTSYS with the 42-group library relative to Monte Carlo exhibits large pointwise fluctuations from -42 to +84%. The major cause for the observed discrepancies is determined to be the inadequacy of the weighting function used for the 42-group library derivation. DANTSYS simulations with a finer 210-group library show excellent accuracy on and off the source transverse plane relative to Monte Carlo kerma calculations, varying from minus4.9 to 3.7%. The P 3 Legendre polynomial expansion of the angular scattering function is shown to be sufficient for accurate calculations. The results demonstrate that DANTSYS is capable of calculating photon doses in very good agreement with Monte Carlo and that the multigroup cross-section library and efficient techniques for mitigation of ray effects are critical for accurate discrete ordinates implementation

  5. Commutativity of the source generation procedure and integrable semi-discretizations: the two-dimensional Leznov lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Juan; Yu Guofu; Tam, Hon-Wah

    2012-01-01

    The source generation procedure (SGP) is applied to a y-directional discrete version and an x-directional discrete version of the Leznov lattice. Consequently, a y-discrete Leznov lattice equation with self-consistent sources (y-discrete Leznov ESCS) and an x-discrete Leznov ESCS are presented. Also utilizing the SGP, a new type of Leznov lattice equation with self-consistent sources (new Leznov ESCS) is derived. It is interesting that the two semi-discrete Leznov ESCS produced constitute a y-discretization for the Leznov ESCS given by Wang et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 12691) and an x-discretization for the new Leznov ESCS, respectively. This means that the commutativity of SGP and integrable semi-discretizations is valid for the two-dimensional Leznov lattice equation. (paper)

  6. Boundary element methods applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi

    1985-01-01

    The Boundary element method (BEM) has been applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems. The boundary integral equation and its discretized form have been derived. Some numerical techniques have been developed, which can be applied to critical and fixed-source problems including multi-region ones. Two types of test programs have been developed according to whether the 'zero-determinant search' or the 'source iteration' technique is adopted for criticality search. Both programs require only the fluxes and currents on boundaries as the unknown variables. The former allows a reduction in computing time and memory in comparison with the finite element method (FEM). The latter is not always efficient in terms of computing time due to the domain integral related to the inhomogeneous source term; however, this domain integral can be replaced by the equivalent boundary integral for a region with a non-multiplying medium or with a uniform source, resulting in a significant reduction in computing time. The BEM, as well as the FEM, is well suited for solving irregular geometrical problems for which the finite difference method (FDM) is unsuited. The BEM also solves problems with infinite domains, which cannot be solved by the ordinary FEM and FDM. Some simple test calculations are made to compare the BEM with the FEM and FDM, and discussions are made concerning the relative merits of the BEM and problems requiring future solution. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional discrete solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligoric, Goran; Stepic, Milutin; Hadzievski, Ljupco; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation and dynamics of bright unstaggered solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, which features the interplay of contact (collisional) and long-range dipole-dipole (DD) interactions between atoms. The condensate is assumed to be trapped in a strong optical-lattice potential in the disk's plane, hence it may be approximated by a two-dimensional (2D) discrete model, which includes the on-site nonlinearity and cubic long-range (DD) interactions between sites of the lattice. We consider two such models, which differ by the form of the on-site nonlinearity, represented by the usual cubic term, or more accurate nonpolynomial one, derived from the underlying three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Similar results are obtained for both models. The analysis is focused on the effects of the DD interaction on fundamental localized modes in the lattice (2D discrete solitons). The repulsive isotropic DD nonlinearity extends the existence and stability regions of the fundamental solitons. New families of on-site, inter-site, and hybrid solitons, built on top of a finite background, are found as a result of the interplay of the isotropic repulsive DD interaction and attractive contact nonlinearity. By themselves, these solutions are unstable, but they evolve into robust breathers which exist on an oscillating background. In the presence of the repulsive contact interactions, fundamental localized modes exist if the DD interaction (attractive isotropic or anisotropic) is strong enough. They are stable in narrow regions close to the anticontinuum limit, while unstable solitons evolve into breathers. In the latter case, the presence of the background is immaterial.

  8. Dynamics of a two-dimensional discrete-time SIS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime H. Barrera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a two-dimensional discrete-time SIS model with a non-constant total population. Our goal is to determine the interaction between the total population, the susceptible class and the infective class, and the implications this may have for the disease dynamics. Utilizing a constant recruitment rate in the susceptible class, it is possible to assume the existence of an asymptotic limiting equation, which enables us to reduce the system of, two-equations into a single, dynamically equivalent equation. In this case, we are able to demonstrate the global stability of the disease-free and the endemic equilibria when the basic reproductive number (Ro is less than one and greater than one, respectively. When we consider a non-constant recruitment rate, the total population bifurcates as we vary the birth rate and the death rate. Using computer simulations, we observe different behavior among the infective class and the total population, and possibly, the occurrence of a strange attractor.

  9. A fast semi-discrete Kansa method to solve the two-dimensional spatiotemporal fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, HongGuang; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yong; Pang, Guofei; Garrard, Rhiannon

    2017-09-01

    Fractional-order diffusion equations (FDEs) extend classical diffusion equations by quantifying anomalous diffusion frequently observed in heterogeneous media. Real-world diffusion can be multi-dimensional, requiring efficient numerical solvers that can handle long-term memory embedded in mass transport. To address this challenge, a semi-discrete Kansa method is developed to approximate the two-dimensional spatiotemporal FDE, where the Kansa approach first discretizes the FDE, then the Gauss-Jacobi quadrature rule solves the corresponding matrix, and finally the Mittag-Leffler function provides an analytical solution for the resultant time-fractional ordinary differential equation. Numerical experiments are then conducted to check how the accuracy and convergence rate of the numerical solution are affected by the distribution mode and number of spatial discretization nodes. Applications further show that the numerical method can efficiently solve two-dimensional spatiotemporal FDE models with either a continuous or discrete mixing measure. Hence this study provides an efficient and fast computational method for modeling super-diffusive, sub-diffusive, and mixed diffusive processes in large, two-dimensional domains with irregular shapes.

  10. Mixed finite element simulations in two-dimensional groundwater flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo

    1989-01-01

    A computer code of groundwater flow in two-dimensional porous media based on the mixed finite element method was developed for accurate approximations of Darcy velocities in safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal. The mixed finite element procedure solves for both the Darcy velocities and pressure heads simultaneously in the Darcy equation and continuity equation. Numerical results of a single well pumping at a constant rate in a uniform flow field showed that the mixed finite element method gives more accurate Darcy velocities nearly 50 % on average error than standard finite element method. (author)

  11. Exact solutions of the two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with saturable nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K. O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2010-01-01

    We show that the two-dimensional, nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity admits periodic and pulse-like exact solutions. We establish the general formalism for the stability considerations of these solutions and give examples of stability diagrams. Finally, we show that the e...

  12. Calculation of two-dimensional thermal transients by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontoura Rodrigues, J.L.A. da; Barcellos, C.S. de

    1981-01-01

    The linear heat conduction through anisotropic and/or heterogeneous matter, in either two-dimensional fields with any kind of geometry or three-dimensional fields with axial symmetry is analysed. It only accepts time-independent boundary conditions and it is possible to have internal heat generation. The solution is obtained by modal analysis employing the finite element method under Galerkin formulation. (Author) [pt

  13. Two-dimensional finite element heat transfer model of softwood. Part II, Macrostructural effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model was used to study the effects of structural features on transient heat transfer in softwood lumber with various orientations. Transient core temperature was modeled for lumber samples “cut” from various locations within a simulated log. The effects of ring orientation, earlywood to latewood (E/L) ratio, and ring density were...

  14. Determination of two dimensional axisymmetric finite element model for reactor coolant piping nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. N.; Kim, H. N.; Jang, K. S.; Kim, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine a two dimensional axisymmetric model through a comparative study between a three dimensional and an axisymmetric finite element analysis of the reactor coolant piping nozzle subject to internal pressure. The finite element analysis results show that the stress adopting the axisymmetric model with the radius of equivalent spherical vessel are well agree with that adopting the three dimensional model. The radii of equivalent spherical vessel are 3.5 times and 7.3 times of the radius of the reactor coolant piping for the safety injection nozzle and for the residual heat removal nozzle, respectively

  15. Numerical simulation of potato slices drying using a two-dimensional finite element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study was conducted to investigate the process of potato slices drying. For simulating the moisture transfer in the samples and predict the dehydration curves, a two-dimensional finite element model was developed and programmed in Compaq Visual Fortran, version 6.5. The model solved the Fick’s second law for slab in a shrinkage system to calculate the unsteady two-dimensional moisture transmission in rectangular coordinates (x,y. Moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient were determined by minimizing the sum squares of residuals between experimental and numerical predicted data. Shrinkage kinetics of the potato slices during dehydration was determined experimentally and found to be a linear function of removed moisture. The determined parameters were used in the mathematical model. The predicted moisture content values were compared to the experimental data and the validation results demonstrated that the dynamic drying curves were predicted by the methodology very well.

  16. Numerical solution of multi group-Two dimensional- Adjoint equation with finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Khalafi, H.; Shahriari, M.; Minoochehr

    2008-01-01

    Adjoint equation is used for perturbation theory in nuclear reactor design. For numerical solution of adjoint equation, usually two methods are applied. These are Finite Element and Finite Difference procedures. Usually Finite Element Procedure is chosen for solving of adjoint equation, because it is more use able in variety of geometries. In this article, Galerkin Finite Element method is discussed. This method is applied for numerical solving multi group, multi region and two dimensional (X, Y) adjoint equation. Typical reactor geometry is partitioned with triangular meshes and boundary condition for adjoint flux is considered zero. Finally, for a case of defined parameters, Finite Element Code was applied and results were compared with Citation Code

  17. An analytical discrete ordinates solution for a nodal model of a two-dimensional neutron transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, J. F. P.; Barichello, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)

  18. Size effects in two-dimensional Voronoi foams : A comparison between generalized continua and discrete models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, Cihan; Onck, Patrick R.

    2008-01-01

    In view of size effects in cellular solids, we critically compare the analytical results of generalized continuum theories with the computation a I results of discrete models. Representatives are studied from two classes of generalized continuum theories: the strain divergence theory from the class

  19. Development of a discrete gas-kinetic scheme for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.

  20. Calculation of two-dimensional thermal transients by the method of finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontoura Rodrigues, J.L.A. da.

    1980-08-01

    The unsteady linear heat conduction analysis throught anisotropic and/or heterogeneous matter, in either two-dimensional fields with any kind of geometry or three-dimensional fields with axial symmetry is presented. The boundary conditions and the internal heat generation are supposed time - independent. The solution is obtained by modal analysis employing the finite element method under Galerkin formulation. Optionally, it can be used with a reduced resolution method called Stoker Economizing Method wich allows a decrease on the program processing costs. (Author) [pt

  1. Discrete breathers in a two-dimensional hexagonal Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Imran A.; Wattis, Jonathan A. D.

    2007-02-01

    We consider a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice with hexagonal symmetry. Using asymptotic methods based on small amplitude ansatz, at third order we obtain a reduction to a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for the breather envelope. However, this does not support stable soliton solutions, so we pursue a higher order analysis yielding a generalized NLS, which includes known stabilizing terms. We present numerical results which suggest that long-lived stationary and moving breathers are supported by the lattice. We find breather solutions which move in an arbitrary direction, an ellipticity criterion for the wavenumbers of the carrier wave, asymptotic estimates for the breather energy, and a minimum threshold energy below which breathers cannot be found. This energy threshold is maximized for stationary breathers and becomes vanishingly small near the boundary of the elliptic domain where breathers attain a maximum speed. Several of the results obtained are similar to those obtained for the square FPU lattice (Butt and Wattis 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4955), though we find that the square and hexagonal lattices exhibit different properties in regard to the generation of harmonics, and the isotropy of the generalized NLS equation.

  2. Finite element method with quadratic quadrilateral unit for solving two dimensional incompressible N-S equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Ganqiang; Yu Qing; Xiao Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Viscous and incompressible fluid flow is important for numerous engineering mechanics problems. Because of high non linear and incompressibility for Navier-Stokes equation, it is very difficult to solve Navier-Stokes equation by numerical method. According to its characters of Navier-Stokes equation, quartic derivation controlling equation of the two dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is set up firstly. The method solves the problem for dealing with vorticity boundary and automatically meets incompressibility condition. Then Finite Element equation for Navier-Stokes equation is proposed by using quadratic quadrilateral unit with 8 nodes in which the unit function is quadratic and non linear.-Based on it, the Finite Element program of quadratic quadrilateral unit with 8 nodes is developed. Lastly, numerical experiment proves the accuracy and dependability of the method and also shows the method has good application prospect in computational fluid mechanics. (authors)

  3. FEAST: a two-dimensional non-linear finite element code for calculating stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.

    1986-06-01

    The computer code FEAST calculates stresses, strains, and displacements. The code is two-dimensional. That is, either plane or axisymmetric calculations can be done. The code models elastic, plastic, creep, and thermal strains and stresses. Cracking can also be simulated. The finite element method is used to solve equations describing the following fundamental laws of mechanics: equilibrium; compatibility; constitutive relations; yield criterion; and flow rule. FEAST combines several unique features that permit large time-steps in even severely non-linear situations. The features include a special formulation for permitting many finite elements to simultaneously cross the boundary from elastic to plastic behaviour; accomodation of large drops in yield-strength due to changes in local temperature and a three-step predictor-corrector method for plastic analyses. These features reduce computing costs. Comparisons against twenty analytical solutions and against experimental measurements show that predictions of FEAST are generally accurate to ± 5%

  4. Two-dimensional finite element neutron diffusion analysis using hierarchic shape functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances have been made in the use of p-type finite element method (FEM) for structural and fluid dynamics problems that hold promise for reactor physics problems. These advances include using hierarchic shape functions, element-by-element iterative solvers and more powerful mapping techniques. Use of the hierarchic shape functions allows greater flexibility and efficiency in implementing energy-dependent flux expansions and incorporating localized refinement of the solution space. The irregular matrices generated by the p-type FEM can be solved efficiently using element-by-element conjugate gradient iterative solvers. These solvers do not require storage of either the global or local stiffness matrices and can be highly vectorized. Mapping techniques based on blending function interpolation allow exact representation of curved boundaries using coarse element grids. These features were implemented in a developmental two-dimensional neutron diffusion program based on the use of hierarchic shape functions (FEM2DH). Several aspects in the effective use of p-type analysis were explored. Two choices of elemental preconditioning were examined--the proper selection of the polynomial shape functions and the proper number of functions to use. Of the five shape function polynomials tested, the integral Legendre functions were the most effective. The serendipity set of functions is preferable over the full tensor product set. Two global preconditioners were also examined--simple diagonal and incomplete Cholesky. The full effectiveness of the finite element methodology was demonstrated on a two-region, two-group cylindrical problem but solved in the x-y coordinate space, using a non-structured element grid. The exact, analytic eigenvalue solution was achieved with FEM2DH using various combinations of element grids and flux expansions

  5. Computational issues in the simulation of two-dimensional discrete dislocation mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, J.; LLorca, J.; Romero, I.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of the integration time step and the introduction of a cut-off velocity for the dislocation motion was analysed in discrete dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations of a single crystal microbeam. Two loading modes, bending and uniaxial tension, were examined. It was found that a longer integration time step led to a progressive increment of the oscillations in the numerical solution, which would eventually diverge. This problem could be corrected in the simulations carried out in bending by introducing a cut-off velocity for the dislocation motion. This strategy (long integration times and a cut-off velocity for the dislocation motion) did not recover, however, the solution computed with very short time steps in uniaxial tension: the dislocation density was overestimated and the dislocation patterns modified. The different response to the same numerical algorithm was explained in terms of the nature of the dislocations generated in each case: geometrically necessary in bending and statistically stored in tension. The evolution of the dislocation density in the former was controlled by the plastic curvature of the beam and was independent of the details of the simulations. On the contrary, the steady-state dislocation density in tension was determined by the balance between nucleation of dislocations and those which are annihilated or which exit the beam. Changes in the DD imposed by the cut-off velocity altered this equilibrium and the solution. These results point to the need for detailed analyses of the accuracy and stability of the dislocation dynamic simulations to ensure that the results obtained are not fundamentally affected by the numerical strategies used to solve this complex problem.

  6. A Galleria Boundary Element Method for two-dimensional nonlinear magnetostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovont, Aaron D.

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical technique for solving partial differential equations that is used broadly among the engineering disciplines. The main advantage of this method is that one needs only to mesh the boundary of a solution domain. A key drawback is the myriad of integrals that must be evaluated to populate the full system matrix. To this day these integrals have been evaluated using numerical quadrature. In this research, a Galerkin formulation of the BEM is derived and implemented to solve two-dimensional magnetostatic problems with a focus on accurate, rapid computation. To this end, exact, closed-form solutions have been derived for all the integrals comprising the system matrix as well as those required to compute fields in post-processing; the need for numerical integration has been eliminated. It is shown that calculation of the system matrix elements using analytical solutions is 15-20 times faster than with numerical integration of similar accuracy. Furthermore, through the example analysis of a c-core inductor, it is demonstrated that the present BEM formulation is a competitive alternative to the Finite Element Method (FEM) for linear magnetostatic analysis. Finally, the BEM formulation is extended to analyze nonlinear magnetostatic problems via the Dual Reciprocity Method (DRBEM). It is shown that a coarse, meshless analysis using the DRBEM is able to achieve RMS error of 3-6% compared to a commercial FEM package in lightly saturated conditions.

  7. A two-dimensional discontinuous heterogeneous finite element method for neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2007-01-01

    A discontinuous heterogeneous finite element method is presented and discussed. The method is intended for realistic numerical pin-by-pin lattice calculations when an exact representation of the geometric shape of the pins is made without need for homogenization. The method keeps the advantages of conventional discrete ordinate methods, such as fast execution together with the possibility to deal with a large number of spatial meshes, while minimizing the need for geometric modeling. It also provides a complete factorization in space, angle, and energy for the discretized matrices and minimizes, thus, storage requirements. An angular multigrid acceleration technique has also been developed to speed up the rate of convergence of the inner iterations. A particular aspect of this acceleration is the introduction of boundary restriction and prolongation operators that minimize oscillatory behavior and enhance positivity. Numerical tests are presented that show the high precision of the method and the efficiency of the angular multigrid acceleration. (authors)

  8. Two dimensional finite element modelling for dynamic water diffusion through stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Perry; Imhof, Robert E

    2012-10-01

    Solvents penetration through in vivo human stratum corneum (SC) has always been an interesting research area for trans-dermal drug delivery studies, and the importance of intercellular routes (diffuse in between corneocytes) and transcellular routes (diffuse through corneocytes) during diffusion is often debatable. In this paper, we have developed a two dimensional finite element model to simulate the dynamic water diffusion through the SC. It is based on the brick-and-mortar model, with brick represents corneocytes and mortar represents lipids, respectively. It simulates the dynamic water diffusion process through the SC from pre-defined initial conditions and boundary conditions. Although the simulation is based on water diffusions, the principles can also be applied to the diffusions of other topical applied substances. The simulation results show that both intercellular routes and transcellular routes are important for water diffusion. Although intercellular routes have higher flux rates, most of the water still diffuse through transcellular routes because of the high cross area ratio of corneocytes and lipids. The diffusion water flux, or trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), is reversely proportional to corneocyte size, i.e. the larger the corneocyte size, the lower the TEWL, and vice versa. There is also an effect of the SC thickness, external air conditions and diffusion coefficients on the water diffusion through SC on the resulting TEWL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two dimensional finite element thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2016-10-01

    A two dimensional (2D) transient thermal model with line-heat-source was developed by Finite Element Method (FEM) for laser surface glazing of H13 tool steel using commercial software-ANSYS 15. The geometry of the model was taken as a transverse circular cross-section of cylindrical specimen. Two different power levels (300W, 200W) were used with 0.2mm width of laser beam and 0.15ms exposure time. Temperature distribution, heating and cooling rates, and the dimensions of modified surface were analysed. The maximum temperatures achieved were 2532K (2259°C) and 1592K (1319°C) for laser power 300W and 200W respectively. The maximum cooling rates were 4.2×107 K/s for 300W and 2×107 K/s for 200W. Depths of modified zone increased with increasing laser power. From this analysis, it can be predicted that for 0.2mm beam width and 0.15ms time exposer melting temperature of H13 tool steel is achieved within 200-300W power range of laser beam in laser surface glazing.

  10. Two Dimensional Finite Element Model to Study Calcium Distribution in Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Parvaiz Ahmad; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2015-06-01

    Cytosolic free calcium concentration is a key regulatory factor and perhaps the most widely used means of controlling cellular function. Calcium can enter cells through different pathways which are activated by specific stimuli including membrane depolarization, chemical signals and calcium depletion of intracellular stores. One of the important components of oocyte maturation is differentiation of the Ca2+ signaling machinery which is essential for egg activation after fertilization. Eggs acquire the ability to produce the fertilization-specific calcium signal during oocyte maturation. The calcium concentration patterns required during different stages of oocyte maturation are still not completely known. Also the mechanisms involved in calcium dynamics in oocyte cell are still not well understood. In view of above a two dimensional FEM model has been proposed to study calcium distribution in an oocyte cell. The parameters such as buffers, ryanodine receptor, SERCA pump and voltage gated calcium channel are incorporated in the model. Based on the biophysical conditions the initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The model is transformed into variational form and Ritz finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. A program has been developed in MATLAB 7.10 for the entire problem and executed to obtain numerical results. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers, RyR, SERCA pump and VGCC on calcium distribution in an oocyte cell.

  11. Explicit formulation of a nodal transport method for discrete ordinates calculations in two-dimensional fixed-source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Prolo Filho, Joao Francisco [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei; Basso Barichello, Liliane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica

    2014-04-15

    In this work a study of two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, is reported. The approach reduces the complexity of the multidimensional problem using a combination of nodal schemes and the Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method (ADO). The unknown leakage terms on the boundaries that appear from the use of the derivation of the nodal scheme are incorporated to the problem source term, such as to couple the one-dimensional integrated solutions, made explicit in terms of the x and y spatial variables. The formulation leads to a considerable reduction of the order of the associated eigenvalue problems when combined with the usual symmetric quadratures, thereby providing solutions that have a higher degree of computational efficiency. Reflective-type boundary conditions are introduced to represent the domain on a simpler form than that previously considered in connection with the ADO method. Numerical results obtained with the technique are provided and compared to those present in the literature. (orig.)

  12. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy's law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  13. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  14. Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: A hard-sphere approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Briels, Willem J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    A discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed has been developed and in this the two-dimensional motion of the individual, spherical particles was directly calculated from the forces acting on them, accounting for the interaction between the particles and the interstitial gas phase. Our collision

  15. Image Encryption Technology Based on Fractional Two-Dimensional Triangle Function Combination Discrete Chaotic Map Coupled with Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional two-dimensional triangle function combination discrete chaotic map (2D-TFCDM with the discrete fractional difference is proposed. We observe the bifurcation behaviors and draw the bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent plot, and the phase portraits of the proposed map, respectively. On the application side, we apply the proposed discrete fractional map into image encryption with the secret keys ciphered by Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (MVECC. Finally, the image encryption algorithm is analysed in four main aspects that indicate the proposed algorithm is better than others.

  16. User's manual for DYNA2D: an explicit two-dimensional hydrodynamic finite-element code with interactive rezoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1982-02-01

    This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.

  17. Hydrodynamic Influence Dabanhu River Bridge Holes Widening Based on Two-Dimensional Finite Element Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Feng; Bai, Fu Qing; Nie, Hui

    2018-06-01

    In order to analyze the influence of bridge holes widening on hydrodynamic such as water level, a two-dimensional mathematical model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic factors, river network flow velocity vector distribution is given, water level and difference of bridge widening before and after is calculated and charted, water surface gradient in seven different river sections near the upper reaches of bridges is counted and revealed. The results of hydrodynamic calculation indicate that The Maximum and the minimum deducing numerical value of the water level after bridge widening is 0.028m, and 0.018m respective. the seven sections water surface gradient becomes smaller until it becomes negative, the influence of bridge widening on the upstream is basically over, the range of influence is about 450m from the bridge to the upstream. reach

  18. Spectral-element simulation of two-dimensional elastic wave propagation in fully heterogeneous media on a GPU cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudianto, Indra; Sudarmaji

    2018-04-01

    We present an implementation of the spectral-element method for simulation of two-dimensional elastic wave propagation in fully heterogeneous media. We have incorporated most of realistic geological features in the model, including surface topography, curved layer interfaces, and 2-D wave-speed heterogeneity. To accommodate such complexity, we use an unstructured quadrilateral meshing technique. Simulation was performed on a GPU cluster, which consists of 24 core processors Intel Xeon CPU and 4 NVIDIA Quadro graphics cards using CUDA and MPI implementation. We speed up the computation by a factor of about 5 compared to MPI only, and by a factor of about 40 compared to Serial implementation.

  19. NCEL: two dimensional finite element code for steady-state temperature distribution in seven rod-bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehor, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation

  20. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  1. Two-dimensional multigroup finite element calculation of fast reactor in diffusion approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, J.

    1986-06-01

    When a linear element of triangular shape is used the actual finite element calculation is relatively simple. Extensive programs for mesh generation were written for easy inputting the configuration of reactors. A number of other programs were written for plotting neutron flux fields in individual groups, the power distribution, spatial plotting of fields, etc. The operation of selected programs, data preparation and operating instructions are described and examples given of data and results. All programs are written in GIER ALGOL. The used method and the developed programs have demonstrated that they are a useful instrument for the calculation of criticality and the distribution of neutron flux and power of both fast and thermal reactors. (J.B.)

  2. A two-dimensional finite element method for analysis of solid body contact problems in fuel rod mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, K.L.

    1988-06-01

    Two computer codes for the analysis of fuel rod behavior have been developed. Fuel rod mechanics is treated by a two-dimensional, axisymmetric finite element method. The program KONTAKT is used for detailed examinations on fuel rod sections, whereas the second program METHOD2D allows instationary calculations of whole fuel rods. The mechanical contact of fuel and cladding during heating of the fuel rod is very important for it's integrity. Both computer codes use a Newton-Raphson iteration for the solution of the nonlinear solid body contact problem. A constitutive equation is applied for the dependency of contact pressure on normal approach of the surfaces which are assumed to be rough. If friction is present on the contacting surfaces, Coulomb's friction law is used. Code validation is done by comparison with known analytical solutions for special problems. Results of the contact algorithm for an elastic ball pressing against a rigid surface are confronted with Hertzian theory. Influences of fuel-pellet geometry as well as influences of discretisation of displacements and stresses of a single fuel pellet are studied. Contact of fuel and cladding is calculated for a fuel rod section with two fuel pellets. The influence of friction forces between fuel and cladding on their axial expansion is demonstrated. By calculation of deformations and temperatures during an instationary fuel rod experiment of the CABRI-series the feasibility of two-dimensional finite element analysis of whole fuel rods is shown. (orig.) [de

  3. Discrete element simulation of internal stress in SiCp/aluminum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SiCp / Al-Mg-Si matrix composite was prepared by pressureless Infiltration Process. By discrete element method, microcosmic two-dimensional numerical model of SiCp / Al matrix composites was established and the simulation of the size and distribution of micro-contact pressure and tension was performed from small load ...

  4. Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.

  5. From a Discrete to Continuous Description of Two-Dimensional Curved and Homogeneous Clusters: Some Kinetic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.; Trame, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Starting with a discrete picture of the self-avoiding polygon embeddable in the square lattice, and utilizing both scaling arguments as well as a Steinhaus rule for evaluating the polygon's area, we are able, by imposing a discrete time-dynamics and making use of the concept of quasi-static approximation, to arrive at some evolution rules for the surface fractal. The process is highly curvature-driven, which is very characteristic of many phenomena of biological interest, like crystallization, wetting, formation of biomembranes and interfaces. In a discrete regime, the number of subunits constituting the cluster is a nonlinear function of the number of the perimeter sites active for the growth. A change of the number of subunits in time is essentially determined by a change in the curvature in course of time, given explicitly by a difference operator. In a continuous limit, the process is assumed to proceed in time in a self-similar manner, and its description is generally offered in terms of a nonlinear dynamical system, even for the homogeneous clusters. For a sufficiently mature stage of the growing process, and when linearization of the dynamical system is realized, one may get some generalization of Mullins-Sekerka instability concept, where the function perturbing the circle is assumed to be everywhere continuous but not necessarily differentiable, like e.g., the Weierstrass function. Moreover, a time-dependent prefactor appears in the simplified dynamical system. (author)

  6. A two-dimensional, finite-element methods for calculating TF coil response to out-of-plane Lorentz forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Toroidal field (TF) coils in fusion systems are routinely operated at very high magnetic fields. While obtaining the response of the coil to in-plane loads is relatively straightforward, the same is not true for the out-of-plane loads. Previous treatments of the out-of-plane problem have involved large, three-dimensional finite element idealizations. A new treatment of the out-of-plane problem is presented here; the model is two-dimensional in nature, and consumes far less CPU-time than three-dimensional methods. The approach assumes there exists a region of torsional deformation in the inboard leg and a bending region in the outboard leg. It also assumes the outboard part of the coil is attached to a torque frame/cylinder, which experiences primarily torsional deformation. Three-dimensional transition regions exist between the inboard and outboard legs and between the outboard leg and the torque frame. By considering several idealized problems of cylindrical shells subjected to moment distributions, it is shown that the size of these three-dimensional regions is quite small, and that the interaction between the torsional and bending regions can be treated in an equivalent two-dimensional fashion. Equivalent stiffnesses are derived to model penetration into and twist along the cylinders. These stiffnesses are then used in a special substructuring analysis to couple the three regions together. Results from the new method are compared to results from a 3D continuum model. (orig.)

