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Sample records for two-dimensional arrays parallel

  1. Two dimensional CCD [charged coupled device] arrays as parallel detectors in electron energy loss and x-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1988-08-01

    Parallel detection systems for spectroscopy have generally been based upon linear detector arrays. Replacing the linear arrays with two dimensional systems yields more complicated devices; however, there are corresponding benefits which can be realized for both x-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The operational design of these systems, as well as preliminary results from the construction of such a device used for electron spectroscopy, are presented. 10 refs., 8 figs

  2. Two-dimensional parallel array technology as a new approach to automated combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan; Biddison; Frauendorf; Schwarcz; Keen; Ecker; Davis; Tinder; Swayze

    1998-01-01

    An automated, 96-well parallel array synthesizer for solid-phase organic synthesis has been designed and constructed. The instrument employs a unique reagent array delivery format, in which each reagent utilized has a dedicated plumbing system. An inert atmosphere is maintained during all phases of a synthesis, and temperature can be controlled via a thermal transfer plate which holds the injection molded reaction block. The reaction plate assembly slides in the X-axis direction, while eight nozzle blocks holding the reagent lines slide in the Y-axis direction, allowing for the extremely rapid delivery of any of 64 reagents to 96 wells. In addition, there are six banks of fixed nozzle blocks, which deliver the same reagent or solvent to eight wells at once, for a total of 72 possible reagents. The instrument is controlled by software which allows the straightforward programming of the synthesis of a larger number of compounds. This is accomplished by supplying a general synthetic procedure in the form of a command file, which calls upon certain reagents to be added to specific wells via lookup in a sequence file. The bottle position, flow rate, and concentration of each reagent is stored in a separate reagent table file. To demonstrate the utility of the parallel array synthesizer, a small combinatorial library of hydroxamic acids was prepared in high throughput mode for biological screening. Approximately 1300 compounds were prepared on a 10 μmole scale (3-5 mg) in a few weeks. The resulting crude compounds were generally >80% pure, and were utilized directly for high throughput screening in antibacterial assays. Several active wells were found, and the activity was verified by solution-phase synthesis of analytically pure material, indicating that the system described herein is an efficient means for the parallel synthesis of compounds for lead discovery. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  4. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  5. Parallel processing of two-dimensional Sn transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, M.

    1997-01-01

    A parallel processing method for the two-dimensional S n transport code DOT3.5 has been developed to achieve a drastic reduction in computation time. In the proposed method, parallelization is achieved with angular domain decomposition and/or space domain decomposition. The calculational speed of parallel processing by angular domain decomposition is largely influenced by frequent communications between processing elements. To assess parallelization efficiency, sample problems with up to 32 x 32 spatial meshes were solved with a Sun workstation using the PVM message-passing library. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements, for example, was found to be nine times as fast as that with one processing element. As for parallel processing by geometry segmentation, the influence of processing element communications on computation time is small; however, discontinuity at the segment boundary degrades convergence speed. To accelerate the convergence, an alternate sweep of angular flux in conjunction with space domain decomposition and a two-step rescaling method consisting of segmentwise rescaling and ordinary pointwise rescaling have been developed. By applying the developed method, the number of iterations needed to obtain a converged flux solution was reduced by a factor of 2. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements was found to be 5.98 times as fast as the original DOT3.5 calculation

  6. Tunneling between parallel two-dimensional electron liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    361/362, - (1996), s. 167-170 ISSN 0039-6028. [International Conference on the Electronic Properties of Two Dimensional Systems /11./. Nottingham, 07.08.1995-11.08.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/94/1278 Grant - others:INT(XX) 9106888 Impact factor: 2.783, year: 1996

  7. Large Scale Parallel DNA Detection by Two-Dimensional Solid-State Multipore Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Nagendra Bala Murali; Sarathy, Aditya; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-23

    We describe a scalable device design of a dense array of multiple nanopores made from nanoscale semiconductor materials to detect and identify translocations of many biomolecules in a massively parallel detection scheme. We use molecular dynamics coupled to nanoscale device simulations to illustrate the ability of this device setup to uniquely identify DNA parallel translocations. We show that the transverse sheet currents along membranes are immune to the crosstalk effects arising from simultaneous translocations of biomolecules through multiple pores, due to their ability to sense only the local potential changes. We also show that electronic sensing across the nanopore membrane offers a higher detection resolution compared to ionic current blocking technique in a multipore setup, irrespective of the irregularities that occur while fabricating the nanopores in a two-dimensional membrane.

  8. Type Synthesis of Parallel Mechanisms with the First Class GF Sets and Two-Dimensional Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialun Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel design of parallel mechanisms plays a key role in the potential application of parallel mechanisms. In this paper, the type synthesis of parallel mechanisms with the first class GF sets and two-dimensional rotations is studied. The rule of two-dimensional rotations is given, which lays the theoretical foundation for the intersection operations of specific GF sets. Next, kinematic limbs with specific characteristics are designed according to the 2-D and 3-D axes movement theorems. Finally, several synthesized parallel mechanisms with the first class GF sets and two-dimensional rotations are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  9. Use of a two-dimensional ionization chamber array for proton therapy beam quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Ding Xiaoning; Gillin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional ion chamber arrays are primarily used for conventional and intensity modulated radiotherapy quality assurance. There is no commercial device of such type available on the market that is offered for proton therapy quality assurance. We have investigated suitability of the MatriXX, a commercial two-dimensional ion chamber array detector for proton therapy QA. This device is designed to be used for photon and electron therapy QA. The device is equipped with 32x32 parallel plate ion chambers, each with 4.5 mm diam and 7.62 mm center-to-center separation. A 250 MeV proton beam was used to calibrate the dose measured by this device. The water equivalent thickness of the buildup material was determined to be 3.9 mm using a 160 MeV proton beam. Proton beams of different energies were used to measure the reproducibility of dose output and to evaluate the consistency in the beam flatness and symmetry measured by MatriXX. The output measurement results were compared with the clinical commissioning beam data that were obtained using a 0.6 cc Farmer chamber. The agreement was consistently found to be within 1%. The profiles were compared with film dosimetry and also with ion chamber data in water with an excellent agreement. The device is found to be well suited for quality assurance of proton therapy beams. It provides fast two-dimensional dose distribution information in real time with the accuracy comparable to that of ion chamber measurements and film dosimetry

  10. Parallel Factor-Based Model for Two-Dimensional Direction Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Tayem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D Direction-of-Arrivals (DOA estimation for elevation and azimuth angles assuming noncoherent, mixture of coherent and noncoherent, and coherent sources using extended three parallel uniform linear arrays (ULAs is proposed. Most of the existing schemes have drawbacks in estimating 2D DOA for multiple narrowband incident sources as follows: use of large number of snapshots, estimation failure problem for elevation and azimuth angles in the range of typical mobile communication, and estimation of coherent sources. Moreover, the DOA estimation for multiple sources requires complex pair-matching methods. The algorithm proposed in this paper is based on first-order data matrix to overcome these problems. The main contributions of the proposed method are as follows: (1 it avoids estimation failure problem using a new antenna configuration and estimates elevation and azimuth angles for coherent sources; (2 it reduces the estimation complexity by constructing Toeplitz data matrices, which are based on a single or few snapshots; (3 it derives parallel factor (PARAFAC model to avoid pair-matching problems between multiple sources. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Field computation for two-dimensional array transducers with limited diffraction array beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Jiqi

    2005-10-01

    A method is developed for calculating fields produced with a two-dimensional (2D) array transducer. This method decomposes an arbitrary 2D aperture weighting function into a set of limited diffraction array beams. Using the analytical expressions of limited diffraction beams, arbitrary continuous wave (cw) or pulse wave (pw) fields of 2D arrays can be obtained with a simple superposition of these beams. In addition, this method can be simplified and applied to a 1D array transducer of a finite or infinite elevation height. For beams produced with axially symmetric aperture weighting functions, this method can be reduced to the Fourier-Bessel method studied previously where an annular array transducer can be used. The advantage of the method is that it is accurate and computationally efficient, especially in regions that are not far from the surface of the transducer (near field), where it is important for medical imaging. Both computer simulations and a synthetic array experiment are carried out to verify the method. Results (Bessel beam, focused Gaussian beam, X wave and asymmetric array beams) show that the method is accurate as compared to that using the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula and agrees well with the experiment.

  12. Efficient processing of two-dimensional arrays with C or C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-20

    Because fast and efficient serial processing of raster-graphic images and other two-dimensional arrays is a requirement in land-change modeling and other applications, the effects of 10 factors on the runtimes for processing two-dimensional arrays with C and C++ are evaluated in a comparative factorial study. This study’s factors include the choice among three C or C++ source-code techniques for array processing; the choice of Microsoft Windows 7 or a Linux operating system; the choice of 4-byte or 8-byte array elements and indexes; and the choice of 32-bit or 64-bit memory addressing. This study demonstrates how programmer choices can reduce runtimes by 75 percent or more, even after compiler optimizations. Ten points of practical advice for faster processing of two-dimensional arrays are offered to C and C++ programmers. Further study and the development of a C and C++ software test suite are recommended.Key words: array processing, C, C++, compiler, computational speed, land-change modeling, raster-graphic image, two-dimensional array, software efficiency

  13. Metallic and highly conducting two-dimensional atomic arrays of sulfur enabled by molybdenum disulfide nanotemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuze; Geng, Xiumei; Han, Yang; Benamara, Mourad; Chen, Liao; Li, Jingxiao; Bilgin, Ismail; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-10-01

    Element sulfur in nature is an insulating solid. While it has been tested that one-dimensional sulfur chain is metallic and conducting, the investigation on two-dimensional sulfur remains elusive. We report that molybdenum disulfide layers are able to serve as the nanotemplate to facilitate the formation of two-dimensional sulfur. Density functional theory calculations suggest that confined in-between layers of molybdenum disulfide, sulfur atoms are able to form two-dimensional triangular arrays that are highly metallic. As a result, these arrays contribute to the high conductivity and metallic phase of the hybrid structures of molybdenum disulfide layers and two-dimensional sulfur arrays. The experimentally measured conductivity of such hybrid structures reaches up to 223 S/m. Multiple experimental results, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transition electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), agree with the computational insights. Due to the excellent conductivity, the current density is linearly proportional to the scan rate until 30,000 mV s-1 without the attendance of conductive additives. Using such hybrid structures as electrode, the two-electrode supercapacitor cells yield a power density of 106 Wh kg-1 and energy density 47.5 Wh kg-1 in ionic liquid electrolytes. Our findings offer new insights into using two-dimensional materials and their Van der Waals heterostructures as nanotemplates to pattern foreign atoms for unprecedented material properties.

  14. Two-dimensional beam-profile monitor using the Reticon MC510A array camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, B.

    1981-08-01

    A quantitative two-dimensional beam profile may be obtained from a scintillator viewed by a Reticon camera which uses a 32 x 32 array of photodiodes as its sensing element. In this note, CAMAC-oriented data acquisition electronics which allow one either to transmit the profile to a computer, or to use the monitor in a stand-alone mode are described

  15. Effect of cross-type bias in a two-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effect of cross-type bias on two-dimensional arrays of short Josephson junctions. We have demonstrated that, for the simplest circuit, this type of bias is able to phase lock the junctions yielding a substantial improvement over ordinary biasing schemes. (C) 1998...

  16. Resistive transition in two-dimensional array of proximity-coupled superconducting weak links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Yu Zheng; Wei Wang; Yao Xi-xian

    1988-01-01

    The Kosterlitz Thouless transition in two-dimensional arrays of proximity-coupled superconducting weak links has been studied in this paper. The samples were prepared by application of the vacuum-evaporation/photoengraving/chemical-etching technique. The experimental results of measurements on some samples of array film showed the existence of the K-T transition in these samples and were consistent with the theory of Lobb, Abraham, and Tinkham

  17. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  18. A parallel algorithm for the two-dimensional time fractional diffusion equation with implicit difference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Bao, Weimin; Tang, Guojian; Jiang, Yuewen; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    It is very time consuming to solve fractional differential equations. The computational complexity of two-dimensional fractional differential equation (2D-TFDE) with iterative implicit finite difference method is O(M(x)M(y)N(2)). In this paper, we present a parallel algorithm for 2D-TFDE and give an in-depth discussion about this algorithm. A task distribution model and data layout with virtual boundary are designed for this parallel algorithm. The experimental results show that the parallel algorithm compares well with the exact solution. The parallel algorithm on single Intel Xeon X5540 CPU runs 3.16-4.17 times faster than the serial algorithm on single CPU core. The parallel efficiency of 81 processes is up to 88.24% compared with 9 processes on a distributed memory cluster system. We do think that the parallel computing technology will become a very basic method for the computational intensive fractional applications in the near future.

  19. Two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays. A platform for molecular optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Markus Andreas

    2011-11-15

    In my research, I study the optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional, hexagonal gold nanoparticle arrays formed by self-assembly. When the nanoparticle arrays are embedded in a matrix of alkane thiols, the photoresponse is dominated by a bolometric conductance increase. At room temperature, I observe a strong enhancement of the bolometric photoconductance when the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles is excited. At cryogenic temperatures, the bolometric conductance enhancement leads to a redistribution of the potential landscape which dominates the optoelectronic response of the nanoparticle arrays. When optically active oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) molecules are covalently bound to the nanoparticles, an increased photoconductance due to the resonant excitation of the OPV is observed. The results suggest that the charge carriers, which are resonantly excited in the OPV molecules, directly contribute to the current flow through the nanoparticle arrays. Thus, the conductance of OPV in its excited state is measured in the presented experiments. (orig.)

  20. Efficient coherent beam combination of two-dimensional phase-locked laser arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bing; Yan, Aimin; Liu, Liren; Dai, Enwen; Sun, Jianfeng; Shen, Baoliang; Lv, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yapeng

    2011-01-01

    An efficient technique in which a two-dimensional (2D) phase-locked laser array can be coherently combined into a high power and high quality beam by using a conjugate Dammann grating (CDG) is presented. A theoretical model is established to provide a physical interpretation of the proposed scheme. Using this technique, we investigate analytically and numerically the coherent combination of 2D laser arrays such as 5 × 5 and 32 × 32 arrangements. Far-field distributions and the near-field pattern of the combined beam are calculated and compared with experimental results. A verification experiment with a simulated 5 × 5 2D laser array using an aperture mask has been performed. Calculations and experimental results show that the proposed technique in this paper is an efficient coherent beam combination method to obtain a high power and high quality beam from laser arrays

  1. Parallel Implementation of Triangular Cellular Automata for Computing Two-Dimensional Elastodynamic Response on Arbitrary Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Michael J.; Springer, Adam C.

    In this research we report parallel implementation of a Cellular Automata-based simulation tool for computing elastodynamic response on complex, two-dimensional domains. Elastodynamic simulation using Cellular Automata (CA) has recently been presented as an alternative, inherently object-oriented technique for accurately and efficiently computing linear and nonlinear wave propagation in arbitrarily-shaped geometries. The local, autonomous nature of the method should lead to straight-forward and efficient parallelization. We address this notion on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) hardware using a Java-based object-oriented CA code implementing triangular state machines (i.e., automata) and the MPI bindings written in Java (MPJ Express). We use MPJ Express to reconfigure our existing CA code to distribute a domain's automata to cores present on a dual quad-core shared-memory system (eight total processors). We note that this message passing parallelization strategy is directly applicable to computer clustered computing, which will be the focus of follow-on research. Results on the shared memory platform indicate nearly-ideal, linear speed-up. We conclude that the CA-based elastodynamic simulator is easily configured to run in parallel, and yields excellent speed-up on SMP hardware.

  2. Two-dimensional photonic crystal arrays for polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Han, Jiyoung; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Hwajeong; Yim, Sanggyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2011-11-18

    We report the application of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) array substrates for polymer:fullerene solar cells of which the active layer is made with blended films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The 2D PC array substrates were fabricated by employing a nanosphere lithography technique. Two different hole depths (200 and 300 nm) were introduced for the 2D PC arrays to examine the hole depth effect on the light harvesting (trapping). The optical effect by the 2D PC arrays was investigated by the measurement of optical transmittance either in the direction normal to the substrate (direct transmittance) or in all directions (integrated transmittance). The results showed that the integrated transmittance was higher for the 2D PC array substrates than the conventional planar substrate at the wavelengths of ca. 400 nm, even though the direct transmittance of 2D PC array substrates was much lower over the entire visible light range. The short circuit current density (J(SC)) was higher for the device with the 2D PC array (200 nm hole depth) than the reference device. However, the device with the 2D PC array (300 nm hole depth) showed a slightly lower J(SC) value at a high light intensity in spite of its light harvesting effect proven at a lower light intensity.

  3. Development of a Two-Dimensional Array of Individually Addressable Micro-Mirrors for NGST Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S. B.; Mott, D. B.; Allen, C. A.; Ewin, A. J.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Kotecki, C. A.; Kuhn, J. L.; MacKenty, J. W.

    2000-05-01

    NASA's missions of the 21st century will use small, low cost, efficient instruments for Earth and Space Science studies. Development of technologies that accommodate these requirements is essential for space applications. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology development for sensors and actuators plays a major role in this effort. We are developing a two dimensional array of individually addressable, cryogenic micro-mirrors, a MEMS based component, specifically for application in the Multi Object Spectrometer (MOS) in NGST. Two-dimensional, individually addressable and tiltable aluminum micro-mirror-arrays (MMA) have been developed and prototype arrays of different sizes have been fabricated in the Detector Development Laboratory of NASA, GSFC. Each micro-mirror of the array has 100micronx100micron pixel size and is capable of tilting +/- 10 degrees by electrostatic actuation. We have completed extensive analytical studies and performed laboratory tests to compare model predictions with actual performance of a 3x3 array. The mirrors have been tested to operate at cryogenic temperature. Recently we have completed the integration of a CMOS based address and driver circuit for the MMA with its mechanical structure. Our goal is to extend the development to a 1024x1024 array, primarily for NGST and also for other imaging and spectroscopy applications. For NGST MOS, MMAs will be used as a reflective slit-mask at a focal plane of the spectrometer providing a large field of view together with diffraction limited angular resolution for a grating spectrometer. Selected areas of the mirror-array will be tilted to select portions of the scene so that observation of up to 1000 simultaneous spectra of sparse targets will be possible. This provides a factor of 100 improvement in observing speed over conventional spectrometers. Details of the technology development along with its application to NGST will be discussed. This work is supported by the GSFC Director

  4. Functional Parallel Factor Analysis for Functions of One- and Two-dimensional Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2018-03-01

    Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is a useful multivariate method for decomposing three-way data that consist of three different types of entities simultaneously. This method estimates trilinear components, each of which is a low-dimensional representation of a set of entities, often called a mode, to explain the maximum variance of the data. Functional PARAFAC permits the entities in different modes to be smooth functions or curves, varying over a continuum, rather than a collection of unconnected responses. The existing functional PARAFAC methods handle functions of a one-dimensional argument (e.g., time) only. In this paper, we propose a new extension of functional PARAFAC for handling three-way data whose responses are sequenced along both a two-dimensional domain (e.g., a plane with x- and y-axis coordinates) and a one-dimensional argument. Technically, the proposed method combines PARAFAC with basis function expansion approximations, using a set of piecewise quadratic finite element basis functions for estimating two-dimensional smooth functions and a set of one-dimensional basis functions for estimating one-dimensional smooth functions. In a simulation study, the proposed method appeared to outperform the conventional PARAFAC. We apply the method to EEG data to demonstrate its empirical usefulness.

  5. Magnetoresistance in two-dimensional array of Ge/Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepina, N. P.; Koptev, E. S.; Pogosov, A. G.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Zhdanov, E. Yu

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoresistance in two-dimensional array of Ge/Si was studied for a wide range of the conductance, where the transport regime changes from hopping to diffusive one. The behavior of magnetoresistance is similar for all samples; it is negative in weak fields and becomes positive with increasing of magnetic field. Negative magnetoresistance can be described in the frame of weak localization approach with suggestion that quantum interference contribution to the conductance is restricted not only by the phase breaking length but also by the localization length.

  6. Magnetoresistance in two-dimensional array of Ge/Si quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N P; Koptev, E S; Pogosov, A G; Dvurechenskii, A V; Nikiforov, A I; Zhdanov, E Yu

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoresistance in two-dimensional array of Ge/Si was studied for a wide range of the conductance, where the transport regime changes from hopping to diffusive one. The behavior of magnetoresistance is similar for all samples; it is negative in weak fields and becomes positive with increasing of magnetic field. Negative magnetoresistance can be described in the frame of weak localization approach with suggestion that quantum interference contribution to the conductance is restricted not only by the phase breaking length but also by the localization length.