  7. A two-dimensional finite element model of front surface current flow in cells under non-uniform, concentrated illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I. [Departament de Medi Ambient i C.S., University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E25198 (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    A two-dimensional finite element model of current flow in the front surface of a PV cell is presented. In order to validate this model we perform an experimental test. Later, particular attention is paid to the effects of non-uniform illumination in the finger direction which is typical in a linear concentrator system. Fill factor, open circuit voltage and efficiency are shown to decrease with increasing degree of non-uniform illumination. It is shown that these detrimental effects can be mitigated significantly by reoptimization of the number of front surface metallization fingers to suit the degree of non-uniformity. The behavior of current flow in the front surface of a cell operating at open circuit voltage under non-uniform illumination is discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis...

  9. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties...

  10. A piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element spatial discretization of the Sn transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Teresa S.; Warsa, James S.; Chang, Jae H.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretization that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems. (author)

  11. A Piecewise Bi-Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Sn Transport Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T.S.; Chang, J.H.; Warsa, J.S.; Adams, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretizations that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems.

  12. A Piecewise Bi-Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Sn Transport Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, T S; Chang, J H; Warsa, J S; Adams, M L

    2010-12-22

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretizations that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems.

  13. New formulation of the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Jerzy; Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Madan, Nikhil; Nosewicz, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    A new original formulation of the discrete element method based on the soft contact approach is presented in this work. The standard DEM has heen enhanced by the introduction of the additional (global) deformation mode caused by the stresses in the particles induced by the contact forces. Uniform stresses and strains are assumed for each particle. The stresses are calculated from the contact forces. The strains are obtained using an inverse constitutive relationship. The strains allow us to obtain deformed particle shapes. The deformed shapes (ellipses) are taken into account in contact detection and evaluation of the contact forces. A simple example of a uniaxial compression of a rectangular specimen, discreti.zed with equal sized particles is simulated to verify the DDEM algorithm. The numerical example shows that a particle deformation changes the particle interaction and the distribution of forces in the discrete element assembly. A quantitative study of micro-macro elastic properties proves the enhanced capabilities of the DDEM as compared to standard DEM.

  14. A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Nuo Duan; Yi Pik Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance ...

  15. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, Jobie M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-12-01

    A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some

  17. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  18. Discrete element modeling of microstructure of nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Mei Qiang; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of nacre consists of polygon-shaped aragonite mineral tablets bonded by very thin layers of organic materials and is organized in a brick-mortar morphology. In this research, the discrete element method was utilized to model this structure. The aragonite mineral tablets were modeled with three-dimensional polygon particles generated by the Voronoi tessellation method to represent the Voronoi-like patterns of mineral tablets assembly observed in experiments. The organic matrix was modeled with a group of spring elements. The constitutive relations of the spring elements were inspired from the experimental results of organic molecules from the literature. The mineral bridges were modeled with simple elastic bonds with the parameters based on experimental data from the literature. The bulk stress-strain responses from the models agreed well with experimental results. The model results show that the mineral bridges play important roles in providing the stiffness and yield strength for the nacre, while the organic matrix in providing the ductility for the nacre. This work demonstrated the suitability of particle methods for modeling microstructures of nacre.

  19. The aberration theory of the two-dimensional electrostatic elements of the corpuscular electronics with the average plane of the symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doszhanova, A.A.; Zhunusbekov, A.M.; Ismagambetov, M.U.; Sapargaliev, A.A.; Sapargaliev, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional electrostatic corpuscular electronics elements with an average plane (TD ECEE with AP) are considered. The basic differential equations describing a trajectory and time of flight of charged particles in TD ECEE with AP are received. These equations can form a basis for creation of the theory of spatial and time structure of a stream of the charged particles in anyone TD ECEE with AP. (author)

  20. Discrete element simulation of crushable rockfill materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element method was used to study the evolution of particle crushing in a rockfill sample subjected to triaxial shear. A simple procedure was developed to generate clusters with arbitrary shapes, which resembled real rockfill particles. A theoretical method was developed to define the failure criterion for an individual particle subjected to an arbitrary set of contact forces. Then, a series of numerical tests of large-scale drained triaxial tests were conducted to simulate the behaviors of the rockfill sample. Finally, we examined the development of micro-characteristics such as particle crushing, contact characteristics, porosity, deformation, movement, and energy dissipation. The simulation results were partially compared with the laboratory experiments, and good agreement was achieved, demonstrating that the particle crushing model proposed can be used to simulate the drained triaxial test of rockfill materials. Based on a comparison of macro behaviors of the rockfill sample and micro structures of the particles, the microscopic mechanism of the rockfill materials subjected to triaxial shear was determined qualitatively. It is shown that the crushing rate, rather than the number of crushed particles, can be used to reflect the relationship between macro- and micro-mechanical characteristics of rockfill materials. These research results further develop our understanding of the deformation mechanism of rockfill materials.

  1. Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal

    2018-05-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.

  2. A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.

  3. Vector form Intrinsic Finite Element Method for the Two-Dimensional Analysis of Marine Risers with Large Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Guo, Xueli; Guo, Haiyan

    2018-06-01

    Robust numerical models that describe the complex behaviors of risers are needed because these constitute dynamically sensitive systems. This paper presents a simple and efficient algorithm for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of marine risers. The proposed approach uses the vector form intrinsic finite element (VFIFE) method, which is based on vector mechanics theory and numerical calculation. In this method, the risers are described by a set of particles directly governed by Newton's second law and are connected by weightless elements that can only resist internal forces. The method does not require the integration of the stiffness matrix, nor does it need iterations to solve the governing equations. Due to these advantages, the method can easily increase or decrease the element and change the boundary conditions, thus representing an innovative concept of solving nonlinear behaviors, such as large deformation and large displacement. To prove the feasibility of the VFIFE method in the analysis of the risers, rigid and flexible risers belonging to two different categories of marine risers, which usually have differences in modeling and solving methods, are employed in the present study. In the analysis, the plane beam element is adopted in the simulation of interaction forces between the particles and the axial force, shear force, and bending moment are also considered. The results are compared with the conventional finite element method (FEM) and those reported in the related literature. The findings revealed that both the rigid and flexible risers could be modeled in a similar unified analysis model and that the VFIFE method is feasible for solving problems related to the complex behaviors of marine risers.

  4. Discrete element modelling of bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, A.; Frey, P.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete element modelling (DEM) has been widely used in solid mechanics and in granular physics. In this type of modelling, each individual particle is taken into account and intergranular interactions are modelled with simple laws (e.g. Coulomb friction). Gravity and contact forces permit to solve the dynamical behaviour of the system. DEM is interesting to model configurations and access to parameters not directly available in laboratory experimentation, hence the term "numerical experimentations" sometimes used to describe DEM. DEM was used to model bedload transport experiments performed at the particle scale with spherical glass beads in a steep and narrow flume. Bedload is the larger material that is transported on the bed on stream channels. It has a great geomorphic impact. Physical processes ruling bedload transport and more generally coarse-particle/fluid systems are poorly known, arguably because granular interactions have been somewhat neglected. An existing DEM code (PFC3D) already computing granular interactions was used. We implemented basic hydrodynamic forces to model the fluid interactions (buoyancy, drag, lift). The idea was to use the minimum number of ingredients to match the experimental results. Experiments were performed with one-size and two-size mixtures of coarse spherical glass beads entrained by a shallow turbulent and supercritical water flow down a steep channel with a mobile bed. The particle diameters were 4 and 6mm, the channel width 6.5mm (about the same width as the coarser particles) and the channel inclination was typically 10%. The water flow rate and the particle rate were kept constant at the upstream entrance and adjusted to obtain bedload transport equilibrium. Flows were filmed from the side by a high-speed camera. Using image processing algorithms made it possible to determine the position, velocity and trajectory of both smaller and coarser particles. Modelled and experimental particle velocity and concentration depth

  5. Improved treatment of two-dimensional neutral particle transport through voids within the discrete ordinates method by use of generalized view factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Using the discrete ordinates method for the treatment of neutral particle transport through voids serious flux distortions may occur due to the restricted streaming of particles along discrete directions. For mitigating this type of ray effect the method of view factors is proposed which has been developed in the theory of thermal radiation for describing the radiant exchange among surfaces. In order to apply this method to transport theory generalized view factors are defined which regard the angular dependence of the radiation leaving the surfaces. The generalized view factors are calculated analytically for r-z cylinder geometries and by applying the view factor algebra. The method was realized in the discrete ordinates transport code DOT 4.2 and applied to an r-z analogue of the S I S (Square-In-Square) sample problem. The results of the proposed method are compared with those calculated by the common discrete ordinates method and the Monte Carlo method

  6. The Use of Sparse Direct Solver in Vector Finite Element Modeling for Calculating Two Dimensional (2-D) Magnetotelluric Responses in Transverse Electric (TE) Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihaa Roodhiyah, Lisa’; Tjong, Tiffany; Nurhasan; Sutarno, D.

    2018-04-01

    The late research, linear matrices of vector finite element in two dimensional(2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) responses modeling was solved by non-sparse direct solver in TE mode. Nevertheless, there is some weakness which have to be improved especially accuracy in the low frequency (10-3 Hz-10-5 Hz) which is not achieved yet and high cost computation in dense mesh. In this work, the solver which is used is sparse direct solver instead of non-sparse direct solverto overcome the weaknesses of solving linear matrices of vector finite element metod using non-sparse direct solver. Sparse direct solver will be advantageous in solving linear matrices of vector finite element method because of the matrix properties which is symmetrical and sparse. The validation of sparse direct solver in solving linear matrices of vector finite element has been done for a homogen half-space model and vertical contact model by analytical solution. Thevalidation result of sparse direct solver in solving linear matrices of vector finite element shows that sparse direct solver is more stable than non-sparse direct solver in computing linear problem of vector finite element method especially in low frequency. In the end, the accuracy of 2D MT responses modelling in low frequency (10-3 Hz-10-5 Hz) has been reached out under the efficient allocation memory of array and less computational time consuming.

  7. Incorpararion of Topography Effect Into Two-Dimensional DC Resistivity Modelling by Using Finite-Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, E.

    2007-01-01

    In earth investigation done by using the direct current resistivity technique, impact of the change in the examined surface topography on determining the resistivity distrubition in the earth has been a frequently faced question. In order to get more fruitful results and make more correct interpretetions in earth surveying carried on the areas where topographical changes occur, modelling should be done by taking the change in surface topography into account and topography effect should be included into inversion. In this study impact of topography to the direct current resistivity method has been analysed. For this purpose, 2-D forward modeling algorithm has been developed by using finite element method. In this algorithm impact of topography can be incorporate into the model. Also the pseudo sections which is produced from the program can be imaged with topography. By using this algorithm response of models under different surface topography has been analysed and compared with the straight topography of same models

  8. Finite element method analysis of band gap and transmission of two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Elif; Landais, Pascal

    2013-10-20

    Photonic band gap and transmission characteristics of 2D metallic photonic crystals at THz frequencies have been investigated using finite element method (FEM). Photonic crystals composed of metallic rods in air, in square and triangular lattice arrangements, are considered for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The modes and band gap characteristics of metallic photonic crystal structure are investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem over a unit cell of the lattice using periodic boundary conditions. A photonic band gap diagram of dielectric photonic crystal in square lattice array is also considered and compared with well-known plane wave expansion results verifying our FEM approach. The photonic band gap designs for both dielectric and metallic photonic crystals are consistent with previous studies obtained by different methods. Perfect match is obtained between photonic band gap diagrams and transmission spectra of corresponding lattice structure.

  9. VALIDATION OF CRACK INTERACTION LIMIT MODEL FOR PARALLEL EDGE CRACKS USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shielding interaction effects of two parallel edge cracks in finite thickness plates subjected to remote tension load is analyzed using a developed finite element analysis program. In the present study, the crack interaction limit is evaluated based on the fitness of service (FFS code, and focus is given to the weak crack interaction region as the crack interval exceeds the length of cracks (b > a. Crack interaction factors are evaluated based on stress intensity factors (SIFs for Mode I SIFs using a displacement extrapolation technique. Parametric studies involved a wide range of crack-to-width (0.05 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.5 and crack interval ratios (b/a > 1. For validation, crack interaction factors are compared with single edge crack SIFs as a state of zero interaction. Within the considered range of parameters, the proposed numerical evaluation used to predict the crack interaction factor reduces the error of existing analytical solution from 1.92% to 0.97% at higher a/W. In reference to FFS codes, the small discrepancy in the prediction of the crack interaction factor validates the reliability of the numerical model to predict crack interaction limits under shielding interaction effects. In conclusion, the numerical model gave a successful prediction in estimating the crack interaction limit, which can be used as a reference for the shielding orientation of other cracks.

  10. Analysis of two-dimensional elemental maps in adult and middle-aged female and male Wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, R.F.; Anjos, M.J.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Oliveira, L.F. de; Carmo, M.G.T. do; Rocha, M.S.; Martinez, A.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are few methods available to measure the spatial (two (three)-dimensional) elemental distribution in animal brain. X-Ray Microfluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation is a multielemental mapping technique, which was used in this work to determine the two-dimensional maps of phosphorous (P), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in coronal sections of adult (60 days old) and middle aged (20 months old) female (n = 4) and male (n = 4) Wistar rats. The measurements were carried out at the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). A two-dimensional scanning was performed in order to study the tendency of elemental concentration variation and the elemental distribution. The acquisition time for each pixel was 10 s/step and the step size was 300 μm/step in both directions. It was observed that P levels decreased with advancing age in female rats, but, on the other hand, these levels increased with advancing age in male rats. K, Fe and Cu levels increased in female and male middle-aged rats in the same ways as P and Cl levels (only in male animals). In addition to this, Fe levels were higher in females rats than males ones. However, in relation to P and K distributions, they were homogeneous in the entire brain section, independently of the gender and age. Cl distribution was more pronounced in cortical areas, hippocampus and thalamus for all the animals studied, except for the middle-aged female rats. Fe distribution was more conspicuous in the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortical area. Moreover, Zn distributions are in good concern with the results reported by the literature, being more intense in the hippocampus. Our results showed that an increase of Fe, Cu and Zn with aging can be related to the development of some neurodegenerative disorders, since the literature reports an increase of these elements in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and Wilson Disease. Therefore, we can see that

  11. Finite element discretization of Darcy's equations with pressure dependent porosity

    KAUST Repository

    Girault, Vivette; Murat, Franç ois; Salgado, Abner

    2010-01-01

    We consider the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through a rigid homogeneous porous medium. The permeability of the medium depends on the pressure, so that the model is nonlinear. We propose a finite element discretization of this problem and

  12. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  13. [Stress analysis of femoral stems in cementless total hip arthroplasty by two-dimensional finite element method using boundary friction layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomori, H; Imura, S; Gesso, H

    1992-04-01

    To develop stem design achieving primary fixation of stems and effective load transfer to the femur, we studied stress analysis of stems in cementless total hip arthroplasty by two-dimensional finite element method using boundary friction layer in stem-bone interface. The results of analyses of stem-bone interface stresses and von Mises stresses at the cortical bones indicated that ideal stem design features would be as follows: 1) Sufficient length, with the distal end extending beyond the isthmus region. 2) Maximum possible width, to contact the cortical bones in the isthmus region. 3) No collars but a lateral shoulder at the proximal portion. 4) A distal tip, to contact the cortical bones at the distal portion.

  14. [Stress analysis on the acetabular side of bipolar hemiarthroplasty by the two-dimensional finite element method incorporating the boundary friction layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, K; Imura, S; Oomori, H; Gesso, H

    1994-11-01

    We compared the biomechanical characteristics of bipolar and unipolar hemiarthroplasty on the proximal migration of the outer head by determining the von Mises stress distribution and acetabular (outer head) displacement with clinical assessment of hemiarthroplasty in 75 patients. This analysis used the two-dimensional finite element method, which incorporated boundary friction layers on both the inner and outer bearings of the prosthesis. Acetabular reaming increased stress within the pelvic bone and migration of the outer head. A combination of the acetabular reaming and bone transplantation increased the stress within the pelvic bone and grafted bone, and caused outer head migration. These findings were supported by clinical results. Although the bipolar endoprosthesis was biomechanically superior to the unipolar endoprosthesis, migration of the outer head still occurred. The bipolar endoprosthesis appeared to be indicated in cases of a femoral neck fracture or of avascular necrosis in the femoral head, but its use in cases of osteoarthritis in the hip required caution.

  15. FINEDAN - an explicit finite-element calculation code for two-dimensional analyses of fast dynamic transients in nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamik, V.; Matejovic, P.

    1989-01-01

    The problems are discussed of nonstationary, nonlinear dynamics of the continuum. A survey is presented of calculation methods in the given area with emphasis on the area of impact problems. A description is presented of the explicit finite elements method and its application to two-dimensional Cartesian and cylindrical configurations. Using the method the explicit calculation code FINEDAN was written which was tested in a series of verification calculations for different configurations and different types of continuum. The main characteristics are presented of the code and of some, of its practical applications. Envisaged trends of the development of the code and its possible applications in the technology of nuclear reactors are given. (author). 9 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  16. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  17. A new discrete-element approach for the assessment of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calio, I.; Cannizzaro, F.; Marletta, M.; Panto, B.; D'Amore, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a new discrete-element approach for the evaluation of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry structures is presented. In the proposed model, unreinforced masonry panels are modelled by means of two-dimensional discrete-elements, conceived by the authors for modelling masonry structures, whereas the reinforced concrete elements are modelled by lumped plasticity elements interacting with the masonry panels through nonlinear interface elements. The proposed procedure was adopted for the assessment of the seismic response of a case study confined-masonry building which was conceived to be a typical representative of a wide class of residential buildings designed to the requirements of the 1909 issue of the Italian seismic code and widely adopted in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake for the reconstruction of the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria

  18. Finite element bending behaviour of discretely delaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    due to their light weight, high specific strength and stiffness properties. ... cylindrical shell roofs respectively using finite element method with centrally located .... where { }ε and { }γ are the direct and shear strains in midplane and { }κ denotes ...

  19. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  20. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi [Tokyo Univ. of Science, Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, Yasuko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Inst., Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi [Tokyo Univ., Ocean Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hagiwara, Atsushi [Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Bunkyou, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  1. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Discrete element modeling of deformable particles in YADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haustein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the open-source discrete element framework YADE and the implementation of a new deformation engine. YADE is a highly expandable software package that allows the simulation of current industrial problems in the field of granular materials using particle-based numerical methods. The description of the compaction of powders and granular material like metal pellets is now possible with a pure and simple discrete element approach in a modern DEM-framework. The deformation is realized by expanding the radius of the spherical particles, depending on their overlap, so that the volume of the material is kept constant.

  3. Modelling of Granular Materials Using the Discrete Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1997-01-01

    With the Discrete Element Method it is possible to model materials that consists of individual particles where a particle may role or slide on other particles. This is interesting because most of the deformation in granular materials is due to rolling or sliding rather that compression of the gra...

  4. GPU-based discrete element rigid body transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, Nicolin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available . For applications in coastal engineering and also in pavement engineering, the capture of particle shapes as polyhedra rather than clumped spheres is particularly important. The development of a Discrete Element Model applicable to both fields, and to industrial...

  5. Discrete Element Method for Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Unsaturated Granular Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tourani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a significant portion of conditions encountered in geotechnical engineering, for investigating engineering behavior of soil, involves unsaturated soils; the traditional analysis and design approach has been to assume the limiting conditions of soils being either completely dry or completely saturated. In unsaturated soils the capillary force produce attractive forces between particles. Discrete Element Method (DEM is an appropriate tool to consider the capillary effects. The calculations performed in DEM is based on iterative application of Newton’s second law to the particles and force-displacement law at the contacts. In the present study, the behavior of unsaturated soils in pendular regime is simulated utilizing DEM. Triaxial  compression tests were modeled as two-dimensional, considering capillary force effects. Finally, capillary effects on Macro parameters of a simulated granular soil (stress, axial strain, volumetric strain and void ratio and Mohr Coulomb failure criteria parameters were studied.

  6. A combined finite element-boundary integral formulation for solution of two-dimensional scattering problems via CGFFT. [Conjugate Gradient Fast Fourier Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.; Jin, Jian-Ming

    1990-01-01

    A new technique is presented for computing the scattering by 2-D structures of arbitrary composition. The proposed solution approach combines the usual finite element method with the boundary-integral equation to formulate a discrete system. This is subsequently solved via the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. A particular characteristic of the method is the use of rectangular boundaries to enclose the scatterer. Several of the resulting boundary integrals are therefore convolutions and may be evaluated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the implementation of the CG algorithm. The solution approach offers the principal advantage of having O(N) memory demand and employs a 1-D FFT versus a 2-D FFT as required with a traditional implementation of the CGFFT algorithm. The speed of the proposed solution method is compared with that of the traditional CGFFT algorithm, and results for rectangular bodies are given and shown to be in excellent agreement with the moment method.

  7. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  8. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Symplectic discretization for spectral element solution of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanmin; Dai Guidong; Tang Yifa; Liu Qinghuo

    2009-01-01

    Applying the spectral element method (SEM) based on the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) polynomial to discretize Maxwell's equations, we obtain a Poisson system or a Poisson system with at most a perturbation. For the system, we prove that any symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) method preserves the Poisson structure and its implied symplectic structure. Numerical examples show the high accuracy of SEM and the benefit of conserving energy due to the use of symplectic methods.

  11. Finite element discretization of Darcy's equations with pressure dependent porosity

    KAUST Repository

    Girault, Vivette

    2010-02-23

    We consider the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through a rigid homogeneous porous medium. The permeability of the medium depends on the pressure, so that the model is nonlinear. We propose a finite element discretization of this problem and, in the case where the dependence on the pressure is bounded from above and below, we prove its convergence to the solution and propose an algorithm to solve the discrete system. In the case where the dependence on the pressure is exponential, we propose a splitting scheme which involves solving two linear systems, but parts of the analysis of this method are still heuristic. Numerical tests are presented, which illustrate the introduced methods. © 2010 EDP Sciences, SMAI.

  12. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

  13. Two dimensional simplicial paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piso, M.I.

    1994-07-01

    Paths on the R 3 real Euclidean manifold are defined as 2-dimensional simplicial strips which are orbits of the action of a discrete one-parameter group. It is proven that there exists at least one embedding of R 3 in the free Z-module generated by S 2 (x 0 ). The speed is defined as the simplicial derivative of the path. If mass is attached to the simplex, the free Lagrangian is proportional to the width of the path. In the continuum limit, the relativistic form of the Lagrangian is recovered. (author). 7 refs

  14. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  15. Granulation of snow: From tumbler experiments to discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, Walter; Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Sovilla, Betty; Lehning, Michael

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that snow avalanches exhibit granulation phenomena, i.e., the formation of large and apparently stable snow granules during the flow. The size distribution of the granules has an influence on flow behavior which, in turn, affects runout distances and avalanche velocities. The underlying mechanisms of granule formation are notoriously difficult to investigate within large-scale field experiments, due to limitations in the scope for measuring temperatures, velocities, and size distributions. To address this issue we present experiments with a concrete tumbler, which provide an appropriate means to investigate granule formation of snow. In a set of experiments at constant rotation velocity with varying temperatures and water content, we demonstrate that temperature has a major impact on the formation of granules. The experiments showed that granules only formed when the snow temperature exceeded -1∘C. No evolution in the granule size was observed at colder temperatures. Depending on the conditions, different granulation regimes are obtained, which are qualitatively classified according to their persistence and size distribution. The potential of granulation of snow in a tumbler is further demonstrated by showing that generic features of the experiments can be reproduced by cohesive discrete element simulations. The proposed discrete element model mimics the competition between cohesive forces, which promote aggregation, and impact forces, which induce fragmentation, and supports the interpretation of the granule regime classification obtained from the tumbler experiments. Generalizations, implications for flow dynamics, and experimental and model limitations as well as suggestions for future work are discussed.

  16. Semianalytical analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method. Part 1: Mathematical foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive paper is devoted to the two-dimensional semi-analytical solution of boundary problems of analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. This approach allows obtaining the exact analytical solution in one direction (so-called “basic” direction, also decrease the size of the problem to one-dimensional common finite element analysis. The resulting multipoint boundary problem for the first-order system of ordinary differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients is solved analytically. The proposed method is rather efficient for evaluation of the boundary effect (such as the stress field near the concentrated force. DCFEM also has a completely computer-oriented algorithm, computational stability, optimal conditionality of resultant system and it is applicable for the various loads at an arbitrary point or a region of the wall.

  17. Two-dimensional calculation by finite element method of velocity field and temperature field development in fast reactor fuel assembly. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, J.

    1985-11-01

    A package of updated computer codes for velocity and temperature field calculations for a fast reactor fuel subassembly (or its part) by the finite element method is described. Isoparametric triangular elements of the second degree are used. (author)

  18. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C.; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-01

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  19. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-30

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  20. Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.

  1. Discrete element modeling of calcium-silicate-hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Mei Qiang; Peters, John F; Pelessone, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The discrete element method (DEM) was used to model calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) at the nanoscale. The C-S-H nanoparticles were modeled as spherical particles with diameters of approximately 5 nm. Interparticle forces included traditional mechanical contact forces, van der Waals forces and ionic correlation forces due to negatively charged C-S-H nanoparticles and ion species in the nanopores. Previous work by the authors demonstrated the DEM method was feasible in studying the properties of the C-S-H nanostructures. In this work, the simulations were performed to look into the effects of nanoparticle packing, nanoparticle morphology, interparticle forces and nanoparticle properties on the deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of the C-S-H matrix. This work will provide insights into possible ways to improve the properties of the C-S-H matrix. (paper)

  2. Influence of heterogeneity on rock strength and stiffness using discrete element method and parallel bond model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Liakas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The particulate discrete element method (DEM can be employed to capture the response of rock, provided that appropriate bonding models are used to cement the particles to each other. Simulations of laboratory tests are important to establish the extent to which those models can capture realistic rock behaviors. Hitherto the focus in such comparison studies has either been on homogeneous specimens or use of two-dimensional (2D models. In situ rock formations are often heterogeneous, thus exploring the ability of this type of models to capture heterogeneous material behavior is important to facilitate their use in design analysis. In situ stress states are basically three-dimensional (3D, and therefore it is important to develop 3D models for this purpose. This paper revisits an earlier experimental study on heterogeneous specimens, of which the relative proportions of weaker material (siltstone and stronger, harder material (sandstone were varied in a controlled manner. Using a 3D DEM model with the parallel bond model, virtual heterogeneous specimens were created. The overall responses in terms of variations in strength and stiffness with different percentages of weaker material (siltstone were shown to agree with the experimental observations. There was also a good qualitative agreement in the failure patterns observed in the experiments and the simulations, suggesting that the DEM data enabled analysis of the initiation of localizations and micro fractures in the specimens.

  3. A modified discrete element model for sea ice dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baohui; LI Hai; LIU Yu; WANG Anliang; JI Shunying

    2014-01-01

    Considering the discontinuous characteristics of sea ice on various scales, a modified discrete element mod-el (DEM) for sea ice dynamics is developed based on the granular material rheology. In this modified DEM, a soft sea ice particle element is introduced as a self-adjustive particle size function. Each ice particle can be treated as an assembly of ice floes, with its concentration and thickness changing to variable sizes un-der the conservation of mass. In this model, the contact forces among ice particles are calculated using a viscous-elastic-plastic model, while the maximum shear forces are described with the Mohr-Coulomb fric-tion law. With this modified DEM, the ice flow dynamics is simulated under the drags of wind and current in a channel of various widths. The thicknesses, concentrations and velocities of ice particles are obtained, and then reasonable dynamic process is analyzed. The sea ice dynamic process is also simulated in a vortex wind field. Taking the influence of thermodynamics into account, this modified DEM will be improved in the future work.

  4. Discrete Element Modeling Results of Proppant Rearrangement in the Cooke Conductivity Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl Mattson; Hai Huang; Michael Conway; Lisa O' Connell

    2014-02-01

    The study of propped fracture conductivity began in earnest with the development of the Cooke cell which later became part of the initial API standard. Subsequent developments included a patented multicell design to conduct 4 tests in a press at the same time. Other modifications have been used by various investigators. Recent studies by the Stim-Lab proppant consortium have indicated that the flow field across a Cooke proppant conductivity testing cell may not be uniform as initially believed which resulted is significantly different conductivity results. Post test analysis of low temperature metal alloy injections at the termination of proppant testing prior to the release of the applied stress suggest that higher flow is to be expected along the sides and top of the proppant pack than compared to the middle of the pack. To evaluate these experimental findings, a physics-based two-dimensional (2-D) discrete element model (DEM) was developed and applied to simulate proppant rearrangement during stress loading in the Cooke conductivity cell and the resulting porosity field. Analysis of these simulations are critical to understanding the impact of modification to the testing cell as well as understanding key proppant conductivity issues such as how these effects are manifested in proppant concentration testing results. The 2-D DEM model was constructed to represent a realistic cross section of the Cooke cell with a distribution of four material properties, three that represented the Cooke cell (steel, sandstone,square rings), and one representing the proppant. In principle, Cooke cell materials can be approximated as assemblies of independent discrete elements (particles) of various sizes and material properties that interact via cohesive interactions, repulsive forces, and frictional forces. The macroscopic behavior can then be modeled as the collective behavior of many interacting discrete elements. This DEM model is particularly suitable for modeling proppant

  5. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  6. Solution of the two dimensional diffusion and transport equations in a rectangular lattice with an elliptical fuel element using Fourier transform methods: One and two group cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Hall, S.K.; Eaton, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A rectangular reactor cell with an elliptical fuel element. • Solution of transport and diffusion equations by Fourier expansion. • Numerical examples showing convergence. • Two group cell problems. - Abstract: A method for solving the diffusion and transport equations in a rectangular lattice cell with an elliptical fuel element has been developed using a Fourier expansion of the neutron flux. The method is applied to a one group model with a source in the moderator. The cell flux is obtained and also the associated disadvantage factor. In addition to the one speed case, we also consider the two group equations in the cell which now become an eigenvalue problem for the lattice multiplication factor. The method of solution relies upon an efficient procedure to solve a large set of simultaneous linear equations and for this we use the IMSL library routines. Our method is compared with the results from a finite element code. The main drawback of the problem arises from the very large number of terms required in the Fourier series which taxes the storage and speed of the computer. Nevertheless, useful solutions are obtained in geometries that would normally require the use of finite element or analogous methods, for this reason the Fourier method is useful for comparison with that type of numerical approach. Extension of the method to more intricate fuel shapes, such as stars and cruciforms as well as superpositions of these, is possible

  7. Three-dimensional discrete element method simulation of core disking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunchuan; Wu, Haoyan; Kemeny, John

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of core disking is commonly seen in deep drilling of highly stressed regions in the Earth's crust. Given its close relationship with the in situ stress state, the presence and features of core disking can be used to interpret the stresses when traditional in situ stress measuring techniques are not available. The core disking process was simulated in this paper using the three-dimensional discrete element method software PFC3D (particle flow code). In particular, PFC3D is used to examine the evolution of fracture initiation, propagation and coalescence associated with core disking under various stress states. In this paper, four unresolved problems concerning core disking are investigated with a series of numerical simulations. These simulations also provide some verification of existing results by other researchers: (1) Core disking occurs when the maximum principal stress is about 6.5 times the tensile strength. (2) For most stress situations, core disking occurs from the outer surface, except for the thrust faulting stress regime, where the fractures were found to initiate from the inner part. (3) The anisotropy of the two horizontal principal stresses has an effect on the core disking morphology. (4) The thickness of core disk has a positive relationship with radial stress and a negative relationship with axial stresses.