  7. Vortex dynamics in two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays with asymmetrically bimodulated potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Chen, Qing-Hu; Zhou, Wei

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of resistively-shunted junction dynamics, we study vortex dynamics in two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays with asymmetrically single and bimodulated periodic pinning potential for the full range of vortex density f. The ratchet effect occurring at a certain range of temperature, current, and f, is observed in our simulation. We explain the microscopic behavior behind this effect by analyzing the vortex distribution and interaction. The reversal of the ratchet effect can be observed at several f values for a small driven current. This effect is stronger when the asymmetric potential is simultaneously introduced in two directions. -- Highlights: ► The ratchet effect in Josephson junction arrays strongly depends on vortex density. ► The reversed ratchet effect can be observed at several f for a small current. ► The interaction between vortices can explain the reversed ratchet effect. ► The ratchet effect is enhanced by injecting the bimodulated asymmetric potential.

  8. General Voltage Feedback Circuit Model in the Two-Dimensional Networked Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the feature of the two-dimensional networked resistive sensor array, we firstly proposed a general model of voltage feedback circuits (VFCs such as the voltage feedback non-scanned-electrode circuit, the voltage feedback non-scanned-sampling-electrode circuit, and the voltage feedback non-scanned-sampling-electrode circuit. By analyzing the general model, we then gave a general mathematical expression of the effective equivalent resistor of the element being tested in VFCs. Finally, we evaluated the features of VFCs with simulation and test experiment. The results show that the expression is applicable to analyze the VFCs’ performance of parameters such as the multiplexers’ switch resistors, the nonscanned elements, and array size.

  9. Parallelism and array processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern computing, as well as the historical development of computing, has been dominated by sequential monoprocessing. Yet there is the alternative of parallelism, where several processes may be in concurrent execution. This alternative is discussed in a series of lectures, in which the main developments involving parallelism are considered, both from the standpoint of computing systems and that of applications that can exploit such systems. The lectures seek to discuss parallelism in a historical context, and to identify all the main aspects of concurrency in computation right up to the present time. Included will be consideration of the important question as to what use parallelism might be in the field of data processing. (orig.)

  10. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Qi; Li, Jian-Qing; Song, Ai-Guo

    2016-12-06

    With one operational amplifier (op-amp) in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements' bypass currents, which were injected into array's non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT) with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC) was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT's measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  11. Graph Grammar-Based Multi-Frontal Parallel Direct Solver for Two-Dimensional Isogeometric Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kuźnik, Krzysztof

    2012-06-02

    This paper introduces the graph grammar based model for developing multi-thread multi-frontal parallel direct solver for two dimensional isogeometric finite element method. Execution of the solver algorithm has been expressed as the sequence of graph grammar productions. At the beginning productions construct the elimination tree with leaves corresponding to finite elements. Following sequence of graph grammar productions generates element frontal matri-ces at leaf nodes, merges matrices at parent nodes and eliminates rows corresponding to fully assembled degrees of freedom. Finally, there are graph grammar productions responsible for root problem solution and recursive backward substitutions. Expressing the solver algorithm by graph grammar productions allows us to explore the concurrency of the algorithm. The graph grammar productions are grouped into sets of independent tasks that can be executed concurrently. The resulting concurrent multi-frontal solver algorithm is implemented and tested on NVIDIA GPU, providing O(NlogN) execution time complexity where N is the number of degrees of freedom. We have confirmed this complexity by solving up to 1 million of degrees of freedom with 448 cores GPU.

  12. Specific patient verification of IMRT plans using two-dimensional array of ionization chambers.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Zayas, Michael; Perez Guevara, Adrian; Reyes Gonzalez, Tommy; Gonzalez Perez, Yelina; Sola Rodriguez, Yeline; Caballero, Roberto; Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Castro Crespo, Diosdado

    2009-01-01

    The most common procedures to validate treatments with IMRT combine planning and administration which introduces the specific patient approach. IMRT is being introduced in Cuba, so it is a study to use as verification for each IMRT treatment plan with the collapsed beam method (Collapsed beams). We present three case studies to look at different situations and presentation of data. The treatment beam and collapsed obtained with an Elekta Precise linear accelerator and TPS PrecisePLAN respectively. The system used to measure a two-dimensional array of ionization chambers and VeriSoft system, both of the firm PTW. Dummy is used as solid sheets of water. The dose difference is evaluated using the gamma index applied to dose map resulting of the comparison between measured and simulated projections. Also the dose absolute is measured using a cylindrical chamber with United electrometer, which is compare with the results of the TPS. In the cases studied are shown along two perpendicular profiles. Tolerance is taken as the gamma index (5%, 5 mm). The method of collapsed beams under two- dimensional beam ionization chambers has been accepted for verification of IMRT treatments at the Radiotherapy Service of the Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras. (Author)

  13. Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Rogier, Hendrik; Baets, Roel

    2010-06-21

    Optical wireless links can offer a very large bandwidth and can act as a complementary technology to radiofrequency links. Optical components nowadays are however rather bulky. Therefore, we have investigated the potential of silicon photonics to fabricated integrated components for wireless optical communication. This paper presents a two-dimensional phased array antenna consisting of grating couplers that couple light off-chip. Wavelength steering of $0.24 degrees /nm is presented reducing the need of active phase modulators. The needed steering range is $1.5 degrees . The 3dB angular coverage range of these antennas is about $0.007pi sr with a directivity of more than 38dBi and antenna losses smaller than 3dB.

  14. The Role of Oleic Acid: From Synthesis to Assembly of Perovskite Nanocuboid Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Linhua; Wang, Chuandao; Kennedy, Robert M.; Marks, Laurence D.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2014-08-25

    Oleic acid, an 18-carbon chain fatty acid, has been widely used as a surfactant to fabricate colloidal nanocrystals. In previous work, we discovered a lamellar microemulsion strategy to fabricate sub-20 nm SrTiO3 nanocuboids using oleic acid and oleate species. Here, we demonstrate (i) the general synthesis with lamellar microemulsions of a family of compositionally varied BaxSr1–xTiO3 crystalline nanocuboids with uniform size, and (ii) subsequent assembly into two-dimensional arrays by nanoparticle-bound oleate in a nonpolar solvent. The measured interparticle distance (2.4 nm) of adjacent nanoparticles in an array is less than the length of a double oleate layer (~4 nm). On the basis of calculations of the interfacial free energy, we propose the hydrophobic, hydrocarbon-terminated groups of oleate from adjacent nanocuboids are situated closely but do not overlap. Lower aspect ratio nanocuboids are bordered by four adjacent nanocuboids which results in a uniform direction self-assembly array, whereas higher aspect ratio nanocuboids are bordered by five or six adjacent nanocuboids and can develop an arced local coordination.

  15. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With one operational amplifier (op-amp in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements’ bypass currents, which were injected into array’s non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT’s measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  16. Nonlinear viscous vortex motion in two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Tiesinga, P.H.E.; van Himbergen, J.E.; Jose, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    When a vortex in a two-dimensional Josephson-junction array is driven by a constant external current it may move as a particle in a viscous medium. Here we study the nature of this viscous motion. We model the junctions in a square array as resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junctions and carry out numerical calculations of the current-voltage characteristics. We find that the current-voltage characteristics in the damped regime are well described by a model with a nonlinear viscous force of the form F D =η(y)y=[A/(1+By]y, where y is the vortex velocity, η(y) is the velocity-dependent viscosity, and A and B are constants for a fixed value of the Stewart-McCumber parameter. This result is found to apply also for triangular lattices in the overdamped regime. Further qualitative understanding of the nature of the nonlinear friction on the vortex motion is obtained from a graphic analysis of the microscopic vortex dynamics in the array. The consequences of having this type of nonlinear friction law are discussed and compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies

  17. Two-dimensional systolic-array architecture for pixel-level vision tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, Julien A.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents ongoing work on the design of a two-dimensional (2D) systolic array for image processing. This component is designed to operate on a multi-processor system-on-chip. In contrast with other 2D systolic-array architectures and many other hardware accelerators, we investigate the applicability of executing multiple tasks in a time-interleaved fashion on the Systolic Array (SA). This leads to a lower external memory bandwidth and better load balancing of the tasks on the different processing tiles. To enable the interleaving of tasks, we add a shadow-state register for fast task switching. To reduce the number of accesses to the external memory, we propose to share the communication assist between consecutive tasks. A preliminary, non-functional version of the SA has been synthesized for an XV4S25 FPGA device and yields a maximum clock frequency of 150 MHz requiring 1,447 slices and 5 memory blocks. Mapping tasks from video content-analysis applications from literature on the SA yields reductions in the execution time of 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to the software implementation. We conclude that the choice for an SA architecture is useful, but a scaled version of the SA featuring less logic with fewer processing and pipeline stages yielding a lower clock frequency, would be sufficient for a video analysis system-on-chip.

  18. The inaccuracy of conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuit model for two-dimensional composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Hsiao, M.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lin, K.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is to show that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite walls should not be solved by the conventionally one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because the interface temperatures are not unique. Thus PTRC model cannot be used like its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model which has the unique node electric voltage. Two typical composite wall examples, solved by CFD software, are used to demonstrate the incorrectness. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by PTRC model, and very large differences are observed between their results. This proves that the application of conventional heat transfer PTRC model to two-dimensional composite walls, introduced in most heat transfer text book, is totally incorrect. An alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional composite walls with isothermal boundaries. Results with acceptable accuracy can be obtained by the new model

  19. Incorrectness of conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuit model for two-dimensional circular composite pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Chen, W.-L.; Yu, S.-J.

    2008-01-01

    This study is to prove that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite circular pipes cannot be appropriately solved by the conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because its interface temperatures are not unique. Thus, the PTRC model is definitely different from its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model, which has unique node electric voltages. Two typical composite circular pipe examples are solved by CFD software, and the numerical results are compared with those obtained by the PTRC model. This shows that the PTRC model generates large error. Thus, this conventional model, introduced in most heat transfer text books, cannot be applied to two-dimensional composite circular pipes. On the contrary, an alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to a two-dimensional composite circular pipe with isothermal boundaries, and acceptable results are returned

  20. Dosimetric characterization of a commercial two-dimensional array detector; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de um detector matricial bidimensional comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gialluisi, Bruno L.; Santos, Gabriela R. dos; Sales, Camila P. de; Resende, Guilherme R.A.; Habitzreuter, Angela B.; Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: brunogialluisi@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    This paper investigates the dosimetric characteristics and performance of an array detector commercially available. The device is the I'mRT MatriXX® which is a two-dimensional detector array used in the verification of complex radiotherapy plans. It consists of 1,020 parallel plate ion chamber arranged in a 32x32 grid. Dose linearity was studied and its response was linear within the range of 5 to 1000 MU (R{sup 2} = 1). Dose rate dependence showed a maximum deviation of 0,62% comparatively with readings to 320 cGy/min. The detector stability was verified through repeated irradiations. Output factors matched well with measurements made with a Farmer chamber with an average deviation of 1,54%. The detector's effective point of measurement was determined and the inverse square law was also verified with a percentage deviation smaller than 3%. The results show that this detector can be used for quality control in IMRT thus reducing the time spent in the dosimetric verification of radiation fields. (author)

  1. Dosimetric characterization of a commercial two-dimensional array detector; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de um detector matricial bidimensional comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gialluisi, Bruno L.; Santos, Gabriela R. dos; Sales, Camila P. de; Resende, Guilherme R.A.; Habitzreuter, Angela B.; Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: brunogialluisi@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    This paper investigates the dosimetric characteristics and performance of an array detector commercially available. The device is the I'mRT MatriXX® which is a two-dimensional detector array used in the verification of complex radiotherapy plans. It consists of 1,020 parallel plate ion chamber arranged in a 32x32 grid. Dose linearity was studied and its response was linear within the range of 5 to 1000 MU (R{sup 2} = 1). Dose rate dependence showed a maximum deviation of 0,62% comparatively with readings to 320 cGy/min. The detector stability was verified through repeated irradiations. Output factors matched well with measurements made with a Farmer chamber with an average deviation of 1,54%. The detector's effective point of measurement was determined and the inverse square law was also verified with a percentage deviation smaller than 3%. The results show that this detector can be used for quality control in IMRT thus reducing the time spent in the dosimetric verification of radiation fields. (author)

  2. Metabolic profiling based on two-dimensional J-resolved 1H NMR data and parallel factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Nyberg, Nils T; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2011-01-01

    the intensity variances along the chemical shift axis are taken into account. Here, we describe the use of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) as a tool to preprocess a set of two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with the aim of keeping the J-coupling information intact. PARAFAC is a mathematical decomposition......-model was done automatically by evaluating amount of explained variance and core consistency values. Score plots showing the distribution of objects in relation to each other, and loading plots in the form of two-dimensional pseudo-spectra with the same appearance as the original J-resolved spectra...

  3. Parallel and Multivalued Logic by the Two-Dimensional Photon-Echo Response of a Rhodamine–DNA Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Implementing parallel and multivalued logic operations at the molecular scale has the potential to improve the miniaturization and efficiency of a new generation of nanoscale computing devices. Two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy is capable of resolving dynamical pathways on electronic and vibrational molecular states. We experimentally demonstrate the implementation of molecular decision trees, logic operations where all possible values of inputs are processed in parallel and the outputs are read simultaneously, by probing the laser-induced dynamics of populations and coherences in a rhodamine dye mounted on a short DNA duplex. The inputs are provided by the bilinear interactions between the molecule and the laser pulses, and the output values are read from the two-dimensional molecular response at specific frequencies. Our results highlights how ultrafast dynamics between multiple molecular states induced by light–matter interactions can be used as an advantage for performing complex logic operations in parallel, operations that are faster than electrical switching. PMID:25984269

  4. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  5. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A

    2016-09-22

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from 'top-down' patterning or 'bottom-up' self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system's optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel 'metamaterials', optimised for light reflection or harvesting.

  6. Theory and design of compact hybrid microphone arrays on two-dimensional planes for three-dimensional soundfield analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanchi; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Zhang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Soundfield analysis based on spherical harmonic decomposition has been widely used in various applications; however, a drawback is the three-dimensional geometry of the microphone arrays. In this paper, a method to design two-dimensional planar microphone arrays that are capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) spatial soundfields is proposed. Through the utilization of both omni-directional and first order microphones, the proposed microphone array is capable of measuring soundfield components that are undetectable to conventional planar omni-directional microphone arrays, thus providing the same functionality as 3D arrays designed for the same purpose. Simulations show that the accuracy of the planar microphone array is comparable to traditional spherical microphone arrays. Due to its compact shape, the proposed microphone array greatly increases the feasibility of 3D soundfield analysis techniques in real-world applications.

  7. Validation of dynamic MLC-controller log files using a two-dimensional diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jonathan G.; Dempsey, James F.; Ding Li; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with multi-leaf collimator (MLC) in the step-and-shoot mode uses multiple static MLC segments to achieve intensity modulation. For typical IMRT treatment plans, significant numbers of segments are delivered with monitor units (MUs) of much less than 10. Verification of the ability of the linear accelerator (linac) to deliver small MU segments accurately is an important step in the IMRT commissioning and quality assurance (QA) process. Recent studies have reported large discrepancies between the intended and delivered segment MUs. These discrepancies could potentially cause large errors in the delivered patient dose. We have undertaken a systematic study to evaluate the accuracy of the dynamic MLC log files, which are created automatically by our commercial MLC workstation after each delivery, in recording the fractional MU delivered in the step-and-shoot mode. Two linac models were evaluated with simple-geometry leaf sequences and delivered with different total MUs and different nominal dose rates. A commercial two-dimensional diode array was used for the measurement. Large discrepancies between the intended and delivered segment MUs were found. The discrepancies were larger for small MU segments at higher dose rate, with some small MU segments completely undelivered. The recorded fractional MUs in the log files were found to agree with what was delivered within the limits of our experimental uncertainty. Our results indicate that it is important to verify the delivery accuracy of small MU segments that could potentially occur in a patient treatment and that the log files are useful in checking the integrity of the linac delivery once validated. Thus validated log files can be used as a QA tool for general IMRT delivery and patient-specific plan verification

  8. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix

  9. Modelling of the thermal parameters of high-power linear laser-diode arrays. Two-dimensional transient model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezotosnyi, V V; Kumykov, Kh Kh

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional transient thermal model of an injection laser is developed. This model makes it possible to analyse the temperature profiles in pulsed and cw stripe lasers with an arbitrary width of the stripe contact, and also in linear laser-diode arrays. This can be done for any durations and repetition rates of the pump pulses. The model can also be applied to two-dimensional laser-diode arrays operating quasicontinuously. An analysis is reported of the influence of various structural parameters of a diode array on the thermal regime of a single laser. The temperature distributions along the cavity axis are investigated for different variants of mounting a crystal on a heat sink. It is found that the temperature drop along the cavity length in cw and quasi-cw laser diodes may exceed 20%. (lasers)

  10. Two-Dimensional Time-Domain Antenna Arrays for Optimum Steerable Energy Pattern with Low Side Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the synthesis of different two-dimensional time-domain antenna arrays for steerable energy patterns with side lobe levels. The research is focused on the uniform and nonuniform distributions of true-time exciting delays and positions of antenna elements. The uniform square array, random array, uniform concentric ring array, and rotated nonuniform concentric ring array geometries are particularly studied. These geometries are synthesized by using the well-known sequential quadratic programming. The synthesis regards the optimal true-time exciting delays and optimal positions of pulsed antenna elements. The results show the capabilities of the different antenna arrays to steer the beam in their energy pattern in time domain and how their performance is in frequency domain after the synthesis in time domain.

  11. A method of paralleling computer calculation for two-dimensional kinetic plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Demchenko, V.V.; Dem'yanov, V.G.; D'yakov, V.E.; Ol'shanskij, V.V.; Panchenko, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A method for parallel computer calculation and OSIRIS program complex realizing it and designed for numerical plasma simulation by the macroparticle method are described. The calculation can be carried out either with one or simultaneously with two computers BESM-6, that is provided by some package of interacting programs functioning in every computer. Program interaction in every computer is based on event techniques realized in OS DISPAK. Parallel computer calculation with two BESM-6 computers allows to accelerate the computation 1.5 times

  12. Functional Parallel Factor Analysis for Functions of One- and Two-dimensional Arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun; Timmerman, Marieke

    Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is a useful multivariate method for decomposing three-way data that consist of three different types of entities simultaneously. This method estimates trilinear components, each of which is a low-dimensional representation of a set of entities, often called a mode,

  13. A two-dimensional linear elasticity problem for anisotropic materials, solved with a parallelization code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Victor PRICOP

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical approach of static linear elasticity equations for anisotropic materials. The domain and boundary conditions are simple, to enhance an easy implementation of the finite difference scheme. SOR and gradient are used to solve the resulting linear system. The simplicity of the geometry is also useful for MPI parallelization of the code.

  14. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: Luomengbo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-10-30

    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  15. Parallel implementation of geometrical shock dynamics for two dimensional converging shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shi; Liu, Kuang; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-10-01

    Geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) theory is an appealing method to predict the shock motion in the sense that it is more computationally efficient than solving the traditional Euler equations, especially for converging shock waves. However, to solve and optimize large scale configurations, the main bottleneck is the computational cost. Among the existing numerical GSD schemes, there is only one that has been implemented on parallel computers, with the purpose to analyze detonation waves. To extend the computational advantage of the GSD theory to more general applications such as converging shock waves, a numerical implementation using a spatial decomposition method has been coupled with a front tracking approach on parallel computers. In addition, an efficient tridiagonal system solver for massively parallel computers has been applied to resolve the most expensive function in this implementation, resulting in an efficiency of 0.93 while using 32 HPCC cores. Moreover, symmetric boundary conditions have been developed to further reduce the computational cost, achieving a speedup of 19.26 for a 12-sided polygonal converging shock.

  16. Plasmonic black metals via radiation absorption by two-dimensional arrays of ultra-sharp convex grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Eriksen, René L.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic black surfaces formed by two-dimensional arrays of ultra-sharp convex metal grooves, in which the incident radiation is converted into gap surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs) and subsequently absorbed (via adiabatic nanofocusing), are fabricated and investigated experimentally for gold......%, averaged over the investigated wavelength range of 400-985 nm. The highest averaged absorption level (similar to 97%) is achieved with 250-nm-period arrays in palladium that also has the highest melting temperature(similar to 15526 degrees C), promising thereby potential applications for broadband...

  17. Analytic Approximate Solutions for Unsteady Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Squeezing Flows between Parallel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

  18. Two-dimensional evaluation of an ion plasma produced by pulsed lasers extracted by non-parallel collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdieh, M H; Gavili, A

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamics of ion extraction from quasi-neutral plasmas has been calculated numerically for non-parallel ion extractors, and the results compared with those for the parallel case. The ions were assumed to be initially uniform with a very steep density profile at the boundaries, and held between two non-parallel metal plates as cathode and anode with fixed potentials. Experimentally, tunable pulsed lasers through stepwise photo-excitation and photo-ionization or multi-photo-ionization processes can produce such plasma. Poisson's equation was solved simultaneously with the equations of mass and momentum, assuming the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for electrons. Ordinary Cartesian co-ordinates are not suitable for the rotated extractor geometry; therefore using the 'algebraic method' a transformation from the physical domain into the computational rectangular plane is applied for analysing the irregular boundaries. Such a technique provides adequate resolution for the boundary layer. Using a first-order explicit upwind differencing in an appropriate transformed Cartesian co-ordinate system, the hydrodynamics of the plasma ions between the two non-parallel electrodes was evaluated. In these calculations electric potential, ion density between the two electrodes, and the extraction time were assessed, considering three separate regions for the plasma, i.e. the ion sheath where (n i >>n e ∼0), the transition region (pre-sheath) (n i = n e ), and the quasi-neutral plasma (n i -n e i ). The results were compared with those for parallel electrodes. A significant discrepancy was found between the two results. From the calculation, the non-uniform asymmetric potential contour, and the ion density contour across the plasma, were obtained for the non-parallel electrodes. For comparison with the parallel extractors, we have also obtained almost the same extraction time for the non-parallel extractors

  19. Two-Dimensional Microdischarge Jet Array in Air: Characterization and Inactivation of Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gaurav

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPs) have proven to be quite effective for surface disinfection, wound healing and even cancer treatment in recent years. One of the major societal challenges faced today is related to illness caused by food-borne bacteria and viruses, particularly in minimally processed, fresh or ready-to-eat foods. Gastroenteritis outbreaks, caused, for example, by the human Norovirus (NV) is a growing concern. Current used technologies seem not to be fully effective. In this work we focus on a possible solution based on CAP technology for surface disinfection. Many discharge sources have been studied for disinfection and the two major challenges faced are the use of expensive noble gases (Ar/He) by many plasma sources and the difficulty to scale up the plasma devices. The efficacies of these devices also vary for different plasma sources, making it difficult to compare results from different research groups. Also, the interaction of plasma with the biological matter is not understood well, particularly for virus. In this work, a two-dimensional array of micro dielectric barrier discharge is used to treat Feline Calicivirus (FCV), which is a surrogate for human Norovirus. The plasma source can be operated with an air flow rate (up to 94 standard liters per minute or slm). The use of such discharge source also raises important scientific questions which are addressed in this work. These questions include the effect of gas flow rate on discharge properties and the production of reactive species responsible for virus inactivation and the underlying inactivation mechanism. The plasma source is characterized via several diagnostic techniques such as current voltage measurements for electrical characterization and power measurements, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to determine the gas temperature, cross-correlation spectroscopy (CCS) for microdischarge evolution and timescales, UV absorption spectroscopy to measure the O3 density, absolute IR

  20. Development of a new dynamic turbulent model, applications to two-dimensional and plane parallel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, Jean Philippe

    1999-01-01

    We developed a turbulent model based on asymptotic development of the Navier-Stokes equations within the hypothesis of non-local interactions at small scales. This model provides expressions of the turbulent Reynolds sub-grid stresses via estimates of the sub-grid velocities rather than velocities correlations as is usually done. The model involves the coupling of two dynamical equations: one for the resolved scales of motions, which depends upon the Reynolds stresses generated by the sub-grid motions, and one for the sub-grid scales of motions, which can be used to compute the sub-grid Reynolds stresses. The non-locality of interaction at sub-grid scales allows to model their evolution with a linear inhomogeneous equation where the forcing occurs via the energy cascade from resolved to sub-grid scales. This model was solved using a decomposition of sub-grid scales on Gabor's modes and implemented numerically in 2D with periodic boundary conditions. A particles method (PIC) was used to compute the sub-grid scales. The results were compared with results of direct simulations for several typical flows. The model was also applied to plane parallel flows. An analytical study of the equations allows a description of mean velocity profiles in agreement with experimental results and theoretical results based on the symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equation. Possible applications and improvements of the model are discussed in the conclusion. (author) [fr

  1. Interaction of a two-dimensional electromagnetic breather with an electron inhomogeneity in an array of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Fedorov, E. G.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2014-01-01

    Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through various nano-objects has recently became an attractive topic for both theoretical and experimental studies due to its promising perspectives in a variety of problems of modern nanoelectronics. Here, we study the propagation of extremely short two-dimensional bipolar electromagnetic pulses in a heterogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. Heterogeneity is defined as a region of enhanced electron density. The electromagnetic field in an array of nanotubes is described by Maxwell's equations, reduced to a multidimensional wave equation. Our numerical analysis shows the possibility of stable propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in a heterogeneous array of nanotubes. Furthermore, we establish that, depending on its speed of propagation, the pulse can pass through the area of increased electron concentration or be reflected therefrom.

  2. Accelerated two-dimensional cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance using compressed sensing and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Yang; Cai, Xiaoying; Auger, Daniel A; Meyer, Craig H; Salerno, Michael; Epstein, Frederick H

    2016-06-14

    Cine Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) provides accurate quantitative imaging of cardiac mechanics with rapid displacement and strain analysis; however, image acquisition times are relatively long. Compressed sensing (CS) with parallel imaging (PI) can generally provide high-quality images recovered from data sampled below the Nyquist rate. The purposes of the present study were to develop CS-PI-accelerated acquisition and reconstruction methods for cine DENSE, to assess their accuracy for cardiac imaging using retrospective undersampling, and to demonstrate their feasibility for prospectively-accelerated 2D cine DENSE imaging in a single breathhold. An accelerated cine DENSE sequence with variable-density spiral k-space sampling and golden angle rotations through time was implemented. A CS method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for the reconstruction of under-sampled multi-coil spiral data. Seven healthy volunteers and 7 patients underwent 2D cine DENSE imaging with fully-sampled acquisitions (14-26 heartbeats in duration) and with prospectively rate-2 and rate-4 accelerated acquisitions (14 and 8 heartbeats in duration). Retrospectively- and prospectively-accelerated data were reconstructed using BLOSM-SENSE and SENSE. Image quality of retrospectively-undersampled data was quantified using the relative root mean square error (rRMSE). Myocardial displacement and circumferential strain were computed for functional assessment, and linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accelerated acquisitions to fully-sampled reference datasets. For retrospectively-undersampled data, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or lower rRMSE at rate-2 and lower rRMSE at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE (p cine DENSE provided good image quality and expected values of displacement and strain. BLOSM-SENSE-accelerated spiral cine DENSE imaging with 2D displacement encoding can be

  3. Synergism of Dewetting and Self-Wrinkling To Create Two-Dimensional Ordered Arrays of Functional Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Hou, Jing; Xie, Jixun; Yin, Jian; Tong, Yi; Lu, Conghua; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-06-29

    Here we report a simple, novel, yet robust nonlithographic method for the controlled fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) ordered arrays of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres. It is based on the synergistic combination of two bottom-up processes enabling periodic structure formation for the first time: dewetting and the mechanical wrinkle formation. The deterministic dewetting results from the hydrophilic polymer PEG on an incompatible polystyrene (PS) film bound to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, which is directed both by a wrinkled template and by the template-directed in-situ self-wrinkling PS/PDMS substrate. Two strategies have been introduced to achieve synergism to enhance the 2-D ordering, i.e., employing 2-D in-situ self-wrinkling substrates and boundary conditions. As a result, we achieve highly ordered 2-D arrays of PEG microspheres with desired self-organized microstructures, such as the array location (e.g., selectively on the crest/in the valley of the wrinkles), diameter, spacing of the microspheres, and array direction. Additionally, the coordination of PEG with HAuCl4 is utilized to fabricate 2-D ordered arrays of functional PEG-HAuCl4 composite microspheres, which are further converted into different Au nanoparticle arrays. This simple versatile combined strategy could be extended to fabricate highly ordered 2-D arrays of other functional materials and achieve desirable properties and functionalities.

  4. Initial performance of the two-dimensional 1024-channel amplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Hiruta, Tatsuro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takashima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the initial performance of a two-dimensional analog ASIC that has been developed to read out CdTe pixel detectors for the next-generation hard X-ray imager. The readout chip consists of a 32x32 matrix of identical 200μmx200μm pixel cells. Each readout cell contains a low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, three-stage pulse shaping amplifiers and a comparator circuit. Pulse processing circuits have been also designed to achieve lower power consumption for the space application. Analog outputs by injecting a test pulse have been obtained from 991 pixels out of 1024 pixels. The mean noise level is 297+/-29 electrons (rms) and power consumption is 110μW/pixel

  5. Relativistic effects in the energy loss of a fast charged particle moving parallel to a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Zoran L.; Akbari, Kamran; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-05-01

    We present a fully relativistic formulation for the energy loss rate of a charged particle moving parallel to a sheet containing two-dimensional electron gas, allowing that its in-plane polarization may be described by different longitudinal and transverse conductivities. We apply our formulation to the case of a doped graphene layer in the terahertz range of frequencies, where excitation of the Dirac plasmon polariton (DPP) in graphene plays a major role. By using the Drude model with zero damping we evaluate the energy loss rate due to excitation of the DPP, and show that the retardation effects are important when the incident particle speed and its distance from graphene both increase. Interestingly, the retarded energy loss rate obtained in this manner may be both larger and smaller than its non-retarded counterpart for different combinations of the particle speed and distance.

  6. Fourier analysis of parallel block-Jacobi splitting with transport synthetic acceleration in two-dimensional geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, M.; Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    A Fourier analysis is conducted in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian geometry for the discrete-ordinates (SN) approximation of the neutron transport problem solved with Richardson iteration (Source Iteration) and Richardson iteration preconditioned with Transport Synthetic Acceleration (TSA), using the Parallel Block-Jacobi (PBJ) algorithm. The results for the un-accelerated algorithm show that convergence of PBJ can degrade, leading in particular to stagnation of GMRES(m) in problems containing optically thin sub-domains. The results for the accelerated algorithm indicate that TSA can be used to efficiently precondition an iterative method in the optically thin case when implemented in the 'modified' version MTSA, in which only the scattering in the low order equations is reduced by some non-negative factor β<1. (authors)

  7. A Two-dimensional Sixteen Channel Transmit/Receive Coil Array for Cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Design, Evaluation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalhammer, Christof; Renz, Wolfgang; Winter, Lukas; Hezel, Fabian; Rieger, Jan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Graessl, Andreas; Seifert, Frank; Hoffmann, Werner; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Kellman, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To design, evaluate and apply a two-dimensional 16 channel transmit/receive coil array tailored for cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla. Material and Methods The cardiac coil array consists of 2 sections each using 8 elements arranged in a 2 × 4 array. RF safety was validated by SAR simulations. Cardiac imaging was performed using 2D CINE FLASH imaging, T2* mapping and fat-water separation imaging. The characteristics of the coil array were analyzed including parallel imaging performance, left ventricular chamber quantification and overall image quality. Results RF characteristics were found to be appropriate for all subjects included in the study. The SAR values derived from the simulations fall well in the limits of legal guidelines. The baseline SNR advantage at 7.0 T was put to use to acquire 2D CINE images of the heart with a very high spatial resolution of (1 × 1 × 4) mm3. The proposed coil array supports 1D acceleration factors of up to R=4 without impairing image quality significantly. Conclusions The 16 channel TX/RX coil has the capability to acquire high contrast and high spatial resolution images of the heart at 7.0 Tesla. PMID:22706727

  8. One- and two-dimensional antenna arrays for microwave wireless power transfer (MWPT) systems and dual-antenna transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yo-Sheng; Hu, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chi-Ho; Tsao, Ping-Chang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate novel one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) antenna arrays for both microwave wireless power transfer (MWPT) systems and dual-antenna transceivers. The antenna array can be used as the MWPT receiving antenna of an integrated MWPT and Bluetooth (BLE) communication module (MWPT-BLE module) for smart CNC (computer numerical control) spindle incorporated with the cloud computing system SkyMars. The 2D antenna array has n rows of 1 × m 1D array, and each array is composed of multiple (m) differential feeding antenna elements. Each differential feeding antenna element is a differential feeding structure with a microstrip antenna stripe. The stripe length is shorter than one wavelength to minimise the antenna area and to prevent being excited to a high-order mode. That is, the differential feeding antenna element can suppress the even mode. The mutual coupling between the antenna elements can be suppressed, and the isolation between the receiver and the transmitter can be enhanced. An inclination angle of the main beam aligns with the broadside, and the main beam is further concentrated and shrunk at the elevation direction. Moreover, if more differential feeding antenna elements are used, antenna gain and isolation can be further enhanced. The excellent performance of the proposed antenna arrays indicates that they are suitable for both MWPT systems and dual-antenna transceivers.

  9. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation Using Arbitrary Arrays for Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Doumtsop Lonkeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the quick advancement of wireless communication networks, the need for massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO to offer adequate network capacity has turned out to be apparent. As a portion of array signal processing, direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation is of indispensable significance to acquire directional data of sources and to empower the 3D beamforming. In this paper, the performance of DOA estimation for massive MIMO systems is analyzed and compared using a low-complexity algorithm. To be exact, the 2D Fourier domain line search (FDLS MUSIC algorithm is studied to mutually estimate elevation and azimuth angle, and arbitrary array geometry is utilized to represent massive MIMO systems. To avoid the computational burden in estimating the data covariance matrix and its eigenvalue decomposition (EVD due to the large-scale sensors involved in massive MIMO systems, the reduced-dimension data matrix is applied on the signals received by the array. The performance is examined and contrasted with the 2D MUSIC algorithm for different types of antenna configuration. Finally, the array resolution is selected to investigate the performance of elevation and azimuth estimation. The effectiveness and advantage of the proposed technique have been proven by detailed simulations for different types of MIMO array configuration.

  10. rf power dependence of subharmonic voltage spectra of two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebboul, S.E.; Garland, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the rf-bias-current dependence of the ν/2 subharmonic spectral response of planar 300x300 Nb-Au-Nb proximity-coupled Josephson-junction arrays. The ν/2 subharmonic voltage spectrum was examined at two rf-bias frequencies, ν/ν c ∼1.4, 2.0 (ν c ∼120 MHz), and in applied magnetic fields corresponding to f=0,1/2 flux quantum per plaquette. The measurements were compared to analytical predictions for an rf-biased asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device with non-negligble loop inductance and large rf-bias-current amplitudes, based on the resistively shunted Josephson-junction model. Reasonable agreement was found between experiment and theory, suggesting that a possible origin for the observed subharmonic behavior in arrays involves an interplay between array plaquette inductances and junction critical-current variations

  11. Two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays coupled through a high-Q cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.

    2001-01-01

    the cavity. The highly resonant cavity induces synchronized behavior, which is qualitatively different than what is familiar from other studies on nonlinear oscillator arrays, for example the Kuramoto model. We also address the effects of disorder, as well as the role of detuning between the spontaneous...

  12. Development of a low-noise, two-dimensional amplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Sakumura, Takuto; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of a low-noise, two-dimensional analog front-end ASIC for hybrid pixel imaging detectors. Based on the Open-IP LSI project, the ASIC is designed to meet a low-noise requirement of better than 100e - (rms) with self-triggering capability. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel sensors utilizing silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) as detector materials for spectroscopic imaging observations in the X-ray and gamma-ray regions. The readout chip consists of a 4x4 matrix of identical 270μmx270μm pixel cells and was implemented with TSMC 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Each pixel cell contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, pole-zero cancellation circuit, shaper, comparator, and peak hold circuit. Preliminary testing of the ASIC achieved an 88e - (rms) equivalent noise charge and a 25e - /pF noise slope with power consumption of 150μW per pixel.

  13. Two-dimensional diced scintillator array for innovative, fine-resolution gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a technique to fabricate fine spatial resolution (FWHM<0.5mm) and cost-effective photon counting detectors, by using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) coupled with a finely pixelated scintillator plate. Unlike traditional X-ray imagers that use a micro-columnar CsI(Tl) plate, we can pixelate various scintillation crystal plates more than 1 mm thick, and easily develop large-area, fine-pitch scintillator arrays with high precision. Coupling a fine pitch scintillator array with a SiPM array results in a compact, fast-response detector that is ideal for X-ray, gamma-ray, and charged particle detection as used in autoradiography, gamma cameras, and photon counting CTs. As the first step, we fabricated a 2-D, cerium-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator array of 0.25 mm pitch, by using a dicing saw to cut micro-grooves 50μm wide into a 1.0 mm thick Ce:GAGG plate. The scintillator plate is optically coupled with a 3.0×3.0mm pixel 4×4 SiPM array and read-out via the resistive charge-division network. Even when using this simple system as a gamma camera, we obtained excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) for 122 keV gamma-rays. We will present our plans to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the image, and also discuss a variety of possible applications in the near future

  14. A Green's function method for two-dimensional reactive solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    The reactive solute transport in a single fracture bounded by upper and lower matrixes is a classical problem that captures the dominant factors affecting transport behavior beyond pore scale. A parallel fracture-matrix system which considers the interaction among multiple paralleled fractures is an extension to a single fracture-matrix system. The existing analytical or semi-analytical solution for solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix simplifies the problem to various degrees, such as neglecting the transverse dispersion in the fracture and/or the longitudinal diffusion in the matrix. The difficulty of solving the full two-dimensional (2-D) problem lies in the calculation of the mass exchange between the fracture and matrix. In this study, we propose an innovative Green's function approach to address the 2-D reactive solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix system. The flux at the interface is calculated numerically. It is found that the transverse dispersion in the fracture can be safely neglected due to the small scale of fracture aperture. However, neglecting the longitudinal matrix diffusion would overestimate the concentration profile near the solute entrance face and underestimate the concentration profile at the far side. The error caused by neglecting the longitudinal matrix diffusion decreases with increasing Peclet number. The longitudinal matrix diffusion does not have obvious influence on the concentration profile in long-term. The developed model is applied to a non-aqueous-phase-liquid (DNAPL) contamination field case in New Haven Arkose of Connecticut in USA to estimate the Trichloroethylene (TCE) behavior over 40 years. The ratio of TCE mass stored in the matrix and the injected TCE mass increases above 90% in less than 10 years.

  15. Aluminum-based one- and two-dimensional micro fin array structures: high-throughput fabrication and heat transfer testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primeaux, Philip A; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Miller, Jacob; Meng, W J; KC, Pratik; Moore, Arden L

    2017-01-01

    Microscale fin array structures were replicated onto surfaces of aluminum 1100 and aluminum 6061 alloy (Al1100/Al6061) sheet metals through room-temperature instrumented roll molding. Aluminum-based micro fin arrays were replicated at room temperature, and the fabrication process is one with high throughput and low cost. One-dimensional (1D) micro fin arrays were made through one-pass rolling, while two-dimensional (2D) micro fin arrays were made by sequential 90° cross rolling with the same roller sleeve. For roll molding of 1D micro fins, fin heights greater than 600 µ m were achieved and were shown to be proportional to the normal load force per feature width. At a given normal load force, the fin height was further shown to scale inversely with the hardness of the sheet metal. For sequential 90° cross rolling, morphologies of roll molded 2D micro fin arrays were examined, which provided clues to understand how plastic deformation occurred under cross rolling conditions. A series of pool boiling experiments on low profile Al micro fin array structures were performed within Novec 7100, a widely used commercial dielectric coolant. Results for both horizontal and vertical surface orientations show that roll molded Al micro fin arrays can increase heat flux at fixed surface temperature as compared to un-patterned Al sheet. The present results further suggest that many factors beyond just increased surface area can influence heat transfer performance, including surface finish and the important multiphase transport mechanisms in and around the fin geometry. These factors must also be considered when designing and optimizing micro fin array structures for heat transfer applications. (paper)

  16. Two-dimensional Fast ESPRIT Algorithm for Linear Array SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi-chao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The linear array Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR system is a popular research tool, because it can realize three-dimensional imaging. However, owning to limitations of the aircraft platform and actual conditions, resolution improvement is difficult in cross-track and along-track directions. In this study, a twodimensional fast Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT algorithm for linear array SAR imaging is proposed to overcome these limitations. This approach combines the Gerschgorin disks method and the ESPRIT algorithm to estimate the positions of scatterers in cross and along-rack directions. Moreover, the reflectivity of scatterers is obtained by a modified pairing method based on “region growing”, replacing the least-squares method. The simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm with high resolution, quick calculation, and good real-time response.