  8. Applications of the discrete element method in mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, Florian; Gaugele, Timo; Eberhard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Compared to other fields of engineering, in mechanical engineering, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is not yet a well known method. Nevertheless, there is a variety of simulation problems where the method has obvious advantages due to its meshless nature. For problems where several free bodies can collide and break after having been largely deformed, the DEM is the method of choice. Neighborhood search and collision detection between bodies as well as the separation of large solids into smaller particles are naturally incorporated in the method. The main DEM algorithm consists of a relatively simple loop that basically contains the three substeps contact detection, force computation and integration. However, there exists a large variety of different algorithms to choose the substeps to compose the optimal method for a given problem. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of particle systems together with appropriate numerical integration schemes and give an overview over different types of particle interactions that can be composed to adapt the method to fit to a given simulation problem. Surface triangulations are used to model complicated, non-convex bodies in contact with particle systems. The capabilities of the method are finally demonstrated by means of application examples

  9. Mechanics of a crushable pebble assembly using discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annabattula, R.K.; Gan, Y.; Zhao, S.; Kamlah, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of crushing of individual pebbles on the overall strength of a pebble assembly is investigated using discrete element method. An assembly comprising of 5000 spherical pebbles is assigned with random critical failure energies with a Weibull distribution in accordance with the experimental observation. Then, the pebble assembly is subjected to uni-axial compression (ε 33 =1.5%) with periodic boundary conditions. The crushable pebble assembly shows a significant difference in stress–strain response in comparison to a non-crushable pebble assembly. The analysis shows that a ideal plasticity like behaviour (constant stress with increase in strain) is the characteristic of a crushable pebble assembly with sudden damage. The damage accumulation law plays a critical role in determining the critical stress while the critical number of completely failed pebbles at the onset of critical stress is independent of such a damage law. Furthermore, a loosely packed pebble assembly shows a higher crush resistance while the critical stress is insensitive to the packing factor (η) of the assembly.

  10. Two-dimensional finite element solution for the simultaneous transport of water and solutes through a nonhomogeneous aquifer under transient saturated unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of ground water transport through an aquifer is presented. The solute of interest is a metal tracer or radioactive material which may undergo decay through a sorbing unconfined aquifer. The subject is developed under the following headings: flow equation, solute equation, boundary conditions, finite element formulation, element formulation, solution scheme (flow equation, solute equation), results and discussions, water movement in a ditch drained aquifer under transient state, water and solute movement in a homogeneous and unsaturated soil, transport of 226 Ra in nonhomogeneous aquifer, tailings pond lined, and tailings pond unlined. It is concluded that this mathematical model may have a wide variety of applications. The uranium milling industry may find it useful to evaluate the hydrogeological suitability of their disposal sites. It may prove suited for the design of clay disposal ponds destined to hold hazardous liquids. It may also provide a means of estimating the long-term impact of radionuclides or other pollutants on the quality of ground water. 31 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  11. Simulation of granular and gas-solid flows using discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyalakuntla, Dhanunjay S.

    2003-10-01

    fluidized bed simulations have been performed and the results have been shown to satisfactorily compare with those published in the literature. A comprehensive study of the effect of drag correlations on the simulation of fluidized beds has been performed. It has been found that nearly all the drag correlations studied make similar predictions of global quantities such as the time-dependent pressure drop, bubbling frequency and growth. In conclusion, discrete element simulation has been successfully coupled to continuum gas-phase. Though all the results presented in the thesis are two-dimensional, the present implementation is completely three dimensional and can be used to study 3D fluidized beds to aid in better design and understanding. Other industrially important phenomena like particle coating, coal gasification etc., and applications in emerging areas such as nano-particle/fluid mixtures can also be studied through this type of simulation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Mixed finite element - discontinuous finite volume element discretization of a general class of multicontinuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Lunati, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel discretization scheme tailored to a class of multiphase models that regard the physical system as consisting of multiple interacting continua. In the framework of mixture theory, we consider a general mathematical model that entails solving a system of mass and momentum equations for both the mixture and one of the phases. The model results in a strongly coupled and nonlinear system of partial differential equations that are written in terms of phase and mixture (barycentric) velocities, phase pressure, and saturation. We construct an accurate, robust and reliable hybrid method that combines a mixed finite element discretization of the momentum equations with a primal discontinuous finite volume-element discretization of the mass (or transport) equations. The scheme is devised for unstructured meshes and relies on mixed Brezzi-Douglas-Marini approximations of phase and total velocities, on piecewise constant elements for the approximation of phase or total pressures, as well as on a primal formulation that employs discontinuous finite volume elements defined on a dual diamond mesh to approximate scalar fields of interest (such as volume fraction, total density, saturation, etc.). As the discretization scheme is derived for a general formulation of multicontinuum physical systems, it can be readily applied to a large class of simplified multiphase models; on the other, the approach can be seen as a generalization of these models that are commonly encountered in the literature and employed when the latter are not sufficiently accurate. An extensive set of numerical test cases involving two- and three-dimensional porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the method (displaying an optimal convergence rate), the physics-preserving properties of the mixed-primal scheme, as well as the robustness of the method (which is successfully used to simulate diverse physical phenomena such as density fingering, Terzaghi's consolidation

  13. Hybrid Discrete Element - Finite Element Simulation for Railway Bridge-Track Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Mirza, O.

    2017-10-01

    At the transition zone or sometimes called ‘bridge end’ or ‘bridge approach’, the stiffness difference between plain track and track over bridge often causes aggravated impact loading due to uneven train movement onto the area. The differential track settlement over the transition has been a classical problem in railway networks, especially for the aging rail infrastructures around the world. This problem is also additionally worsened by the fact that the construction practice over the area is difficult, resulting in a poor compaction of formation and subgrade. This paper presents an advanced hybrid simulation using coupled discrete elements and finite elements to investigate dynamic interaction at the transition zone. The goal is to evaluate the dynamic stresses and to better understand the impact dynamics redistribution at the bridge end. An existing bridge ‘Salt Pan Creek Railway Bridge’, located between Revesby and Kingsgrove, has been chosen for detailed investigation. The Salt Pan Bridge currently demonstrates crushing of the ballast causing significant deformation and damage. Thus, it’s imperative to assess the behaviours of the ballast under dynamic loads. This can be achieved by modelling the nonlinear interactions between the steel rail and sleeper, and sleeper to ballast. The continuum solid elements of track components have been modelled using finite element approach, while the granular media (i.e. ballast) have been simulated by discrete element method. The hybrid DE/FE model demonstrates that ballast experiences significant stresses at the contacts between the sleeper and concrete section. These overburden stress exists in the regions below the outer rails, identify fouling and permanent deformation of the ballast.

  14. VISCOT: a two-dimensional and axisymmetric nonlinear transient thermoviscoelastic and thermoviscoplastic finite-element code for modeling time-dependent viscous mechanical behavior of a rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    VISCOT is a non-linear, transient, thermal-stress finite-element code designed to determine the viscoelastic, fiscoplastic, or elastoplastic deformation of a rock mass due to mechanical and thermal loading. The numerical solution of the nonlinear incremental equilibrium equations within VISCOT is performed by using an explicit Euler time-stepping scheme. The rock mass may be modeled as a viscoplastic or viscoelastic material. The viscoplastic material model can be described by a Tresca, von Mises, Drucker-Prager or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria (with or without strain hardening) with an associated flow rule which can be a power or an exponential law. The viscoelastic material model within VISCOT is a temperature- and stress-dependent law which has been developed specifically for salt rock masses by Pfeifle, Mellegard and Senseny in ONWI-314 topical report (1981). Site specific parameters for this creep law at the Richton, Permian, Paradox and Vacherie salt sites have been calculated and are given in ONWI-314 topical report (1981). A major application of VISCOT (in conjunction with a SCEPTER heat transfer code such as DOT) is the thermomechanical analysis of a rock mass such as salt in which significant time-dependent nonlinear deformations are expected to occur. Such problems include room- and canister-scale studies during the excavation, operation, and long-term post-closure stages in a salt repository. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report

  15. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  16. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  17. Collective Robotic Assembly of Discrete Lattice Elements (CRADLE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRADLE seeks to address this need through a novel application of an integrated robot-structure-material system based on discrete lattice construction using task...

  18. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  19. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  20. Newton-type methods for the mixed finite element discretization of some degenerate parabolic equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radu, F.A.; Pop, I.S.; Knabner, P.; Bermúdez de Castro, A.; Gómez, D.; Quintela, P.; Salgado, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some iterative approaches for solving the nonlinear algebraic systems encountered as fully discrete counterparts of some degenerate (fast diffusion) parabolic problems. After regularization, we combine a mixed finite element discretization with the Euler implicit scheme. For

  1. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  2. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  3. A discrete finite element modelling and measurements for powder compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J L; Gethin, D T

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation into friction between powder and a target surface together with numerical modelling of compaction and friction processes at a micro-scale are presented in this paper. The experimental work explores friction mechanisms by using an extended sliding plate apparatus operating at low load while sliding over a long distance. Tests were conducted for copper and 316 steel with variation in loads, surface finish and its orientation. The behaviours of the static and dynamic friction were identified highlighting the important influence of particle size, particle shape, material response and surface topography. The results also highlighted that under light loading the friction coefficient remains at a level lower than that derived from experiments on equipment having a wider dynamic range and this is attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the measurement equipment. The results also suggest that friction variation with sliding distance is a consequence of damage, rather than presentation of an uncontaminated target sliding surface. The complete experimental cycle was modelled numerically using a combined discrete and finite element scheme enabling exploration of mechanisms that are defined at the particle level. Using compaction as the starting point, a number of simulation factors and process parameters were investigated. Comparisons were made with previously published work, showing reasonable agreement and the simulations were then used to explore the process response to the range of particle scale factors. Models comprising regular packing of round particles exhibited stiff response with high initial density. Models with random packing were explored and were found to reflect trends that are more closely aligned with experimental observation, including rearrangement, followed by compaction under a regime of elastic then plastic deformation. Numerical modelling of the compaction stage was extended to account for the shearing stage of the

  4. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  5. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  6. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  7. A discrete element based simulation framework to investigate particulate spray deposition processes

    KAUST Repository

    Mukherjee, Debanjan; Zohdi, Tarek I.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. This work presents a computer simulation framework based on discrete element method to analyze manufacturing processes that comprise a loosely flowing stream of particles in a carrier fluid being deposited on a target surface

  8. The Full—Discrete Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanpingCHEN; YunqingHUANG

    1998-01-01

    This article treats mixed finite element methods for second order nonlinear hyperbolic equations.A fully discrete scheme is presented and improved L2-error estimates are established.The convergence of both the function value andthe flux is demonstrated.

  9. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  10. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  13. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  15. The Effect of Loading Rate on Hydraulic Fracturing in Synthetic Granite - a Discrete Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, I.; Gutierrez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation from a borehole in hard synthetic rock is modeled using the two dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). DEM uses previously established procedure for modeling the strength and deformation parameters of quasi-brittle rocks with the Bonded Particle Model (Itasca, 2004). A series of simulations of laboratory tests on granite in DEM serve as a reference for synthetic rock behavior. Fracturing is enabled by breaking parallel bonds between DEM particles as a result of the local stress state. Subsequent bond breakage induces fracture propagation during a time-stepping procedure. Hydraulic fracturing occurs when pressurized fluid induces hoop stresses around the wellbore which cause rock fracturing and serves for geo-reservoir permeability enhancement in oil, gas and geothermal industries. In DEM, a network of fluid pipes and reservoirs is used for mathematical calculation of fluid flow through narrow channels between DEM particles, where the hydro-mechanical coupling is fully enabled. The fluid flow calculation is superimposed with DEM stress-strain calculation at each time step. As a result, the fluid pressures during borehole pressurization in hydraulic fracturing, as well as, during the fracture propagation from the borehole, can be simulated. The objective of this study is to investigate numerically a hypothesis that fluid pressurization rate, or the fluid flow rate, influences upon character, shape and velocity of fracture propagation in rock. The second objective is to better understand and define constraints which are important for successful fracture propagation in quasi-brittle rock from the perspective of flow rate, fluid density, viscosity and compressibility relative to the rock physical properties. Results from this study indicate that not only too high fluid flow rates cause fracture arrest and multiple fracture branching from the borehole, but also that the relative compressibility of fracturing fluid and

  16. Comparisons between a high resolution discrete element model and analogue model

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, C. S.; Yin, H.; WU, C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    A two-dimensional discrete element model (DEM) with high resolution is constructed to simulate the evolution of thrust wedge and an analogue model (AM) experiment is constructed to compare with the DEM results. This efficient parallel DEM program is written in the C language, and it is useful to solve the complex geological problems. More detailed about fold and thrust belts of DEM can be identified with the help of strain field. With non-rotating and non-tensile assumption, dynamic evolution of DEM is highly consistent with AM. Simulations in different scale can compare with each other by conversion formulas in DEM. Our results show that: (1) The overall evolution of DEM and AM is broadly similar. (2) Shortening is accommodated by in-sequence forward propagation of thrusts. The surface slope of the thrust wedge is within the stable field predicted by critical taper theory. (3) Details of thrust spacing, dip angle and number of thrusts vary between DEM and AM for the shortening experiment, but the characteristics of thrusts are similar on the whole. (4) Dip angles of the forward thrusts increased from foreland (ca. 30°) to the mobile wall (ca. 80°) (5) With shortening, both models had not the obvious volume loss. Instead, the volume basic remained unchanged in the whole extrusion processes. (6) Almost all high strain values are within fold-and-thrust belts in DEM, which allows a direct comparison between the fault zone identified on the DEM deformation field and that in the strain field. (7) The first fault initiates at deep depths and propagate down toward the surface. For the maximal volumetric strain focused on the décollement near the mobile wall, strengthening the material and making it for brittle. (8) With non-tensile particles for DEM, contraction is broadly distributed throughout the model and dilation is hardly any, which also leads to a higher efficient computation. (9) High resolution DEM can to first order successfully reproduce structures observed

  17. Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation

  18. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  19. Discrete Maximum Principle for Higher-Order Finite Elements in 1D

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejchodský, Tomáš; Šolín, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 260 (2007), s. 1833-1846 ISSN 0025-5718 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/04/P021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : discrete maximum principle * discrete Grren´s function * higher-order elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.230, year: 2007

  20. Finite-element semi-discretization of linearized compressible and resistive MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, W.; Jakoby, A.; Lerbinger, K.

    1985-08-01

    The full resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as an initial-value problem. The semi-discretization using cubic and quadratic finite elements for the spatial discretization and a fully implicit time advance yields very accurate results even for small values of the resistivity. In the application different phenomena such as waves, resistive instabilities and overstable modes are addressed. (orig.)

  1. Entropy-stable summation-by-parts discretization of the Euler equations on general curved elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Jared; Hicken, Jason E.; Del Rey Fernández, David C.; Zingg, David W.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2018-03-01

    We present and analyze an entropy-stable semi-discretization of the Euler equations based on high-order summation-by-parts (SBP) operators. In particular, we consider general multidimensional SBP elements, building on and generalizing previous work with tensor-product discretizations. In the absence of dissipation, we prove that the semi-discrete scheme conserves entropy; significantly, this proof of nonlinear L2 stability does not rely on integral exactness. Furthermore, interior penalties can be incorporated into the discretization to ensure that the total (mathematical) entropy decreases monotonically, producing an entropy-stable scheme. SBP discretizations with curved elements remain accurate, conservative, and entropy stable provided the mapping Jacobian satisfies the discrete metric invariants; polynomial mappings at most one degree higher than the SBP operators automatically satisfy the metric invariants in two dimensions. In three-dimensions, we describe an elementwise optimization that leads to suitable Jacobians in the case of polynomial mappings. The properties of the semi-discrete scheme are verified and investigated using numerical experiments.

  2. Discrete-ordinates finite-element method for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

    1985-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of modern discrete-ordinates finite-element methods for the solution of radiative transfer problems in meteorology, climatology, and remote sensing applications are evaluated. After the common basis of the formulation of radiative transfer problems in the fields of neutron transport and atmospheric optics is established, the essential features of the discrete-ordinates finite-element method are described including the limitations of the method and their remedies. Numerical results are presented for 1-D and 2-D atmospheric radiative transfer problems where integral as well as angular dependent quantities are compared with published results from other calculations and with measured data. These comparisons provide a verification of the discrete-ordinates results for a wide spectrum of cases with varying degrees of absorption, scattering, and anisotropic phase functions. Accuracy and computational speed are also discussed. Since practically all discrete-ordinates codes offer a builtin adjoint capability, the general concept of the adjoint method is described and illustrated by sample problems. Our general conclusion is that the strengths of the discrete-ordinates finite-element method outweight its weaknesses. We demonstrate that existing general-purpose discrete-ordinates codes can provide a powerful tool to analyze radiative transfer problems through the atmosphere, especially when 2-D geometries must be considered

  3. Discrete maximum principle for the P1 - P0 weak Galerkin finite element approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu; Zhai, Qilong; Zhang, Ran

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents two discrete maximum principles (DMP) for the numerical solution of second order elliptic equations arising from the weak Galerkin finite element method. The results are established by assuming an h-acute angle condition for the underlying finite element triangulations. The mathematical theory is based on the well-known De Giorgi technique adapted in the finite element context. Some numerical results are reported to validate the theory of DMP.

  4. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  5. Pair Interaction of Dislocations in Two-Dimensional Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, C.; Gasser, U.; Keim, P.; Maret, G.; von Grünberg, H. H.

    2005-10-01

    The pair interaction between crystal dislocations is systematically explored by analyzing particle trajectories of two-dimensional colloidal crystals measured by video microscopy. The resulting pair energies are compared to Monte Carlo data and to predictions derived from the standard Hamiltonian of the elastic theory of dislocations. Good agreement is found with respect to the distance and temperature dependence of the interaction potential, but not regarding the angle dependence where discrete lattice effects become important. Our results on the whole confirm that the dislocation Hamiltonian allows a quantitative understanding of the formation and interaction energies of dislocations in two-dimensional crystals.

  6. Chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional noninvertible maps

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, Christian; Cathala, Jean-Claude; Gardini, Laura

    1996-01-01

    This book is essentially devoted to complex properties (Phase plane structure and bifurcations) of two-dimensional noninvertible maps, i.e. maps having either a non-unique inverse, or no real inverse, according to the plane point. They constitute models of sets of discrete dynamical systems encountered in Engineering (Control, Signal Processing, Electronics), Physics, Economics, Life Sciences. Compared to the studies made in the one-dimensional case, the two-dimensional situation remained a long time in an underdeveloped state. It is only since these last years that the interest for this resea

  7. Numerical modeling of the dynamic behavior of structures under impact with a discrete elements / finite elements coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, J.

    2009-07-01

    That study focuses on concrete structures submitted to impact loading and is aimed at predicting local damage in the vicinity of an impact zone as well as the global response of the structure. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) seems particularly well suited in this context for modeling fractures. An identification process of DEM material parameters from macroscopic data (Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strength, fracture energy, etc.) will first be presented for the purpose of enhancing reproducibility and reliability of the simulation results with DE samples of various sizes. Then, a particular interaction, between concrete and steel elements, was developed for the simulation of reinforced concrete. The discrete elements method was validated on quasi-static and dynamic tests carried out on small samples of concrete and reinforced concrete. Finally, discrete elements were used to simulate impacts on reinforced concrete slabs in order to confront the results with experimental tests. The modeling of a large structure by means of DEM may lead to prohibitive computation times. A refined discretization becomes required in the vicinity of the impact, while the structure may be modeled using a coarse FE mesh further from the impact area, where the material behaves elastically. A coupled discrete-finite element approach is thus proposed: the impact zone is modeled by means of DE and elastic FE are used on the rest of the structure. An existing method for 3D finite elements was extended to shells. This new method was then validated on many quasi-static and dynamic tests. The proposed approach is then applied to an impact on a concrete structure in order to validate the coupled method and compare computation times. (author)

  8. Discrete-Roughness-Element-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary-instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete-roughness-element technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural-laminar-flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6 deg, freestream Mach number of 0.75, and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 × 10(exp 6), 24 × 10(exp 6), and 30 × 10(exp 6) suggest that discrete roughness elements could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small-wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., discrete roughness element) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

  9. Numerical Integration Techniques for Curved-Element Discretizations of Molecule–Solvent Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.; Willis, David J.; Lippow, Shaun M.; Tidor, Bruce; White, Jacob K.

    2012-01-01

    Surface formulations of biophysical modeling problems offer attractive theoretical and computational properties. Numerical simulations based on these formulations usually begin with discretization of the surface under consideration; often, the surface is curved, possessing complicated structure and possibly singularities. Numerical simulations commonly are based on approximate, rather than exact, discretizations of these surfaces. To assess the strength of the dependence of simulation accuracy on the fidelity of surface representation, we have developed methods to model several important surface formulations using exact surface discretizations. Following and refining Zauhar’s work (J. Comp.-Aid. Mol. Des. 9:149-159, 1995), we define two classes of curved elements that can exactly discretize the van der Waals, solvent-accessible, and solvent-excluded (molecular) surfaces. We then present numerical integration techniques that can accurately evaluate nonsingular and singular integrals over these curved surfaces. After validating the exactness of the surface discretizations and demonstrating the correctness of the presented integration methods, we present a set of calculations that compare the accuracy of approximate, planar-triangle-based discretizations and exact, curved-element-based simulations of surface-generalized-Born (sGB), surface-continuum van der Waals (scvdW), and boundary-element method (BEM) electrostatics problems. Results demonstrate that continuum electrostatic calculations with BEM using curved elements, piecewise-constant basis functions, and centroid collocation are nearly ten times more accurate than planartriangle BEM for basis sets of comparable size. The sGB and scvdW calculations give exceptional accuracy even for the coarsest obtainable discretized surfaces. The extra accuracy is attributed to the exact representation of the solute–solvent interface; in contrast, commonly used planar-triangle discretizations can only offer improved

  10. Discrete Element Method simulations of standing jumps in granular flows down inclines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méjean Ségolène

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical set-up which uses Discrete Element Method to produce standing jumps in flows of dry granular materials down a slope in two dimensions. The grain-scale force interactions are modeled by a visco-elastic normal force and an elastic tangential force with a Coulomb threshold. We will show how it is possible to reproduce all the shapes of the jumps observed in a previous laboratory study: diffuse versus steep jumps and compressible versus incompressible jumps. Moreover, we will discuss the additional measurements that can be done thanks to discrete element modelling.

  11. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  12. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  13. Sensitivity of Particle Size in Discrete Element Method to Particle Gas Method (DEM_PGM) Coupling in Underbody Blast Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-12

    Particle Size in Discrete Element Method to Particle Gas Method (DEM_PGM) Coupling in Underbody Blast Simulations Venkatesh Babu, Kumar Kulkarni, Sanjay...buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) and (2) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), are investigated. The...DEM_PGM and identify the limitations/strengths compared to the ALE method. Discrete Element Method (DEM) can model individual particle directly, and

  14. Development of a convex polyhedral discrete element simulation framework for NVIDIA Kepler based GPUs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, Nicolin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in nature and cannot be described by a closed form solution for more than a few particles. A popular and successful approach in simulating the underlying dynamics of GM is by using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Computational viable simulations...

  15. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  16. Applications of discrete element method in modeling of grain postharvest operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain kernels are finite and discrete materials. Although flowing grain can behave like a continuum fluid at times, the discontinuous behavior exhibited by grain kernels cannot be simulated solely with conventional continuum-based computer modeling such as finite-element or finite-difference methods...

  17. Discrete element simulation of mill charge in 3D using the BLAZE-DEM GPU framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, Nicolin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation of charge motion in ball, semi autogenous (SAG) and autogenous mills has advanced to a stage where the effects of lifter design, power draft and product size can be evaluated with sufficient accuracy...

  18. Sound propagation in dry granular materials : discrete element simulations, theory, and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study sound wave propagation through different types of dry confined granular systems is studied. With three-dimensional discrete element simulations, theory and experiments, the influence of several micro-scale properties: friction, dissipation, particle rotation, and contact disorder, on

  19. Experiments and discrete element simulation of the dosing of cohesive powders in a simplified geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Krijgsman, Dinant; Weinhart, Thomas; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Chavez Montes, Bruno E.; Ramaioli, Marco; Luding, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We perform experiments and discrete element simulations on the dosing of cohesive granular materials in a simplified geometry. The setup is a canister box where the powder is dosed out through the action of a constant-pitch coil feeder connected to a motor. A dosing step consists of a rotation

  20. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  1. RTk/SN Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Multigroup Transport Equations in Hexagonal Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Edmundo del; Mund, Ernest H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an extension to the hexagonal geometry of some weakly discontinuous nodal finite element schemes developed by Hennart and del Valle for the two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport equation in quadrangular geometry. The extension is carried out in a way similar to the extension to the hexagonal geometry of nodal element schemes for the diffusion equation using a composite mapping technique suggested by Hennart, Mund, and del Valle. The combination of the weakly discontinuous nodal transport scheme and the composite mapping is new and is detailed in the main section of the paper. The algorithm efficiency is shown numerically through some benchmark calculations on classical problems widely referred to in the literature

  2. Vectorized Matlab Codes for Linear Two-Dimensional Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Koko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A vectorized Matlab implementation for the linear finite element is provided for the two-dimensional linear elasticity with mixed boundary conditions. Vectorization means that there is no loop over triangles. Numerical experiments show that our implementation is more efficient than the standard implementation with a loop over all triangles.

  3. Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media

  4. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  5. Modeling of asphalt by means of discrete element method – an initial study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Hededal, Ole; Stang, Henrik

    of conducting time-consuming and lab-costly procedures. The use of numerical models, capable of reducing greatly the testing cost, has shown great potential in characterizing asphalt-aggregate mixtures for both material evaluation and structural design purposes, [1],[2]. Discrete element method (DEM) is one...... – will be applied. The work presented here will focus on the discrete element method as a tool for modelling composite materials, i.e. determination of a representative volume; boundary conditions; characterisation of the components mastic (binder + filler) and aggregates; and establishment of virtual test samples....... Results from initial tests will be presented and the future development of the model towards characterising asphalt from its composition will be outlined....

  6. Study of the Internal Mechanical response of an asphalt mixture by 3-D Discrete Element Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Hofko, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    and the reliability of which have been validated. The dynamic modulus of asphalt mixtures were predicted by conducting Discrete Element simulation under dynamic strain control loading. In order to reduce the calculation time, a method based on frequency–temperature superposition principle has been implemented......In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). The cylinder model was filled with cubic array of spheres with a specified radius, and was considered as a whole mixture with uniform contact properties....... The ball density effect on the internal stress distribution of the asphalt mixture model has been studied when using this method. Furthermore, the internal stresses under dynamic loading have been studied. The agreement between the predicted and the laboratory test results of the complex modulus shows...

  7. Estimation of friction loss under forced flow pulsations in a channel with discrete roughness elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletshin, I. A.; Dushina, O. A.; Mikheev, N. I.; Kolchin, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The pulsating flow in a circular channel with semicircular annular ribs as discrete roughness elements has been studied experimentally. Air flow under atmospheric conditions at the channel inlet has been considered. Steady and pulsating air flow has been studied under different frequencies and amplitudes of forced pulsations generated by periodic blockage of the channel cross section by a rotating flap. Flow resistance in pulsating regimes has been estimated from the average static pressure drop. The resistance values attained twice the steady flow ones.

  8. Discrete/Finite Element Modelling of Rock Cutting with a TBM Disc Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labra, Carlos; Rojek, Jerzy; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents advanced computer simulation of rock cutting process typical for excavation works in civil engineering. Theoretical formulation of the hybrid discrete/finite element model has been presented. The discrete and finite element methods have been used in different subdomains of a rock sample according to expected material behaviour, the part which is fractured and damaged during cutting is discretized with the discrete elements while the other part is treated as a continuous body and it is modelled using the finite element method. In this way, an optimum model is created, enabling a proper representation of the physical phenomena during cutting and efficient numerical computation. The model has been applied to simulation of the laboratory test of rock cutting with a single TBM (tunnel boring machine) disc cutter. The micromechanical parameters have been determined using the dimensionless relationships between micro- and macroscopic parameters. A number of numerical simulations of the LCM test in the unrelieved and relieved cutting modes have been performed. Numerical results have been compared with available data from in-situ measurements in a real TBM as well as with the theoretical predictions showing quite a good agreement. The numerical model has provided a new insight into the cutting mechanism enabling us to investigate the stress and pressure distribution at the tool-rock interaction. Sensitivity analysis of rock cutting performed for different parameters including disc geometry, cutting velocity, disc penetration and spacing has shown that the presented numerical model is a suitable tool for the design and optimization of rock cutting process.