  17. Structured mirror array for two-dimensional collimation of a chromium beam in atom lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wan-Jing; Ma Yan; Li Tong-Bao; Zhang Ping-Ping; Deng Xiao; Chen Sheng; Xiao Sheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Direct-write atom lithography, one of the potential nanofabrication techniques, is restricted by some difficulties in producing optical masks for the deposition of complex structures. In order to make further progress, a structured mirror array is developed to transversely collimate the chromium atomic beam in two dimensions. The best collimation is obtained when the laser red detunes by natural line-width of transition 7 S 3 → 7 P 0 4 of the chromium atom. The collimation ratio is 0.45 vertically (in x axis), and it is 0.55 horizontally (in y axis). The theoretical model is also simulated, and success of our structured mirror array is achieved. (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Two-dimensional analytic modeling of acoustic diffraction for ultrasonic beam steering by phased array transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansi; Zhang, Chong; Aleksov, Aleksandar; Salama, Islam; Kar, Aravinda

    2017-04-01

    Phased array ultrasonic transducers enable modulating the focal position of the acoustic waves, and this capability is utilized in many applications, such as medical imaging and non-destructive testing. This type of transducers also provides a mechanism to generate tilted wavefronts in acousto-optic deflectors to deflect laser beams for high precision advanced laser material processing. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for the diffraction of ultrasonic waves emitted by several phased array transducers into an acousto-optic medium such as TeO 2 crystal. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the distribution of the ultrasonic displacement field in the crystal. The model prediction is found to be in good agreement with the results of a numerical model that is based on a non-paraxial multi-Gaussian beam (NMGB) model. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Resistive transition of two-dimensional arrays of proximity-effect Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of measurements on large arrays of PbBi/Cu proximity-effect junctions are presented. Extrapolation of the critical current measured at low temperature to the region at and above T/sub c/ allows us to describe the initial drop in resistance by a simple model of the proximity effect, and also to define an effective temperature T' = E/sub J/(T/sub c/)T/E/sub J/(T) for describing the vortex-unbinding transition. This extrapolation has also allowed comparison of the magnitude of the universal jump in the renormalized coupling strength E/sub J/(T) with prediction, after allowance for renormalization effects. A simple decomposition of the vortex population above T/sub c/ into a sum of thermally-generated and currents-split components allows us to compare data taken at finite voltage sensitivity with theory. This idea is used to understand the broadened universal scaling of this data in a form consistent with the theory of Halperin and Nelson, suitably modified for array samples. Except for temperatures very near the transition temperature, these results can differ significantly from the continuum results of Halperin and Nelson and may be more appropriate for description of junction arrays and some granular films. New experimental data are also presented which show a periodic variation of the resistance of these arrays with the magnetic flux per cell in units of the flux quantum, including a secondary minimum at the half-quantum points. A simple model is presented which accounts for the existence, shape, and magnitude of this periodic variation in terms of vortex core energies. Observations of the current dependence of this periodic variation are presented, and a qualitative model of this effect is discussed

  20. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional semiconducting bolometer arrays for HAWC and SHARC-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rennick, Timothy; Shirron, Peter J.; Smith, W. W.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2003-02-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 × 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 × 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  1. Flatness of two-dimensional beam profile measured with an ionization chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Open beam profiles are basic dosimetric characteristics for the formation of the dose calculation algorithms parameters and for determination of beam quality. One characteristic of the beam profiles as a measure for the beam quality is the field flatness defined as ratio of the difference of maximum and minimum dose in central 80% of the field to the sum of these doses in the part of the field. The measurements, instead with an ordinary ionization chamber, were performed with a chamber array in two depths (1.6 cm and 10 cm) in water phantom. Nominal photon beam energy was 6 MV and field size was 25 cm x 25 cm on the water surface. Field flatness was in the range of 1-2 % which is in accordance with the data acquired during the acceptance testing and commissioning of the accelerators. with the array chamber the beam profiles can be performed quickly and preciously. These features recommend a chamber array as an excellent tool for periodic quality control of beam profiles. (Author)

  2. Evidence of hexatic phase formation in two-dimensional Lennard-Jones binary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Johnson, W.L.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1996-01-01

    We report evidence of the hexatic phase formation in Lennard-Jones binary substitutional random arrays from isothermal-isobaric molecular-dynamics simulations. The hexatic phase is analogous to those predicted in Kosterlitz-Thouless theory of melting that is characterized by short-range translational order and quasi-long-range orientational order. At the crystal to hexatic phase transition, dislocation pairs are observed to unbind into isolated dislocations. Further disordering of the hexatic phase, however, does not lead to dissociation of dislocations into disclinations. Instead, the dislocations become clustered and form dislocation networks which results in formation of amorphous phases. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Jae; Lee, Young-Gu; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Jun, Moon-Seog

    2011-01-01

    These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes. PMID:22164072

  4. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  5. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality.

  6. A Highly Sensitive Two-Dimensional Inclinometer Based on Two Etched Chirped-Fiber-Grating Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Ying; Chang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Wen-Fung

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel two-dimensional fiber-optic inclinometer with high sensitivity by crisscrossing two etched chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG) arrays. Each array is composed of two symmetrically-arranged CFBGs. By etching away most of the claddings of the CFBGs to expose the evanescent wave, the reflection spectra are highly sensitive to the surrounding index change. When we immerse only part of the CFBG in liquid, the effective index difference induces a superposition peak in the refection spectrum. By interrogating the peak wavelengths of the CFBGs, we can deduce the tilt angle and direction simultaneously. The inclinometer has a resolution of 0.003° in tilt angle measurement and 0.00187 rad in tilt direction measurement. Due to the unique sensing mechanism, the sensor is temperature insensitive. This sensor can be useful in long term continuous monitoring of inclination or in real-time feedback control of tilt angles, especially in harsh environments with violent temperature variation. PMID:29244770

  7. High-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling of wire grid polarizers and micropolarizer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in photolithography allowed the fabrication of high-quality wire grid polarizers for the visible and near-infrared regimes. In turn, micropolarizer arrays (MPAs) based on wire grid polarizers have been developed and used to construct compact, versatile imaging polarimeters. However, the contrast and throughput of these polarimeters are significantly worse than one might expect based on the performance of large area wire grid polarizers or MPAs, alone. We investigate the parameters that affect the performance of wire grid polarizers and MPAs, using high-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain simulations. We pay special attention to numerical errors and other challenges that arise in models of these and other subwavelength optical devices. Our tests show that simulations of these structures in the visible and near-IR begin to converge numerically when the mesh size is smaller than ˜4 nm. The performance of wire grid polarizers is very sensitive to the shape, spacing, and conductivity of the metal wires. Using 3-D simulations of micropolarizer "superpixels," we directly study the cross talk due to diffraction at the edges of each micropolarizer, which decreases the contrast of MPAs to ˜200∶1.

  8. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

  9. Instability and Death of Spiral Wave in a Two-Dimensional Array of Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunni; Ma Jun; Li Yanlong; Tang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Spiral wave could be observed in the excitable media, the neurons are often excitable within appropriate parameters. The appearance and formation of spiral wave in the cardiac tissue is linked to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia that can denervate into polymorphic tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The neuronal system often consists of a large number of neurons with complex connections. In this paper, we theoretically study the transition from spiral wave to spiral turbulence and homogeneous state (death of spiral wave) in two-dimensional array of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron with completely nearest-neighbor connections. In our numerical studies, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed and selected as the initial state, then the bifurcation parameters are changed to different values to observe the transition from spiral wave to homogeneous state, breakup of spiral wave and weak change of spiral wave, respectively. A statistical factor of synchronization is defined with the mean field theory to analyze the transition from spiral wave to other spatial states, and the snapshots of the membrane potentials of all neurons and time series of mean membrane potentials of all neurons are also plotted to discuss the change of spiral wave. It is found that the sharp changing points in the curve for factor of synchronization vs. bifurcation parameter indicate sudden transition from spiral wave to other states. And the results are independent of the number of neurons we used. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimy, Abdullah Faruq Ibn; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibrahimy, Muhammad Ibn

    2013-01-01

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper

  11. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    . Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective

  12. Two-dimensional superconducting state of monolayer Pb films grown on GaAs(110) in a strong parallel magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekihara, Takayuki; Masutomi, Ryuichi; Okamoto, Tohru

    2013-08-02

    Two-dimensional (2D) superconductivity was studied by magnetotransport measurements on single-atomic-layer Pb films on a cleaved GaAs(110) surface. The superconducting transition temperature shows only a weak dependence on the parallel magnetic field up to 14T, which is higher than the Pauli paramagnetic limit. Furthermore, the perpendicular-magnetic-field dependence of the sheet resistance is almost independent of the presence of the parallel field component. These results are explained in terms of an inhomogeneous superconducting state predicted for 2D metals with a large Rashba spin splitting.

  13. Bistatic scattering from a three-dimensional object above a two-dimensional randomly rough surface modeled with the parallel FDTD approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L-X; Li, J; Zeng, H

    2009-11-01

    We present an investigation of the electromagnetic scattering from a three-dimensional (3-D) object above a two-dimensional (2-D) randomly rough surface. A Message Passing Interface-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is used, and the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of the FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different number of processors is illustrated for one rough surface realization and shows that the computation time of our parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced relative to a single-processor implementation. Finally, the composite scattering coefficients versus scattered and azimuthal angle are presented and analyzed for different conditions, including the surface roughness, the dielectric constants, the polarization, and the size of the 3-D object.

  14. Evaluation of delivered monitor unit accuracy of gated step-and-shoot IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Su SSan; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 431070 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 431070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To overcome the problem of organ motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), gated IMRT is often used for the treatment of lung cancer. In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered monitor units (MUs) from each segment during gated IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array for user-specific verification purpose. Methods: The authors planned a 6 MV photon, seven-port step-and-shoot lung IMRT delivery. The respiration signals for gated IMRT delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Millennium 120 MLC. The MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Germany) was validated through consistency and reproducibility tests as well as comparison with measurements from a Farmer-type ion chamber. The authors delivered beams with varying dose rates and duty cycles and analyzed the MatriXX data to evaluate MU delivery accuracy. Results: There was quite good agreement between the planned segment MUs and the MUs computed from the MatriXX within {+-}2% error. The beam-on times computed from the MatriXX data were almost identical for all cases, and they matched well with the RPM beam-on and beam-off signals. A slight difference was observed between them, but it was less than 40 ms. The gated IMRT delivery demonstrated an MU delivery accuracy that was equivalent to ungated IMRT, and the delivered MUs with a gating signal agreed with the planned MUs within {+-}0.5 MU regardless of dose rate and duty cycle. Conclusions: The authors can conclude that gated IMRT is able to deliver an accurate dose to a patient during a procedure. The authors believe that the methodology and results can be transferred to other vendors' devices, particularly those that do not provide MLC log data for a verification purpose.

  15. Luminescence of two-dimensional ordered array of the ZnO quantum nanodots, obtained by means of the synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzintsev, A.N.; Volkov, V.T.; Emelchenko, G.A.; Karpov, I.A.; Maslov, W.M.; Michailov, G.M.; Yakimov, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    The luminescence properties of ZnO films of different thickness obtained on a synthetic opal were investigated. Several narrow peaks in the exciton emission region related to the size quantum effect of the electron wave functions were detected. Two-dimensional ordered array of ZnO quantum dots formed inside the opal pores on the second sphere layer were found by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and angle dependence of the luminescence spectra

  16. Introduction to parallel algorithms and architectures arrays, trees, hypercubes

    CERN Document Server

    Leighton, F Thomson

    1991-01-01

    Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays Trees Hypercubes provides an introduction to the expanding field of parallel algorithms and architectures. This book focuses on parallel computation involving the most popular network architectures, namely, arrays, trees, hypercubes, and some closely related networks.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest architectures of arrays and trees. This text then presents the structures and relationships between the dominant network architectures, as well as the most efficient parallel algorithms for

  17. Design and implementation of an array of micro-electrochemical detectors for two-dimensional liquid chromatography--proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Jude A; Putnam, Joel; Mriziq, Khaled; Guiochon, Georges A

    2010-03-05

    Simultaneous two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is an implementation of two-dimensional liquid chromatography which has the potential to provide very fast, yet highly efficient separations. It is based on the use of time x space and space x space separation systems. The basic principle of this instrument has been validated long ago by the success of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The construction of a pressurized wide and flat column (100 mm x 100 mm x 1 mm) operated under an inlet pressure of up to 50 bar was described previously. However, to become a modern analytical method, simultaneous 2D-LC requires the development of detectors suitable for the monitoring of the composition of the eluent of this pressurized planar, wide column. An array of five equidistant micro-electrochemical sensors was built for this purpose and tested. Each sensor is a three-electrode system, with the working electrode being a 25 microm polished platinum micro-electrode. The auxiliary electrode is a thin platinum wire and the reference electrode an Ag/AgCl (3M sat. KCl) electrode. In this first implementation, proof of principle is demonstrated, but the final instrument will require a much larger array. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of hybrid two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructured arrays for electronic and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunhyub

    This dissertation presents the design of organic/inorganic hybrid 2D and 3D nanostructured arrays via controlled assembly of nanoscale building blocks. Two representative nanoscale building blocks such as carbon nanotubes (one-dimension) and metal nanoparticles (zero-dimension) are the core materials for the study of solution-based assembly of nanostructured arrays. The electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of the assembled nanostructure arrays have been investigated for future device applications. We successfully demonstrated the prospective use of assembled nanostructure arrays for electronic and sensing applications by designing flexible carbon nanotube nanomembranes as mechanical sensors, highly-oriented carbon nanotubes arrays for thin-film transistors, and gold nanoparticle arrays for SERS chemical sensors. In first section, we fabricated highly ordered carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays by tilted drop-casting or dip-coating of CNT solution on silicon substrates functionalized with micropatterned self-assembled monolayers. We further exploited the electronic performance of thin-film transistors based on highly-oriented, densely packed CNT micropatterns and showed that the carrier mobility is largely improved compared to randomly oriented CNTs. The prospective use of Raman-active CNTs for potential mechanical sensors has been investigated by studying the mechano-optical properties of flexible carbon nanotube nanomembranes, which contain freely-suspended carbon nanotube array encapsulated into ultrathin (optical waveguide properties of nano-canals. We demonstrated the ability of this SERS substrate for trace level sensing of nitroaromatic explosives by detecting down to 100 zeptogram (˜330 molecules) of DNT.

  19. VALIDATION OF CRACK INTERACTION LIMIT MODEL FOR PARALLEL EDGE CRACKS USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shielding interaction effects of two parallel edge cracks in finite thickness plates subjected to remote tension load is analyzed using a developed finite element analysis program. In the present study, the crack interaction limit is evaluated based on the fitness of service (FFS code, and focus is given to the weak crack interaction region as the crack interval exceeds the length of cracks (b > a. Crack interaction factors are evaluated based on stress intensity factors (SIFs for Mode I SIFs using a displacement extrapolation technique. Parametric studies involved a wide range of crack-to-width (0.05 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.5 and crack interval ratios (b/a > 1. For validation, crack interaction factors are compared with single edge crack SIFs as a state of zero interaction. Within the considered range of parameters, the proposed numerical evaluation used to predict the crack interaction factor reduces the error of existing analytical solution from 1.92% to 0.97% at higher a/W. In reference to FFS codes, the small discrepancy in the prediction of the crack interaction factor validates the reliability of the numerical model to predict crack interaction limits under shielding interaction effects. In conclusion, the numerical model gave a successful prediction in estimating the crack interaction limit, which can be used as a reference for the shielding orientation of other cracks.

  20. System performances of optical space code-division multiple-access-based fiber-optic two-dimensional parallel data link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kitayama, K

    1998-05-10

    Optical space code-division multiple access is a scheme to multiplex and link data between two-dimensional processors such as smart pixels and spatial light modulators or arrays of optical sources like vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. We examine the multiplexing characteristics of optical space code-division multiple access by using optical orthogonal signature patterns. The probability density function of interference noise in interfering optical orthogonal signature patterns is calculated. The bit-error rate is derived from the result and plotted as a function of receiver threshold, code length, code weight, and number of users. Furthermore, we propose a prethresholding method to suppress the interference noise, and we experimentally verify that the method works effectively in improving system performance.

  1. Structural characterization and plasmonic properties of two-dimensional arrays of hydrophobic large gold nanoparticles fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tachikiri, Yuki; Sako, Takayuki [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Takahashi, Yukina, E-mail: yukina@mail.cstm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yamada, Sunao, E-mail: yamada@mail.cstm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by our method were large and stable enough. • Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of the AuNPs were obtained by Langmuir-Blodgett method with polyethylene glycol. • The plasmon resonant wavelength of the 2D arrays can be controlled by the diameter. - Abstract: We have succeeded in fabricating two-dimensional (2D) arrays of larger gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (diameters 17, 28, and 48 nm) by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Although the particle size of AuNPs is one of the most important factors in order to control the optical properties of 2D arrays, there have been reported only the size of less than ∼20 nm. This is a first report on the bottom-up fabrication of 2D arrays consisting of hydrophobic AuNP with the diameter of ∼50 nm, of which the size is expected to obtain maximum near-field effects. Octadecylthiolate-capped AuNPs (ODT-AuNPs) which were prepared by our method could be re-dispersed in chloroform even after drying completely, realizing the spreading of the colloidal chloroform solution onto the water surface. Accordingly, densely-packed 2D LB films of ODT-AuNPs could be fabricated on an indium-tin-oxide substrate, when water as the subphase and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an amphiphilic agent were used. PEG played an important role to form densely-packed film uniformly due to increasing affinity between hydrophobic AuNP and water. Absorption spectra of the films revealed that the resonance wavelengths of plasmon oscillation through interparticle plasmon coupling were clearly correlated with the particle sizes rather than deposition densities.

  2. Orbital effect for the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase in a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor in a parallel magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study the orbital destructive effect against superconductivity in a parallel magnetic field in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO or LOFF) phase at zero temperature in a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) conductor. We demonstrate that at zero temperature a special parameter, λ =l⊥(H ) /d , is responsible for strength of the orbital effect, where l⊥(H ) is a typical "size" of the quasiclassical electron orbit in a magnetic field and d is the interplane distance. We discuss applications of our results to the existing experiments on the FFLO phase in the organic Q2D conductors κ -(ET) 2Cu (NCS) 2 and κ -(ET) 2Cu [N (CN) 2] Cl .

  3. Geometrical modeling of a two-dimensional sensor array for determining spatial position of a passive object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an active sensor array which can determine the spatial position of a passive object by illuminating the object via a small set of emitters and measure the intensity of the reflection by means of a small set of receivers. All emitters and receivers are located...

  4. Two-dimensional mapping of needle visibility with linear and curved array for ultrasound-guided interventional procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Hesty; Suprijanto, Kurniadi, Deddy

    2018-02-01

    Needle visibility in ultrasound-guided technique has been a crucial factor for successful interventional procedure. It has been affected by several factors, i.e. puncture depth, insertion angle, needle size and material, and imaging technology. The influences of those factors made the needle not always well visible. 20 G needles of 15 cm length (Nano Line, facet) were inserted into water bath with variation of insertion angles and depths. Ultrasound measurements are performed with BK-Medical Flex Focus 800 using 12 MHz linear array and 5 MHz curved array in Ultrasound Guided Regional Anesthesia mode. We propose 3 criteria to evaluate needle visibility, i.e. maximum intensity, mean intensity, and the ratio between minimum and maximum intensity. Those criteria were then depicted into representative maps for practical purpose. The best criterion candidate for representing the needle visibility was criterion 1. Generally, the appearance pattern of the needle from this criterion was relatively consistent, i.e. for linear array, it was relatively poor visibility in the middle part of the shaft, while for curved array, it is relatively better visible toward the end of the shaft. With further investigations, for example with the use of tissue-mimicking phantom, the representative maps can be built for future practical purpose, i.e. as a tool for clinicians to ensure better needle placement in clinical application. It will help them to avoid the "dead" area where the needle is not well visible, so it can reduce the risks of vital structures traversing and the number of required insertion, resulting in less patient morbidity. Those simple criteria and representative maps can be utilized to evaluate general visibility patterns of the needle in vast range of needle types and sizes in different insertion media. This information is also important as an early investigation for future research of needle visibility improvement, i.e. the development of beamforming strategies and

  5. Series-parallel method of direct solar array regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 40 watt experimental solar array was directly regulated by shorting out appropriate combinations of series and parallel segments of a solar array. Regulation switches were employed to control the array at various set-point voltages between 25 and 40 volts. Regulation to within + or - 0.5 volt was obtained over a range of solar array temperatures and illumination levels as an active load was varied from open circuit to maximum available power. A fourfold reduction in regulation switch power dissipation was achieved with series-parallel regulation as compared to the usual series-only switching for direct solar array regulation.

  6. Models of classical one- and two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays and high-T sub c superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Filatrella, G

    2002-01-01

    The technology to build reproducible and accurately defined structures consisting of many lumped junctions has become available only recently, therefore extended investigations are relatively new. However, beside the interest of such discrete structures per se, it has been suggested soon after the discovery of high-T sub c superconductivity that granular superconductors might be modelled as superconducting islands surrounded by non-superconducting material and weakly coupled to each other. This program has been vigorously carried on, and models of planar Josephson junction arrays (JJAs) have been successfully used to mimic the magnetic behaviour of granular superconductors. The JJA model has been compared to continuous models of non-granular superconductors. We will show how to derive the height of pinning barriers in the JJA model and compare the results with the continuous model. In particular, the existence of current dependent activation energy has been proved to be a key characteristic to understand flux...

  7. Fabrication of a two-dimensional piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array using a top-crossover-to-bottom structure and metal bridge connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joontaek; Kim, Sangwon; Lee, Wonjun; Choi, Hongsoo

    2013-01-01

    A new design methodology and fabrication process for two-dimensional (2D) piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) arrays using a top-crossover-to-bottom (TCTB) structure was developed. Individual sensing and actuation of pMUT elements from a small number of connection lines was enabled by the TCTB structure, and the parasitic coupling capacitance of the array was significantly reduced as a result. A 32 × 32 pMUT array with a TCTB structure was fabricated, resulting in 64 connection lines over an area of 4.8 × 4.8 mm 2 . The top electrodes for each pMUT element were re-connected by metal bridging after bottom-electrode etching caused them to become disconnected. A deep reactive ion etching process was used to compactify the array. Each pMUT element was a circular-shaped K 31 -type ultrasonic transducer using a 1 µm thick sol–gel lead zirconate titanate (PZT: Pb1.10 Zr0.52 Ti0.48) thin film. To characterize a single element in the 2D pMUT array, the resonant frequency and coupling coefficient of 20 pMUT elements were averaged to 3.85 MHz and 0.0112, respectively. The maximum measured ultrasound intensity in water, measured at a distance of 4 mm, was 4.6 µW cm −2  from a single pMUT element driven by a 5 V pp  sine wave at 2.22 MHz. Potential applications for development of a TCTB-arranged 2D pMUT array include ultrasonic medical imaging, ultrasonic communication, ultrasonic range-finding and handwriting input systems. (paper)

  8. Electrodeposition of flake-like Cu_2O on vertically aligned two-dimensional TiO_2 nanosheet array films for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Kerong; Lv, Jianguo; He, Gang; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flake-like Cu_2O/TNS with exposed {001} facets constructed p-n heterostructure. • The TNS arrays were used as starting substrates for Cu_2O growth. • The Cu_2O/TNS prepared at −0.4 V exhibits the best photoelectrochemical property. - Abstract: A novel Cu_2O/TNS composite structure of single crystal TiO_2 nanosheet (TNS) arrays decorated with flake-like Cu_2O were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by the electrodeposition process. The effects of deposition potential on the microstructure, morphology, and optical property of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. When the deposition potential is higher than −0.4 V, peaks corresponding to Cu appear, meanwhile, flake-like Cu_2O become agglomerating, and transform into dense Cu_2O particles. Additionally, photoelectrochemical experiments indicate that the films deposited at −0.4 V show the lowest resistivity and highest exciton separation efficiency. This enhanced photoelectrochemical properties can be explained by synergistic effect of p-type flake-like Cu_2O and n-type TiO_2 heterojunctions combined with two-dimensional TiO_2 nanosheet with exposed highly reactive {001} facets.

  9. Electrodeposition of flake-like Cu{sub 2}O on vertically aligned two-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanosheet array films for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Co-operative Innovation Research Center for Weak Signal-Detecting Materials and Devices Integration, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Institute of Applied Physics AOA, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Kerong [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, Gang [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flake-like Cu{sub 2}O/TNS with exposed {001} facets constructed p-n heterostructure. • The TNS arrays were used as starting substrates for Cu{sub 2}O growth. • The Cu{sub 2}O/TNS prepared at −0.4 V exhibits the best photoelectrochemical property. - Abstract: A novel Cu{sub 2}O/TNS composite structure of single crystal TiO{sub 2} nanosheet (TNS) arrays decorated with flake-like Cu{sub 2}O were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by the electrodeposition process. The effects of deposition potential on the microstructure, morphology, and optical property of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. When the deposition potential is higher than −0.4 V, peaks corresponding to Cu appear, meanwhile, flake-like Cu{sub 2}O become agglomerating, and transform into dense Cu{sub 2}O particles. Additionally, photoelectrochemical experiments indicate that the films deposited at −0.4 V show the lowest resistivity and highest exciton separation efficiency. This enhanced photoelectrochemical properties can be explained by synergistic effect of p-type flake-like Cu{sub 2}O and n-type TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions combined with two-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanosheet with exposed highly reactive {001} facets.

  10. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xue-Jun

    2016-03-14

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  12. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Kotaro, E-mail: kotaro@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Isoda, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: sayuki@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kamae, Toshikazu, E-mail: toshi13@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki, E-mail: arizono@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hirokawa, Yuusuke, E-mail: yuusuke@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: ktogashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 {+-} 1.0 min (mean {+-} standard deviation), 5.9 {+-} 0.8 min, and 5.8 {+-} 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  13. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kotaro; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Kamae, Toshikazu; Arizono, Shigeki; Hirokawa, Yuusuke; Shibata, Toshiya; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 ± 1.0 min (mean ± standard deviation), 5.9 ± 0.8 min, and 5.8 ± 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  14. SU-F-T-576: Characterization of Two Dimensional Liquid Filled Detector Array(SRS 1000) in High Precision Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Cancer Institute, Mohali, Punjab (India); Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Vikraman, S [Jaypee Hospital – Radiation Onology, Noida, UTTAR PRADESH (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to characterize a two dimensional liquid filled detector array SRS 1000 for routine QA in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Methods: SRS 1000 consists of 977 liquid filled ionization chambers and is designed to be used in small field SRS/SBRT techniques. The detector array has got two different spacial resolutions. Till field size of 5.5×5.5 cm the spacial resolution is 2.5mm (center to center) and after that till field size of 11 × 11 cm the spacial resolution is 5mm. The size of the detector is 2.3 × 2.3 0.5 mm with a volume of .003 cc. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system in which a LINAC is mounted on a robotic manipulator to deliver beams with a high sub millimeter accuracy. The SRS 1000’s MU linearity, stability, reproducibility in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system was measured and investigated. The output factors for fixed and IRIS collimators for all available collimators (5mm till 60 mm) was measured and compared with the measurement done with PTW pin-point ionization chamber. Results: The MU linearity was measured from 2 MU till 1000 MU for doserates in the range of 700cGy/min – 780 cGy/min and compared with the measurement done with pin point chamber The MU linearity was with in 3%. The detector arrays stability and reproducibility was excellent and was withinin 0.5% The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 2% when compared with the measurements with pinpoint chamber for both fixed and IRIS collimators with all available field sizes. Conclusion: We have characterised PTW 1000 SRS as a precise and accurate measurement tool for routine QA of Cyberknife Robotic radiosurgery system.

  15. SU-F-T-576: Characterization of Two Dimensional Liquid Filled Detector Array(SRS 1000) in High Precision Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumaran, M; Manigandan, D; Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K; Vikraman, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to characterize a two dimensional liquid filled detector array SRS 1000 for routine QA in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Methods: SRS 1000 consists of 977 liquid filled ionization chambers and is designed to be used in small field SRS/SBRT techniques. The detector array has got two different spacial resolutions. Till field size of 5.5×5.5 cm the spacial resolution is 2.5mm (center to center) and after that till field size of 11 × 11 cm the spacial resolution is 5mm. The size of the detector is 2.3 × 2.3 0.5 mm with a volume of .003 cc. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system in which a LINAC is mounted on a robotic manipulator to deliver beams with a high sub millimeter accuracy. The SRS 1000’s MU linearity, stability, reproducibility in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system was measured and investigated. The output factors for fixed and IRIS collimators for all available collimators (5mm till 60 mm) was measured and compared with the measurement done with PTW pin-point ionization chamber. Results: The MU linearity was measured from 2 MU till 1000 MU for doserates in the range of 700cGy/min – 780 cGy/min and compared with the measurement done with pin point chamber The MU linearity was with in 3%. The detector arrays stability and reproducibility was excellent and was withinin 0.5% The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 2% when compared with the measurements with pinpoint chamber for both fixed and IRIS collimators with all available field sizes. Conclusion: We have characterised PTW 1000 SRS as a precise and accurate measurement tool for routine QA of Cyberknife Robotic radiosurgery system.

  16. Parallel Access of Out-Of-Core Dense Extendible Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoo, Ekow J; Rotem, Doron

    2007-07-26

    Datasets used in scientific and engineering applications are often modeled as dense multi-dimensional arrays. For very large datasets, the corresponding array models are typically stored out-of-core as array files. The array elements are mapped onto linear consecutive locations that correspond to the linear ordering of the multi-dimensional indices. Two conventional mappings used are the row-major order and the column-major order of multi-dimensional arrays. Such conventional mappings of dense array files highly limit the performance of applications and the extendibility of the dataset. Firstly, an array file that is organized in say row-major order causes applications that subsequently access the data in column-major order, to have abysmal performance. Secondly, any subsequent expansion of the array file is limited to only one dimension. Expansions of such out-of-core conventional arrays along arbitrary dimensions, require storage reorganization that can be very expensive. Wepresent a solution for storing out-of-core dense extendible arrays that resolve the two limitations. The method uses a mapping function F*(), together with information maintained in axial vectors, to compute the linear address of an extendible array element when passed its k-dimensional index. We also give the inverse function, F-1*() for deriving the k-dimensional index when given the linear address. We show how the mapping function, in combination with MPI-IO and a parallel file system, allows for the growth of the extendible array without reorganization and no significant performance degradation of applications accessing elements in any desired order. We give methods for reading and writing sub-arrays into and out of parallel applications that run on a cluster of workstations. The axial-vectors are replicated and maintained in each node that accesses sub-array elements.

  17. Enhanced 2D-DOA Estimation for Large Spacing Three-Parallel Uniform Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation algorithm for large spacing three-parallel uniform linear arrays (ULAs is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we use the propagator method (PM to get the highly accurate but ambiguous estimation of directional cosine. Then, we use the relationship between the directional cosine to eliminate the ambiguity. This algorithm not only can make use of the elements of the three-parallel ULAs but also can utilize the connection between directional cosine to improve the estimation accuracy. Besides, it has satisfied estimation performance when the elevation angle is between 70° and 90° and it can automatically pair the estimated azimuth and elevation angles. Furthermore, it has low complexity without using any eigen value decomposition (EVD or singular value decompostion (SVD to the covariance matrix. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

  18. Lateral electrical transport, optical properties and photocurrent measurements in two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardelis Spiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we investigate the electronic transport, the optical properties, and photocurrent in two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs embedded in silicon dioxide, grown on quartz and having sizes in the range between less than 2 and 20 nm. Electronic transport is determined by the collective effect of Coulomb blockade gaps in the Si NCs. Absorption spectra show the well-known upshift of the energy bandgap with decreasing NC size. Photocurrent follows the absorption spectra confirming that it is composed of photo-generated carriers within the Si NCs. In films containing Si NCs with sizes less than 2 nm, strong quantum confinement and exciton localization are observed, resulting in light emission and absence of photocurrent. Our results show that Si NCs are useful building blocks of photovoltaic devices for use as better absorbers than bulk Si in the visible and ultraviolet spectral range. However, when strong quantum confinement effects come into play, carrier transport is significantly reduced due to strong exciton localization and Coulomb blockade effects, thus leading to limited photocurrent.

  19. Nonergodic dynamics of the two-dimensional random-phase sine-Gordon model: Applications to vortex-glass arrays and disordered-substrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cule, D.; Shapir, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of the random-phase sine-Gordon model, which describes two-dimensional vortex-glass arrays and crystalline surfaces on disordered substrates, is investigated using the self-consistent Hartree approximation. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is violated below the critical temperature T c for large time t>t * where t * diverges in the thermodynamic limit. While above T c the averaged autocorrelation function diverges as Tln(t), for T c it approaches a finite value q * ∼1/(T c -T) as q(t)=q * -c(t/t * ) -ν (for t→t * ) where ν is a temperature-dependent exponent. On larger time scales t>t * the dynamics becomes nonergodic. The static correlations behave as ∼Tln|rvec x| for T>T c and for T c when x * with ξ * ∼exp{A/(T c -T)}. For scales x>ξ * , they behave as ∼m -1 Tln|rvec x| where m∼T/T c near T c , in general agreement with the variational replica-symmetry breaking approach and with recent simulations of the disordered-substrate surface. For strong coupling the transition becomes first order

  20. An Application of Artificial Intelligence for the Joint Estimation of Amplitude and Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival of Far Field Sources Using 2-L-Shape Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An easy and efficient approach, based on artificial intelligence technique, is proposed to jointly estimate the amplitude, elevation, and azimuth angles of far field sources impinging on 2-L-shape array. In these proposed artificial intelligence techniques, the metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are used as global optimizers assisted with rapid local version of pattern search for optimization of the adaptive parameters. The performance metric is employed on a fitness evaluation function depending on mean square error which is optimum and requires single snapshot to converge. The proposed approaches are easy to understand, and simple to implement; the genetic algorithm specifically hybridized with pattern search generates fairly good results. The comparison of the given schemes is carried out with 1-L-shape array, as well as, with parallel-shape array and is found to be in good agreement in terms of accuracy, convergence rate, computational complexity, and mean square error. The effectiveness and efficiency of the given schemes are examined through Monte Carlo simulations and their inclusive statistical analysis.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography/high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array/electrospray-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Tomasz

    2016-09-10

    Recently launched thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) interface enabling extraction of compounds directly from TLC plates into MS ion source was unusually extended into two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography/high performance liquid chromatography (2D, TLC/HPLC) system by its a direct connection to a rapid resolution 50×2.1mm, I.D. C18 column compartment followed by detection by diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). In this way, even not separated bands of complicated mixtures of natural compounds could be analysed structurally, only within 1-2min after development of TLC plates. In comparison to typically applied TLC-MS interface, no ion suppression for acidic mobile phases was observed. Also, substantial increase in ESI-TOF-MS sensitivities and quality of spectra, were noticed. It has been utilised in combination with TLC- based bioautographic approaches of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, However, it can be also applied in any other procedures related to bioactivity (e.g. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH screen test for radicals). This system has been also used for determination of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values) of the active inhibitor-galanthamine, as an example. Moreover, AChE inhibitory potencies of some of purified plant extracts, never studied before, have been quantitatively measured. This is first report of usage such the 2D TLC/HPLC/MS system both for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitors in biological matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  3. The feasibility study and characterization of a two-dimensional diode array in “magic phantom” for high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, A.; Beeksma, B.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Corde, S.; Jackson, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a radiation treatment technique capable of delivering large dose rates to the tumor. Radiation is delivered using remote afterloaders to drive highly active sources (commonly 192 Ir with an air KERMA strength range between 20 000 and 40 000 U, where 1 U = 1 μGy m 2 /h in air) through applicators directly into the patient's prescribed region of treatment. Due to the obvious ramifications of incorrect treatment while using such an active source, it is essential that there are methods for quality assurance (QA) that can directly and accurately verify the treatment plan and the functionality of the remote afterloader. This paper describes the feasibility study of a QA system for HDR brachytherapy using a phantom based two-dimensional 11 × 11 epitaxial diode array, named “magic phantom.”Methods: The HDR brachytherapy treatment plan is translated to the phantom with two rows of 10 (20 in total) HDR source flexible catheters, arranged above and below the diode array “magic plate” (MP). Four-dimensional source tracking in each catheter is based upon a developed fast iterative algorithm, utilizing the response of the diodes in close proximity to the 192 Ir source, sampled at 100 ms intervals by a fast data acquisition (DAQ) system. Using a 192 Ir source in a solid water phantom, the angular response of the developed epitaxial diodes utilized in the MP and also the variation of the MP response as a function of the source-to-detector distance (SDD) were investigated. These response data are then used by an iterative algorithm for source dwelling position determination. A measurement of the average transit speed between dwell positions was performed using the diodes and a fast DAQ.Results: The angular response of the epitaxial diode showed a variation of 15% within 360°, with two flat regions above and below the detector face with less than 5% variation. For SDD distances of between 5 and 30 mm the relative response of

  4. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  5. Highly scalable parallel processing of extracellular recordings of Multielectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tiago V; Vasilaki, Eleni; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances of Multielectrode Arrays (MEAs) used for multisite, parallel electrophysiological recordings, lead to an ever increasing amount of raw data being generated. Arrays with hundreds up to a few thousands of electrodes are slowly seeing widespread use and the expectation is that more sophisticated arrays will become available in the near future. In order to process the large data volumes resulting from MEA recordings there is a pressing need for new software tools able to process many data channels in parallel. Here we present a new tool for processing MEA data recordings that makes use of new programming paradigms and recent technology developments to unleash the power of modern highly parallel hardware, such as multi-core CPUs with vector instruction sets or GPGPUs. Our tool builds on and complements existing MEA data analysis packages. It shows high scalability and can be used to speed up some performance critical pre-processing steps such as data filtering and spike detection, helping to make the analysis of larger data sets tractable.

  6. Realization of cantilever arrays for parallel proximity imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarov, Y; Ivanov, Tz; Frank, A; Zoellner, J-P; Nikolov, N; Rangelow, I W

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterisation of self-actuating, and self-sensing cantilever arrays for large-scale parallel surface scanning. Each cantilever is integrated with a sharp silicon tip, a thermal-driven bimorph actuator, and a piezoresistive deflection sensor. Thus, the tip to the sample distance can be controlled individually for each cantilever. A radius of the tips below 10 nm is obtained, which enables nanometre in-plane surface imaging by Angstrom resolution in vertical direction. The fabricated cantilever probe arrays are also applicable for large-area manipulation, sub-10 nm metrology, bottom-up synthesis, high-speed gas analysis, for different bio-applications like recognition of DNA, RNA, or various biomarkers of a single disease, etc.