  9. Discrete element modeling of cemented sand and particle crushing at high pressures

    OpenAIRE

    de Bono, John Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to provide an insight into the behaviour of cemented sand under high pressures, and to further the understanding of the role of particle crushing. The discrete element method is used to investigate the micro mechanics of sand and cemented sand in high-pressure triaxial tests and one-dimensional normal compression. Using the software PFC3D, a new triaxial model has been developed, which features an effective flexible membrane that allows free deformation of the specimen ...

  10. A discrete element model for the investigation of the geometrically nonlinear behaviour of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockelmann, Felix; Dinkler, Dieter

    2018-07-01

    A three-dimensional discrete element model for elastic solids with large deformations is presented. Therefore, an discontinuum approach is made for solids. The properties of elastic material are transferred analytically into the parameters of a discrete element model. A new and improved octahedron gap-filled face-centred cubic close packing of spheres is split into unit cells, to determine the parameters of the discrete element model. The symmetrical unit cells allow a model with equal shear components in each contact plane and fully isotropic behaviour for Poisson's ratio above 0. To validate and show the broad field of applications of the new model, the pin-pin Euler elastica is presented and investigated. The thin and sensitive structure tends to undergo large deformations and rotations with a highly geometrically nonlinear behaviour. This behaviour of the elastica can be modelled and is compared to reference solutions. Afterwards, an improved more realistic simulation of the elastica is presented which softens secondary buckling phenomena. The model is capable of simulating solids with small strains but large deformations and a strongly geometrically nonlinear behaviour, taking the shear stiffness of the material into account correctly.

  11. Two-dimensional shielding benchmarks for iron at YAYOI, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro; Kasai, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Koyama, Kinji.

    The aim of this work is to assess the collapsed neutron and gamma multigroup cross sections for two dimensional discrete ordinate transport code. Two dimensional distributions of neutron flux and gamma ray dose through a 70cm thick and 94cm square iron shield were measured at the fast neutron source reactor ''YAYOI''. The iron shield was placed over the lead reflector in the vertical experimental column surrounded by heavy concrete wall. The detectors used in this experiment were threshold detectors In, Ni, Al, Mg, Fe and Zn, sandwitch resonance detectors Au, W and Co, activation foils Au for neutrons and thermoluminescence detectors for gamma ray dose. The experimental results were compared with the calculated ones by the discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and TWOTRAN. The region-wise, coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross-sections (100n+20gamma, EURLIB structure) were generated from ENDF/B-IV library for neutrons and POPOP4 library for gamma-ray production cross-sections by using the code system RADHEAT. The effective microscopic neutron cross sections were obtained from the infinite dilution values applying ABBN type self-shielding factors. The gamma ray production multigroup cross-sections were calculated from these effective microscopic neutron cross-sections. For two-dimensional calculations the group constants were collapsed into 10 neutron groups and 3 gamma groups by using ANISN. (auth.)

  12. Autocorrelation based reconstruction of two-dimensional binary objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia-Barbosa, Y.; Castaneda, R.

    2005-10-01

    A method for reconstructing two-dimensional binary objects from its autocorrelation function is discussed. The objects consist of a finite set of identical elements. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the concept of class of element pairs, defined as the set of element pairs with the same separation vector. This concept allows to solve the redundancy introduced by the element pairs of each class. It is also shown that different objects, consisting of an equal number of elements and the same classes of pairs, provide Fraunhofer diffraction patterns with identical intensity distributions. However, the method predicts all the possible objects that produce the same Fraunhofer pattern. (author)

  13. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, T S; Adams, M L [Texas A M Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX (United States); Yang, B; Zika, M R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation, and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2-dimensional) or polyhedral (3-dimensional) grids. We show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's finite-volume method. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids. (authors)

  14. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  15. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  16. Finite Volume Element (FVE) discretization and multilevel solution of the axisymmetric heat equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Eric T.

    1994-12-01

    The axisymmetric heat equation, resulting from a point-source of heat applied to a metal block, is solved numerically; both iterative and multilevel solutions are computed in order to compare the two processes. The continuum problem is discretized in two stages: finite differences are used to discretize the time derivatives, resulting is a fully implicit backward time-stepping scheme, and the Finite Volume Element (FVE) method is used to discretize the spatial derivatives. The application of the FVE method to a problem in cylindrical coordinates is new, and results in stencils which are analyzed extensively. Several iteration schemes are considered, including both Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel; a thorough analysis of these schemes is done, using both the spectral radii of the iteration matrices and local mode analysis. Using this discretization, a Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme is used to solve the heat equation iteratively. A multilevel solution process is then constructed, including the development of intergrid transfer and coarse grid operators. Local mode analysis is performed on the components of the amplification matrix, resulting in the two-level convergence factors for various combinations of the operators. A multilevel solution process is implemented by using multigrid V-cycles; the iterative and multilevel results are compared and discussed in detail. The computational savings resulting from the multilevel process are then discussed.

  17. Failure analysis of pebble bed reactors during earthquake by discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluated the load acting on the central reflector beam of a pebble bed reactor. ► The load acting on the reflector beam highly depends on fuel element distribution. ► The contact force values do not show high dependence on fuel element distribution. ► Earthquake increases the load of the reflector, not the contact forces. -- Abstract: Pebble bed reactors (PBR) are graphite-moderated, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. PBR reactors use a large number of spherical fuel elements called pebbles. From mechanical point of view, the arrangement of “small” spherical fuel elements in a container poses the same problem, as the so-called silo problem in powder technology and agricultural engineering. To get more exact information about the contact forces arising between the fuel elements in static and dynamic case, we simulated the static case and the effects of an earthquake on a model reactor by using discrete element method. We determined the maximal contact forces acting between the individual fuel elements. We found that the value of the maximal bending moment in the central reflector beam has a high deviation from the average value even in static case, and it can significantly increase in case of an earthquake. Our results can help the engineers working on the design of such types of reactors to get information about the contact forces, to determine the dust production and the crush probability of fuel elements within the reactor, and to model different accident scenarios

  18. Failure analysis of pebble bed reactors during earthquake by discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppler, Istvan, E-mail: keppler.istvan@gek.szie.hu [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Design, Szent István University, Páter K.u.1., Gödöllő H-2103 (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We evaluated the load acting on the central reflector beam of a pebble bed reactor. ► The load acting on the reflector beam highly depends on fuel element distribution. ► The contact force values do not show high dependence on fuel element distribution. ► Earthquake increases the load of the reflector, not the contact forces. -- Abstract: Pebble bed reactors (PBR) are graphite-moderated, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. PBR reactors use a large number of spherical fuel elements called pebbles. From mechanical point of view, the arrangement of “small” spherical fuel elements in a container poses the same problem, as the so-called silo problem in powder technology and agricultural engineering. To get more exact information about the contact forces arising between the fuel elements in static and dynamic case, we simulated the static case and the effects of an earthquake on a model reactor by using discrete element method. We determined the maximal contact forces acting between the individual fuel elements. We found that the value of the maximal bending moment in the central reflector beam has a high deviation from the average value even in static case, and it can significantly increase in case of an earthquake. Our results can help the engineers working on the design of such types of reactors to get information about the contact forces, to determine the dust production and the crush probability of fuel elements within the reactor, and to model different accident scenarios.

  19. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  20. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  1. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  2. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  3. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Teresa S. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)], E-mail: baileyte@tamu.edu; Adams, Marvin L. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)], E-mail: mladams@tamu.edu; Yang, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Zika, Michael R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)], E-mail: zika@llnl.gov

    2008-04-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses recently introduced piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We first demonstrate some analytical properties of the PWL method and perform a simple mode analysis to compare the PWL method with Palmer's vertex-centered finite-volume method and with a bilinear continuous finite element method. We then show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive-definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids.

  4. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Teresa S.; Adams, Marvin L.; Yang, Brian; Zika, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses recently introduced piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We first demonstrate some analytical properties of the PWL method and perform a simple mode analysis to compare the PWL method with Palmer's vertex-centered finite-volume method and with a bilinear continuous finite element method. We then show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive-definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids

  5. Discrete Element Simulations and Experiments on the Deformation of Cohesive Powders in a Bi-Axial Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Kumar, Nishant; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We compare element test experiments and simulations on the deformation of frictional, cohesive particles in a bi-axial box. We show that computer simulations with the Discrete Element Method qualitatively reproduce a uniaxial compression element test in the true bi-axial tester. We highlight the

  6. Inverse radiative transfer problems in two-dimensional heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)

  7. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovi, Dalila; Berzi, Diego; Richard, Patrick; Brodu, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed av...

  8. Using FDFD Technique in Two-Dimensional TE Analysis for Modeling Clutter in Wall Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Insana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite difference frequency domain (FDFD computational electromagnetic modeling is implemented to perform a two-dimensional TEz analysis for the application of wall penetrating radar (WPR. Resolving small targets of interest, embedded in a strong clutter environment of unknown configuration, is difficult. Field interaction between clutter elements will dominate the received fields back-scattered from the scene. Removing the effects of clutter ultimately relies on the accuracy of the model. Analysis starts with a simple model that continues to build based on the dominant scattering features of the scene. FDFD provides a steady state frequency response to a discrete excitation. Taking the fast Fourier transform of the wideband response of the scene, at several external transmit/receive locations, produces 2D images of the clutter, which are used to mature the model.

  9. Coupled DQ-FE methods for two dimensional transient heat transfer analysis of functionally graded material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golbahar Haghighi, M.R.; Eghtesad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr 75169-13798 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.ir

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, a mixed finite element (FE) and differential quadrature (DQ) method as a simple, accurate and computationally efficient numerical tool for two dimensional transient heat transfer analysis of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is developed. The method benefits from the high accuracy, fast convergence behavior and low computational efforts of the DQ in conjunction with the advantages of the FE method in general geometry, loading and systematic boundary treatment. Also, the boundary conditions at the top and bottom surfaces of the domain can be implemented more precisely and in strong form. The temporal derivatives are discretized using an incremental DQ method (IDQM), whose numerical stability is not sensitive to time step size. The effects of non-uniform convective-radiative conditions on the boundaries are investigated. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing its results with those available in the literature. It is shown that using few grid points, highly accurate results can be obtained.

  10. Prediction of Fracture Behavior in Rock and Rock-like Materials Using Discrete Element Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaga, T.; Young, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of fracture initiation and propagation in heterogeneous materials such as rock and rock-like materials are of principal interest in the field of rock mechanics and rock engineering. It is crucial to study and investigate failure prediction and safety measures in civil and mining structures. Our work offers a practical approach to predict fracture behaviour using discrete element models. In this approach, the microstructures of materials are presented through the combination of clusters of bonded particles with different inter-cluster particle and bond properties, and intra-cluster bond properties. The geometry of clusters is transferred from information available from thin sections, computed tomography (CT) images and other visual presentation of the modeled material using customized AutoCAD built-in dialog- based Visual Basic Application. Exact microstructures of the tested sample, including fractures, faults, inclusions and void spaces can be duplicated in the discrete element models. Although the microstructural fabrics of rocks and rock-like structures may have different scale, fracture formation and propagation through these materials are alike and will follow similar mechanics. Synthetic material provides an excellent condition for validating the modelling approaches, as fracture behaviours are known with the well-defined composite's properties. Calibration of the macro-properties of matrix material and inclusions (aggregates), were followed with the overall mechanical material responses calibration by adjusting the interfacial properties. The discrete element model predicted similar fracture propagation features and path as that of the real sample material. The path of the fractures and matrix-inclusion interaction was compared using computed tomography images. Initiation and fracture formation in the model and real material were compared using Acoustic Emission data. Analysing the temporal and spatial evolution of AE events, collected during the

  11. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Majidi, Behzad; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Fafard, Mario; Ziegler, Donald P.; Alamdari, Houshang

    2016-01-01

    Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM) on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then use...

  12. Discrete Element Method Simulation of a Boulder Extraction From an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton K.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.; Wilkinson, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The force required to pull 7t and 40t polyhedral boulders from the surface of an asteroid is simulated using the discrete element method considering the effects of microgravity, regolith cohesion and boulder acceleration. The connection between particle surface energy and regolith cohesion is estimated by simulating a cohesion sample tearing test. An optimal constant acceleration is found where the peak net force from inertia and cohesion is a minimum. Peak pulling forces can be further reduced by using linear and quadratic acceleration functions with up to a 40% reduction in force for quadratic acceleration.

  13. The compaction of a random distribution of metal cylinders by the discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redanz, Pia; Fleck, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    -linear springs. The initial packing of the particles is generated by the ballistic deposition method. Salient micromechanical features of closed die and isostatic powder compaction are elucidated for both frictionless and sticking contacts. It is found that substantial rearrangement of frictionless particles......The cold compaction of a 2D random distribution of metal circular cylinders has been investigated numerically by the discrete element method. Each cylindrical particle is located by a node at its centre and the plastic indentation of the contacts between neighbouring particles is represented by non...

  14. A discrete-element model for viscoelastic deformation and fracture of glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Tallinen, T.; Åström, J.; Timonen, J.

    2015-10-01

    A discrete-element model was developed to study the behavior of viscoelastic materials that are allowed to fracture. Applicable to many materials, the main objective of this analysis was to develop a model specifically for ice dynamics. A realistic model of glacial ice must include elasticity, brittle fracture and slow viscous deformations. Here the model is described in detail and tested with several benchmark simulations. The model was used to simulate various ice-specific applications with resulting flow rates that were compatible with Glen's law, and produced under fragmentation fragment-size distributions that agreed with the known analytical and experimental results.

  15. A 2D Electromechanical Model of Human Atrial Tissue Using the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brocklehurst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue is a syncytium of coupled cells with pronounced intrinsic discrete nature. Previous models of cardiac electromechanics often ignore such discrete properties and treat cardiac tissue as a continuous medium, which has fundamental limitations. In the present study, we introduce a 2D electromechanical model for human atrial tissue based on the discrete element method (DEM. In the model, single-cell dynamics are governed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Courtemanche et al. to the myofilament model of Rice et al. with two-way feedbacks. Each cell is treated as a viscoelastic body, which is physically represented by a clump of nine particles. Cell aggregations are arranged so that the anisotropic nature of cardiac tissue due to fibre orientations can be modelled. Each cell is electrically coupled to neighbouring cells, allowing excitation waves to propagate through the tissue. Cell-to-cell mechanical interactions are modelled using a linear contact bond model in DEM. By coupling cardiac electrophysiology with mechanics via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the DEM model successfully simulates the conduction of cardiac electrical waves and the tissue’s corresponding mechanical contractions. The developed DEM model is numerically stable and provides a powerful method for studying the electromechanical coupling problem in the heart.

  16. Stabilization and discontinuity-capturing parameters for space-time flow computations with finite element and isogeometric discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Otoguro, Yuto

    2018-04-01

    Stabilized methods, which have been very common in flow computations for many years, typically involve stabilization parameters, and discontinuity-capturing (DC) parameters if the method is supplemented with a DC term. Various well-performing stabilization and DC parameters have been introduced for stabilized space-time (ST) computational methods in the context of the advection-diffusion equation and the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible and compressible flows. These parameters were all originally intended for finite element discretization but quite often used also for isogeometric discretization. The stabilization and DC parameters we present here for ST computations are in the context of the advection-diffusion equation and the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flows, target isogeometric discretization, and are also applicable to finite element discretization. The parameters are based on a direction-dependent element length expression. The expression is outcome of an easy to understand derivation. The key components of the derivation are mapping the direction vector from the physical ST element to the parent ST element, accounting for the discretization spacing along each of the parametric coordinates, and mapping what we have in the parent element back to the physical element. The test computations we present for pure-advection cases show that the parameters proposed result in good solution profiles.

  17. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, T.S.; Adams, M.L. [Texas A M Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX (United States); Yang, B.; Zika, M.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation, and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2-dimensional) or polyhedral (3-dimensional) grids. We show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's finite-volume method. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids. (authors)

  18. Simulation of Semi-Solid Material Mechanical Behavior Using a Combined Discrete/Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A. B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a necessary step toward the quantitative prediction of hot tearing defects, a three-dimensional stress-strain simulation based on a combined finite element (FE)/discrete element method (DEM) has been developed that is capable of predicting the mechanical behavior of semisolid metallic alloys during solidification. The solidification model used for generating the initial solid-liquid structure is based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers and a solute diffusion model for each element of this tessellation. At a given fraction of solid, the deformation is then simulated with the solid grains being modeled using an elastoviscoplastic constitutive law, whereas the remaining liquid layers at grain boundaries are approximated by flexible connectors, each consisting of a spring element and a damper element acting in parallel. The model predictions have been validated against Al-Cu alloy experimental data from the literature. The results show that a combined FE/DEM approach is able to express the overall mechanical behavior of semisolid alloys at the macroscale based on the morphology of the grain structure. For the first time, the localization of strain in the intergranular regions is taken into account. Thus, this approach constitutes an indispensible step towards the development of a comprehensive model of hot tearing.

  19. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  20. A discrete element and ray framework for rapid simulation of acoustical dispersion of microscale particulate agglomerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    In industry, particle-laden fluids, such as particle-functionalized inks, are constructed by adding fine-scale particles to a liquid solution, in order to achieve desired overall properties in both liquid and (cured) solid states. However, oftentimes undesirable particulate agglomerations arise due to some form of mutual-attraction stemming from near-field forces, stray electrostatic charges, process ionization and mechanical adhesion. For proper operation of industrial processes involving particle-laden fluids, it is important to carefully breakup and disperse these agglomerations. One approach is to target high-frequency acoustical pressure-pulses to breakup such agglomerations. The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model and corresponding solution algorithm to enable rapid simulation of the effect of acoustical pulses on an agglomeration composed of a collection of discrete particles. Because of the complex agglomeration microstructure, containing gaps and interfaces, this type of system is extremely difficult to mesh and simulate using continuum-based methods, such as the finite difference time domain or the finite element method. Accordingly, a computationally-amenable discrete element/discrete ray model is developed which captures the primary physical events in this process, such as the reflection and absorption of acoustical energy, and the induced forces on the particulate microstructure. The approach utilizes a staggered, iterative solution scheme to calculate the power transfer from the acoustical pulse to the particles and the subsequent changes (breakup) of the pulse due to the particles. Three-dimensional examples are provided to illustrate the approach.

  1. Novel Discrete Element Method for 3D non-spherical granular particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelen, Luuk; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Granular materials are common in many industries and nature. The different properties from solid behavior to fluid like behavior are well known but less well understood. The main aim of our work is to develop a discrete element method (DEM) to simulate non-spherical granular particles. The non-spherical shape of particles is important, as it controls the behavior of the granular materials in many situations, such as static systems of packed particles. In such systems the packing fraction is determined by the particle shape. We developed a novel 3D discrete element method that simulates the particle-particle interactions for a wide variety of shapes. The model can simulate quadratic shapes such as spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders. More importantly, any convex polyhedron can be used as a granular particle shape. These polyhedrons are very well suited to represent non-rounded sand particles. The main difficulty of any non-spherical DEM is the determination of particle-particle overlap. Our model uses two iterative geometric algorithms to determine the overlap. The algorithms are robust and can also determine multiple contact points which can occur for these shapes. With this method we are able to study different applications such as the discharging of a hopper or silo. Another application the creation of a random close packing, to determine the solid volume fraction as a function of the particle shape.

  2. Simulation of hemp fibre bundle and cores using discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amin Sadek, M.; Chen, Y. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering; Lague, C. [Ottawa Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering; Landry, H. [Prairie Agricultural Machinery Inst., Humboldt, SK (Canada); Peng, Q. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Zhong, W. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Textile Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of hemp fibre and core must be well understood in order to obtain high-grade hemp fibre that is currently in high demand for various industrial applications. Modelling by discrete element method can simulate the mechanical behaviour of such materials. A commercial discrete element software called Particle Flow Code was used in this study. In particular, the 3-dimension (PFC3D) was used to simulate hemp fibre and core. Since the basic PFC3D particles are spherical, the individual virtual hemp fibres were defined as strings of balls held together by PFC3D parallel bonds. The study showed that the virtual fibre is flexible and can bend and break by forces. This reflects the characteristics of hemp fibre. Using the clump logic of PFC3D, the virtual hemp core was defined as a rigid and unbreakable body, which reflect the characteristics of the core. The virtual fibre and core were defined with several microproperties, some of which were previously calibrated. The PFC3D bond properties were calibrated in this study. They included normal and shear stiffness; pb{sub k}n and pb{sub k}s; normal and shear strength; and bond disk radius, R of the virtual fibre. The calibration started with developing a PFC3D model to simulate fibre tensile test. The microproperties of virtual fibre and core were calibrated by running the PFC3D model. Literature data from fibre tensile tests was compared with simulation results.

  3. Blocking Mechanism Study of Self-Compacting Concrete Based on Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Zhida; Zhang, Zhihua

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the influence factors of blocking mechanism of Self-Compaction Concrete (SCC), Roussel’s granular blocking model was verified and extended by establishing the discrete element model of SCC. The influence of different parameters on the filling capacity and blocking mechanism of SCC were also investigated. The results showed that: it was feasible to simulate the blocking mechanism of SCC by using Discrete Element Method (DEM). The passing ability of pebble aggregate was superior to the gravel aggregate and the passing ability of hexahedron particles was bigger than tetrahedron particles, while the tetrahedron particle simulation results were closer to the actual situation. The flow of SCC as another significant factor affected the passing ability that with the flow increased, the passing ability increased. The correction coefficient λ of the steel arrangement (channel section shape) and flow rate γ in the block model were introduced that the value of λ was 0.90-0.95 and the maximum casting rate was 7.8 L/min.

  4. Analysis of a discrete element method and coupling with a compressible fluid flow method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monasse, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at the numerical simulation of compressible fluid/deformable structure interactions. In particular, we have developed a partitioned coupling algorithm between a Finite Volume method for the compressible fluid and a Discrete Element method capable of taking into account fractures in the solid. A survey of existing fictitious domain methods and partitioned algorithms has led to choose an Embedded Boundary method and an explicit coupling scheme. We first showed that the Discrete Element method used for the solid yielded the correct macroscopic behaviour and that the symplectic time-integration scheme ensured the preservation of energy. We then developed an explicit coupling algorithm between a compressible inviscid fluid and an un-deformable solid. Mass, momentum and energy conservation and consistency properties were proved for the coupling scheme. The algorithm was then extended to the coupling with a deformable solid, in the form of a semi implicit scheme. Finally, we applied this method to unsteady inviscid flows around moving structures: comparisons with existing numerical and experimental results demonstrate the excellent accuracy of our method. (author) [fr

  5. IDENTIFYING FRACTURE ORIGIN IN CERAMICS BY COMBINATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AND DISCRETE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senapati, Rajeev; Zhang Jianmei

    2010-01-01

    Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing--laser scattering technology is first performed on the ceramic components to reveal the machining-induced damage such as cracks and the material-inherent flaws such as voids, then followed by the four point bending test. Discrete Element software package PFC 2D is used to simulate the four point bending test and try to identify where the fractures start. The numerical representation of the ceramic materials is done by generating a densely packed particle system using the specimen genesis procedure and then applying the suitable microparameters to the particle system. Simulation of four point bending test is performed on materials having no defects, materials having manufacturing-induced defects like cracks, and materials having material-inherent flaws like voids. The initiation and propagation of defects is modeled and the mean contact force on the loading ball is also plotted. The simulation prediction results are well in accordance with the nondestructive testing results.

  6. Crack nucleation in solid materials under external load - simulations with the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klejment Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of cracking processes require an appropriate numerical technique. Classical engineering approach to the problem has its roots in the continuum mechanics and is based mainly on the Finite Element Method. This technique allows simulations of both elastic and large deformation processes, so it is very popular in the engineering applications. However, a final effect of cracking - fragmentation of an object at hand can hardly be described by this approach in a numerically efficient way since it requires a solution of a problem of nontrivial evolving in time boundary conditions. We focused our attention on the Discrete Element Method (DEM, which by definition implies “molecular” construction of the matter. The basic idea behind DEM is to represent an investigated body as an assemblage of discrete particles interacting with each other. Breaking interaction bonds between particles induced by external forces imeditelly implies creation/evolution of boundary conditions. In this study we used the DEM approach to simulate cracking process in the three dimensional solid material under external tension. The used numerical model, although higly simplified, can be used to describe behaviour of such materials like thin films, biological tissues, metal coatings, to name a few.

  7. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-01-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive. - Highlights: • We performed Discrete Element Methods simulation for fuel relocation and dispersal during LOCA transients. • The approach provides a mechanistic description of these phenomena. • The approach shows the ability of the technique to reproduce experimental observations. • The packing fraction in the balloon is shown to stabilize at 50–60%.

  8. Two-dimensional nucleonics calculations for a ''FIRST STEP'' conceptual ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed two-dimensional nucleonic analysis has been performed for the FIRST STEP conceptual ICF reactor blanket design. The reactor concept incorporated in this design is a modified wetted-wall cavity with target illumination geometry left as a design variable. The 2-m radius spherical cavity is surrounded by a blanket containing lithium and 238 U as fertile species and also as energy multipliers. The blanket is configured as 0.6-m-thick cylindrical annuli containing modified LMFBR-type fuel elements with 0.5-m-thick fuel-bearing axial end plugs. Liquid lithium surrounds the inner blanket regions and serves as the coolant for both the blanket and the first wall. The two-dimensional analysis of the blanket performance was made using the 2-D discrete-ordinates code TRISM, and benchmarked with the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP. Integral responses including the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), plutonium breeding ratio (PUBR), and blanket energy multiplication were calculated for axial and radial blanket regions. Spatial distributions were calculated for steady-state rates of fission, neutron heating, prompt gamma-ray heating, and fuel breeding

  9. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  10. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  11. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-μDFN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (μDFN approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create μDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-μDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the mechanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in

  12. Creating tuneable microwave media from a two-dimensional lattice of re-entrant posts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-11-28

    The potential capabilities of resonators based on two dimensional arrays of re-entrant posts is demonstrated. Such posts may be regarded as magnetically coupled lumped element microwave harmonic oscillators, arranged in a 2D lattices structure, which is enclosed in a 3D cavity. By arranging these elements in certain 2D patterns, we demonstrate how to achieve certain requirements with respect to field localisation and device spectra. Special attention is paid to symmetries of the lattices, mechanical tuning, design of areas of high localisation of magnetic energy; this in turn creates unique discrete mode spectra. We demonstrate analogies between systems designed on the proposed platform and well known physical phenomena such as polarisation, frustration, and Whispering Gallery Modes. The mechanical tunability of the cavity with multiple posts is analysed, and its consequences to optomechanical applications is calculated. One particular application to quantum memory is demonstrated with a cavity design consisting of separate resonators analogous to discrete Fabry–Pérot resonators. Finally, we propose a generalised approach to a microwave system design based on the concept of Programmable Cavity Arrays.

  13. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  14. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  15. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  16. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  17. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  18. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  19. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  20. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  1. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  2. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  3. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  5. Discrete element simulation of internal stress in SiCp/aluminum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-22

    Jul 22, 2002 ... microcosmic two-dimensional numerical model of SiCp / Al matrix composites was established and the simulation of the size ... In the metal matrix composite ... stress and strain distribution, strengthen mechanisms and overall ...

  6. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Takashi, E-mail: ohshima@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maesaka, Hirokazu [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsubara, Shinichi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Otake, Yuji [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  7. Systemic characterization and evaluation of particle packings as initial sets for discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Morales, Irvin Pablo Pérez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Oñate, Eugenio

    2018-07-01

    A methodology that comprises several characterization properties for particle packings is proposed in this paper. The methodology takes into account factors such as dimension and shape of particles, space occupation, homogeneity, connectivity and isotropy, among others. This classification and integration of several properties allows to carry out a characterization process to systemically evaluate the particle packings in order to guarantee the quality of the initial meshes in discrete element simulations, in both the micro- and the macroscales. Several new properties were created, and improvements in existing ones are presented. Properties from other disciplines were adapted to be used in the evaluation of particle systems. The methodology allows to easily characterize media at the level of the microscale (continuous geometries—steels, rocks microstructures, etc., and discrete geometries) and the macroscale. A global, systemic and integral system for characterizing and evaluating particle sets, based on fuzzy logic, is presented. Such system allows researchers to have a unique evaluation criterion based on the aim of their research. Examples of applications are shown.

  8. Cyclic loading tests on ceramic breeder pebble bed by discrete element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Guo, Haibing; Shi, Tao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Hongwen, E-mail: hhw@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Zhenghong, E-mail: inpcnyb@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Methods of cyclic loading tests on the pebble beds were developed in DEM. • Size distribution and sphericity of the pebbles were considered for the specimen. • Mechanical responses of the pebble beds under cyclic loading tests were assessed. - Abstract: Complex mechanics and packing instability can be induced by loading operation on ceramic breeder pebble bed for its discrete nature. A numerical approach using discrete element method (DEM) is applied to study the mechanical performance of the ceramic breeder pebble bed under quasi-static and cyclic loads. A preloaded specimen can be made with servo-control mechanism, the quasi-static and dynamic stress-strain performances are studied during the tests. It is found that the normalized normal contact forces under quasi-static loads have the similar distributions, and increase with increasing loads. Furthermore, the relatively low volumetric strain can be absorbed by pebble bed after several loading and unloading cycles, but the peak normal contact force can be extremely high during the first cycle. Cyclic loading with target pressure is recommended for densely packing, irreversible volume reduction gradually increase with cycles, and the normal contact forces decrease with cycles.