  7. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  8. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Effect of background correction on peak detection and quantification in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert C; John, Mallory G; Rutan, Sarah C; Filgueira, Marcelo R; Carr, Peter W

    2012-09-07

    A singular value decomposition-based background correction (SVD-BC) technique is proposed for the reduction of background contributions in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) data. The SVD-BC technique was compared to simply subtracting a blank chromatogram from a sample chromatogram and to a previously reported background correction technique for one dimensional chromatography, which uses an asymmetric weighted least squares (AWLS) approach. AWLS was the only background correction technique to completely remove the background artifacts from the samples as evaluated by visual inspection. However, the SVD-BC technique greatly reduced or eliminated the background artifacts as well and preserved the peak intensity better than AWLS. The loss in peak intensity by AWLS resulted in lower peak counts at the detection thresholds established using standards samples. However, the SVD-BC technique was found to introduce noise which led to detection of false peaks at the lower detection thresholds. As a result, the AWLS technique gave more precise peak counts than the SVD-BC technique, particularly at the lower detection thresholds. While the AWLS technique resulted in more consistent percent residual standard deviation values, a statistical improvement in peak quantification after background correction was not found regardless of the background correction technique used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Chip-Capillary Hybrid Device for Automated Transfer of Sample Pre-Separated by Capillary Isoelectric Focusing to Parallel Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Two-Dimensional Protein Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Joann J.; Wang, Shili; Li, Guanbin; Wang, Wei; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a chip-capillary hybrid device to integrate capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with parallel capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) toward automating two-dimensional (2D) protein separations. The hybrid device consists of three chips that are butted together. The middle chip can be moved between two positions to re-route the fluidic paths, which enables the performance of CIEF and injection of proteins partially resolved by CIEF to CGE capillaries for parallel CGE separations in a continuous and automated fashion. Capillaries are attached to the other two chips to facilitate CIEF and CGE separations and to extend the effective lengths of CGE columns. Specifically, we illustrate the working principle of the hybrid device, develop protocols for producing and preparing the hybrid device, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this hybrid device for automated injection of CIEF-separated sample to parallel CGE for 2D protein separations. Potentials and problems associated with the hybrid device are also discussed. PMID:22830584

  12. A two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber array prototype for small-field verification: characterization and first clinical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brualla-González, Luis; Vicedo, Aurora; Roselló, Joan V; Gómez, Faustino; González-Castaño, Diego M; Gago-Arias, Araceli; Pazos, Antonio; Zapata, Martín; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the design, characterization and first clinical tests of an in-house developed two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber prototype for the verification of small radiotherapy fields and treatments containing such small fields as in radiosurgery, which consists of 2 mm × 2 mm pixels arranged on a 16×8 rectangular grid. The ionization medium is isooctane. The characterization of the device included the study of depth, field-size and dose-rate dependences, which are sufficiently moderate for a good operation at therapy radiation levels. However, the detector presents an important anisotropic response, up to ≃ 12% for front versus near-lateral incidence, which can impact the verification of full treatments with different incidences. In such a case, an anisotropy correction factor can be applied. Output factors of small square fields measured with the device show a small systematic over-response, less than 1%, when compared to unshielded diode measurements. An IMRT radiosurgery treatment has been acquired with the liquid-filled ionization chamber device and compared with film dosimetry by using the gamma method, showing good agreement: over 99% passing rates for 1.2% and 1.2 mm for an incidence-per-incidence analysis; 100% passing rates for tolerances 1.8% and 1.8 mm when the whole treatment is analysed and the anisotropy correction factor is applied. The point dose verification for each incidence of the treatment performed with the liquid-filled ionization chamber agrees within 1% with a CC01 ionization chamber. This prototype has shown the utility of this kind of technology for the verification of small fields/treatments. Currently, a larger device covering a 5 cm × 5 cm area is under development. (paper)

  13. SU-E-T-35: A General Fill Factor Definition Serving to Characterise the MLC Misalignment Detection Capabilities of Two-Dimensional Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelljes, T.S.; Looe, H.K.; Poppe, B. [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg, DE (United States); WG Medical Radiation Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, DE (United States); Harder, D. [Prof. em., Medical Physics and Biophysics, Georg August University, Goettingen, DE (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To present a general definition of the fill factor realistically characterizing the “field coverage”, i.e. the MLC misalignment detection capabilities of a detector array. Methods: According to Gago-Arias et al.{sup 1} the fill factor of a 2D array is defined as the ratio of the area enclosed by the FWHM of the fluence response function KM(x) of a single detector and its cell area defined by the detector spacing. More generally - accounting also for the possible overlap between FWHM’s of neighboured detectors - the fill factor is here defined as that fraction of the sum of the detector cell areas in which a defined MLC misalignment is detectable when the induced percentage signal changes exceed a detection threshold d. Ideally the generalized fill factor may reach 100 %. With user code EGS-chamber and a 2 MeV photon slit beam 0.25 mm wide, both types of the fill factor were calculated for an array with total cell area 100 cm{sup 2} for chamber widths 1–9 mm, using =1mm, d=5%. Results: For single chamber width 5 mm, fill factors were 0.49 (FWHM) and 0.61 (generalized). For chamber width 2 mm the FWHM fill factor was 0.13 whereas the generalized fill factor was 0.32. For chamber widths above 7 mm, the FWHM fill factor exceeds unity, and the general fill factor is exactly 1.00. Conclusions: An updated fill factor definition is introduced which, as a generalization of the FWHM-based definition, more closely estimates the performance of small array chambers and gives a realistic value in the case of overlapping sensitive areas of neighboured chambers. References:{sup 1}A. Gago-Arias, L. Brualla-Gonzalez, D.M. Gonzalez-Castano, F. Gomez, M.S. Garcia, V.L. Vega, J.M. Sueiro, J. Pardo-Montero, “Evaluation of chamber response function influence on IMRT verification using 2D commercial detector arrays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2005–2020 (2012)

  14. SU-E-T-35: A General Fill Factor Definition Serving to Characterise the MLC Misalignment Detection Capabilities of Two-Dimensional Detector Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelljes, T.S.; Looe, H.K.; Poppe, B.; Harder, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a general definition of the fill factor realistically characterizing the “field coverage”, i.e. the MLC misalignment detection capabilities of a detector array. Methods: According to Gago-Arias et al. 1 the fill factor of a 2D array is defined as the ratio of the area enclosed by the FWHM of the fluence response function KM(x) of a single detector and its cell area defined by the detector spacing. More generally - accounting also for the possible overlap between FWHM’s of neighboured detectors - the fill factor is here defined as that fraction of the sum of the detector cell areas in which a defined MLC misalignment is detectable when the induced percentage signal changes exceed a detection threshold d. Ideally the generalized fill factor may reach 100 %. With user code EGS-chamber and a 2 MeV photon slit beam 0.25 mm wide, both types of the fill factor were calculated for an array with total cell area 100 cm 2 for chamber widths 1–9 mm, using =1mm, d=5%. Results: For single chamber width 5 mm, fill factors were 0.49 (FWHM) and 0.61 (generalized). For chamber width 2 mm the FWHM fill factor was 0.13 whereas the generalized fill factor was 0.32. For chamber widths above 7 mm, the FWHM fill factor exceeds unity, and the general fill factor is exactly 1.00. Conclusions: An updated fill factor definition is introduced which, as a generalization of the FWHM-based definition, more closely estimates the performance of small array chambers and gives a realistic value in the case of overlapping sensitive areas of neighboured chambers. References: 1 A. Gago-Arias, L. Brualla-Gonzalez, D.M. Gonzalez-Castano, F. Gomez, M.S. Garcia, V.L. Vega, J.M. Sueiro, J. Pardo-Montero, “Evaluation of chamber response function influence on IMRT verification using 2D commercial detector arrays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2005–2020 (2012)

  15. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Peter G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swingle, Kirstie L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paxton, Walter F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nogan, John J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stromberg, Loreen R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Firestone, Millicent A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montaño, Gabriel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.

  16. Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Arrays of Diameter-Tunable PS-b-P2VP Nanowires at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Yu, Xiaoli; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2016-11-15

    Composite thin films with well-defined and parallel nanowires were fabricated from the binary blends of a diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and several homopolystyrenes (h-PSs) at the air/liquid interface through a facile technique, which involves solution self-assembly, interface adsorption, and further self-organization processes. It was confirmed that the nanowires that appeared at the air/water interface came from the cylindrical micelles formed in solution. Interestingly, the diameters of the nanowires are uniform and can be tuned precisely from 45 to 247 nm by incorporating the h-PS molecules into the micellar core. This parallel alignment of the nanowires has potential applications in optical devices and enables the nanowires to be used as templates to prepare functional nanostructures. The extent to which h-PS molecules with different molecular weights are able to influence the diameter control of the nanowires was also systematically investigated.

  17. Comparison of the performance between portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional array system on pretreatment quality assurance for volumetric-modulated arc and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yon-Lae; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric performance and to evaluate the pretreatment quality assurance (QA) of a portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional (2-D) array system. In the characteristics comparison study, the measured values for the dose linearity, dose rate response, reproducibility, and field size dependence for 6-MV photon beams were analyzed for both detector systems. To perform the qualitative evaluations of the 10 IMRT and the 10 VMAT plans, we used the Gamma index for quantifying the agreement between calculations and measurements. The performance estimates for both systems show that overall, minimal differences in the dosimetric characteristics exist between the Electron portal imaging device (EPID) and 2-D array system. In the qualitative analysis for pretreatment quality assurance, the EPID and 2-D array system yield similar passing rate results for the majority of clinical Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) cases. These results were satisfactory for IMRT and VMAT fields and were within the acceptable criteria of γ % ≤1, γ avg < 0.5. The EPDI and the 2-D array systems showed comparable dosimetric results. In this study, the results revealed both systems to be suitable for patient-specific QA measurements for IMRT and VMAT. We conclude that, depending on the status of clinic, both systems can be used interchangeably for routine pretreatment QA.

  18. Comparison of the performance between portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional array system on pretreatment quality assurance for volumetric-modulated arc and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yon-Lae [Choonhae College of Health Sciences, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Woo [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung-Sik [SAM Anyang Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric performance and to evaluate the pretreatment quality assurance (QA) of a portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional (2-D) array system. In the characteristics comparison study, the measured values for the dose linearity, dose rate response, reproducibility, and field size dependence for 6-MV photon beams were analyzed for both detector systems. To perform the qualitative evaluations of the 10 IMRT and the 10 VMAT plans, we used the Gamma index for quantifying the agreement between calculations and measurements. The performance estimates for both systems show that overall, minimal differences in the dosimetric characteristics exist between the Electron portal imaging device (EPID) and 2-D array system. In the qualitative analysis for pretreatment quality assurance, the EPID and 2-D array system yield similar passing rate results for the majority of clinical Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) cases. These results were satisfactory for IMRT and VMAT fields and were within the acceptable criteria of γ{sub %}≤1, γ{sub avg} < 0.5. The EPDI and the 2-D array systems showed comparable dosimetric results. In this study, the results revealed both systems to be suitable for patient-specific QA measurements for IMRT and VMAT. We conclude that, depending on the status of clinic, both systems can be used interchangeably for routine pretreatment QA.

  19. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators

  20. Fast Computation Methods Research for Two Dimensional MUSIC Spectrum Based on Circular Array%圆阵二维 MUSIC 谱快速计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜政东; 魏平; 赵菲; 尹文禄

    2015-01-01

    针对二维波达方向估计时 MUSIC 谱的快速计算问题,研究了均匀圆阵变换到虚拟线阵的 MUSIC 算法(UCA-ULA-MUSIC)、流形分离 MUSIC 算法(MS-MUSIC)、傅立叶域线性求根 MUSIC 算法(FD-Line-Search-MU-SIC)、基于 FFT 的2n 元均匀圆阵 MUSIC 算法(2n-UCA-FFT-MUSIC)与基于 FFT 的任意圆阵 MUSIC 算法(ACA-FFT-MUSIC)。对各种算法快速计算二维 MUSIC 谱的实现步骤进行了总结。在此基础上,给出了各算法计算二维MUSIC 谱的计算复杂度表达式,并以传统方法为参考,对比了各种快速算法相对于传统方法的计算复杂度比值;同时,针对不同的阵列形式,对适用的快速算法的测向性能进行了仿真对比。根据分析和对比的结果,指出 MS-MUSIC 算法与 ACA-FFT-MUSIC 算法具有更高的工程应用价值,由具体的情况单独或分频段联合使用 MS-MUSIC算法与 ACA-FFT-MUSIC 算法,可以使测向系统较好的兼顾测向性能与时效性。%According to the fast computation problem of MUSIC spectrum in two dimensional direction of arrival estimation, the fast algorithms by manifold transformation or spectrum function transformation are studied.The implementation steps of computation method for two dimensional MUSIC spectrum by these algorithms are summarized.Furthermore,expressions for computational complexity of discussed algorithms in computing two dimensional MUSIC spectrum are presented.With refer-ence to the conventional method,the ratio of computational complexity of discussed algorithms is compared.Meanwhile,for different circular arrays,the direction finding performance of applicable algorithms is compared by simulation.It is proved that the MUSIC algorithm based on Manifold Separation (MS-MUSIC)and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)which suits to arbitrary circular array (ACA-FFT-MUSIC)have higher engineering value according to the results of analysis and com-parison.The performance and

  1. Maskless, parallel patterning with zone-plate array lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. J. D.; Gil, Dario; Menon, Rajesh; Mondol, Mark K.; Smith, Henry I.; Anderson, Erik H.

    1999-01-01

    Zone-plate array lithography (ZPAL) is a maskless lithography scheme that uses an array of shuttered zone plates to print arbitrary patterns on a substrate. An experimental ultraviolet ZPAL system has been constructed and used to simultaneously expose nine different patterns with a 3x3 array of zone plates in a quasidot-matrix fashion. We present exposed patterns, describe the system design and construction, and discuss issues essential to a functional ZPAL system. We also discuss another ZPAL system which operates with 4.5 nm x radiation from a point source. We present simulations which show that, with our existing x-ray zone plates and this system, we should be able to achieve 55 nm resolution. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  2. A development of two-dimensional birefringence distribution measurement system with a sampling rate of 1.3 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takashi; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2014-03-01

    A two-dimensional birefringence distribution measurement system with a sampling rate of 1.3 MHz is proposed. A polarization image sensor is developed as core device of the system. It is composed of a pixelated polarizer array made from photonic crystal and a parallel read out circuit with a multi-channel analog to digital converter specialized for two-dimensional polarization detection. By applying phase shifting algorism with circularly-polarized incident light, birefringence phase difference and azimuthal angle can be measured. The performance of the system is demonstrated experimentally by measuring actual birefringence distribution and polarization device such as Babinet-Soleil compensator.

  3. Parallel RNA extraction using magnetic beads and a droplet array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xu; Chen, Chun-Hong; Gao, Weimin; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2015-02-21

    Nucleic acid extraction is a necessary step for most genomic/transcriptomic analyses, but it often requires complicated mechanisms to be integrated into a lab-on-a-chip device. Here, we present a simple, effective configuration for rapidly obtaining purified RNA from low concentration cell medium. This Total RNA Extraction Droplet Array (TREDA) utilizes an array of surface-adhering droplets to facilitate the transportation of magnetic purification beads seamlessly through individual buffer solutions without solid structures. The fabrication of TREDA chips is rapid and does not require a microfabrication facility or expertise. The process takes less than 5 minutes. When purifying mRNA from bulk marine diatom samples, its repeatability and extraction efficiency are comparable to conventional tube-based operations. We demonstrate that TREDA can extract the total mRNA of about 10 marine diatom cells, indicating that the sensitivity of TREDA approaches single-digit cell numbers.

  4. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  5. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  6. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  7. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  8. Two-dimensional readout system for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional readout system has been provided for reading out locations of scintillations produced in a scintillation type radiation detector array wherein strips of scintillator material are arranged in a parallel planar array. Two sets of light guides are placed perpendicular to the scintillator strips, one on the top and one on the bottom to extend in alignment across the strips. Both the top and bottom guides are composed of a number of 90 0 triangular prisms with the lateral side forming the hypotenuse equal to twice the width of a scintillator strip. The prism system reflects light from a scintillation along one of the strips back and forth through adjacent strips to light pipes coupled to the outermost strips of the detector array which transmit light pulses to appropriate detectors to determine the scintillation along one axis. Other light pipes are connected to the end portions of the strips to transmit light from the individual strips to appropriate light detectors to indicate the particular strip activated, thereby determining the position of a scintillation along the other axis. The number of light guide pairs may be equal the number of the scintillation strips when equal spatial resolution for each of the two coordinates is desired. When the scintillator array detects an event which produces a scintillation along one of the strips, the emitted light travels along four different paths, two of which are along the strip, and two of which are through the light guide pair perpendicular to the strips until all four beams reach the outer edges of the array where they may be transmitted to light detectors by means of light pipes connected therebetween according to a binary code for direct digital readout. (U.S.)

  9. Fully parallel write/read in resistive synaptic array for accelerating on-chip learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ligang; Wang, I.-Ting; Chen, Pai-Yu; Vrudhula, Sarma; Seo, Jae-sun; Cao, Yu; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Yu, Shimeng

    2015-11-01

    A neuro-inspired computing paradigm beyond the von Neumann architecture is emerging and it generally takes advantage of massive parallelism and is aimed at complex tasks that involve intelligence and learning. The cross-point array architecture with synaptic devices has been proposed for on-chip implementation of the weighted sum and weight update in the learning algorithms. In this work, forming-free, silicon-process-compatible Ta/TaO x /TiO2/Ti synaptic devices are fabricated, in which >200 levels of conductance states could be continuously tuned by identical programming pulses. In order to demonstrate the advantages of parallelism of the cross-point array architecture, a novel fully parallel write scheme is designed and experimentally demonstrated in a small-scale crossbar array to accelerate the weight update in the training process, at a speed that is independent of the array size. Compared to the conventional row-by-row write scheme, it achieves >30× speed-up and >30× improvement in energy efficiency as projected in a large-scale array. If realistic synaptic device characteristics such as device variations are taken into an array-level simulation, the proposed array architecture is able to achieve ∼95% recognition accuracy of MNIST handwritten digits, which is close to the accuracy achieved by software using the ideal sparse coding algorithm.

  10. Fully parallel write/read in resistive synaptic array for accelerating on-chip learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ligang; Chen, Pai-Yu; Seo, Jae-sun; Cao, Yu; Yu, Shimeng; Wang, I-Ting; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Vrudhula, Sarma

    2015-01-01

    A neuro-inspired computing paradigm beyond the von Neumann architecture is emerging and it generally takes advantage of massive parallelism and is aimed at complex tasks that involve intelligence and learning. The cross-point array architecture with synaptic devices has been proposed for on-chip implementation of the weighted sum and weight update in the learning algorithms. In this work, forming-free, silicon-process-compatible Ta/TaO_x/TiO_2/Ti synaptic devices are fabricated, in which >200 levels of conductance states could be continuously tuned by identical programming pulses. In order to demonstrate the advantages of parallelism of the cross-point array architecture, a novel fully parallel write scheme is designed and experimentally demonstrated in a small-scale crossbar array to accelerate the weight update in the training process, at a speed that is independent of the array size. Compared to the conventional row-by-row write scheme, it achieves >30× speed-up and >30× improvement in energy efficiency as projected in a large-scale array. If realistic synaptic device characteristics such as device variations are taken into an array-level simulation, the proposed array architecture is able to achieve ∼95% recognition accuracy of MNIST handwritten digits, which is close to the accuracy achieved by software using the ideal sparse coding algorithm. (paper)

  11. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  12. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  13. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  14. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  15. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  16. Wideband Dual-Polarization Patch Antenna Array With Parallel Strip Line Balun Feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Nie, Liying

    2016-01-01

    A wideband dual-polarization patch antenna array is proposed in this letter. The array is fed by a parallel strip line balun, which is adopted to generate 180° phase shift in a wide frequency range. In addition, this balun has simple structure, very small phase shift error, and good ports isolati...... is higher than 30 dB. The simulation and measurement turns out to be similar. This antenna array can be used in TD-LTE base stations, and the design methods are also useful to other wideband microstrip antennas....

  17. Imaging of the dynamic magnetic structure in a parallel array of shunted Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doderer, T.; Kaplunenko, V. K.; Mygind, Jesper

    1994-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) parallel array of shunted Josephson junctions is one of the basic elements in the family of rapid single-flux quantum logic circuits. It was found recently that current steps always show up in the current-voltage curve of the generator junction when an additional bias current...

  18. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  20. Multicoil resonance-based parallel array for smart wireless power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S A; Sawan, M; Gosselin, B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel resonance-based multicoil structure as a smart power surface to wirelessly power up apparatus like mobile, animal headstage, implanted devices, etc. The proposed powering system is based on a 4-coil resonance-based inductive link, the resonance coil of which is formed by an array of several paralleled coils as a smart power transmitter. The power transmitter employs simple circuit connections and includes only one power driver circuit per multicoil resonance-based array, which enables higher power transfer efficiency and power delivery to the load. The power transmitted by the driver circuit is proportional to the load seen by the individual coil in the array. Thus, the transmitted power scales with respect to the load of the electric/electronic system to power up, and does not divide equally over every parallel coils that form the array. Instead, only the loaded coils of the parallel array transmit significant part of total transmitted power to the receiver. Such adaptive behavior enables superior power, size and cost efficiency then other solutions since it does not need to use complex detection circuitry to find the location of the load. The performance of the proposed structure is verified by measurement results. Natural load detection and covering 4 times bigger area than conventional topologies with a power transfer efficiency of 55% are the novelties of presented paper.

  1. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2014-10-21

    We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

  2. Resonance modes in one-dimensional parallel arrays of Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Delin, K.A.; Bock, R.D.; Berman, D.; Phillips, J.R.; Orlando, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate both experimentally and numerically the dynamics of discrete one-dimensional parallel arrays of underdamped Josephson junctions. In a magnetic field, measurements show steps in the current-voltage characteristics which are the discrete analogs of Fiske steps in a long Josephson junction. From the position of the steps, one can construct a plot of the dispersion relation ω(k). We observe a sine--dependence in the dispersion relation due to the discrete nature of our arrays. We also observe an additional, smaller gap at a k-value determined by the periodicity of the vortex lattice. Our measurements are supported by numerical simulations of the full dynamics. The Fiske steps provide an experimental method to measure the self-inductance of 1D parallel arrays. (orig.)

  3. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  4. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  5. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  6. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  7. Parallel-fed planar dipole antenna arrays for low-observable platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on determination of scattering of parallel-fed planar dipole arrays in terms of reflection and transmission coefficients at different levels of the array system. In aerospace vehicles, the phased arrays are often in planar configuration. The radar cross section (RCS) of the vehicle is mainly due to its structure and the antennas mounted over it. There can be situation when the signatures due to antennas dominate over the structural RCS of the platform. This necessitates the study towards the reduction and control of antenna/ array RCS. The planar dipole array is considered as a stacked linear dipole array. A systematic, step-by-step approach is used to determine the RCS pattern including the finite dimensions of dipole antenna elements. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements for planar configuration is determined. The scattering till second-level of couplers in parallel feed network is taken into account. The phase shifters are modelled as delay line. All the couplers in the feed n...

  8. 10-channel fiber array fabrication technique for parallel optical coherence tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz, Lina J.; Luo, Yuan; Castillo, Jose E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Barton, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) shows great promise for low intrusive biomedical imaging applications. A parallel OCT system is a novel technique that replaces mechanical transverse scanning with electronic scanning. This will reduce the time required to acquire image data. In this system an array of small diameter fibers is required to obtain an image in the transverse direction. Each fiber in the array is configured in an interferometer and is used to image one pixel in the transverse direction. In this paper we describe a technique to package 15μm diameter fibers on a siliconsilica substrate to be used in a 2mm endoscopic probe tip. Single mode fibers are etched to reduce the cladding diameter from 125μm to 15μm. Etched fibers are placed into a 4mm by 150μm trench in a silicon-silica substrate and secured with UV glue. Active alignment was used to simplify the lay out of the fibers and minimize unwanted horizontal displacement of the fibers. A 10-channel fiber array was built, tested and later incorporated into a parallel optical coherence system. This paper describes the packaging, testing, and operation of the array in a parallel OCT system.

  9. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  10. dc properties of series-parallel arrays of Josephson junctions in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dc theory of superconducting multijunction interferometers has previously been developed by several authors for the case of parallel junction arrays. The theory is now extended to cover the case of a loop containing several junctions connected in series. The problem is closely associated with high-T c superconductors and their clusters of intrinsic Josephson junctions. These materials exhibit spontaneous interferometric effects, and there is no reason to assume that the intrinsic junctions form only parallel arrays. A simple formalism of phase states is developed in order to express the superconducting phase differences across the junctions forming a series array as functions of the phase difference across the weakest junction of the system, and to relate the differences in critical currents of the junctions to gaps in the allowed ranges of their phase functions. This formalism is used to investigate the energy states of the array, which in the case of different junctions are split and separated by energy barriers of height depending on the phase gaps. Modifications of the washboard model of a single junction are shown. Next a superconducting inductive loop containing a series array of two junctions is considered, and this model is used to demonstrate the transitions between phase states and the associated instabilities. Finally, the critical current of a parallel connection of two series arrays is analyzed and shown to be a multivalued function of the externally applied magnetic flux. The instabilities caused by the presence of intrinsic serial junctions in granular high-T c materials are pointed out as a potential source of additional noise

  11. Linear and nonlinear excitations in two stacks of parallel arrays of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carapella, G.; Constabile, Giovanni; Latempa, R.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate a structure consisting of two parallel arrays of long Josephson junctions sharing a common electrode that allows inductive coupling between the arrays. A model for this structure is derived starting from the description of its continuous limit. The excitation of linear cavity modes...... known from continuous and discrete systems as well as the excitation of a new state exhibiting synchronization in two dimensions are inferred from the mathematical model of the system. The stable nonlinear solution of the coupled sine-Gordon equations describing the system is found to consist...

  12. Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1971-01-01

    The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.

  13. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  14. A 32-channel lattice transmission line array for parallel transmit and receive MRI at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriany, Gregor; Auerbach, Edward J; Snyder, Carl J; Gözübüyük, Ark; Moeller, Steen; Ritter, Johannes; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2010-06-01

    Transmit and receive RF coil arrays have proven to be particularly beneficial for ultra-high-field MR. Transmit coil arrays enable such techniques as B(1) (+) shimming to substantially improve transmit B(1) homogeneity compared to conventional volume coil designs, and receive coil arrays offer enhanced parallel imaging performance and SNR. Concentric coil arrangements hold promise for developing transceiver arrays incorporating large numbers of coil elements. At magnetic field strengths of 7 tesla and higher where the Larmor frequencies of interest can exceed 300 MHz, the coil array design must also overcome the problem of the coil conductor length approaching the RF wavelength. In this study, a novel concentric arrangement of resonance elements built from capacitively-shortened half-wavelength transmission lines is presented. This approach was utilized to construct an array with whole-brain coverage using 16 transceiver elements and 16 receive-only elements, resulting in a coil with a total of 16 transmit and 32 receive channels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Application of Pfortran and Co-Array Fortran in the Parallelization of the GROMOS96 Molecular Dynamics Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bała

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available After at least a decade of parallel tool development, parallelization of scientific applications remains a significant undertaking. Typically parallelization is a specialized activity supported only partially by the programming tool set, with the programmer involved with parallel issues in addition to sequential ones. The details of concern range from algorithm design down to low-level data movement details. The aim of parallel programming tools is to automate the latter without sacrificing performance and portability, allowing the programmer to focus on algorithm specification and development. We present our use of two similar parallelization tools, Pfortran and Cray's Co-Array Fortran, in the parallelization of the GROMOS96 molecular dynamics module. Our parallelization started from the GROMOS96 distribution's shared-memory implementation of the replicated algorithm, but used little of that existing parallel structure. Consequently, our parallelization was close to starting with the sequential version. We found the intuitive extensions to Pfortran and Co-Array Fortran helpful in the rapid parallelization of the project. We present performance figures for both the Pfortran and Co-Array Fortran parallelizations showing linear speedup within the range expected by these parallelization methods.

  16. Weak-periodic stochastic resonance in a parallel array of static nonlinearities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Ma

    Full Text Available This paper studies the output-input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR gain of an uncoupled parallel array of static, yet arbitrary, nonlinear elements for transmitting a weak periodic signal in additive white noise. In the small-signal limit, an explicit expression for the SNR gain is derived. It serves to prove that the SNR gain is always a monotonically increasing function of the array size for any given nonlinearity and noisy environment. It also determines the SNR gain maximized by the locally optimal nonlinearity as the upper bound of the SNR gain achieved by an array of static nonlinear elements. With locally optimal nonlinearity, it is demonstrated that stochastic resonance cannot occur, i.e. adding internal noise into the array never improves the SNR gain. However, in an array of suboptimal but easily implemented threshold nonlinearities, we show the feasibility of situations where stochastic resonance occurs, and also the possibility of the SNR gain exceeding unity for a wide range of input noise distributions.

  17. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes.

  18. Numerical Study of a Crossed Loop Coil Array for Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.; Solis, S. E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    A coil design has been recently proposed by Temnikov (Instrum Exp Tech. 2005;48;636-637), with higher experimental signal-to-noise ratio than that of the birdcage coil. It is also claimed that it is possible to individually tune it with a single chip capacitor. This coil design shows a great resemble to the gradiometer coil. These results motivated us to numerically simulate a three-coil array for parallel magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy with multi nuclear capability. The magnetic field was numerical simulated by solving Maxwell's equations with the finite element method. Uniformity profiles were calculated at the midsection for one single coil and showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Then, two more coils were added to form two different coil arrays: coil elements were equally distributed by an angle of a 30 deg. angle. Then, uniformity profiles were calculated again for all cases at the midsection. Despite the strong interaction among all coil elements, very good field uniformity can be achieved. These numerical results indicate that this coil array may be a good choice for magnetic resonance imaging parallel imaging

  19. Parallel and series FED microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A microstrip array antenna for vertically polarized fan beam (approximately 2 deg x 50 deg) for C-band SAR applications with a physical area of 1.7 m by 0.17 m comprises two rows of patch elements and employs a parallel feed to left- and right-half sections of the rows. Each section is divided into two segments that are fed in parallel with the elements in each segment fed in series through matched transmission lines for high efficiency. The inboard section has half the number of patch elements of the outboard section, and the outboard sections, which have tapered distribution with identical transmission line sections, terminated with half wavelength long open-circuit stubs so that the remaining energy is reflected and radiated in phase. The elements of the two inboard segments of the two left- and right-half sections are provided with tapered transmission lines from element to element for uniform power distribution over the central third of the entire array antenna. The two rows of array elements are excited at opposite patch feed locations with opposite (180 deg difference) phases for reduced cross-polarization.

  20. Nanopore arrays in a silicon membrane for parallel single-molecule detection: fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Zhang, Miao; Sychugov, Ilya; Roxhed, Niclas; Linnros, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Solid state nanopores enable translocation and detection of single bio-molecules such as DNA in buffer solutions. Here, sub-10 nm nanopore arrays in silicon membranes were fabricated by using electron-beam lithography to define etch pits and by using a subsequent electrochemical etching step. This approach effectively decouples positioning of the pores and the control of their size, where the pore size essentially results from the anodizing current and time in the etching cell. Nanopores with diameters as small as 7 nm, fully penetrating 300 nm thick membranes, were obtained. The presented fabrication scheme to form large arrays of nanopores is attractive for parallel bio-molecule sensing and DNA sequencing using optical techniques. In particular the signal-to-noise ratio is improved compared to other alternatives such as nitride membranes suffering from a high-luminescence background.

  1. Binary zone-plate array for a parallel joint transform correlator applied to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodate, K; Hashimoto, A; Thapliya, R

    1999-05-10

    Taking advantage of small aberrations, high efficiency, and compactness, we developed a new, to our knowledge, design procedure for a binary zone-plate array (BZPA) and applied it to a parallel joint transform correlator for the recognition of the human face. Pairs of reference and unknown images of faces are displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), Fourier transformed by the BZPA, intensity recorded on an optically addressable SLM, and inversely Fourier transformed to obtain correlation signals. Consideration of the bandwidth allows the relations among the channel number, the numerical aperture of the zone plates, and the pattern size to be determined. Experimentally a five-channel parallel correlator was implemented and tested successfully with a 100-person database. The design and the fabrication of a 20-channel BZPA for phonetic character recognition are also included.

  2. Analysis of thermal dispersion in an array of parallel plates with fully-developed laminar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiaying; Lu Tianjian; Hodson, Howard P.; Fleck, Norman A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of thermal dispersion upon heat transfer across a periodic array of parallel plates is studied. Three basic heat transfer problems are addressed, each for steady, fully-developed, laminar fluid flow: (a) transient heat transfer due to an arbitrary initial temperature distribution within the fluid, (b) steady heat transfer with constant heat flux on all plate surfaces, and (c) steady heat transfer with constant wall temperatures. For problems (a) and (b), the effective thermal dispersivity scales with the Peclet number Pe according to 1 + CPe 2 , where the coefficient C is independent of Pe. For problem (c) the coefficient C is a function of Pe.

  3. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  4. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  5. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  6. Evolution of ordered one-dimensional and two-dimensional InAs/InP quantum dot arrays on patterned InP (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B substrates by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sritirawisarn, N.; Wera, J.L.E.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Nötzel, R.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of ordered InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) arrays is demonstrated on patterned InP (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B substrates by the concept of self-organized anisotropic strain engineering in chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). On shallow- and deep stripe-patterned InP (1 0 0) substrates, depending on the

  7. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  8. Graphene – A Two-Dimensional Dirac Material

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Danny; Wicklund, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material, whose popularity has soared in both condensedmatter physics and material science the past decade. Due to its unique properties, graphene can be used in a vast array of new and interesting applications that could fundamentally change the material industry. This report reviews the current research and literature in order to trace the historical development of graphene. Then, in order to better understand the material, the unique properties of graphene are...

  9. Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.

  10. Use of two-dimensional chamber arrays in volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment verification; Empleo de matrices bidimensionales de camaras de ionizacion en la verificacion de tratamientos de arcoterapia volumetrica modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Perez Vara, C.; Prieto Villacorta, M.; Fernandez Ruiz, M. L.; Ruiz Prados, M.

    2013-09-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) requires, as another kind of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), patient-specific QA procedures. This work analyzes the method carried out in our institution for VMAT treatment verification. Our hypothesis is that traditional IMRT QA is valid for VMAT technique. Results obtained for absolute point-dose measurements with ion chamber are presented, as well as comparison with treatment planning system calculations (mean difference of (-0.50 {+-} 0.43)%). In addition, different setups with 2D ion chamber array for dose distributions comparison are analyzed. These detectors are the basis of our QA procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of those setups are shown. The present study includes results for 111 patients treated with VMAT technique from different disease sites. We conclude that 2D ion chamber arrays traditionally used in IMRT QA are valid detectors for rotational techniques if these arrays are used together with additional devices (phantoms, accessories) that allow us to obtain as much information as possible. (Author)

  11. Radar cross section of dipole phased arrays with parallel feed network

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the detailed analytical formulation for the RCS of parallel-fed linear dipole array in the presence of mutual coupling. The radar cross section (RCS) of an object represents its electromagnetic (EM) scattering properties for a given incident wave. The analysis of scattered field is critical in military and defence arenas, especially while designing low-observable platforms. It is well-known that the presence of an antenna/array on the target influences its echo area significantly. The primary cause for such scattering of the incident signals is reflection that occurs within the antenna aperture and its feed network. In this book, the RCS estimation is done based on the signal path within the antenna system. The scattered field is expressed in terms of array design parameters including the reflection and transmission coefficients. The computed results show the variation in the RCS pattern with and without mutual coupling. The effect of finite dipole-length, inter-element spacing, scan angle,...

  12. Discussion paper for a highly parallel array processor-based machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, R.; Bolotin, G.; Dawson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The architectural plant for a quickly realizable implementation of a highly parallel special-purpose computer system with peak performance in the range of 6 billion floating point operations per second is discussed. The architecture is suitable to Lattice Gauge theoretical computations of fundamental physics interest and may be applicable to a range of other problems which deal with numerically intensive computational problems. The plan is quickly realizable because it employs a maximum of commercially available hardware subsystems and because the architecture is software-transparent to the individual processors, allowing straightforward re-use of whatever commercially available operating-systems and support software that is suitable to run on the commercially-produced processors. A tiny prototype instrument, designed along this architecture has already operated. A few elementary examples of programs which can run efficiently are presented. The large machine which the authors would propose to build would be based upon a highly competent array-processor, the ST-100 Array Processor, and specific design possibilities are discussed. The first step toward realizing this plan practically is to install a single ST-100 to allow algorithm development to proceed while a demonstration unit is built using two of the ST-100 Array Processors

  13. Electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional crystals of the H+-ATPase from chloroplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böttcher, Bettina; Gräber, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Lücken, Uwe

    1995-01-01

    The H+-ATPase from spinach chloroplasts was isolated and purified. Two-dimensional crystals were obtained from the protein/lipid/detergent micelles by treatment with phospholipase and simultaneous removal of detergent and fatty acids by Biobeads. The resulting two-dimensionally ordered arrays were

  14. High-throughput fabrication of micrometer-sized compound parabolic mirror arrays by using parallel laser direct-write processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wensheng; Gu, Min; Cumming, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Micrometer-sized parabolic mirror arrays have significant applications in both light emitting diodes and solar cells. However, low fabrication throughput has been identified as major obstacle for the mirror arrays towards large-scale applications due to the serial nature of the conventional method. Here, the mirror arrays are fabricated by using a parallel laser direct-write processing, which addresses this barrier. In addition, it is demonstrated that the parallel writing is able to fabricate complex arrays besides simple arrays and thus offers wider applications. Optical measurements show that each single mirror confines the full-width at half-maximum value to as small as 17.8 μm at the height of 150 μm whilst providing a transmittance of up to 68.3% at a wavelength of 633 nm in good agreement with the calculation values. (paper)

  15. Almost two-dimensional treatment of drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.M.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The approximation of two-dimensionality is studied and extended for electrostatic drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional, magnetized plasma. It is argued on the basis of the direct interaction approximation that in the absence of parallel viscosity, purely 2-D solutions exist for which only modes with k parallel =0 are excited, but that the 2-D spectrum is unstable to perturbations at nonzero k parallel . A 1-D equation for the parallel profile g k perpendicular (k parallel ) of the saturated spectrum at steady state is derived and solved, allowing for parallel viscosity; the spectrum has finite width in k parallel , and hence finite parallel correlation length, as a result of nonlinear coupling. The enhanced energy dissipation rate, a 3-D effect, may be incorporated in the 2-D approximation by a suitable renormalization of the linear dissipation term. An algorithm is presented that reduces the 3-D problem to coupled 1- and 2-D problems. Numerical results from a 2-D spectral direct simulation, thus modified, are compared with the results from the corresponding 3-D (unmodified) simulation for a specific model of drift wave excitation. Damping at high k parallel is included. It is verified that the 1-D solution for g k perpendicular (k parallel ) accurately describes the shape and width of the 3-D spectrum, and that the modified 2-D simulation gives a good estimate of the 3-D energy saturation level and distribution E(k perpendicular )

  16. Two dimensional hybrid simulation of a curved bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.A.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from two dimensional hybrid simulations of curved collisionless supercritical shocks, retaining both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel sections of the shock in order to study the character and origin of the foreshock ion population. The simulations demonstrate that the foreshock ion population is dominated by ions impinging upon the quasi-parallel side of the shock, while nonlocal transport from the quasi-perpendicular side of the shock into the foreshock region is minimal. Further, it is shown that the ions gain energy by drifting significantly in the direction of the convection electric field through multiple shock encounters

  17. Parameter allocation of parallel array bistable stochastic resonance and its application in communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Zhai Qi-Qing; Wang You-Guo; Liu Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a parameter allocation scheme in a parallel array bistable stochastic resonance-based communication system (P-BSR-CS) to improve the performance of weak binary pulse amplitude modulated (BPAM) signal transmissions. The optimal parameter allocation policy of the P-BSR-CS is provided to minimize the bit error rate (BER) and maximize the channel capacity (CC) under the adiabatic approximation condition. On this basis, we further derive the best parameter selection theorem in realistic communication scenarios via variable transformation. Specifically, the P-BSR structure design not only brings the robustness of parameter selection optimization, where the optimal parameter pair is not fixed but variable in quite a wide range, but also produces outstanding system performance. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that in the P-BSR-CS the proposed parameter allocation scheme yields considerable performance improvement, particularly in very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. (paper)

  18. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  19. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  20. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  1. A class of parallel algorithms for computation of the manipulator inertia matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel and parallel/pipeline algorithms for computation of the manipulator inertia matrix are presented. An algorithm based on composite rigid-body spatial inertia method, which provides better features for parallelization, is used for the computation of the inertia matrix. Two parallel algorithms are developed which achieve the time lower bound in computation. Also described is the mapping of these algorithms with topological variation on a two-dimensional processor array, with nearest-neighbor connection, and with cardinality variation on a linear processor array. An efficient parallel/pipeline algorithm for the linear array was also developed, but at significantly higher efficiency.

  2. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Scattering Analysis of a Compact Dipole Array with Series and Parallel Feed Network including Mutual Coupling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sneha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current focus in defense arena is towards the stealth technology with an emphasis to control the radar cross-section (RCS. The scattering from the antennas mounted over the platform is of prime importance especially for a low-observable aerospace vehicle. This paper presents the analysis of the scattering cross section of a uniformly spaced linear dipole array. Two types of feed networks, that is, series and parallel feed networks, are considered. The total RCS of phased array with either kind of feed network is obtained by following the signal as it enters through the aperture and travels through the feed network. The RCS estimation of array is done including the mutual coupling effect between the dipole elements in three configurations, that is, side-by-side, collinear, and parallel-in-echelon. The results presented can be useful while designing a phased array with optimum performance towards low observability.

  4. Multi-mode sensor processing on a dynamically reconfigurable massively parallel processor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul; Butts, Mike; Budlong, Brad; Wasson, Paul

    2008-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel computing architecture that can be reconfigured in real time to adapt on demand to multi-mode sensor platforms' dynamic computational and functional requirements. This 1 teraOPS reconfigurable Massively Parallel Processor Array (MPPA) has 336 32-bit processors. The programmable 32-bit communication fabric provides streamlined inter-processor connections with deterministically high performance. Software programmability, scalability, ease of use, and fast reconfiguration time (ranging from microseconds to milliseconds) are the most significant advantages over FPGAs and DSPs. This paper introduces the MPPA architecture, its programming model, and methods of reconfigurability. An MPPA platform for reconfigurable computing is based on a structural object programming model. Objects are software programs running concurrently on hundreds of 32-bit RISC processors and memories. They exchange data and control through a network of self-synchronizing channels. A common application design pattern on this platform, called a work farm, is a parallel set of worker objects, with one input and one output stream. Statically configured work farms with homogeneous and heterogeneous sets of workers have been used in video compression and decompression, network processing, and graphics applications.

  5. Mobile and replicated alignment of arrays in data-parallel programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    When a data-parallel language like FORTRAN 90 is compiled for a distributed-memory machine, aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories. The mapping determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: first, an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, and then a distribution that maps the template to the processors. We solve two facets of the problem of finding alignments that reduce residual communication: we determine alignments that vary in loops, and objects that should have replicated alignments. We show that loop-dependent mobile alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance, and we provide algorithms with which a compiler can determine good mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself (via spread operations) or can be used to improve performance. We propose an algorithm based on network flow that determines which objects to replicate so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication. This work on mobile and replicated alignment extends our earlier work on determining static alignment.

  6. Wideband aperture array using RF channelizers and massively parallel digital 2D IIR filterbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arindam; Madanayake, Arjuna; Gómez-García, Roberto; Engeberg, Erik D.