  9. Systemic characterization and evaluation of particle packings as initial sets for discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Morales, Irvin Pablo Pérez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-10-01

    A methodology that comprises several characterization properties for particle packings is proposed in this paper. The methodology takes into account factors such as dimension and shape of particles, space occupation, homogeneity, connectivity and isotropy, among others. This classification and integration of several properties allows to carry out a characterization process to systemically evaluate the particle packings in order to guarantee the quality of the initial meshes in discrete element simulations, in both the micro- and the macroscales. Several new properties were created, and improvements in existing ones are presented. Properties from other disciplines were adapted to be used in the evaluation of particle systems. The methodology allows to easily characterize media at the level of the microscale (continuous geometries—steels, rocks microstructures, etc., and discrete geometries) and the macroscale. A global, systemic and integral system for characterizing and evaluating particle sets, based on fuzzy logic, is presented. Such system allows researchers to have a unique evaluation criterion based on the aim of their research. Examples of applications are shown.

  10. Cyclic loading tests on ceramic breeder pebble bed by discrete element modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Haibing; Shi, Tao; Ye, Minyou; Huang, Hongwen; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Methods of cyclic loading tests on the pebble beds were developed in DEM. • Size distribution and sphericity of the pebbles were considered for the specimen. • Mechanical responses of the pebble beds under cyclic loading tests were assessed. - Abstract: Complex mechanics and packing instability can be induced by loading operation on ceramic breeder pebble bed for its discrete nature. A numerical approach using discrete element method (DEM) is applied to study the mechanical performance of the ceramic breeder pebble bed under quasi-static and cyclic loads. A preloaded specimen can be made with servo-control mechanism, the quasi-static and dynamic stress-strain performances are studied during the tests. It is found that the normalized normal contact forces under quasi-static loads have the similar distributions, and increase with increasing loads. Furthermore, the relatively low volumetric strain can be absorbed by pebble bed after several loading and unloading cycles, but the peak normal contact force can be extremely high during the first cycle. Cyclic loading with target pressure is recommended for densely packing, irreversible volume reduction gradually increase with cycles, and the normal contact forces decrease with cycles.

  11. Evaluation and optimization of footwear comfort parameters using finite element analysis and a discrete optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P.; Azariadis, P.; Papanikos, P.

    2017-10-01

    Footwear is subject to bending and torsion deformations that affect comfort perception. Following review of Finite Element Analysis studies of sole rigidity and comfort, a three-dimensional, linear multi-material finite element sole model for quasi-static bending and torsion simulation, overcoming boundary and optimisation limitations, is described. Common footwear materials properties and boundary conditions from gait biomechanics are used. The use of normalised strain energy for product benchmarking is demonstrated along with comfort level determination through strain energy density stratification. Sensitivity of strain energy against material thickness is greater for bending than for torsion, with results of both deformations showing positive correlation. Optimization for a targeted performance level and given layer thickness is demonstrated with bending simulations sufficing for overall comfort assessment. An algorithm for comfort optimization w.r.t. bending is presented, based on a discrete approach with thickness values set in line with practical manufacturing accuracy. This work illustrates the potential of the developed finite element analysis applications to offer viable and proven aids to modern footwear sole design assessment and optimization.

  12. Rheology of dense granular flows in two dimensions: Comparison of fully two-dimensional flows to unidirectional shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Ashish; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the rheology of steady two-dimensional granular flows, in different geometries, using discrete element method-based simulations of soft spheres. The flow classification parameter (ψ ), which defines the local flow type (ranging from pure rotation to simple shear to pure extension), varies spatially, to a significant extent, in the flows. We find that the material behaves as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The μ -I scaling proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006), 10.1038/nature04801] is found to be valid in both two-dimensional and unidirectional flows, as observed in previous studies; however, the data for each flow geometry fall on a different curve. The results for the two-dimensional silo flow indicate that the viscosity does not depend directly on the flow type parameter, ψ . We find that the scaling based on "granular fluidity" [Zhang and Kamrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 058001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.058001] gives good collapse of the data to a single curve for all the geometries. The data for the variation of the solid faction with inertial number show a reasonable collapse for the different geometries.

  13. GPU accelerated Discrete Element Method (DEM) molecular dynamics for conservative, faceted particle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellings, Matthew [Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Marson, Ryan L. [Materials Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, 2300 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Anderson, Joshua A. [Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Glotzer, Sharon C., E-mail: sglotzer@umich.edu [Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Materials Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, 2300 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Faceted shapes, such as polyhedra, are commonly found in systems of nanoscale, colloidal, and granular particles. Many interesting physical phenomena, like crystal nucleation and growth, vacancy motion, and glassy dynamics are challenging to model in these systems because they require detailed dynamical information at the individual particle level. Within the granular materials community the Discrete Element Method has been used extensively to model systems of anisotropic particles under gravity, with friction. We provide an implementation of this method intended for simulation of hard, faceted nanoparticles, with a conservative Weeks–Chandler–Andersen (WCA) interparticle potential, coupled to a thermodynamic ensemble. This method is a natural extension of classical molecular dynamics and enables rigorous thermodynamic calculations for faceted particles.

  14. A framework for grand scale parallelization of the combined finite discrete element method in 2d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.

    2014-09-01

    Within the context of rock mechanics, the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM) has been applied to many complex industrial problems such as block caving, deep mining techniques (tunneling, pillar strength, etc.), rock blasting, seismic wave propagation, packing problems, dam stability, rock slope stability, rock mass strength characterization problems, etc. The reality is that most of these were accomplished in a 2D and/or single processor realm. In this work a hardware independent FDEM parallelization framework has been developed using the Virtual Parallel Machine for FDEM, (V-FDEM). With V-FDEM, a parallel FDEM software can be adapted to different parallel architecture systems ranging from just a few to thousands of cores.

  15. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics: I. Hard-sphere discrete element method and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    We present a new particle-based (discrete element) numerical method for the simulation of granular dynamics, with application to motions of particles on small solar system body and planetary surfaces. The method employs the parallel N-body tree code pkdgrav to search for collisions and compute particle trajectories. Collisions are treated as instantaneous point-contact events between rigid spheres. Particle confinement is achieved by combining arbitrary combinations of four provided wall primitives, namely infinite plane, finite disk, infinite cylinder, and finite cylinder, and degenerate cases of these. Various wall movements, including translation, oscillation, and rotation, are supported. We provide full derivations of collision prediction and resolution equations for all geometries and motions. Several tests of the method are described, including a model granular “atmosphere” that achieves correct energy equipartition, and a series of tumbler simulations that show the expected transition from tumbling to centrifuging as a function of rotation rate.

  16. Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.

  17. Application of discrete element method to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhiyong; Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the discrete element method (DEM) approach has been applied to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds. Directly simulating the contact state of each individual particle by the physically based interaction laws, the DEM numerical program is capable of predicting the mechanical behaviors of non-standard packing structures. The program can also provide the data to trace the evolution of contact characteristics and forces as deformation proceeds, as well as the particle movement when the pebble bed is subjected to external loadings. Our numerical simulations focus on predicting the mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds, which include typical fusion breeder materials in solid breeder blankets. Current numerical results clearly show that the packing density and the bed geometry can have an impact on the mechanical stiffness of the pebble beds. Statistical data show that the contact forces are highly related to the contact status of the pebbles

  18. A discrete element model for damage and fracture of geomaterials under fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Koval, Georg; Chazallon, Cyrille

    2017-06-01

    Failure processes in geomaterials (concrete, asphalt concrete, masonry, etc.) under fatigue loading (repeated moving loads, cycles of temperature, etc.) are responsible for most of the dysfunctions in pavements, brick structures, etc. In the beginning of the lifetime of a structure, the material presents only inner defects (micro cracks, voids, etc.). Due to the effect of the cyclic loading, these small defects tend to grow in size and quantity which damage the material, reducing its stiffness. With a relatively high number of cycles, these growing micro cracks become large cracks, which characterizes the fracture behavior. From a theoretical point of view, both mechanisms are treated differently. Fracture is usually described locally, with the propagation of cracks defined by the energy release rate at the crack tip; damage is usually associated to non-local approaches. In the present work, damage and fracture mechanics are combined in a local discrete element approach.

  19. A discrete element model of brittle damages generated by thermal expansion mismatch of heterogeneous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Damien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the macroscopic scale, such media as rocks or ceramics can be seen as homogeneous continuum. However, at the microscopic scale these materials involve sophisticated micro-structures that mix several phases. Generally, these micro-structures are composed by a large amount of inclusions embedded in a brittle matrix that ensures the cohesion of the structure. These materials generally exhibit complex non linear mechanical behaviors that result from the interactions between the different phases. This paper proposes to study the impact of the diffuse damages that result from the thermal expansion mismatch between the phases in presence. The Discrete Element Method (DEM that naturally take into account discontinuities is proposed to study these phenomena.

  20. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-09-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive.

  1. Fracture Failure of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Blast Loading Using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Jaini

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of fracture failure is challenging due to various issues in the constitutive law and the transition of continuum to discrete bodies. Therefore, this study presents the application of the combined finite-discrete element method to investigate the fracture failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loading. In numerical modeling, the interaction of non-uniform blast loading on the concrete slab was modeled using the incorporation of the finite element method with a crack rotating approach and the discrete element method to model crack, fracture onset and its post-failures. A time varying pressure-time history based on the mapping method was adopted to define blast loading. The Mohr-Coulomb with Rankine cut-off and von-Mises criteria were applied for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively. The results of scabbing, spalling and fracture show a reliable prediction of damage and fracture.

  2. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  3. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  4. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  5. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  6. Properties of the center of gravity as an algorithm for position measurements: Two-dimensional geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Landi, Gregorio

    2003-01-01

    The center of gravity as an algorithm for position measurements is analyzed for a two-dimensional geometry. Several mathematical consequences of discretization for various types of detector arrays are extracted. Arrays with rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular detectors are analytically studied, and tools are given to simulate their discretization properties. Special signal distributions free of discretized error are isolated. It is proved that some crosstalk spreads are able to eliminate the center of gravity discretization error for any signal distribution. Simulations, adapted to the CMS em-calorimeter and to a triangular detector array, are provided for energy and position reconstruction algorithms with a finite number of detectors.

  7. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  8. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  10. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  11. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  12. 3D Discrete element approach to the problem on abutment pressure in a gently dipping coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.

    2017-09-01

    Using the discrete element method, the authors have carried out 3D implementation of the problem on strength loss in surrounding rock mass in the vicinity of a production heading and on abutment pressure in a gently dripping coal seam. The calculation of forces at the contacts between particles accounts for friction, rolling resistance and viscosity. Between discrete particles modeling coal seam, surrounding rock mass and broken rocks, an elastic connecting element is introduced to allow simulating coherent materials. The paper presents the kinematic patterns of rock mass deformation, stresses in particles and the graph of the abutment pressure behavior in the coal seam.

  13. Coupling Navier-stokes and Cahn-hilliard Equations in a Two-dimensional Annular flow Configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a novel isogeometric analysis discretization for the Navier-Stokes- Cahn-Hilliard equation, which uses divergence-conforming spaces. Basis functions generated with this method can have higher-order continuity, and allow to directly discretize the higher- order operators present in the equation. The discretization is implemented in PetIGA-MF, a high-performance framework for discrete differential forms. We present solutions in a two- dimensional annulus, and model spinodal decomposition under shear flow.

  14. Finite-element discretization of 3D energy-transport equations for semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadau, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis a mathematical model was derived that describes the charge and energy transport in semiconductor devices like transistors. Moreover, numerical simulations of these physical processes are performed. In order to accomplish this, methods of theoretical physics, functional analysis, numerical mathematics and computer programming are applied. After an introduction to the status quo of semiconductor device simulation methods and a brief review of historical facts up to now, the attention is shifted to the construction of a model, which serves as the basis of the subsequent derivations in the thesis. Thereby the starting point is an important equation of the theory of dilute gases. From this equation the model equations are derived and specified by means of a series expansion method. This is done in a multi-stage derivation process, which is mainly taken from a scientific paper and which does not constitute the focus of this thesis. In the following phase we specify the mathematical setting and make precise the model assumptions. Thereby we make use of methods of functional analysis. Since the equations we deal with are coupled, we are concerned with a nonstandard problem. In contrary, the theory of scalar elliptic equations is established meanwhile. Subsequently, we are preoccupied with the numerical discretization of the equations. A special finite-element method is used for the discretization. This special approach has to be done in order to make the numerical results appropriate for practical application. By a series of transformations from the discrete model we derive a system of algebraic equations that are eligible for numerical evaluation. Using self-made computer programs we solve the equations to get approximate solutions. These programs are based on new and specialized iteration procedures that are developed and thoroughly tested within the frame of this research work. Due to their importance and their novel status, they are explained and

  15. Mixing times in quantum walks on two-dimensional grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquezino, F. L.; Portugal, R.; Abal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Mixing properties of discrete-time quantum walks on two-dimensional grids with toruslike boundary conditions are analyzed, focusing on their connection to the complexity of the corresponding abstract search algorithm. In particular, an exact expression for the stationary distribution of the coherent walk over odd-sided lattices is obtained after solving the eigenproblem for the evolution operator for this particular graph. The limiting distribution and mixing time of a quantum walk with a coin operator modified as in the abstract search algorithm are obtained numerically. On the basis of these results, the relation between the mixing time of the modified walk and the running time of the corresponding abstract search algorithm is discussed.

  16. Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.

  17. Stationary states of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model with disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Hendriksen, D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1998-01-01

    Solitonlike excitations in the presence of disorder in the two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation are analyzed. The continuum as well as the discrete problem are analyzed. In the continuum model, otherwise unstable excitations are stabilized in the presence of disorder...

  18. Reconstruction of absorption and scattering coefficients in two dimensional heterogeneous participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Raul F. Carita; Roberty, Nilson C.; Silva Neto, Antonio J.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2002-01-01

    In the present work it is presented the solution of the two dimensional inverse radiative transfer problem of scattering and absorption coefficients estimation, in heterogeneous media, using the source-detector methodology and a discrete ordinates method consistent with the source-detector system. The mathematical formulation of the direct and inverse problems is presented as well as test case results. (author)

  19. New continual analogs of two-dimensional Toda lattices related with nonlinear integro-differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    Continual ''extensions'' of two-dimensional Toda lattices are proposed. They are described by integro-differential equations, generally speaking, with singular kernels, depending on new (third) variable. The problem of their integrability on the corresponding class of the initial discrete system solutions is discussed. The latter takes place, in particular, for the kernel coinciding with the causal function

  20. Two-dimensional approach to relativistic positioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic positioning system is a physical realization of a coordinate system consisting in four clocks in arbitrary motion broadcasting their proper times. The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allows to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these new systems. The positioning system defined by geodesic emitters in flat metric is developed in detail. The information that the data generated by a relativistic positioning system give on the space-time metric interval is analyzed, and the interest of these results in gravimetry is pointed out

  1. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  2. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  3. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  4. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  5. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  6. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  7. Discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

  8. Study of normal and shear material properties for viscoelastic model of asphalt mixture by discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was studied by using discrete element method. The dynamic properties of asphalt mixture were captured by implementing Burger’s contact model. Different ways of taking into account of the normal and shear material properties of asphalt mi...

  9. Conforming discretizations of boundary element solutions to the electroencephalography forward problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, Lyes; Adrian, Simon B.; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new discretization strategy for the boundary element formulation of the Electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem. Boundary integral formulations, classically solved with the Boundary Element Method (BEM), are widely used in high resolution EEG imaging because of their recognized advantages, in several real case scenarios, in terms of numerical stability and effectiveness when compared with other differential equation based techniques. Unfortunately, however, it is widely reported in literature that the accuracy of standard BEM schemes for the forward EEG problem is often limited, especially when the current source density is dipolar and its location approaches one of the brain boundary surfaces. This is a particularly limiting problem given that during an high-resolution EEG imaging procedure, several EEG forward problem solutions are required, for which the source currents are near or on top of a boundary surface. This work will first present an analysis of standardly and classically discretized EEG forward problem operators, reporting on a theoretical issue of some of the formulations that have been used so far in the community. We report on the fact that several standardly used discretizations of these formulations are consistent only with an L2-framework, requiring the expansion term to be a square integrable function (i.e., in a Petrov-Galerkin scheme with expansion and testing functions). Instead, those techniques are not consistent when a more appropriate mapping in terms of fractional-order Sobolev spaces is considered. Such a mapping allows the expansion function term to be a less regular function, thus sensibly reducing the need for mesh refinements and low-precisions handling strategies that are currently required. These more favorable mappings, however, require a different and conforming discretization, which must be suitably adapted to them. In order to appropriately fulfill this requirement, we adopt a mixed

  10. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  11. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  12. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  13. Analyzing the Mixing Dynamics of an Industrial Batch Bin Blender via Discrete Element Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element model (DEM has been developed for an industrial batch bin blender in which three different types of materials are mixed. The mixing dynamics have been evaluated from a model-based study with respect to the blend critical quality attributes (CQAs which are relative standard deviation (RSD and segregation intensity. In the actual industrial setup, a sensor mounted on the blender lid is used to determine the blend composition in this region. A model-based analysis has been used to understand the mixing efficiency in the other zones inside the blender and to determine if the data obtained near the blender-lid region are able to provide a good representation of the overall blend quality. Sub-optimal mixing zones have been identified and other potential sampling locations have been investigated in order to obtain a good approximation of the blend variability. The model has been used to study how the mixing efficiency can be improved by varying the key processing parameters, i.e., blender RPM/speed, fill level/volume and loading order. Both segregation intensity and RSD reduce at a lower fill level and higher blender RPM and are a function of the mixing time. This work demonstrates the use of a model-based approach to improve process knowledge regarding a pharmaceutical mixing process. The model can be used to acquire qualitative information about the influence of different critical process parameters and equipment geometry on the mixing dynamics.

  14. Discrete element method (DEM) simulations of stratified sampling during solid dosage form manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Bruno C; Ketterhagen, William R

    2011-10-14

    Discrete element model (DEM) simulations of the discharge of powders from hoppers under gravity were analyzed to provide estimates of dosage form content uniformity during the manufacture of solid dosage forms (tablets and capsules). For a system that exhibits moderate segregation the effects of sample size, number, and location within the batch were determined. The various sampling approaches were compared to current best-practices for sampling described in the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Blend Uniformity Working Group (BUWG) guidelines. Sampling uniformly across the discharge process gave the most accurate results with respect to identifying segregation trends. Sigmoidal sampling (as recommended in the PQRI BUWG guidelines) tended to overestimate potential segregation issues, whereas truncated sampling (common in industrial practice) tended to underestimate them. The size of the sample had a major effect on the absolute potency RSD. The number of sampling locations (10 vs. 20) had very little effect on the trends in the data, and the number of samples analyzed at each location (1 vs. 3 vs. 7) had only a small effect for the sampling conditions examined. The results of this work provide greater understanding of the effect of different sampling approaches on the measured content uniformity of real dosage forms, and can help to guide the choice of appropriate sampling protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  16. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Behzad; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Fafard, Mario; Ziegler, Donald P; Alamdari, Houshang

    2016-05-04

    Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger's model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM) on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger's model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297-0.595 mm (-30 + 50 mesh) to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  17. Dynamic induced softening in frictional granular materials investigated by discrete-element-method simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemrich, Laure; Carmeliet, Jan; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Jia, Xiaoping

    2017-12-01

    A granular system composed of frictional glass beads is simulated using the discrete element method. The intergrain forces are based on the Hertz contact law in the normal direction with frictional tangential force. The damping due to collision is also accounted for. Systems are loaded at various stresses and their quasistatic elastic moduli are characterized. Each system is subjected to an extensive dynamic testing protocol by measuring the resonant response to a broad range of ac drive amplitudes and frequencies via a set of diagnostic strains. The system, linear at small ac drive amplitudes, has resonance frequencies that shift downward (i.e., modulus softening) with increased ac drive amplitude. Detailed testing shows that the slipping contact ratio does not contribute significantly to this dynamic modulus softening, but the coordination number is strongly correlated to this reduction. This suggests that the softening arises from the extended structural change via break and remake of contacts during the rearrangement of bead positions driven by the ac amplitude.

  18. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovad, E; Walther, J H; Thorborg, J; Hattel, J H; Larsen, P

    2015-01-01

    The DISAMATIC casting process production of sand moulds is simulated with DEM (discrete element method). The main purpose is to simulate the dynamics of the flow of green sand, during the production of the sand mould with DEM. The sand shot is simulated, which is the first stage of the DISAMATIC casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding process. In the present work a mould chamber with “ribs” at the walls is chosen as a baseline geometry to emulate some of these important conditions found in the real moulding process. The sand flow is simulated with the DEM and compared with corresponding video footages from the interior of the chamber during the moulding process. The effect of the rolling resistance and the static friction coefficient is analysed and discussed in relation to the experimental findings. (paper)

  19. Experimental Investigation and Discrete Element Modelling of Composite Hollow Spheres Subjected to Dynamic Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Coré

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characterization and the numerical modelling of the collapse of composite hollow spherical structures developed to absorb energy during high velocity impacts. The structure is composed of hollow spheres (ϕ=2–30 mm made of epoxy resin and mineral powder. First of all, quasi-static and dynamic (v=5 mm·min−1 to v=2 m·s−1 compression tests are conducted at room temperature on a single sphere to study energy dissipation mechanisms. Fracture of the material appears to be predominant. A numerical model based on the discrete element method is investigated to simulate the single sphere crushing. The stress-strain-time relationship of the material based on the Ree-Eyring law is numerically implemented. The DEM modelling takes naturally into account the dynamic fracture and the crack path computed is close to the one observed experimentally in uniaxial compression. Eventually, high velocity impacts (v>100 m·s−1 of a hollow sphere on a rigid surface are conducted with an air cannon. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data and demonstrate the ability of the present model to correctly describe the mechanical behavior of brittle materials at high strain rate.

  20. Simulating subduction zone earthquakes using discrete element method: a window into elusive source processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, D. G.; Morgan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large earthquakes that occur on convergent plate margin interfaces have the potential to cause widespread damage and loss of life. Recent observations reveal that a wide range of different slip behaviors take place along these megathrust faults, which demonstrate both their complexity, and our limited understanding of fault processes and their controls. Numerical modeling provides us with a useful tool that we can use to simulate earthquakes and related slip events, and to make direct observations and correlations among properties and parameters that might control them. Further analysis of these phenomena can lead to a more complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms that accompany the nucleation of large earthquakes, and what might trigger them. In this study, we use the discrete element method (DEM) to create numerical analogs to subduction megathrusts with heterogeneous fault friction. Displacement boundary conditions are applied in order to simulate tectonic loading, which in turn, induces slip along the fault. A wide range of slip behaviors are observed, ranging from creep to stick slip. We are able to characterize slip events by duration, stress drop, rupture area, and slip magnitude, and to correlate the relationships among these quantities. These characterizations allow us to develop a catalog of rupture events both spatially and temporally, for comparison with slip processes on natural faults.

  1. A Discrete Element Method Approach to Progressive Localization of Damage in Granular Rocks and Associated Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, H.; Morgan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Brittle failure in rock under confined biaxial conditions is accompanied by release of seismic energy, known as acoustic emissions (AE). The objective our study is to understand the influence of elastic properties of rock and its stress state on deformation patterns, and associated seismicity in granular rocks. Discrete Element Modeling is used to simulate biaxial tests on granular rocks of defined grain size distribution. Acoustic Energy and seismic moments are calculated from microfracture events as rock is taken to conditions of failure under different confining pressure states. Dimensionless parameters such as seismic b-value and fractal parameter for deformation, D-value, are used to quantify seismic character and distribution of damage in rock. Initial results suggest that confining pressure has the largest control on distribution of induced microfracturing, while fracture energy and seismic magnitudes are highly sensitive to elastic properties of rock. At low confining pressures, localized deformation (low D-values) and high seismic b-values are observed. Deformation at high confining pressures is distributed in nature (high D-values) and exhibit low seismic b-values as shearing becomes the dominant mode of microfracturing. Seismic b-values and fractal D-values obtained from microfracturing exhibit a linear inverse relationship, similar to trends observed in earthquakes. Mode of microfracturing in our simulations of biaxial compression tests show mechanistic similarities to propagation of fractures and faults in nature.

  2. Model of the saltation transport by Discrete Element Method coupled with wind interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger Luc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the Aeolian saltation transport problem by analysing the collision of incident energetic beads with granular packing. We investigate the collision process for the case where the incident bead and those from the packing have identical mechanical properties. We analyse the features of the consecutive collision process. We used a molecular dynamics method known as DEM (soft Discrete Element Method with 20000 particles (2D. The grains were displayed randomly in a box (250X60. A few incident disks are launched with a constant velocity and angle with high random position to initiate the flow. A wind velocity profile is applied on the flowing zone of the saltation. The velocity profile is obtained by the calculi of the counter-flow due to the local packing fraction induced by the granular flow. We analyse the evolution of the upper surface of the disk packing. In the beginning, the saltation process can be seen as the classical “splash function” in which one bead hits a fully static dense packing. Then, the quasi-fluidized upper layer of the packing creates a completely different behaviour of the “animated splash function”. The dilation of the upper surface due to the previous collisions is responsible for a need of less input energy for launching new ejected disks. This phenomenon permits to maintain a constant granular flow with a “small” wind velocity on the surface of the disk bed.

  3. A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

  4. Toward the modeling of combustion reactions through discrete element method (DEM) simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Martina Costa; Alobaid, Falah; Wang, Yongqi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the process of combustion of coal particles under turbulent regime in a high-temperature reaction chamber is modeled through 3D discrete element method (DEM) simulations. By assuming the occurrence of interfacial transport phenomena between the gas and solid phases, one investigates the influence of the physicochemical properties of particles on the rates of heterogeneous chemical reactions, as well as the influence of eddies present in the gas phase on the mass transport of reactants toward the coal particles surface. Moreover, by considering a simplistic chemical mechanism for the combustion process, thermochemical and kinetic parameters obtained from the simulations are employed to discuss some phenomenological aspects of the combustion process. In particular, the observed changes in the mass and volume of coal particles during the gasification and combustion steps are discussed by emphasizing the changes in the chemical structure of the coal. In addition to illustrate how DEM simulations can be used in the modeling of consecutive and parallel chemical reactions, this work also shows how heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions become a source of mass and energy for the gas phase.

  5. Discrete element simulation of charging and mixed layer formation in the ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Saxén, Henrik

    2016-11-01

    The burden distribution in the ironmaking blast furnace plays an important role for the operation as it affects the gas flow distribution, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions in the shaft. This work studies certain aspects of burden distribution by small-scale experiments and numerical simulation by the discrete element method (DEM). Particular attention is focused on the complex layer-formation process and the problems associated with estimating the burden layer distribution by burden profile measurements. The formation of mixed layers is studied, and a computational method for estimating the extent of the mixed layer, as well as its voidage, is proposed and applied on the results of the DEM simulations. In studying a charging program and its resulting burden distribution, the mixed layers of coke and pellets were found to show lower voidage than the individual burden layers. The dynamic evolution of the mixed layer during the charging process is also analyzed. The results of the study can be used to gain deeper insight into the complex charging process of the blast furnace, which is useful in the design of new charging programs and for mathematical models that do not consider the full behavior of the particles in the burden layers.

  6. Features and validation of discrete element method for simulating pebble flow in reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yong; Li Yanjie

    2005-01-01

    The core of a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is composed of big number of fuel pebbles, their kinetic behaviors are of great importance in estimating the path and residence time of individual pebble, the evolution of the mixing zone for the assessment of the efficiency of a reactor. Numerical method is highlighted in modern reactor design. In view of granular flow, the Discrete Element Model based on contact mechanics of spheres was briefly described. Two typical examples were presented to show the capability of the DEM method. The former is piling with glass/steel spheres, which provides validated evidences that the simulated angles of repose are in good coincidence with the experimental results. The later is particle discharge in a flat- bottomed silo, which shows the effects of material modulus and demonstrates several features. The two examples show the DEM method enables to predict the behaviors, such as the evolution of pebble profiles, streamlines etc., and provides sufficient information for pebble flow analysis and core design. In order to predict the cyclic pebble flow in a HTGR core precisely and efficiently, both model and code improvement are needed, together with rational specification of physical properties with proper measuring techniques. Strategic and methodological considerations were also discussed. (authors)

  7. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing and associated microseismicity using finite-discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing (HF technique has been extensively used for the exploitation of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. HF enhances the connectivity of less permeable oil and gas-bearing rock formations by fluid injection, which creates an interconnected fracture network and increases the hydrocarbon production. Meanwhile, microseismic (MS monitoring is one of the most effective approaches to evaluate such stimulation process. In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM is adopted to numerically simulate HF and associated MS. Several post-processing tools, including frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value, fractal dimension (D-value, and seismic events clustering, are utilized to interpret numerical results. A non-parametric clustering algorithm designed specifically for FDEM is used to reduce the mesh dependency and extract more realistic seismic information. Simulation results indicated that at the local scale, the HF process tends to propagate following the rock mass discontinuities; while at the reservoir scale, it tends to develop in the direction parallel to the maximum in-situ stress.

  8. Study on small-strain behaviours of methane hydrate sandy sediments using discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yanxin; Cheng Yipik [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Xu Xiaomin; Soga, Kenichi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-18

    Methane hydrate bearing soil has attracted increasing interest as a potential energy resource where methane gas can be extracted from dissociating hydrate-bearing sediments. Seismic testing techniques have been applied extensively and in various ways, to detect the presence of hydrates, due to the fact that hydrates increase the stiffness of hydrate-bearing sediments. With the recognition of the limitations of laboratory and field tests, wave propagation modelling using Discrete Element Method (DEM) was conducted in this study in order to provide some particle-scale insights on the hydrate-bearing sandy sediment models with pore-filling and cementation hydrate distributions. The relationship between shear wave velocity and hydrate saturation was established by both DEM simulations and analytical solutions. Obvious differences were observed in the dependence of wave velocity on hydrate saturation for these two cases. From the shear wave velocity measurement and particle-scale analysis, it was found that the small-strain mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sandy sediments are governed by both the hydrate distribution patterns and hydrate saturation.

  9. Shale Fracture Analysis using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Lei, Z.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (hydrofrac) is a successful method used to extract oil and gas from highly carbonate rocks like shale. However, challenges exist for industry experts estimate that for a single $10 million dollar lateral wellbore fracking operation, only 10% of the hydrocarbons contained in the rock are extracted. To better understand how to improve hydrofrac recovery efficiencies and to lower its costs, LANL recently funded the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project: "Discovery Science of Hydraulic Fracturing: Innovative Working Fluids and Their Interactions with Rocks, Fractures, and Hydrocarbons". Under the support of this project, the LDRD modeling team is working with the experimental team to understand fracture initiation and propagation in shale rocks. LANL's hybrid hydro-mechanical (HM) tool, the Hybrid Optimization Software Suite (HOSS), is being used to simulate the complex fracture and fragment processes under a variety of different boundary conditions. HOSS is based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) and has been proven to be a superior computational tool for multi-fracturing problems. In this work, the comparison of HOSS simulation results to triaxial core flooding experiments will be presented.

  10. An isogeometric boundary element method for electromagnetic scattering with compatible B-spline discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. N.; Liu, Z.; Vázquez, R.; Evans, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    We outline the construction of compatible B-splines on 3D surfaces that satisfy the continuity requirements for electromagnetic scattering analysis with the boundary element method (method of moments). Our approach makes use of Non-Uniform Rational B-splines to represent model geometry and compatible B-splines to approximate the surface current, and adopts the isogeometric concept in which the basis for analysis is taken directly from CAD (geometry) data. The approach allows for high-order approximations and crucially provides a direct link with CAD data structures that allows for efficient design workflows. After outlining the construction of div- and curl-conforming B-splines defined over 3D surfaces we describe their use with the electric and magnetic field integral equations using a Galerkin formulation. We use Bézier extraction to accelerate the computation of NURBS and B-spline terms and employ H-matrices to provide accelerated computations and memory reduction for the dense matrices that result from the boundary integral discretization. The method is verified using the well known Mie scattering problem posed over a perfectly electrically conducting sphere and the classic NASA almond problem. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the approach to handle models with complex geometry directly from CAD without mesh generation.

  11. Estimations of impact strength on reinforced concrete structures by the discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, H.; Kusano, N.; Koshika, N.; Aoyagi, T.; Hagiwara, Y.; Sawamoto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    There has been a rising interest in the response of reinforced concrete structures to impact loading, from the point of view in particular of disaster prevention at nuclear power facilities, and there is an urgent requirement for establishment of design methods against such type of loads. Structural damage on reinforced concrete structures under impact load includes local damage and global damage. The behavior of local damage, such as penetration into the structures, rear face scabbing, perforation, or spalling, has been difficult to estimate by numerical analysis, but over recent years research has advantaged and various analytical methods have been tried. The authors proposed a new approach for assessing local damage characteristics by applying the discrete element method (DEM), and verified that the behavior of a concrete slab suffering local damage may be qualitatively expressed. This was followed by the discussion of the quantitative evaluation of various constants used in the DEM analysis in reference. The authors apply the DEM to the simulation analysis of impact tests on reinforced concrete panels and analytical investigations are made on the local damage characteristics and response values that are difficult to assess through tests, in an attempt to evaluate the mechanism of local damage according to the hardness of the missiles

  12. Numerical sedimentation particle-size analysis using the Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, R.; Pérez-Aparicio, J. L.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentation tests are widely used to determine the particle size distribution of a granular sample. In this work, the Discrete Element Method interacts with the simulation of flow using the well known one-way-coupling method, a computationally affordable approach for the time-consuming numerical simulation of the hydrometer, buoyancy and pipette sedimentation tests. These tests are used in the laboratory to determine the particle-size distribution of fine-grained aggregates. Five samples with different particle-size distributions are modeled by about six million rigid spheres projected on two-dimensions, with diameters ranging from 2.5 ×10-6 m to 70 ×10-6 m, forming a water suspension in a sedimentation cylinder. DEM simulates the particle's movement considering laminar flow interactions of buoyant, drag and lubrication forces. The simulation provides the temporal/spatial distributions of densities and concentrations of the suspension. The numerical simulations cannot replace the laboratory tests since they need the final granulometry as initial data, but, as the results show, these simulations can identify the strong and weak points of each method and eventually recommend useful variations and draw conclusions on their validity, aspects very difficult to achieve in the laboratory.

  13. A discrete element based simulation framework to investigate particulate spray deposition processes

    KAUST Repository

    Mukherjee, Debanjan

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. This work presents a computer simulation framework based on discrete element method to analyze manufacturing processes that comprise a loosely flowing stream of particles in a carrier fluid being deposited on a target surface. The individual particulate dynamics under the combined action of particle collisions, fluid-particle interactions, particle-surface contact and adhesive interactions is simulated, and aggregated to obtain global system behavior. A model for deposition which incorporates the effect of surface energy, impact velocity and particle size, is developed. The fluid-particle interaction is modeled using appropriate spray nozzle gas velocity distributions and a one-way coupling between the phases. It is found that the particle response times and the release velocity distribution of particles have a combined effect on inter-particle collisions during the flow along the spray. It is also found that resolution of the particulate collisions close to the target surface plays an important role in characterizing the trends in the deposit pattern. Analysis of the deposit pattern using metrics defined from the particle distribution on the target surface is provided to characterize the deposition efficiency, deposit size, and scatter due to collisions.

  14. Hydraulic Fracture Growth in a Layered Formation based on Fracturing Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Tong, Zhou; Ning, Li; Ming, Chen; Sihai, Li; Yinuo, Zhang; Han, Li

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) height containment tends to occur in layered formations, and it significantly influences the entire HF geometry or the stimulated reservoir volume. This study aims to explore the influence of preexisting bedding planes (BPs) on the HF height growth in layered formations. Laboratory fracturing experiments were performed to confirm the occurrence of HF height containment in natural shale that contains multiple weak and high-permeability BPs under triaxial stresses. Numerical simulations were then conducted to further illustrate the manner in which vertical stress, BP permeability, BP density(or spacing), pump rate, and fluid viscosity control HF height growth using a 3D discrete element method-based fracturing model. In this model, the rock matrix was considered transversely isotropic and multiple BPs can be explicitly represented. Experimental and numerical results show that the vertically growing HF tends to be limited by multi-high-permeability BPs, even under higher vertical stress. When the vertically growing HF intersects with the multi-high-permeability BPs, the injection pressure will be sharply reduced. If a low pumping rate or a low-viscosity fluid is used, the excess fracturing fluid leak-off into the BPs obviously decreases the rate of pressure build up, which will then limit the growth of HF. Otherwise, a higher pumping rate and/or a higher viscosity will reduce the leak-off time and fluid volume, but increase the injection pressure to drive the HF to grow and to penetrate through the BPs.

  15. A discrete element model for the influence of surfactants on sedimentation characteristics of magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwon Joong

    2018-02-01

    Hindering particle agglomeration and re-dispersion processes, gravitational sedimentation of suspended particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluids causes inferior performance and controllability of MR fluids in response to a user-specified magnetic field. Thus, suspension stability is one of the principal factors to be considered in synthesizing MR fluids. However, only a few computational studies have been reported so far on the sedimentation characteristics of suspended particles under gravity. In this paper, the settling dynamics of paramagnetic particles suspended in MR fluids was investigated via discrete element method (DEM) simulations. This work focuses particularly on developing accurate fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction models which can account for the influence of stabilizing surfactants on the MR fluid sedimentation. Effect of the stabilizing surfactants on interparticle interactions was incorporated into the derivation of a reliable contact-impact model for DEM computation. Also, the influence of the stabilizing additives on fluid-particle interactions was considered by incorporating Stokes drag with shape and wall correction factors into DEM formulation. The results of simulations performed for model validation purposes showed a good agreement with the published sedimentation measurement data in terms of an initial sedimentation velocity and a final sedimentation ratio.

  16. Rigid missiles impact on reinforced concrete structures: analysis by discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, W.J.

    2008-10-01

    The constructions likely to be subjected to some extreme loadings like reactor containment buildings have to be dimensioned accordingly. As a part of study of concrete structures, this thesis focuses on numerical modelling of rigid missile impacts against a rigid reinforced concrete slab. Based on some experiment tests data, an elasto-plastic-damaged constitutive law has been implanted into a discrete element numerical code. To calibrate certain parameters of the numerical model, some quasi static tests have been first simulated. Once the model calibration was done, some missile impact simulation tests have then been carried out. The numerical results are well agree with these provided by French Atomic Energy Agency (Cea) and the French Electrical power Company (EDF) in terms of the trajectory of the missile. We were able to show the need of a constitutive law taking into account the compaction behaviour of the concrete when the predictions of penetration and perforation of a thick slab was demanded. Finally, a parametric study confirmed that the numerical model can be used the way predictive as well as the empirical prediction law, while the first can provide additional significant mechanical description. (author)

  17. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer

    2008-09-15

    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  18. Coupled large eddy simulation and discrete element model of bedload motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, D.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    We combine a three-dimensional large eddy simulation of turbulence to a three-dimensional discrete element model of turbulence. The large eddy simulation of the turbulent fluid is extended into the bed composed of non-moving particles by adding resistance terms to the Navier-Stokes equations in accordance with the Darcy-Forchheimer law. This allows the turbulent velocity and pressure fluctuations to penetrate the bed of discrete particles, and this addition of a porous zone results in turbulence structures above the bed that are similar to previous experimental and numerical results for hydraulically-rough beds. For example, we reproduce low-speed streaks that are less coherent than those over smooth-beds due to the episodic outflow of fluid from the bed. Local resistance terms are also added to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the drag of individual moving particles. The interaction of the spherical particles utilizes a standard DEM soft-sphere Hertz model. We use only a simple drag model to calculate the fluid forces on the particles. The model reproduces an exponential distribution of bedload particle velocities that we have found experimentally using high-speed video of a flat bed of moving sand in a recirculating water flume. The exponential distribution of velocity results from the motion of many particles that are nearly constantly in contact with other bed particles and come to rest after short distances, in combination with a relatively few particles that are entrained further above the bed and have velocities approaching that of the fluid. Entrainment and motion "hot spots" are evident that are not perfectly correlated with the local, instantaneous fluid velocity. Zones of the bed that have recently experienced motion are more susceptible to motion because of the local configuration of particle contacts. The paradigm of a characteristic saltation hop length in riverine bedload transport has infused many aspects of geomorphic thought, including

  19. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  20. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  1. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  2. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  3. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  4. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  5. Two-dimensional phase fraction charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morral, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A phase fraction chart is a graphical representation of the amount of each phase present in a system as a function of temperature, composition or other variable. Examples are phase fraction versus temperature charts used to characterize specific alloys and as a teaching tool in elementary texts, and Schaeffler diagrams used to predict the amount of ferrite in stainless steel welds. Isothermal-transformation diagrams (TTT diagrams) are examples that give phase (or microconstituent) amount versus temperature and time. The purpose of this communication is to discuss the properties of two-dimensional phase fraction charts in more general terms than have been reported before. It is shown that they can represent multi-component, multiphase equilibria in a way which is easier to read and which contains more information than the isotherms and isopleths of multi-component phase diagrams

  6. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  7. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  8. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  9. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  10. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  11. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  12. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  13. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  14. The discontinuous finite element method for solving Eigenvalue problems of transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shulin; Wang, Ruihong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the multigroup transport equations for solving the eigenvalues λ and K_e_f_f under two dimensional cylindrical coordinate are discussed. Aimed at the equations, the discretizing way combining discontinuous finite element method (DFE) with discrete ordinate method (SN) is developed, and the iterative algorithms and steps are studied. The numerical results show that the algorithms are efficient. (author)

  15. A study of unstable rock failures using finite difference and discrete element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Ryan J.

    Case histories in mining have long described pillars or faces of rock failing violently with an accompanying rapid ejection of debris and broken material into the working areas of the mine. These unstable failures have resulted in large losses of life and collapses of entire mine panels. Modern mining operations take significant steps to reduce the likelihood of unstable failure, however eliminating their occurrence is difficult in practice. Researchers over several decades have supplemented studies of unstable failures through the application of various numerical methods. The direction of the current research is to extend these methods and to develop improved numerical tools with which to study unstable failures in underground mining layouts. An extensive study is first conducted on the expression of unstable failure in discrete element and finite difference methods. Simulated uniaxial compressive strength tests are run on brittle rock specimens. Stable or unstable loading conditions are applied onto the brittle specimens by a pair of elastic platens with ranging stiffnesses. Determinations of instability are established through stress and strain histories taken for the specimen and the system. Additional numerical tools are then developed for the finite difference method to analyze unstable failure in larger mine models. Instability identifiers are established for assessing the locations and relative magnitudes of unstable failure through measures of rapid dynamic motion. An energy balance is developed which calculates the excess energy released as a result of unstable equilibria in rock systems. These tools are validated through uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength tests and are extended to models of coal pillars and a simplified mining layout. The results of the finite difference simulations reveal that the instability identifiers and excess energy calculations provide a generalized methodology for assessing unstable failures within potentially complex

  16. A parallel Discrete Element Method to model collisions between non-convex particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakotonirina Andriarimina Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many dry granular and suspension flow configurations, particles can be highly non-spherical. It is now well established in the literature that particle shape affects the flow dynamics or the microstructure of the particles assembly in assorted ways as e.g. compacity of packed bed or heap, dilation under shear, resistance to shear, momentum transfer between translational and angular motions, ability to form arches and block the flow. In this talk, we suggest an accurate and efficient way to model collisions between particles of (almost arbitrary shape. For that purpose, we develop a Discrete Element Method (DEM combined with a soft particle contact model. The collision detection algorithm handles contacts between bodies of various shape and size. For nonconvex bodies, our strategy is based on decomposing a non-convex body into a set of convex ones. Therefore, our novel method can be called “glued-convex method” (in the sense clumping convex bodies together, as an extension of the popular “glued-spheres” method, and is implemented in our own granular dynamics code Grains3D. Since the whole problem is solved explicitly, our fully-MPI parallelized code Grains3D exhibits a very high scalability when dynamic load balancing is not required. In particular, simulations on up to a few thousands cores in configurations involving up to a few tens of millions of particles can readily be performed. We apply our enhanced numerical model to (i the collapse of a granular column made of convex particles and (i the microstructure of a heap of non-convex particles in a cylindrical reactor.

  17. Discrete Element Simulations of Density-Driven Volcanic Deformation: Applications to Martian and Terrestrial Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, L. L.; McGovern, P. J.; Morgan, J. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have carried out 2-D numerical simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) to investigate density-driven deformation in volcanic edifices on Earth (e.g., Hawaii) and Mars (e.g., Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons). Located within volcanoes are series of magma chambers, reservoirs, and conduits where magma travels and collects. As magma differentiates, dense minerals settle out, building thick accumulations referred to as cumulates that can flow ductilely due to stresses imparted by gravity. To simulate this process, we construct granular piles subject to Coulomb frictional rheology, incrementally capture internal rectangular regions to which higher densities and lower interparticle friction values are assigned (analogs for denser, weaker cumulates), and then bond the granular edifice. Thus, following each growth increment, the edifice is allowed to relax gravitationally with a reconfigured weak cumulate core. The presence and outward spreading of the cumulate causes the development of distinctive structural and stratigraphic patterns. We obtained a range of volcanic shapes that vary from broad, shallowly dipping flanks reminiscent of those of Olympus Mons, to short, steep surface slopes more similar to Arsia Mons. Edifices lacking internal cumulate exhibit relatively horizontal strata compared to the high-angle, inward dipping strata that develops within the cumulate-bearing edifices. Our simulated volcanoes also illustrate a variety of gravity driven deformation features, including regions of thrust faulting within the flanks and large-scale flank collapses, as observed in Hawaii and inferred on Olympus Mons. We also see significant summit subsidence, and of particular interest, distinct summit calderas. The broad, flat caldera and convex upward profile of Arsia Mons appears to be well-simulated by cumulate-driven volcanic spreading. In contrast, the concave upward slopes of Olympus Mons are more challenging to reproduce, and instead are attributed to volcanic

  18. Discrete element simulation studies of angles of repose and shear flow of wet, flexible fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Wassgren, C; Ketterhagen, W; Hancock, B; Curtis, J

    2018-04-18

    A discrete element method (DEM) model is developed to simulate the dynamics of wet, flexible fibers. The angles of repose of dry and wet fibers are simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the wet, flexible fiber model. To study wet fiber flow behavior, the model is used to simulate shear flows of wet fibers in a periodic domain under Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. Significant agglomeration is observed in dilute shear flows of wet fibers. The size of the largest agglomerate in the flow is found to depend on a Bond number, which is proportional to liquid surface tension and inversely proportional to the square of the shear strain rate. This Bond number reflects the relative importance of the liquid-bridge force to the particle's inertial force, with a larger Bond number leading to a larger agglomerate. As the fiber aspect ratio (AR) increases, the size of the largest agglomerate increases, while the coordination number in the largest agglomerate initially decreases and then increases when the AR is greater than four. A larger agglomerate with a larger coordination number is more likely to form for more flexible fibers with a smaller bond elastic modulus due to better connectivity between the more flexible fibers. Liquid viscous force resists pulling of liquid bridges and separation of contacting fibers, and therefore it facilitates larger agglomerate formation. The effect of liquid viscous force is more significant at larger shear strain rates. The solid-phase shear stress is increased due to the presence of liquid bridges in moderately dense flows. As the solid volume fraction increases, the effect of fiber-fiber friction coefficient increases sharply. When the solid volume fraction approaches the maximum packing density, the fiber-fiber friction coefficient can be a more dominant factor than the liquid bridge force in determining the solid-phase shear stress.

  19. Discrete Element Modeling of the Mobilization of Coarse Gravel Beds by Finer Gravel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Tan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown that the addition of fine gravel particles to a coarse bed will mobilize the coarser bed, and that the effect is sufficiently strong that a pulse of fine gravel particles can mobilize an impacted coarser bed. Recent flume experiments have demonstrated that the degree of bed mobilization by finer particles is primarily dependent on the particle size ratio of the coarse and fine particles, rather than absolute size of either particle, provided both particles are sufficiently large. However, the mechanism behind the mobilization is not understood. It has previously been proposed that the mechanism is driven by a combination of geometric effects and hydraulic effects. For example, it has been argued that smaller particles fill in gaps along the bed, resulting in a smoother bed over which the larger particles are less likely to be disentrained and a reduced near-bed flow velocity and subsequent increased drag on protruding particles. Altered near-bed turbulence has also been cited as playing an important role. We perform simulations using the discrete element method with one-way fluid-solid coupling to conduct simulations of mobilization of a gravel bed by fine gravel particles. By independently and artificially controlling average and fluctuating velocity profiles, we systematically investigate the relative role that may be played by particle-particle interactions, average near-bed velocity profiles, and near-bed turbulence statistics. The simulations indicate that the relative importance of these mechanisms changes with the degree of mobilization of the bed. For higher bed mobility similar to bed sheets, particle-particle interactions, plays a significant role in an apparent rheology in the bed sheets, not unlike that observed in a dense granular flow of particles of different sizes. For conditions closer to a critical shear stress for bedload transport, the near-bed velocity profiles and turbulence statistics become increasingly important.

  20. Efficiency determination of an electrostatic lunar dust collector by discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2012-07-01

    Lunar grains become charged by the sun's radiation in the tenuous atmosphere of the moon. This leads to lunar dust levitation and particle deposition which often create serious problems in the costly system deployed in lunar exploration. In this study, an electrostatic lunar dust collector (ELDC) is proposed to address the issue and the discrete element method (DEM) is used to investigate the effects of electrical particle-particle interactions, non-uniformity of the electrostatic field, and characteristics of the ELDC. The simulations on 20-μm-sized lunar particles reveal the electrical particle-particle interactions of the dust particles within the ELDC plates require 29% higher electrostatic field strength than that without the interactions for 100% collection efficiency. For the given ELDC geometry, consideration of non-uniformity of the electrostatic field along with electrical interactions between particles on the same ELDC geometry leads to a higher requirement of ˜3.5 kV/m to ensure 100% particle collection. Notably, such an electrostatic field is about 103 times less than required for electrodynamic self-cleaning methods. Finally, it is shown for a "half-size" system that the DEM model predicts greater collection efficiency than the Eulerian-based model at all voltages less than required for 100% efficiency. Halving the ELDC dimensions boosts the particle concentration inside the ELDC, as well as the resulting field strength for a given voltage. Though a lunar photovoltaic system was the subject, the results of this study are useful for evaluation of any system for collecting charged particles in other high vacuum environment using an electrostatic field.

  1. Spheronization process particle kinematics determined by discrete element simulations and particle image velocimentry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Martin; García, R Edwin; Thommes, Markus

    2014-12-30

    Spheronization is an important pharmaceutical manufacturing technique to produce spherical agglomerates of 0.5-2mm diameter. These pellets have a narrow size distribution and a spherical shape. During the spheronization process, the extruded cylindrical strands break in short cylinders and evolve from a cylindrical to a spherical state by deformation and attrition/agglomeration mechanisms. Using the discrete element method, an integrated modeling-experimental framework is presented, that captures the particle motion during the spheronization process. Simulations were directly compared and validated against particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments with monodisperse spherical and dry γ-Al2O3 particles. demonstrate a characteristic torus like flow pattern, with particle velocities about three times slower than the rotation speed of the friction plate. Five characteristic zones controlling the spheronization process are identified: Zone I, where particles undergo shear forces that favors attrition and contributes material to the agglomeration process; Zone II, where the static wall contributes to the mass exchange between particles; Zone III, where gravitational forces combined with particle motion induce particles to collide with the moving plate and re-enter Zone I; Zone IV, where a subpopulation of particles are ejected into the air when in contact with the friction plate structure; and Zone V where the low poloidal velocity favors a stagnant particle population and is entirely controlled by the batch size. These new insights in to the particle motion are leading to deeper process understanding, e.g., the effect of load and rotation speed to the pellet formation kinetics. This could be beneficial for the optimization of a manufacturing process as well as for the development of new formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite element model to study two dimensional unsteady state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunal Pathak

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... free Ca2+, endogenous Ca2+ binding proteins and other. ''Ca2+ buffers” ... in the literature for the study of calcium dynamics in myocytes.1,2,20,21 ... Since Ca2+ has a molecular weight that is small in compar- ison with most ...

  3. Two dimensional finite element heat transfer models for softwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; John F. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    The anisotropy of wood creates a complex problem for solving heat and mass transfer problems that require analyses be based on fundamental material properties of the wood structure. Most heat transfer models use average thermal properties across either the radial or tangential directions and have not differentiated the effects of cellular alignment, earlywood/latewood...

  4. Solution to Two-Dimensional Steady Inverse Heat Transfer Problems with Interior Heat Source Based on the Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound variable inverse problem which comprises boundary temperature distribution and surface convective heat conduction coefficient of two-dimensional steady heat transfer system with inner heat source is studied in this paper applying the conjugate gradient method. The introduction of complex variable to solve the gradient matrix of the objective function obtains more precise inversion results. This paper applies boundary element method to solve the temperature calculation of discrete points in forward problems. The factors of measuring error and the number of measuring points zero error which impact the measurement result are discussed and compared with L-MM method in inverse problems. Instance calculation and analysis prove that the method applied in this paper still has good effectiveness and accuracy even if measurement error exists and the boundary measurement points’ number is reduced. The comparison indicates that the influence of error on the inversion solution can be minimized effectively using this method.

  5. Using the discrete element method to simulate brittle fracture in the indentation of a silica glass with a blunt indenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Damien; Iordanoff, Ivan; Charles, Jean-luc; Jebahi, Mohamed; Neauport, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of materials is usually simulated by a continuous mechanics approach. However, non-continuous phenomena such as multi-fracturing cannot be accurately simulated using a continuous description. The discrete element method (DEM) naturally accounts for discontinuities and is therefore a good alternative to the continuum approach. This work uses a discrete element model based on interaction given by 3D beam model. This model has proved to correctly simulate the elastic properties at the macroscopic scale. The simulation of brittle cracks is now tackled. This goal is attained by computing a failure criterion based on an equivalent hydrostatic stress. This microscopic criterion is then calibrated to fit experimental values of the macroscopic failure stress. Then, the simulation results are compared to experimental results of indentation tests in which a spherical indenter is used to load a silica glass, which is considered to be a perfectly brittle elastic material. (authors)

  6. Fast solution of Cahn–Hilliard variational inequalities using implicit time discretization and finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Bosch, Jessica; Stoll, Martin; Benner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We consider the efficient solution of the Cahn-Hilliard variational inequality using an implicit time discretization, which is formulated as an optimal control problem with pointwise constraints on the control. By applying a semi-smooth Newton

  7. Two-dimensional sparse wavenumber recovery for guided wavefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Soroosh; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    The multi-modal and dispersive behavior of guided waves is often characterized by their dispersion curves, which describe their frequency-wavenumber behavior. In prior work, compressive sensing based techniques, such as sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA), have been capable of recovering dispersion curves from limited data samples. A major limitation of SWA, however, is the assumption that the structure is isotropic. As a result, SWA fails when applied to composites and other anisotropic structures. There have been efforts to address this issue in the literature, but they either are not easily generalizable or do not sufficiently express the data. In this paper, we enhance the existing approaches by employing a two-dimensional wavenumber model to account for direction-dependent velocities in anisotropic media. We integrate this model with tools from compressive sensing to reconstruct a wavefield from incomplete data. Specifically, we create a modified two-dimensional orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm that takes an undersampled wavefield image, with specified unknown elements, and determines its sparse wavenumber characteristics. We then recover the entire wavefield from the sparse representations obtained with our small number of data samples.

  8. Numerical treatment for solving two-dimensional space-fractional advection-dispersion equation using meshless method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Sun, Fengxin; Wei, Qi; Wang, Jufeng

    2018-02-01

    Space-fractional advection-dispersion equation (SFADE) can describe particle transport in a variety of fields more accurately than the classical models of integer-order derivative. Because of nonlocal property of integro-differential operator of space-fractional derivative, it is very challenging to deal with fractional model, and few have been reported in the literature. In this paper, a numerical analysis of the two-dimensional SFADE is carried out by the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method. The trial functions for the SFADE are constructed by the moving least-square (MLS) approximation. By the Galerkin weak form, the energy functional is formulated. Employing the energy functional minimization procedure, the final algebraic equations system is obtained. The Riemann-Liouville operator is discretized by the Grünwald formula. With center difference method, EFG method and Grünwald formula, the fully discrete approximation schemes for SFADE are established. Comparing with exact results and available results by other well-known methods, the computed approximate solutions are presented in the format of tables and graphs. The presented results demonstrate the validity, efficiency and accuracy of the proposed techniques. Furthermore, the error is computed and the proposed method has reasonable convergence rates in spatial and temporal discretizations.

  9. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  10. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  11. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  12. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  13. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  14. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  15. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Parallel processing of two-dimensional Sn transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, M.

    1997-01-01

    A parallel processing method for the two-dimensional S n transport code DOT3.5 has been developed to achieve a drastic reduction in computation time. In the proposed method, parallelization is achieved with angular domain decomposition and/or space domain decomposition. The calculational speed of parallel processing by angular domain decomposition is largely influenced by frequent communications between processing elements. To assess parallelization efficiency, sample problems with up to 32 x 32 spatial meshes were solved with a Sun workstation using the PVM message-passing library. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements, for example, was found to be nine times as fast as that with one processing element. As for parallel processing by geometry segmentation, the influence of processing element communications on computation time is small; however, discontinuity at the segment boundary degrades convergence speed. To accelerate the convergence, an alternate sweep of angular flux in conjunction with space domain decomposition and a two-step rescaling method consisting of segmentwise rescaling and ordinary pointwise rescaling have been developed. By applying the developed method, the number of iterations needed to obtain a converged flux solution was reduced by a factor of 2. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements was found to be 5.98 times as fast as the original DOT3.5 calculation

  17. Feeder Type Optimisation for the Plain Flow Discharge Process of an Underground Hopper by Discrete Element Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Nečas; Jakub Hlosta; David Žurovec; Martin Žídek; Jiří Rozbroj; Jiří Zegzulka

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes optimisation of a conveyor from an underground hopper intended for a coal transfer station. The original solution was designed with a chain conveyor encountered operational problems that have limited its continuous operation. The Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) was chosen to optimise the transport. DEM simulations allow device design modifications directly in the 3D CAD model, and then the simulation makes it possible to evaluate whether the adjustment was successful. By...

  18. Analysis of a block Gauss-Seidel iterative method for a finite element discretization of the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Martin, W.R.; Luskin, M.

    1985-01-01

    We prove the convergence of a finite element discretization of the neutron transport equation. The iterative solution of the resulting linear system by a block Gauss-Seidel method is also analyzed. This procedure is shown to require less storage than the direct solution by Gaussian elimination, and an estimate for the rate of convergence is used to show that fewer arithmetic operations are required

  19. Discrete meso-element simulation of the failure behavior of short-fiber composites under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyan; Tang, Z.P.; Liu Yunxin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to a better understanding of the failure behavior and mechanism of heterogeneous materials at the meso-scale level. In this paper, the crack initiation and development in epoxy composites reinforced with short steel fibers under dynamic loading were simulated and analyzed with the 2D Discrete Meso-Element Dynamic Method. Results show that the damage process depends greatly on the binding property between matrix and fibers

  20. Extending models for two-dimensional constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Random fields in two dimensions may be specified on 2 times 2 elements such that the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy may be calculated explicitly. The Pickard random field is one example where probability of a new (non-boundary) element is conditioned on three previous elem...

  1. Modeling the growth and interaction of stylolite networks, using the discrete element method for pressure solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, N.; Sparks, D. W.; Aharonov, E.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure solution (also termed chemical compaction) is considered the most important ductile deformation mechanism operating in the Earth's upper crust. This mechanism is a major player in a variety of geological processes, including evolution of sedimentary basins, hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers, earthquake recurrence cycles, and fault healing. Pressure solution in massive rocks often localizes into solution seams or stylolites. Field observations of stylolites often show elastic/brittle interactions in regions between pressure solution features, including and shear fractures, veins and pull-apart features. To understand these interactions, we use a grain-scale model based on the Discrete Element Method that allows granular dissolution at stressed contacts between grains. The new model captures both the slow chemical compaction process and the more abrupt brittle fracturing and sliding between grains. We simulate a sample of rock as a collection of particles, each representing either a grain or a unit of rock, bonded to each other with breakable cement. We apply external stresses to this sample, and calculate elastic and frictional interactions between the grains. Dissolution is modeled by an irreversible penetration of contacting grains into each other at a rate that depends on the contact stress and an adjustable rate constant. Experiments have shown that dissolution rates at grain contacts are greatly enhanced when there is a mineralogical contrast. Therefore, we dissolution rate constant can be increased to account for an amount of impurities (e.g. clay in a quartz or calcite sandstone) that can accumulate on dissolving contacts. This approach allows large compaction and shear strains within the rock, while allowing examination of local grain-scale heterogeneity. For example, we will describe the effect of pressure solution on the distribution of contact forces magnitudes and orientations. Contact forces in elastic granular packings are inherently

  2. Fish passage through hydropower turbines: Simulating blade strike using the discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, M C; Romero-Gomez, P

    2014-01-01

    Among the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though hydro-turbines two common physical processes can lead to injury and mortality: collisions/blade-strike and rapid decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, e.g. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, e.g. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and rapid pressure change by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions-representing fish collisions with turbine components such as blades-are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for unsteady turbulence using detached eddy simulation (DES), as compared to the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state (which was also done here for comparison). While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance values, transient conditions exhibited an improvement in describing flow temporal and spatial variability. We released streamtraces (in the steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same locations where sensor fish (SF) were released in previous field studies of the advanced turbine unit. The streamtrace- based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the

  3. Discrete element modeling of triggered slip in faults with granular gouge: application to dynamic earthquake triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdowsi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent seismological observations based on new, more sensitive instrumentation show that seismic waves radiated from large earthquakes can trigger other earthquakes globally. This phenomenon is called dynamic earthquake triggering and is well-documented for over 30 of the largest earthquakes worldwide. Granular materials are at the core of mature earthquake faults and play a key role in fault triggering by exhibiting a rich nonlinear response to external perturbations. The stick-slip dynamics in sheared granular layers is analogous to the seismic cycle for earthquake fault systems. In this research effort, we characterize the macroscopic scale statistics and the grain-scale mechanisms of triggered slip in sheared granular layers. We model the granular fault gouge using three dimensional discrete element method simulations. The modeled granular system is put into stick-slip dynamics by applying a conning pressure and a shear load. The dynamic triggering is simulated by perturbing the spontaneous stick-slip dynamics using an external vibration applied to the boundary of the layer. The influences of the triggering consist in a frictional weakening during the vibration interval, a clock advance of the next expected large slip event and long term effects in the form of suppression and recovery of the energy released from the granular layer. Our study suggests that above a critical amplitude, vibration causes a significant clock advance of large slip events. We link this clock advance to a major decline in the slipping contact ratio as well as a decrease in shear modulus and weakening of the granular gouge layer. We also observe that shear vibration is less effective in perturbing the stick-slip dynamics of the granular layer. Our study suggests that in order to have an effective triggering, the input vibration must also explore the granular layer at length scales about or less than the average grain size. The energy suppression and the subsequent recovery and increased

  4. Constraining the parameters of the EAP sea ice rheology from satellite observations and discrete element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, Michel; Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Muir, Alan; Baker, Steven

    2016-04-01

    The new elastic-plastic anisotropic (EAP) rheology that explicitly accounts for the sub-continuum anisotropy of the sea ice cover has been implemented into the latest version of the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE. The EAP rheology is widely used in the climate modeling scientific community (i.e. CPOM stand alone, RASM high resolution regional ice-ocean model, MetOffice fully coupled model). Early results from sensitivity studies (Tsamados et al, 2013) have shown the potential for an improved representation of the observed main sea ice characteristics with a substantial change of the spatial distribution of ice thickness and ice drift relative to model runs with the reference visco-plastic (VP) rheology. The model contains one new prognostic variable, the local structure tensor, which quantifies the degree of anisotropy of the sea ice, and two parameters that set the time scale of the evolution of this tensor. Observations from high resolution satellite SAR imagery as well as numerical simulation results from a discrete element model (DEM, see Wilchinsky, 2010) have shown that these individual floes can organize under external wind and thermal forcing to form an emergent isotropic sea ice state (via thermodynamic healing, thermal cracking) or an anisotropic sea ice state (via Coulombic failure lines due to shear rupture). In this work we use for the first time in the context of sea ice research a mathematical metric, the Tensorial Minkowski functionals (Schroeder-Turk, 2010), to measure quantitatively the degree of anisotropy and alignment of the sea ice at different scales. We apply the methodology on the GlobICE Envisat satellite deformation product (www.globice.info), on a prototype modified version of GlobICE applied on Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and on the DEM ice floe aggregates. By comparing these independent measurements of the sea ice anisotropy as well as its temporal evolution against the EAP model we are able to constrain the

  5. Bandgap optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystals using semidefinite programming and subspace methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, H.; Nguyen, N.C.; Freund, R.M.; Parrilo, P.A.; Peraire, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the optimal design of photonic crystal structures for two-dimensional square lattices. The mathematical formulation of the bandgap optimization problem leads to an infinite-dimensional Hermitian eigenvalue optimization problem parametrized by the dielectric material and the wave vector. To make the problem tractable, the original eigenvalue problem is discretized using the finite element method into a series of finite-dimensional eigenvalue problems for multiple values of the wave vector parameter. The resulting optimization problem is large-scale and non-convex, with low regularity and non-differentiable objective. By restricting to appropriate eigenspaces, we reduce the large-scale non-convex optimization problem via reparametrization to a sequence of small-scale convex semidefinite programs (SDPs) for which modern SDP solvers can be efficiently applied. Numerical results are presented for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations at several frequency bands. The optimized structures exhibit patterns which go far beyond typical physical intuition on periodic media design.

  6. Two-dimensional strain gradient damage modeling: a variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placidi, Luca; Misra, Anil; Barchiesi, Emilio

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we formulate a linear elastic second gradient isotropic two-dimensional continuum model accounting for irreversible damage. The failure is defined as the condition in which the damage parameter reaches 1, at least in one point of the domain. The quasi-static approximation is done, i.e., the kinetic energy is assumed to be negligible. In order to deal with dissipation, a damage dissipation term is considered in the deformation energy functional. The key goal of this paper is to apply a non-standard variational procedure to exploit the damage irreversibility argument. As a result, we derive not only the equilibrium equations but, notably, also the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Finally, numerical simulations for exemplary problems are discussed as some constitutive parameters are varying, with the inclusion of a mesh-independence evidence. Element-free Galerkin method and moving least square shape functions have been employed.

  7. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  8. Global Gauge Anomalies in Two-Dimensional Bosonic Sigma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawȩdzki, Krzysztof; Suszek, Rafał R.; Waldorf, Konrad

    2011-03-01

    We revisit the gauging of rigid symmetries in two-dimensional bosonic sigma models with a Wess-Zumino term in the action. Such a term is related to a background closed 3-form H on the target space. More exactly, the sigma-model Feynman amplitudes of classical fields are associated to a bundle gerbe with connection of curvature H over the target space. Under conditions that were unraveled more than twenty years ago, the classical amplitudes may be coupled to the topologically trivial gauge fields of the symmetry group in a way which assures infinitesimal gauge invariance. We show that the resulting gauged Wess-Zumino amplitudes may, nevertheless, exhibit global gauge anomalies that we fully classify. The general results are illustrated on the example of the WZW and the coset models of conformal field theory. The latter are shown to be inconsistent in the presence of global anomalies. We introduce a notion of equivariant gerbes that allow an anomaly-free coupling of the Wess-Zumino amplitudes to all gauge fields, including the ones in non-trivial principal bundles. Obstructions to the existence of equivariant gerbes and their classification are discussed. The choice of different equivariant structures on the same bundle gerbe gives rise to a new type of discrete-torsion ambiguities in the gauged amplitudes. An explicit construction of gerbes equivariant with respect to the adjoint symmetries over compact simply connected simple Lie groups is given.

  9. Universality of modular symmetries in two-dimensional magnetotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K. S.; Limseth, H. S.; Lütken, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze experimental quantum Hall data from a wide range of different materials, including semiconducting heterojunctions, thin films, surface layers, graphene, mercury telluride, bismuth antimonide, and black phosphorus. The fact that these materials have little in common, except that charge transport is effectively two-dimensional, shows how robust and universal the quantum Hall phenomenon is. The scaling and fixed point data we analyzed appear to show that magnetotransport in two dimensions is governed by a small number of universality classes that are classified by modular symmetries, which are infinite discrete symmetries not previously seen in nature. The Hall plateaux are (infrared) stable fixed points of the scaling-flow, and quantum critical points (where the wave function is delocalized) are unstable fixed points of scaling. Modular symmetries are so rigid that they in some cases fix the global geometry of the scaling flow, and therefore predict the exact location of quantum critical points, as well as the shape of flow lines anywhere in the phase diagram. We show that most available experimental quantum Hall scaling data are in good agreement with these predictions.

  10. Two dimensional spatial distortion correction algorithm for scintillation GAMMA cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, R.; Gray, E.; Jih, F.; King, S.E.; Lim, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial distortion in an Anger gamma camera originates fundamentally from the discrete nature of scintillation light sampling with an array of PMT's. Historically digital distortion correction started with the method based on the distortion measurement by using 1-D slit pattern and the subsequent on-line bi-linear approximation with 64 x 64 look-up tables for X and Y. However, the X, Y distortions are inherently two-dimensional in nature, and thus the validity of this 1-D calibration method becomes questionable with the increasing distortion amplitude in association with the effort to get better spatial and energy resolutions. The authors have developed a new accurate 2-D correction algorithm. This method involves the steps of; data collection from 2-D orthogonal hole pattern, 2-D distortion vector measurement, 2-D Lagrangian polynomial interpolation, and transformation to X, Y ADC frame. The impact of numerical precision used in correction and the accuracy of bilinear approximation with varying look-up table size have been carefully examined through computer simulation by using measured single PMT light response function together with Anger positioning logic. Also the accuracy level of different order Lagrangian polynomial interpolations for correction table expansion from hole centroids were investigated. Detailed algorithm and computer simulation are presented along with camera test results

  11. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  12. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  13. Theoretical investigation of the neutron noise diagnostics of two-dimensional control rod vibrations in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Analytis, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to develop a method for monitoring control rod vibrations by neutron noise measurements, the noise induced by two-dimensional vibrations of control elements is investigated. The two-dimensional Green's function relating the small stochastic cross-section fluctuations to the neutron noise is determined for a rectangular slab reactor in the modified one-group theory, and subsequently, the neutron response to two-dimensional vibrating noise sources is investigated. Two possible diagnostical applications are considered: (a) the reconstruction of the mechanical trajectory of the vibrating element by neutron noise measurements, and (b) the possibility of locating the vibrating element in the core. (author)

  14. Fourier two-level analysis for discontinuous Galerkin discretization with linear elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Hemker (Piet); W. Hoffmann; M.H. van Raalte (Marc)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study the convergence of a multigrid method for the solution of a linear second order elliptic equation, discretized by discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, and we give a detailed analysis of the convergence fordifferent block-relaxation strategies. In addition to an

  15. Discrete element modeling approach to porosimetry for durability risk estimation of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; Le, N.L.B.; Stroeven, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a novel approach to porosimetry in virtual concrete, denoted as random node structuring (RNS). The fresh state of this particulate material is produced by the DEM system HADES. Hydration simulation is a hybrid approach making use of wellknown discretization and vector methods.

  16. Two-dimensional quantum gravity - a laboratory for fluctuating graphs and quenched connectivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Janke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief introduction to using two-dimensional discrete and Euclidean quantum gravity approaches as a laboratory for studying the properties of fluctuating and frozen random graphs in interaction with "matter fields" represented by simple spin or vertex models. Due to the existence of numerous exact analytical results and predictions for comparison with simulational work, this is an interesting and useful enterprise.

  17. Exact compact breather-like solutions of two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ranja; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice support exact discrete compact breather-like solutions. We also find exact compact breather solutions of the same lattice in presence of long-range interaction with r -s dependence on the distance in the continuum limit. The usefulness of these solutions for energy localization and transport in various physical systems are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  18. Discrete element method based scale-up model for material synthesis using ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Priya Radhi

    Mechanical milling is a widely used technique for powder processing in various areas. In this work, a scale-up model for describing this ball milling process is developed. The thesis is a combination of experimental and modeling efforts. Initially, Discrete Element Model (DEM) is used to describe energy transfer from milling tools to the milled powder for shaker, planetary, and attritor mills. The rolling and static friction coefficients are determined experimentally. Computations predict a quasisteady rate of energy dissipation, E d, for each experimental configuration. It is proposed that the milling dose defined as a product of Ed and milling time, t, divided by the mass of milled powder, mp characterizes the milling progress independently of the milling device or milling conditions used. Once the milling dose is determined for one experimental configuration, it can be used to predict the milling time required to prepare the same material in any milling configuration, for which Ed is calculated. The concept is validated experimentally for DEM describing planetary and shaker mills. For attritor, the predicted Ed includes substantial contribution from milling tool interaction events with abnormally high forces (>103 N). The energy in such events is likely dissipated to heat or plastically deform milling tools rather than refine material. Indeed, DEM predictions for the attritor correlate with experiments when such events are ignored in the analysis. With an objective of obtaining real-time indicators of milling progress, power, torque, and rotation speed of the impeller of an attritor mill are measured during preparation of metal matrix composite powders in the subsequent portion of this thesis. Two material systems are selected and comparisons made between in-situ parameters and experimental milling progress indicators. It is established that real-time measurements can certainly be used to describe milling progress. However, they need to be interpreted carefully

  19. Numerical investigations on flow dynamics of prismatic granular materials using the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, W.; Weatherley, D.; Wruck, B.; Chitombo, G. P.

    2012-04-01

    The flow dynamics of granular materials is of broad interest in both the geosciences (e.g. landslides, fault zone evolution, and brecchia pipe formation) and many engineering disciplines (e.g chemical engineering, food sciences, pharmaceuticals and materials science). At the interface between natural and human-induced granular media flow, current underground mass-mining methods are trending towards the induced failure and subsequent gravitational flow of large volumes of broken rock, a method known as cave mining. Cave mining relies upon the undercutting of a large ore body, inducement of fragmentation of the rock and subsequent extraction of ore from below, via hopper-like outlets. Design of such mines currently relies upon a simplified kinematic theory of granular flow in hoppers, known as the ellipsoid theory of mass movement. This theory assumes that the zone of moving material grows as an ellipsoid above the outlet of the silo. The boundary of the movement zone is a shear band and internal to the movement zone, the granular material is assumed to have a uniformly high bulk porosity compared with surrounding stagnant regions. There is however, increasing anecdotal evidence and field measurements suggesting this theory fails to capture the full complexity of granular material flow within cave mines. Given the practical challenges obstructing direct measurement of movement both in laboratory experiments and in-situ, the Discrete Element Method (DEM [1]) is a popular alternative to investigate granular media flow. Small-scale DEM studies (c.f. [3] and references therein) have confirmed that movement within DEM silo flow models matches that predicted by ellipsoid theory, at least for mono-disperse granular material freely outflowing at a constant rate. A major draw-back of these small-scale DEM studies is that the initial bulk porosity of the simulated granular material is significantly higher than that of broken, prismatic rock. In this investigation, more

  20. On the Robustness and Prospects of Adaptive BDDC Methods for Finite Element Discretizations of Elliptic PDEs with High-Contrast Coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Zampini, Stefano; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) methods have proven to be powerful preconditioners for large and sparse linear systems arising from the finite element discretization of elliptic PDEs. Condition number bounds can be theoretically

  1. Simplified Qualitative Discrete Numerical Model to Determine Cracking Pattern in Brittle Materials by Means of Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ochoa-Avendaño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation, implementation, and validation of a simplified qualitative model to determine the crack path of solids considering static loads, infinitesimal strain, and plane stress condition. This model is based on finite element method with a special meshing technique, where nonlinear link elements are included between the faces of the linear triangular elements. The stiffness loss of some link elements represents the crack opening. Three experimental tests of bending beams are simulated, where the cracking pattern calculated with the proposed numerical model is similar to experimental result. The advantages of the proposed model compared to discrete crack approaches with interface elements can be the implementation simplicity, the numerical stability, and the very low computational cost. The simulation with greater values of the initial stiffness of the link elements does not affect the discontinuity path and the stability of the numerical solution. The exploded mesh procedure presented in this model avoids a complex nonlinear analysis and regenerative or adaptive meshes.

  2. Optimization and Openmp Parallelization of a Discrete Element Code for Convex Polyhedra on Multi-Core Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    2013-02-01

    We report our experiences with the optimization and parallelization of a discrete element code for convex polyhedra on multi-core machines and introduce a novel variant of the sort-and-sweep neighborhood algorithm. While in theory the whole code in itself parallelizes ideally, in practice the results on different architectures with different compilers and performance measurement tools depend very much on the particle number and optimization of the code. After difficulties with the interpretation of the data for speedup and efficiency are overcome, respectable parallelization speedups could be obtained.

  3. Three Different Ways of Calibrating Burger's Contact Model for Viscoelastic Model of Asphalt Mixtures by Discrete Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    modulus. Three different approaches have been used and compared for calibrating the Burger's contact model. Values of the dynamic modulus and phase angle of asphalt mixtures were predicted by conducting DE simulation under dynamic strain control loading. The excellent agreement between the predicted......In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional discrete element method. Combined with Burger's model, three contact models were used for the construction of constitutive asphalt mixture model with viscoelastic properties...

  4. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Cachim, Paulo Barreto

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2013-09-25

    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  6. Understanding the discrete element method simulation of non-spherical particles for granular and multi-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Gives readers a more thorough understanding of DEM and equips researchers for independent work and an ability to judge methods related to simulation of polygonal particles Introduces DEM from the fundamental concepts (theoretical mechanics and solidstate physics), with 2D and 3D simulation methods for polygonal particlesProvides the fundamentals of coding discrete element method (DEM) requiring little advance knowledge of granular matter or numerical simulationHighlights the numerical tricks and pitfalls that are usually only realized after years of experience, with relevant simple experiment

  7. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  8. Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.

    2004-12-01

    New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.

  9. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  10. Finite Element in Angle Unit Sphere Meshing for Charged Particle Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Mario Ivan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drumm, Clifton R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Finite element in angle formulations of the charged particle transport equation require the discretization of the unit sphere. In Sceptre, a three-dimensional surface mesh of a sphere is transformed into a two-dimensional mesh. Projection of a sphere onto a two-dimensional surface is well studied with map makers spending the last few centuries attempting to create maps that preserve proportion and area. Using these techniques, various meshing schemes for the unit sphere were investigated.

  11. Discrete conservation properties for shallow water flows using mixed mimetic spectral elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, D.; Palha, A.; Gerritsma, M.

    2018-01-01

    A mixed mimetic spectral element method is applied to solve the rotating shallow water equations. The mixed method uses the recently developed spectral element histopolation functions, which exactly satisfy the fundamental theorem of calculus with respect to the standard Lagrange basis functions in

  12. Fast solution of Cahn–Hilliard variational inequalities using implicit time discretization and finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Bosch, Jessica

    2014-04-01

    We consider the efficient solution of the Cahn-Hilliard variational inequality using an implicit time discretization, which is formulated as an optimal control problem with pointwise constraints on the control. By applying a semi-smooth Newton method combined with a Moreau-Yosida regularization technique for handling the control constraints we show superlinear convergence in function space. At the heart of this method lies the solution of large and sparse linear systems for which we propose the use of preconditioned Krylov subspace solvers using an effective Schur complement approximation. Numerical results illustrate the competitiveness of this approach. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  13. A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus

    1989-09-01

    manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.

  14. Two-dimensional beam-profile monitor using the Reticon MC510A array camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, B.

    1981-08-01

    A quantitative two-dimensional beam profile may be obtained from a scintillator viewed by a Reticon camera which uses a 32 x 32 array of photodiodes as its sensing element. In this note, CAMAC-oriented data acquisition electronics which allow one either to transmit the profile to a computer, or to use the monitor in a stand-alone mode are described

  15. TRIDENT-CTR: a two-dimensional transport code for CTR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    TRIDENT-CTR is a two-dimensional x-y and r-z geometry multigroup neutral transport code developed at Los Alamos for toroidal calculations. The use of triangular finite elements gives it the geometric flexibility to cope with the nonorthogonal shapes of many toroidal designs of current interest in the CTR community

  16. New analytical treatment for a kind of two dimensional integrals in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qifeng; Kuang Yurang

    1994-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional integrals, separated from two-center matrix elements in ion-atom collisions, is analytically integrated by introducing the Laplace transform into the integrals and expressed by the modified Bessel functions. The traditional Feynman transform is very complicated for this kind of more general integrals related to the excited state capture

  17. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.

    2014-05-01

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.

  18. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.

    2014-01-01

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature

  19. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  20. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  1. Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane.

  2. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  3. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  4. Discrete Localized States and Localization Dynamics in Discrete Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yu.B.; Mezentsev, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of two-dimensional discrete structures is studied in the framework of the generalized two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The nonlinear coupling in the form of the Ablowitz-Ladik nonlinearity is taken into account. Stability properties of the stationary solutions...

  5. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Naether, Uta; Delgado, Aldo; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  6. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  7. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of two-dimensional fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. T.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through stochastically generated two-dimensional fracture networks. The centres and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow either a lognormal distribution or a power law distribution. We have considered the case where the fractures in the network each have the same aperture, as well as the case where the aperture of each fracture is directly proportional to the fracture length. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this conductivity using a simple estimation method that does not require extensive computation. For our calculations, fracture networks are represented as networks composed of conducting segments (bonds) between nodes. Each bond represents the region of a single fracture between two adjacent intersections with other fractures. We assume that the bonds are arranged on a kagome lattice, with some fraction of the bonds randomly missing. The conductance of each bond is then replaced with some effective conductance, Ceff, which we take to be the arithmetic mean of the individual conductances, averaged over each bond, rather than over each fracture. This is in contrast to the usual approximation used in effective medium theories, wherein the geometric mean is used. Our

  8. Nonlinear and parallel algorithms for finite element discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Santiago Egido

    1998-12-01

    The steady-state Navier-Stokes equations are of considerable interest because they are used to model numerous common physical phenomena. The applications encountered in practice often involve small viscosities and complicated domain geometries, and they result in challenging problems in spite of the vast attention that has been dedicated to them. In this thesis we examine methods for computing the numerical solution of the primitive variable formulation of the incompressible equations on distributed memory parallel computers. We use the Galerkin method to discretize the differential equations, although most results are stated so that they apply also to stabilized methods. We also reformulate some classical results in a single framework and discuss some issues frequently dismissed in the literature, such as the implementation of pressure space basis and non- homogeneous boundary values. We consider three nonlinear methods: Newton's method, Oseen's (or Picard) iteration, and sequences of Stokes problems. All these iterative nonlinear methods require solving a linear system at every step. Newton's method has quadratic convergence while that of the others is only linear; however, we obtain theoretical bounds showing that Oseen's iteration is more robust, and we confirm it experimentally. In addition, although Oseen's iteration usually requires more iterations than Newton's method, the linear systems it generates tend to be simpler and its overall costs (in CPU time) are lower. The Stokes problems result in linear systems which are easier to solve, but its convergence is much slower, so that it is competitive only for large viscosities. Inexact versions of these methods are studied, and we explain why the best timings are obtained using relatively modest error tolerances in solving the corresponding linear systems. We also present a new damping optimization strategy based on the quadratic nature of the Navier-Stokes equations, which improves the robustness of all the

  9. A numerical method for two-dimensional anisotropic transport problem in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mingsheng; Feng Tiekai; Fu Lianxiang; Cao Changshu; Liu Yulan

    1988-01-01

    The authors deal with the triangular mesh-discontinuous finite element method for solving the time-dependent anisotropic neutron transport problem in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. A prior estimate of the numerical solution is given. Stability is proved. The authors have computed a two dimensional anisotropic neutron transport problem and a Tungsten-Carbide critical assembly problem by using the numerical method. In comparision with DSN method and the experimental results obtained by others both at home and abroad, the method is satisfactory

  10. Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Shuhao

    2016-11-14

    Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. © 2016 Author(s).

  11. Discrete element method applied to the vibration process of coke particles

    OpenAIRE

    Majidi, Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Les propriétés physiques, mécaniques et chimiques des matières premières ont un effet majeur sur la qualité des anodes en carbone pour le procédé de production d’aluminium. Ce travail tente d’étudier la faisabilité de l’application de simulation de la Méthode des Élément Discrets (DEM) à la technologie de production d’anodes. L’effet de la forme des particules et de la distribution de leurs tailles sur la densité apparente vibrée (VBD) d’échantillons de coke sec est étudié. Les particules de ...

  12. Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)

  13. Wake Instabilities Behind Discrete Roughness Elements in High Speed Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Norris, Andrew; Edwards, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Computations are performed to study the flow past an isolated, spanwise symmetric roughness element in zero pressure gradient boundary layers at Mach 3.5 and 5.9, with an emphasis on roughness heights of less than 55 percent of the local boundary layer thickness. The Mach 5.9 cases include flow conditions that are relevant to both ground facility experiments and high altitude flight ("cold wall" case). Regardless of the Mach number, the mean flow distortion due to the roughness element is characterized by long-lived streamwise streaks in the roughness wake, which can support instability modes that did not exist in the absence of the roughness element. The higher Mach number cases reveal a variety of instability mode shapes with velocity fluctuations concentrated in different localized regions of high base flow shear. The high shear regions vary from the top of a mushroom shaped structure characterizing the centerline streak to regions that are concentrated on the sides of the mushroom. Unlike the Mach 3.5 case with nearly same values of scaled roughness height k/delta and roughness height Reynolds number Re(sub kk), the odd wake modes in both Mach 5.9 cases are significantly more unstable than the even modes of instability. Additional computations for a Mach 3.5 boundary layer indicate that the presence of a roughness element can also enhance the amplification of first mode instabilities incident from upstream. Interactions between multiple roughness elements aligned along the flow direction are also explored.

  14. Two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture transport in frost-heaving soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymon, G.L.; Berg, R.L.; Hromadka, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture flow in frost-heaving soils is developed based upon well known equations of heat and moisture flow in soils. Numerical solution is by the nodal domain integration method which includes the integrated finite difference and the Galerkin finite element methods. Solution of the phase change process is approximated by an isothermal approach and phenomenological equations are assumed for processes occurring in freezing or thawing zones. The model has been verified against experimental one-dimensional freezing soil column data and experimental two-dimensional soil thawing tank data as well as two-dimensional soil seepage data. The model has been applied to several simple but useful field problems such as roadway embankment freezing and frost heaving

  15. Noise-induced drift in two-dimensional anisotropic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farago, Oded

    2017-10-01

    We study the isothermal Brownian dynamics of a particle in a system with spatially varying diffusivity. Due to the heterogeneity of the system, the particle's mean displacement does not vanish even if it does not experience any physical force. This phenomenon has been termed "noise-induced drift," and has been extensively studied for one-dimensional systems. Here, we examine the noise-induced drift in a two-dimensional anisotropic system, characterized by a symmetric diffusion tensor with unequal diagonal elements. A general expression for the mean displacement vector is derived and presented as a sum of two vectors, depicting two distinct drifting effects. The first vector describes the tendency of the particle to drift toward the high diffusivity side in each orthogonal principal diffusion direction. This is a generalization of the well-known expression for the noise-induced drift in one-dimensional systems. The second vector represents a novel drifting effect, not found in one-dimensional systems, originating from the spatial rotation in the directions of the principal axes. The validity of the derived expressions is verified by using Langevin dynamics simulations. As a specific example, we consider the relative diffusion of two transmembrane proteins, and demonstrate that the average distance between them increases at a surprisingly fast rate of several tens of micrometers per second.

  16. Vector current scattering in two dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishon, N.L.

    1979-04-01

    The interaction of vector currents with hadrons is considered in a two dimensional SU(N) color gauge theory coupled to fermions in leading order in an N -1 expansion. After giving a detailed review of the model, various transition matrix elements of one and two vector currents between hadronic states were considered. A pattern is established whereby the low mass currents interact via meson dominance and the highly virtual currents interact via bare quark-current couplings. This pattern is especially evident in the hadronic contribution to inelastic Compton scattering, M/sub μν/ = ∫ dx e/sup iq.x/ , which is investigated in various kinematic limits. It is shown that in the dual Regge region of soft processes the currents interact as purely hadronic systems. Modification of dimensional counting rules is indicated by a study of a large angle scattering analog. In several hard inclusive nonlight cone processes, parton model ideas are confirmed. The impulse approximation is valid in a Bjorken--Paschos-like limit with very virtual currents. A Drell--Yan type annihilation mechanism is found in photoproduction of massive lepton pairs, leading to identification of a parton wave function for the current. 56 references

  17. Metallic and highly conducting two-dimensional atomic arrays of sulfur enabled by molybdenum disulfide nanotemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuze; Geng, Xiumei; Han, Yang; Benamara, Mourad; Chen, Liao; Li, Jingxiao; Bilgin, Ismail; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-10-01

    Element sulfur in nature is an insulating solid. While it has been tested that one-dimensional sulfur chain is metallic and conducting, the investigation on two-dimensional sulfur remains elusive. We report that molybdenum disulfide layers are able to serve as the nanotemplate to facilitate the formation of two-dimensional sulfur. Density functional theory calculations suggest that confined in-between layers of molybdenum disulfide, sulfur atoms are able to form two-dimensional triangular arrays that are highly metallic. As a result, these arrays contribute to the high conductivity and metallic phase of the hybrid structures of molybdenum disulfide layers and two-dimensional sulfur arrays. The experimentally measured conductivity of such hybrid structures reaches up to 223 S/m. Multiple experimental results, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transition electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), agree with the computational insights. Due to the excellent conductivity, the current density is linearly proportional to the scan rate until 30,000 mV s-1 without the attendance of conductive additives. Using such hybrid structures as electrode, the two-electrode supercapacitor cells yield a power density of 106 Wh kg-1 and energy density 47.5 Wh kg-1 in ionic liquid electrolytes. Our findings offer new insights into using two-dimensional materials and their Van der Waals heterostructures as nanotemplates to pattern foreign atoms for unprecedented material properties.

  18. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States); Reno, J. L. [CINT, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.

  20. Two Dimensional Symmetric Correlation Functions of the S Operator and Two Dimensional Fourier Transforms: Considering the Line Coupling for P and R Lines of Linear Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  1. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  2. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  3. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  4. Least-squares finite element discretizations of neutron transport equations in 3 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteuffel, T.A [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ressel, K.J. [Interdisciplinary Project Center for Supercomputing, Zurich (Switzerland); Starkes, G. [Universtaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The least-squares finite element framework to the neutron transport equation introduced in is based on the minimization of a least-squares functional applied to the properly scaled neutron transport equation. Here we report on some practical aspects of this approach for neutron transport calculations in three space dimensions. The systems of partial differential equations resulting from a P{sub 1} and P{sub 2} approximation of the angular dependence are derived. In the diffusive limit, the system is essentially a Poisson equation for zeroth moment and has a divergence structure for the set of moments of order 1. One of the key features of the least-squares approach is that it produces a posteriori error bounds. We report on the numerical results obtained for the minimum of the least-squares functional augmented by an additional boundary term using trilinear finite elements on a uniform tesselation into cubes.

  5. Investigation into macroscopic and microscopic behaviors of wet granular soils using discrete element method and X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Vinh-Du; Tang, Anh-Minh; Roux, Jean-Noël; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Aimedieu, Patrick; Bornert, Michel

    2017-06-01

    We present an investigation into macroscopic and microscopic behaviors of wet granular soils using the discrete element method (DEM) and the X-ray Computed Tomography (XRCT) observations. The specimens are first prepared in very loose states, with frictional spherical grains in the presence of a small amount of an interstitial liquid. Experimental oedometric tests are carried out with small glass beads, while DEM simulations implement a model of spherical grains joined by menisci. Both in experiments and in simulations, loose configurations with solid fraction as low as 0.30 are prepared under low stress, and undergo a gradual collapse in compression, until the solid fraction of cohesionless bead packs (0.58 to 0.6) is obtained. In the XRCT tests, four 3D tomography images corresponding to different typical stages of the compression curve are used to characterize the microstructure.

  6. Towards an integrated numerical simulator for crack-seal vein microstructure: Coupling phase-field with the Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Simon; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    Crack-seal veins form in a complex interplay of coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes. Their formation and cyclic growth involves brittle fracturing and dilatancy, phases of increased fluid flow and the growth of crystals that fill the voids and reestablish the mechanical strength. Existing numerical models of vein formation focus on selected aspects of the coupled process. Until today, no model exists that is able to use a realistic representation of the fracturing AND sealing processes, simultaneously. To address this challenge, we propose the bidirectional coupling of two numerical methods that have proven themselves as very powerful to model the fundamental processes acting in crack-seal systems: Phase-field and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The phase-field Method was recently successfully extended to model the precipitation of quartz crystals from an aqueous solution and applied to model the sealing of a vein over multiple opening events (Ankit et al., 2013; Ankit et al., 2015a; Ankit et al., 2015b). The advantage over former, purely kinematic approaches is that in phase-field, the crystal growth is modeled based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles. Different driving forces for microstructure evolution, such as chemical bulk free energy, interfacial energy, elastic strain energy and different transport processes, such as mass diffusion and advection, can be coupled and the effect on the evolution process can be studied in 3D. The Discrete Element Method was already used in several studies to model the fracturing of rocks and the incremental growth of veins by repeated fracturing (Virgo et al., 2013; Virgo et al., 2014). Materials in DEM are represented by volumes of packed spherical particles and the response to the material to stress is modeled by interaction of the particles with their nearest neighbours. For rocks, in 3D, the method provides a realistic brittle failure behaviour. Exchange Routines are being developed that

  7. Additive Schwarz preconditioner for the finite volume element discretization of symmetric elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcinkowski, L.; Rahman, T.; Loneland, A.; Valdman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2016), s. 967-993 ISSN 0006-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Domain decomposition * Additive Schwarz method * Finite volume element * GMRES Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/valdman-0447835.pdf

  8. Comparisons of physical experiment and discrete element simulations of sheared granular materials in an annular shear cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report a direct comparison between a physical test and a computer simulation of rapidly sheared granular materials. An annular shear cell experiment was conducted. All parameters were kept the same between the physical and the computational systems to the extent possible. Artificially softened particles were used in the simulation to reduce the computational time to a manageable level. Sensitivity study on the particle stiffness ensured such artificial modification was acceptable. In the experiment, a range of normal stress was applied to a given amount of particles sheared in an annular trough with a range of controlled shear speed. Two types of particles, glass and Delrin, were used in the experiment. Qualitatively, the required torque to shear the materials under different rotational speed compared well with those in the physical experiments for both the glass and the Delrin particles. However, the quantitative discrepancies between the measured and simulated shear stresses were nearly a factor of two. Boundary conditions, particle size distribution, particle damping and friction, including a sliding and rolling, contact force model, were examined to determine their effects on the computational results. It was found that of the above, the rolling friction between particles had the most significant effect on the macro stress level. This study shows that discrete element simulation is a viable method for engineering design for granular material systems. Particle level information is needed to properly conduct these simulations. However, not all particle level information is equally important in the study regime. Rolling friction, which is not commonly considered in many discrete element models, appears to play an important role. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  10. Two-dimensional electronic femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie J.P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with a femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering probe. The method reveals correlations between excitation energy and excited state vibrational structure following photoexcitation. We demonstrate the method in rhodamine 6G.

  11. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  12. Generalized similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009 ... temperature two-dimensional MHD laminar boundary layer of incompressible fluid. ...... Φ η is Blasius solution for stationary boundary layer on the plate,. ( ). 0.

  13. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Kai, Qi; Tao, Zhu; Yong, Chen; Ji-Rong, Ren

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  14. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  15. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  16. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  18. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  19. Discrete conservation properties for shallow water flows using mixed mimetic spectral elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Palha, A.; Gerritsma, M.

    2018-03-01

    A mixed mimetic spectral element method is applied to solve the rotating shallow water equations. The mixed method uses the recently developed spectral element histopolation functions, which exactly satisfy the fundamental theorem of calculus with respect to the standard Lagrange basis functions in one dimension. These are used to construct tensor product solution spaces which satisfy the generalized Stokes theorem, as well as the annihilation of the gradient operator by the curl and the curl by the divergence. This allows for the exact conservation of first order moments (mass, vorticity), as well as higher moments (energy, potential enstrophy), subject to the truncation error of the time stepping scheme. The continuity equation is solved in the strong form, such that mass conservation holds point wise, while the momentum equation is solved in the weak form such that vorticity is globally conserved. While mass, vorticity and energy conservation hold for any quadrature rule, potential enstrophy conservation is dependent on exact spatial integration. The method possesses a weak form statement of geostrophic balance due to the compatible nature of the solution spaces and arbitrarily high order spatial error convergence.

  20. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1....../15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...

  1. Governing equations of multi-component rigid body-spring discrete element models of reinforced concrete columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, P B; Tingatinga, E A; Longalong, R E; Saguid, J

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the complexity of conventional methods to perform seismic performance assessment of buildings led to the development of more effective approaches. The rigid body spring-discrete element method (RBS-DEM) is one of these approaches and has recently been applied to the study of the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to strong earthquakes. In this paper, the governing equations of RBS-DEM planar elements subjected to lateral loads and horizontal ground motion are presented and used to replicate the hysteretic behavior of experimental RC columns. The RBS-DEM models of columns are made up of rigid components connected by systems of springs that simulate axial, shear, and bending behavior of an RC section. The parameters of springs were obtained using Response-2000 software and the hysteretic response of the models of select columns from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Structural Performance Database were computed numerically. Numerical examples show that one-component models were able to simulate the initial stiffness reasonably, while the displacement capacity of actual columns undergoing large displacements were underestimated. (paper)

  2. Feeder Type Optimisation for the Plain Flow Discharge Process of an Underground Hopper by Discrete Element Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nečas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes optimisation of a conveyor from an underground hopper intended for a coal transfer station. The original solution was designed with a chain conveyor encountered operational problems that have limited its continuous operation. The Discrete Element Modeling (DEM was chosen to optimise the transport. DEM simulations allow device design modifications directly in the 3D CAD model, and then the simulation makes it possible to evaluate whether the adjustment was successful. By simulating the initial state of coal extraction using a chain conveyor, trouble spots were identified that caused operational failures. The main problem has been the increased resistance during removal of material from the underground hopper. Revealed resistances against material movement were not considered in the original design at all. In the next step, structural modifications of problematic nodes were made. For example, the following changes have been made: reduction of storage space or installation of passive elements into the interior of the underground hopper. These modifications made were not effective enough, so the type of the conveyor was changed from a drag chain conveyor to a belt conveyor. The simulation of the material extraction using a belt conveyor showed a significant reduction in resistance parameters while maintaining the required transport performance.

  3. Likelihood-based inference for discretely observed birth-death-shift processes, with applications to evolution of mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jason; Guttorp, Peter; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Minin, Vladimir N

    2015-12-01

    Continuous-time birth-death-shift (BDS) processes are frequently used in stochastic modeling, with many applications in ecology and epidemiology. In particular, such processes can model evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements-important genetic markers in molecular epidemiology. Estimation of the effects of individual covariates on the birth, death, and shift rates of the process can be accomplished by analyzing patient data, but inferring these rates in a discretely and unevenly observed setting presents computational challenges. We propose a multi-type branching process approximation to BDS processes and develop a corresponding expectation maximization algorithm, where we use spectral techniques to reduce calculation of expected sufficient statistics to low-dimensional integration. These techniques yield an efficient and robust optimization routine for inferring the rates of the BDS process, and apply broadly to multi-type branching processes whose rates can depend on many covariates. After rigorously testing our methodology in simulation studies, we apply our method to study intrapatient time evolution of IS6110 transposable element, a genetic marker frequently used during estimation of epidemiological clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Adaptive Finite Element-Discrete Element Analysis for Microseismic Modelling of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation of Perforation in Horizontal Well considering Pre-Existing Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrofracturing technology of perforated horizontal well has been widely used to stimulate the tight hydrocarbon reservoirs for gas production. To predict the hydraulic fracture propagation, the microseismicity can be used to infer hydraulic fractures state; by the effective numerical methods, microseismic events can be addressed from changes of the computed stresses. In numerical models, due to the challenges in accurately representing the complex structure of naturally fractured reservoir, the interaction between hydraulic and pre-existing fractures has not yet been considered and handled satisfactorily. To overcome these challenges, the adaptive finite element-discrete element method is used to refine mesh, effectively identify the fractures propagation, and investigate microseismic modelling. Numerical models are composed of hydraulic fractures, pre-existing fractures, and microscale pores, and the seepage analysis based on the Darcy’s law is used to determine fluid flow; then moment tensors in microseismicity are computed based on the computed stresses. Unfractured and naturally fractured models are compared to assess the influences of pre-existing fractures on hydrofracturing. The damaged and contact slip events were detected by the magnitudes, B-values, Hudson source type plots, and focal spheres.

  5. An entropy stable nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for the two dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured curvilinear meshes with discontinuous bathymetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermeyer, Niklas [Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 86-90, 50931 Köln (Germany); Winters, Andrew R., E-mail: awinters@math.uni-koeln.de [Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 86-90, 50931 Köln (Germany); Gassner, Gregor J. [Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 86-90, 50931 Köln (Germany); Kopriva, David A. [Department of Mathematics, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We design an arbitrary high-order accurate nodal discontinuous Galerkin spectral element approximation for the non-linear two dimensional shallow water equations with non-constant, possibly discontinuous, bathymetry on unstructured, possibly curved, quadrilateral meshes. The scheme is derived from an equivalent flux differencing formulation of the split form of the equations. We prove that this discretization exactly preserves the local mass and momentum. Furthermore, combined with a special numerical interface flux function, the method exactly preserves the mathematical entropy, which is the total energy for the shallow water equations. By adding a specific form of interface dissipation to the baseline entropy conserving scheme we create a provably entropy stable scheme. That is, the numerical scheme discretely satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. Finally, with a particular discretization of the bathymetry source term we prove that the numerical approximation is well-balanced. We provide numerical examples that verify the theoretical findings and furthermore provide an application of the scheme for a partial break of a curved dam test problem.

  6. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S B

    2018-02-23

    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  7. Two-dimensional analytic weighting functions for limb scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Through the inversion of limb scatter measurements it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of trace species in the atmosphere. Many of these inversion methods require what is often referred to as weighting functions, or derivatives of the radiance with respect to concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. Several radiative transfer models have implemented analytic methods to calculate weighting functions, alleviating the computational burden of traditional numerical perturbation methods. Here we describe the implementation of analytic two-dimensional weighting functions, where derivatives are calculated relative to atmospheric constituents in a two-dimensional grid of altitude and angle along the line of sight direction, in the SASKTRAN-HR radiative transfer model. Two-dimensional weighting functions are required for two-dimensional inversions of limb scatter measurements. Examples are presented where the analytic two-dimensional weighting functions are calculated with an underlying one-dimensional atmosphere. It is shown that the analytic weighting functions are more accurate than ones calculated with a single scatter approximation, and are orders of magnitude faster than a typical perturbation method. Evidence is presented that weighting functions for stratospheric aerosols calculated under a single scatter approximation may not be suitable for use in retrieval algorithms under solar backscatter conditions.

  8. Topics in Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity and Chern-Simons Gauge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Guillermo Raul

    A series of studies in two and three dimensional theories is presented. The two dimensional problems are considered in the framework of String Theory. The first one determines the region of integration in the space of inequivalent tori of a tadpole diagram in Closed String Field Theory, using the naive Witten three-string vertex. It is shown that every surface is counted an infinite number of times and the source of this behavior is identified. The second study analyzes the behavior of the discrete matrix model of two dimensional gravity without matter using a mathematically well-defined construction, confirming several conjectures and partial results from the literature. The studies in three dimensions are based on Chern Simons pure gauge theory. The first one deals with the projection of the theory onto a two-dimensional surface of constant time, whereas the second analyzes the large N behavior of the SU(N) theory and makes evident a duality symmetry between the only two parameters of the theory. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  9. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  10. Efficient processing of two-dimensional arrays with C or C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-20

    Because fast and efficient serial processing of raster-graphic images and other two-dimensional arrays is a requirement in land-change modeling and other applications, the effects of 10 factors on the runtimes for processing two-dimensional arrays with C and C++ are evaluated in a comparative factorial study. This study’s factors include the choice among three C or C++ source-code techniques for array processing; the choice of Microsoft Windows 7 or a Linux operating system; the choice of 4-byte or 8-byte array elements and indexes; and the choice of 32-bit or 64-bit memory addressing. This study demonstrates how programmer choices can reduce runtimes by 75 percent or more, even after compiler optimizations. Ten points of practical advice for faster processing of two-dimensional arrays are offered to C and C++ programmers. Further study and the development of a C and C++ software test suite are recommended.Key words: array processing, C, C++, compiler, computational speed, land-change modeling, raster-graphic image, two-dimensional array, software efficiency

  11. Applying clustering to statistical analysis of student reasoning about two-dimensional kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Padraic Springuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We use clustering, an analysis method not presently common to the physics education research community, to group and characterize student responses to written questions about two-dimensional kinematics. Previously, clustering has been used to analyze multiple-choice data; we analyze free-response data that includes both sketches of vectors and written elements. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the methodology itself; we include a brief overview of relevant results.

  12. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  13. Coupling of a continuum ice sheet model and a discrete element calving model using a scientific workflow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Shahbaz; Vallot, Dorothée; Zwinger, Thomas; Neukirchen, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Scientific communities generate complex simulations through orchestration of semi-structured analysis pipelines which involves execution of large workflows on multiple, distributed and heterogeneous computing and data resources. Modeling ice dynamics of glaciers requires workflows consisting of many non-trivial, computationally expensive processing tasks which are coupled to each other. From this domain, we present an e-Science use case, a workflow, which requires the execution of a continuum ice flow model and a discrete element based calving model in an iterative manner. Apart from the execution, this workflow also contains data format conversion tasks that support the execution of ice flow and calving by means of transition through sequential, nested and iterative steps. Thus, the management and monitoring of all the processing tasks including data management and transfer of the workflow model becomes more complex. From the implementation perspective, this workflow model was initially developed on a set of scripts using static data input and output references. In the course of application usage when more scripts or modifications introduced as per user requirements, the debugging and validation of results were more cumbersome to achieve. To address these problems, we identified a need to have a high-level scientific workflow tool through which all the above mentioned processes can be achieved in an efficient and usable manner. We decided to make use of the e-Science middleware UNICORE (Uniform Interface to Computing Resources) that allows seamless and automated access to different heterogenous and distributed resources which is supported by a scientific workflow engine. Based on this, we developed a high-level scientific workflow model for coupling of massively parallel High-Performance Computing (HPC) jobs: a continuum ice sheet model (Elmer/Ice) and a discrete element calving and crevassing model (HiDEM). In our talk we present how the use of a high

  14. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  15. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  16. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  17. Velocity and Dispersion for a Two-Dimensional Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the transport of a two-dimensional random walk. The velocity and the dispersion of this two-dimensional random walk are derived. It mainly show that: (i) by controlling the values of the transition rates, the direction of the random walk can be reversed; (ii) for some suitably selected transition rates, our two-dimensional random walk can be efficient in comparison with the one-dimensional random walk. Our work is motivated in part by the challenge to explain the unidirectional transport of motor proteins. When the motor proteins move at the turn points of their tracks (i.e., the cytoskeleton filaments and the DNA molecular tubes), some of our results in this paper can be used to deal with the problem. (general)

  18. A numerical model for density-and-viscosity-dependent flows in two-dimensional variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Suidan, Makram T.; Venosa, Albert D.

    1999-04-01

    We present a formulation for water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media that accounts for the effects of the solute on water density and viscosity. The governing equations are cast in a dimensionless form that depends on six dimensionless groups of parameters. These equations are discretized in space using the Galerkin finite element formulation and integrated in time using the backward Euler scheme with mass lumping. The modified Picard method is used to linearize the water flow equation. The resulting numerical model, the MARUN model, is verified by comparison to published numerical results. It is then used to investigate beach hydraulics at seawater concentration (about 30 g l -1) in the context of nutrients delivery for bioremediation of oil spills on beaches. Numerical simulations that we conducted in a rectangular section of a hypothetical beach revealed that buoyancy in the unsaturated zone is significant in soils that are fine textured, with low anisotropy ratio, and/or exhibiting low physical dispersion. In such situations, application of dissolved nutrients to a contaminated beach in a freshwater solution is superior to their application in a seawater solution. Concentration-engendered viscosity effects were negligible with respect to concentration-engendered density effects for the cases that we considered.

  19. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  20. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  1. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  2. Two-dimensional QCD in the Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefed'ev, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Various aspects of the 't Hooft model for two-dimensional QCD in the limit of infinite number of colours in the Coulomb gauge are discussed. The properties of mesonic excitations are studied, with special emphasis on the pion. Attention is paid to the dual role of the pion. which, while a genuine qq-bar state, is a Goldstone boson of two-dimensional QCD as well. In particular, the validity of the soft-pion theorems is demonstrated. It is shown that the Coulomb gauge is the most suitable choice for the study of hadronic observables involving pions [ru

  3. Quantum Communication Through a Two-Dimensional Spin Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoming; Gu Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the state or entanglement transfer through a two-dimensional spin network. We show that for state transfer, better fidelity can be gained along the diagonal direction but for entanglement transfer, when the initial entanglement is created along the boundary, the concurrence is more inclined to propagate along the boundary. This behavior is produced by quantum mechanical interference and the communication quality depends on the precise size of the network. For some number of sites, the fidelity in a two-dimensional channel is higher than one-dimensional case. This is an important result for realizing quantum communication through high dimension spin chain networks.

  4. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  5. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, P T; Constantinides, A G [Signal Processing Section, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging. 7 refs, 2 figs.

  6. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Two-dimensional wavelet transform feature extraction for porous silicon chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, José S; Vergara, Alexander; Vargas-Olmos, Cecilia; Wong, Travis J; Fonollosa, Jordi; Huerta, Ramón

    2013-06-27

    Designing reliable, fast responding, highly sensitive, and low-power consuming chemo-sensory systems has long been a major goal in chemo-sensing. This goal, however, presents a difficult challenge because having a set of chemo-sensory detectors exhibiting all these aforementioned ideal conditions are still largely un-realizable to-date. This paper presents a unique perspective on capturing more in-depth insights into the physicochemical interactions of two distinct, selectively chemically modified porous silicon (pSi) film-based optical gas sensors by implementing an innovative, based on signal processing methodology, namely the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Specifically, the method consists of using the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform as a feature extraction method to capture the non-stationary behavior from the bi-dimensional pSi rugate sensor response. Utilizing a comprehensive set of measurements collected from each of the aforementioned optically based chemical sensors, we evaluate the significance of our approach on a complex, six-dimensional chemical analyte discrimination/quantification task problem. Due to the bi-dimensional aspects naturally governing the optical sensor response to chemical analytes, our findings provide evidence that the proposed feature extractor strategy may be a valuable tool to deepen our understanding of the performance of optically based chemical sensors as well as an important step toward attaining their implementation in more realistic chemo-sensing applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Solution and Study of the Two-Dimensional Nodal Neutron Transport Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panta Pazos, Ruben; Biasotto Hauser, Eliete; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade Vilhena and coworkers reported an analytical solution to the two-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of the neutron transport equation in a convex domain. The key feature of these works was the application of the combined collocation method of the angular variable and nodal approach in the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the transverse integration of the SN equations. This procedure leads to a set of one-dimensional S N equations for the average angular fluxes in the variables x and y. These equations were solved by the old version of the LTS N method, which consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the set of nodal S N equations and solution of the resulting linear system by symbolic computation. It is important to recall that this procedure allow us to increase N the order of S N up to 16. To overcome this drawback we step forward performing a spectral painstaking analysis of the nodal S N equations for N up to 16 and we begin the convergence of the S N nodal equations defining an error for the angular flux and estimating the error in terms of the truncation error of the quadrature approximations of the integral term. Furthermore, we compare numerical results of this approach with those of other techniques used to solve the two-dimensional discrete approximations of the neutron transport equation. (authors)

  9. An analytical approach for a nodal scheme of two-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Cabrera, L.C.; Prolo Filho, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nodal equations for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem. → Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method. → Numerical results compared with the literature. - Abstract: In this work, a solution for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in cartesian geometry, is proposed, on the basis of nodal schemes. In this context, one-dimensional equations are generated by an integration process of the multidimensional problem. Here, the integration is performed for the whole domain such that no iterative procedure between nodes is needed. The ADO method is used to develop analytical discrete ordinates solution for the one-dimensional integrated equations, such that final solutions are analytical in terms of the spatial variables. The ADO approach along with a level symmetric quadrature scheme, lead to a significant order reduction of the associated eigenvalues problems. Relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown fluxes at the boundary are introduced as the usually needed, in nodal schemes, auxiliary equations. Numerical results are presented and compared with test problems.

  10. Discrete element analysis is a valid method for computing joint contact stress in the hip before and after acetabular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Kevin C; Thomas-Aitken, Holly D; Rudert, M James; Kern, Andrew M; Willey, Michael C; Anderson, Donald D; Goetz, Jessica E

    2018-01-23

    Evaluation of abnormalities in joint contact stress that develop after inaccurate reduction of an acetabular fracture may provide a potential means for predicting the risk of developing post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Discrete element analysis (DEA) is a computational technique for calculating intra-articular contact stress distributions in a fraction of the time required to obtain the same information using the more commonly employed finite element analysis technique. The goal of this work was to validate the accuracy of DEA-computed contact stress against physical measurements of contact stress made in cadaveric hips using Tekscan sensors. Four static loading tests in a variety of poses from heel-strike to toe-off were performed in two different cadaveric hip specimens with the acetabulum intact and again with an intentionally malreduced posterior wall acetabular fracture. DEA-computed contact stress was compared on a point-by-point basis to stress measured from the physical experiments. There was good agreement between computed and measured contact stress over the entire contact area (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.99). DEA-computed peak contact stress was within an average of 0.5 MPa (range 0.2-0.8 MPa) of the Tekscan peak stress for intact hips, and within an average of 0.6 MPa (range 0-1.6 MPa) for fractured cases. DEA-computed contact areas were within an average of 33% of the Tekscan-measured areas (range: 1.4-60%). These results indicate that the DEA methodology is a valid method for accurately estimating contact stress in both intact and fractured hips. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of light dynamic cone penetration test - Panda 3 ® in granular material by using 3D Discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Anh; Chevalier, Bastien; Benz, Miguel; Breul, Pierre; Gourvès, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The recent technological developments made on the light dynamic penetration test Panda 3 ® provide a dynamic load-penetration curve σp - sp for each impact. This curve is influenced by the mechanical and physical properties of the investigated granular media. In order to analyze and exploit the load-penetration curve, a numerical model of penetration test using 3D Discrete Element Method is proposed for reproducing tests in dynamic conditions in granular media. All parameters of impact used in this model have at first been calibrated by respecting mechanical and geometrical properties of the hammer and the rod. There is a good agreement between experimental results and the ones obtained from simulations in 2D or 3D. After creating a sample, we will simulate the Panda 3 ®. It is possible to measure directly the dynamic load-penetration curve occurring at the tip for each impact. Using the force and acceleration measured in the top part of the rod, it is possible to separate the incident and reflected waves and then calculate the tip's load-penetration curve. The load-penetration curve obtained is qualitatively similar with that obtained by experimental tests. In addition, the frequency analysis of the measured signals present also a good compliance with that measured in reality when the tip resistance is qualitatively similar.

  12. A discrete element method study on the evolution of thermomechanics of a pebble bed experiencing pebble failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lew, Jon T., E-mail: jtvanlew@fusion.ucla.edu; Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed

    2014-10-15

    The discrete element method (DEM) is used to study the thermal effects of pebble failure in an ensemble of lithium ceramic spheres. Some pebbles crushing in a large system is unavoidable and this study provides correlations between the extent of pebble failure and the reduction in effective thermal conductivity of the bed. In the model, we homogeneously induced failure and applied nuclear heating until dynamic and thermal steady-state. Conduction between pebbles and from pebbles to the boundary is the only mode of heat transfer presently modeled. The effective thermal conductivity was found to decrease rapidly as a function of the percent of failed pebbles in the bed. It was found that the dominant contributor to the reduction was the drop in inter-particle forces as pebbles fail; implying the extent of failure induced may not occur in real pebble beds. The results are meant to assist designers in the fusion energy community who are planning to use packed beds of ceramic pebbles. The evolution away from experimentally measured thermomechanical properties as pebbles fail is necessary for proper operation of fusion reactors.

  13. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM) Study of Mass-Transfer Mechanisms in Riser Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Varas, Álvaro E; Peters, E A J F; Kuipers, J A M

    2017-05-17

    We report a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulation study on the interplay between mass transfer and a heterogeneous catalyzed chemical reaction in cocurrent gas-particle flows as encountered in risers. Slip velocity, axial gas dispersion, gas bypassing, and particle mixing phenomena have been evaluated under riser flow conditions to study the complex system behavior in detail. The most important factors are found to be directly related to particle cluster formation. Low air-to-solids flux ratios lead to more heterogeneous systems, where the cluster formation is more pronounced and mass transfer more influenced. Falling clusters can be partially circumvented by the gas phase, which therefore does not fully interact with the cluster particles, leading to poor gas-solid contact efficiencies. Cluster gas-solid contact efficiencies are quantified at several gas superficial velocities, reaction rates, and dilution factors in order to gain more insight regarding the influence of clustering phenomena on the performance of riser reactors.

  15. Wave-induced stress and breaking of sea ice in a coupled hydrodynamic discrete-element wave-ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Agnieszka

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a coupled sea ice-wave model is developed and used to analyze wave-induced stress and breaking in sea ice for a range of wave and ice conditions. The sea ice module is a discrete-element bonded-particle model, in which ice is represented as cuboid grains floating on the water surface that can be connected to their neighbors by elastic joints. The joints may break if instantaneous stresses acting on them exceed their strength. The wave module is based on an open-source version of the Non-Hydrostatic WAVE model (NHWAVE). The two modules are coupled with proper boundary conditions for pressure and velocity, exchanged at every wave model time step. In the present version, the model operates in two dimensions (one vertical and one horizontal) and is suitable for simulating compact ice in which heave and pitch motion dominates over surge. In a series of simulations with varying sea ice properties and incoming wavelength it is shown that wave-induced stress reaches maximum values at a certain distance from the ice edge. The value of maximum stress depends on both ice properties and characteristics of incoming waves, but, crucially for ice breaking, the location at which the maximum occurs does not change with the incoming wavelength. Consequently, both regular and random (Jonswap spectrum) waves break the ice into floes with almost identical sizes. The width of the zone of broken ice depends on ice strength and wave attenuation rates in the ice.

  16. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  17. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  18. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  19. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ¿-¿, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of

  20. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...