    2014-05-01

    Wideband receive-mode beamforming applications in wireless location, electronically-scanned antennas for radar, RF sensing, microwave imaging and wireless communications require digital aperture arrays that offer a relatively constant far-field beam over several octaves of bandwidth. Several beamforming schemes including the well-known true time-delay and the phased array beamformers have been realized using either finite impulse response (FIR) or fast Fourier transform (FFT) digital filter-sum based techniques. These beamforming algorithms offer the desired selectivity at the cost of a high computational complexity and frequency-dependant far-field array patterns. A novel approach to receiver beamforming is the use of massively parallel 2-D infinite impulse response (IIR) fan filterbanks for the synthesis of relatively frequency independent RF beams at an order of magnitude lower multiplier complexity compared to FFT or FIR filter based conventional algorithms. The 2-D IIR filterbanks demand fast digital processing that can support several octaves of RF bandwidth, fast analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for RF-to-bits type direct conversion of wideband antenna element signals. Fast digital implementation platforms that can realize high-precision recursive filter structures necessary for real-time beamforming, at RF radio bandwidths, are also desired. We propose a novel technique that combines a passive RF channelizer, multichannel ADC technology, and single-phase massively parallel 2-D IIR digital fan filterbanks, realized at low complexity using FPGA and/or ASIC technology. There exists native support for a larger bandwidth than the maximum clock frequency of the digital implementation technology. We also strive to achieve More-than-Moore throughput by processing a wideband RF signal having content with N-fold (B = N Fclk/2) bandwidth compared to the maximum clock frequency Fclk Hz of the digital VLSI platform under consideration. Such increase in bandwidth is

  7. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system; Analisis de la dependencia direcccional de la matriz bidimensional de detectores 2D array seven29. Implicaciones en el sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  8. Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.

    2018-03-01

    The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.

  9. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  10. Parallel Array Bistable Stochastic Resonance System with Independent Input and Its Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    with independent components and averaged output; second, we give a deduction of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for this system to show the performance. Our examples show the enhancement of the system and how different parameters influence the performance of the proposed parallel array.

  11. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  12. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  13. Transparent Nanopore Cavity Arrays Enable Highly Parallelized Optical Studies of Single Membrane Proteins on Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tim; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Urban, Michael; Tampé, Robert; Tornow, Marc

    2018-06-13

    Membrane proteins involved in transport processes are key targets for pharmaceutical research and industry. Despite continuous improvements and new developments in the field of electrical readouts for the analysis of transport kinetics, a well-suited methodology for high-throughput characterization of single transporters with nonionic substrates and slow turnover rates is still lacking. Here, we report on a novel architecture of silicon chips with embedded nanopore microcavities, based on a silicon-on-insulator technology for high-throughput optical readouts. Arrays containing more than 14 000 inverted-pyramidal cavities of 50 femtoliter volumes and 80 nm circular pore openings were constructed via high-resolution electron-beam lithography in combination with reactive ion etching and anisotropic wet etching. These cavities feature both, an optically transparent bottom and top cap. Atomic force microscopy analysis reveals an overall extremely smooth chip surface, particularly in the vicinity of the nanopores, which exhibits well-defined edges. Our unprecedented transparent chip design provides parallel and independent fluorescent readout of both cavities and buffer reservoir for unbiased single-transporter recordings. Spreading of large unilamellar vesicles with efficiencies up to 96% created nanopore-supported lipid bilayers, which are stable for more than 1 day. A high lipid mobility in the supported membrane was determined by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching. Flux kinetics of α-hemolysin were characterized at single-pore resolution with a rate constant of 0.96 ± 0.06 × 10 -3 s -1 . Here, we deliver an ideal chip platform for pharmaceutical research, which features high parallelism and throughput, synergistically combined with single-transporter resolution.

  14. A new parallel algorithm and its simulation on hypercube simulator for low pass digital image filtering using systolic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallaq, A.; Amin, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a new parallel algorithm and its simulation on a hypercube simulator for the low pass digital image filtering using a systolic array. This new algorithm is faster than the old one (Amin, 1988). This is due to the the fact that the old algorithm carries out the addition operations in a sequential mode. But in our new design these addition operations are divided into tow groups, which can be performed in parallel. One group will be performed on one half of the systolic array and the other on the second half, that is, by folding. This parallelism reduces the time required for the whole process by almost quarter the time of the old algorithm.(authors). 18 refs., 3 figs

  15. Voltage quantization by ballistic vortices in two-dimensional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.P.; Delin, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The voltage generated by moving ballistic vortices with a mass m ν in a two-dimensional superconducting ring is quantized, and this quantization depends on the amount of charge enclosed by the ring. The quantization of the voltage is the dual to flux quantization in a superconductor, and is a manifestation of the Aharonov-Casher effect. The quantization is obtained by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld criterion to the canonical momentum of the ballistic vortices. The results of this quantization condition can also be used to understand the persistent voltage predicted by van Wees for an array of Josephson junctions

  16. Magnus force in discrete and continuous two-dimensional superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecse, Z.; Khlebnikov, S.

    2005-01-01

    Motion of vortices in two-dimensional superfluids in the classical limit is studied by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically on a uniform lattice. We find that, in the presence of a superflow directed along one of the main lattice periods, vortices move with the superflow on fine lattices but perpendicular to it on coarse ones. We interpret this result as a transition from the full Magnus force in a Galilean-invariant limit to vanishing effective Magnus force in a discrete system, in agreement with the existing experiments on vortex motion in Josephson junction arrays

  17. Development of micropump-actuated negative pressure pinched injection for parallel electrophoresis on array microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowei; Jiang, Lei; Xie, Hua; Gao, Yan; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-09-01

    A micropump-actuated negative pressure pinched injection method is developed for parallel electrophoresis on a multi-channel LIF detection system. The system has a home-made device that could individually control 16-port solenoid valves and a high-voltage power supply. The laser beam is excitated and distributes to the array separation channels for detection. The hybrid Glass-PDMS microfluidic chip comprises two common reservoirs, four separation channels coupled to their respective pneumatic micropumps and two reference channels. Due to use of pressure as a driving force, the proposed method has no sample bias effect for separation. There is only one high-voltage supply needed for separation without relying on the number of channels, which is significant for high-throughput analysis, and the time for sample loading is shortened to 1 s. In addition, the integrated micropumps can provide the versatile interface for coupling with other function units to satisfy the complicated demands. The performance is verified by separation of DNA marker and Hepatitis B virus DNA samples. And this method is also expected to show the potential throughput for the DNA analysis in the field of disease diagnosis.

  18. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  19. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  20. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  1. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  2. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  3. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  4. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  5. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  6. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  7. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  8. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Gao, Jun; Sun, Ke; Wang, Chao-Yue; Lai, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yao; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Jin, Xian-Min

    2018-05-01

    Quantum walks, in virtue of the coherent superposition and quantum interference, have exponential superiority over their classical counterpart in applications of quantum searching and quantum simulation. The quantum-enhanced power is highly related to the state space of quantum walks, which can be expanded by enlarging the photon number and/or the dimensions of the evolution network, but the former is considerably challenging due to probabilistic generation of single photons and multiplicative loss. We demonstrate a two-dimensional continuous-time quantum walk by using the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays, rather than the inner degree of freedoms of photons. Using femtosecond laser direct writing, we construct a large-scale three-dimensional structure that forms a two-dimensional lattice with up to 49 × 49 nodes on a photonic chip. We demonstrate spatial two-dimensional quantum walks using heralded single photons and single photon-level imaging. We analyze the quantum transport properties via observing the ballistic evolution pattern and the variance profile, which agree well with simulation results. We further reveal the transient nature that is the unique feature for quantum walks of beyond one dimension. An architecture that allows a quantum walk to freely evolve in all directions and at a large scale, combining with defect and disorder control, may bring up powerful and versatile quantum walk machines for classically intractable problems.

  10. Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed

  11. Geometrical Effects in Two-Dimensional Arrays of Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Iot (4.3.4.b) dyd a .. s -f sin =o0 (4.3.4.c) ~r Tdr n snadrs where a, 13, and rare the gauge-invariant phase differences denoted in Fig. 4.8. If we...Receive Slit Coils *_ * Slit Set-screw / -Tr Drive Coil IDrive Leads if Coil Fig. 8.7. Schematic drawing of the two-coil mututal-inductance apparatus we

  12. Growth of two-dimensional arrays of uncapped gold nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These nanoparticles have been prepared without using any kind of capping agent. Analysis by TEM showed discrete Au nanoparticles of 4 nm average diameter. AFM analysis also showed similar result. The TEM studies showed that these nanoparticles formed self-assembled coherent patterns with dimensions exceeding ...

  13. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-01-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of P rad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to P rad determined using resistive bolometers.

  14. Acoustic metamaterials for new two-dimensional sonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera sn, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    It has been shown that two-dimensional arrays of rigid or fluidlike cylinders in a fluid or a gas define, in the limit of large wavelengths, a class of acoustic metamaterials whose effective parameters (sound velocity and density) can be tailored up to a certain limit. This work goes a step further by considering arrays of solid cylinders in which the elastic properties of cylinders are taken into account. We have also treated mixtures of two different elastic cylinders. It is shown that both effects broaden the range of acoustic parameters available for designing metamaterials. For example, it is predicted that metamaterials with perfect matching of impedance with air are now possible by using aerogel and rigid cylinders equally distributed in a square lattice. As a potential application of the proposed metamaterial, we present a gradient index lens for airborne sound (i.e. a sonic Wood lens) whose functionality is demonstrated by multiple scattering simulations.

  15. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-10-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.

  16. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  18. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  19. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  20. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  1. Parallel multispot smFRET analysis using an 8-pixel SPAD array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingargiola, A.; Colyer, R. A.; Kim, D.; Panzeri, F.; Lin, R.; Gulinatti, A.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.; Weiss, S.; Michalet, X.

    2012-02-01

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a powerful tool for extracting distance information between two fluorophores (a donor and acceptor dye) on a nanometer scale. This method is commonly used to monitor binding interactions or intra- and intermolecular conformations in biomolecules freely diffusing through a focal volume or immobilized on a surface. The diffusing geometry has the advantage to not interfere with the molecules and to give access to fast time scales. However, separating photon bursts from individual molecules requires low sample concentrations. This results in long acquisition time (several minutes to an hour) to obtain sufficient statistics. It also prevents studying dynamic phenomena happening on time scales larger than the burst duration and smaller than the acquisition time. Parallelization of acquisition overcomes this limit by increasing the acquisition rate using the same low concentrations required for individual molecule burst identification. In this work we present a new two-color smFRET approach using multispot excitation and detection. The donor excitation pattern is composed of 4 spots arranged in a linear pattern. The fluorescent emission of donor and acceptor dyes is then collected and refocused on two separate areas of a custom 8-pixel SPAD array. We report smFRET measurements performed on various DNA samples synthesized with various distances between the donor and acceptor fluorophores. We demonstrate that our approach provides identical FRET efficiency values to a conventional single-spot acquisition approach, but with a reduced acquisition time. Our work thus opens the way to high-throughput smFRET analysis on freely diffusing molecules.

  2. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  3. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  5. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  6. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  7. Two-dimensional optoelectronic interconnect-processor and its operational bit error rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Jiang; Gollsneider, Brian; Chang, Wayne H.; Carhart, Gary W.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Simonis, George J.; Shoop, Barry L.

    2004-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) multi-channel 8x8 optical interconnect and processor system were designed and developed using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) driven 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays and the photodetector (PD) arrays with corresponding wavelengths. We performed operation and bit-error-rate (BER) analysis on this free-space integrated 8x8 VCSEL optical interconnects driven by silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) circuits. Pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) data sequence was used in operation of the interconnects. Eye diagrams were measured from individual channels and analyzed using a digital oscilloscope at data rates from 155 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s. Using a statistical model of Gaussian distribution for the random noise in the transmission, we developed a method to compute the BER instantaneously with the digital eye-diagrams. Direct measurements on this interconnects were also taken on a standard BER tester for verification. We found that the results of two methods were in the same order and within 50% accuracy. The integrated interconnects were investigated in an optoelectronic processing architecture of digital halftoning image processor. Error diffusion networks implemented by the inherently parallel nature of photonics promise to provide high quality digital halftoned images.

  8. a Study of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Through Parallel Arrays of Immersed Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, R. P.; Challis, R. E.

    1996-06-01

    Tubular array structures are a very common component in industrial heat exchanging plant and the non-destructive testing of these arrays is essential. Acoustic methods using microphones or ultrasound are attractive but require a thorough understanding of the acoustic properties of tube arrays. This paper details the development and testing of a small-scale physical model of a tube array to verify the predictions of a theoretical model for acoustic propagation through tube arrays developed by Heckl, Mulholland, and Huang [1-5] as a basis for the consideration of small-scale physical models in the development of non-destructive testing procedures for tube arrays. Their model predicts transmission spectra for plane waves incident on an array of tubes arranged in straight rows. Relative transmission is frequency dependent with bands of high and low attenuation caused by resonances within individual tubes and between tubes in the array. As the number of rows in the array increases the relative transmission spectrum becomes more complex, with increasingly well-defined bands of high and low attenuation. Diffraction of acoustic waves with wavelengths less than the tube spacing is predicted and appears as step reductions in the transmission spectrum at frequencies corresponding to integer multiples of the tube spacing. Experiments with the physical model confirm the principle features of the theoretical treatment.

  9. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  10. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  11. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  12. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  13. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  14. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  15. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  16. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  17. Evidence for two-dimensional ising structure in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Although the unpaired nucleons in an atomic nucleus exhibit pronounced shell-model-like behavior, the situation with respect to the paired-off ''core region'' nucleons is considerably more obscure. Several recent ''multi-alpha knockout'' and ''quasi-fission'' experiments indicate that nucleon clustering is prevalent throughout the core region of the nucleus; this same conclusion is suggested by nuclear-binding-energy systematics, by the evidence for a ''neutron halo'' in heavy nuclei and by the magnetic-moment systematics of low-mass odd-A nuclei. A number of arguments suggests, in turn, that this nucleon clustering is not spherical or spheroidal in shape, as has generally been assumed, but instead is in the form of two-dimensional Ising-like layers, with the layers arrayed perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the nucleus. The effects of this two-dimensional layering are observed most clearly in low-energy-induced fission, where nuclei with an even (odd) number of Ising layers fission symmetrically (asymmetrically). This picture of the nucleus gives an immediate quantitative explanation for the observed asymmetry in the fission of uranium, and also for the transition from symmetric to asymmetric and back to symmetric fission as the atomic number of the fissioning nuclues increase from A = 197 up to A = 258. These results suggest that, in the shell model formulation of the atomic nucleus, the basis states for the paired-off nucleon core region should be modified so as to contain laminar nucleon cluster correlations

  18. Parallel DC3 Algorithm for Suffix Array Construction on Many-Core Accelerators

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Gang; Ma, Longfei; Zang, Guangming; Tang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In bioinformatics applications, suffix arrays are widely used to DNA sequence alignments in the initial exact match phase of heuristic algorithms. With the exponential growth and availability of data, using many-core accelerators, like GPUs, to optimize existing algorithms is very common. We present a new implementation of suffix array on GPU. As a result, suffix array construction on GPU achieves around 10x speedup on standard large data sets, which contain more than 100 million characters. The idea is simple, fast and scalable that can be easily scale to multi-core processors and even heterogeneous architectures. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Parallel DC3 Algorithm for Suffix Array Construction on Many-Core Accelerators

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Gang

    2015-05-01

    In bioinformatics applications, suffix arrays are widely used to DNA sequence alignments in the initial exact match phase of heuristic algorithms. With the exponential growth and availability of data, using many-core accelerators, like GPUs, to optimize existing algorithms is very common. We present a new implementation of suffix array on GPU. As a result, suffix array construction on GPU achieves around 10x speedup on standard large data sets, which contain more than 100 million characters. The idea is simple, fast and scalable that can be easily scale to multi-core processors and even heterogeneous architectures. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  1. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  2. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  3. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  4. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  5. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  6. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  7. Two-dimensional phase fraction charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morral, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A phase fraction chart is a graphical representation of the amount of each phase present in a system as a function of temperature, composition or other variable. Examples are phase fraction versus temperature charts used to characterize specific alloys and as a teaching tool in elementary texts, and Schaeffler diagrams used to predict the amount of ferrite in stainless steel welds. Isothermal-transformation diagrams (TTT diagrams) are examples that give phase (or microconstituent) amount versus temperature and time. The purpose of this communication is to discuss the properties of two-dimensional phase fraction charts in more general terms than have been reported before. It is shown that they can represent multi-component, multiphase equilibria in a way which is easier to read and which contains more information than the isotherms and isopleths of multi-component phase diagrams

  8. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  9. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  10. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  11. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  12. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  13. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  14. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  15. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  16. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the cosmic ray storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadokura, A.; Nishida, A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical model of the cosmic ray storm in the two-dimensional heliosphere is constructed incorporating the drift effect. We estimate the effect of a flare-associated interplanetary shock and the disturbed region behind it (characterized by enhancement in velocity and magnetic field, and decrease in mean free path) on the density and anisotropy of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. As the disturbance propagates outward, a density enhancement appears on the front side, and a density depression region is produced on the rear side. The effect of drift on the cosmic ray storm appears most clearly in the higher-latitude region. For the parallel (antiparallel) state of the solar magnetic field which corresponds to the pre(post-) 1980 period, the density in the higher-latitude region decreases (increases) before the shock arrival. The maximum density depression near the earth for the parallel state is greater than for the antiparallel state, and the energy spectrum of the density depression in percentage is softer for the parallel state than for the antiparallel state. Prior to the arrival of the shock, the phase of solar diurnal anisotropy begins to shift to the earlier hours, and its amplitude becomes greater for both polarity states. North-south anisotropy also becomes greater because of the enhanced drift for both polarity states

  17. 600 GHz resonant mode in a parallel array of Josephson tunnel junctions connected by superconducting microstrip lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper

    1994-01-01

    on experimental and numerical investigations of a resonant step observed at a voltage corresponding to 600 GHz in the dc current-voltage characteristic of a parallel array of 20 identical small NbAl2O3Nb Josephson junctions interconnected by short sections of superconducting microstrip line. The junctions...... are mutually phase locked due to collective interaction with the line sections excited close to the half wavelength resonance. The phase locking range can be adjusted by means of an external dc magnetic field and the step size varies periodically with the magnetic field. The largest step corresponds...

  18. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2016-09-02

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Î

  19. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Î

  20. Vortex Generators in a Two-Dimensional, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed as part of a process to design a vortex generator array for a two-dimensional inlet for Mach 1.6. The objective is to improve total pressure recovery a on at the engine face of the inlet. Both vane-type and ramp-type vortex generators are examined.

  1. Patterning two-dimensional free-standing surfaces with mesoporous conducting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Liu, Zhaoyang; Wei, Wei; Wagner, Manfred; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Wu, Dongqing; Mai, Yiyong; Herrmann, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pattern functional moieties with well-defined architectures is highly important in material science, nanotechnology and bioengineering. Although two-dimensional surfaces can serve as attractive platforms, direct patterning them in solution with regular arrays remains a major

  2. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  3. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  4. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  5. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  6. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  7. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  8. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  10. Application of affymetrix array and massively parallel signature sequencing for identification of genes involved in prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudes, Asa J; Roach, Jared C; Walashek, Laura S; Eichner, Lillian J; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Liu, Alvin Y

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix GeneChip Array and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) are two high throughput methodologies used to profile transcriptomes. Each method has certain strengths and weaknesses; however, no comparison has been made between the data derived from Affymetrix arrays and MPSS. In this study, two lineage-related prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and C4-2, were used for transcriptome analysis with the aim of identifying genes associated with prostate cancer progression. Affymetrix GeneChip array and MPSS analyses were performed. Data was analyzed with GeneSpring 6.2 and in-house perl scripts. Expression array results were verified with RT-PCR. Comparison of the data revealed that both technologies detected genes the other did not. In LNCaP, 3,180 genes were only detected by Affymetrix and 1,169 genes were only detected by MPSS. Similarly, in C4-2, 4,121 genes were only detected by Affymetrix and 1,014 genes were only detected by MPSS. Analysis of the combined transcriptomes identified 66 genes unique to LNCaP cells and 33 genes unique to C4-2 cells. Expression analysis of these genes in prostate cancer specimens showed CA1 to be highly expressed in bone metastasis but not expressed in primary tumor and EPHA7 to be expressed in normal prostate and primary tumor but not bone metastasis. Our data indicates that transcriptome profiling with a single methodology will not fully assess the expression of all genes in a cell line. A combination of transcription profiling technologies such as DNA array and MPSS provides a more robust means to assess the expression profile of an RNA sample. Finally, genes that were differentially expressed in cell lines were also differentially expressed in primary prostate cancer and its metastases

  11. Real-time data acquisition and parallel data processing solution for TJ-II Bolometer arrays diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es; Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, S. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Machon, D. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ochando, M. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    Maps of local plasma emissivity of TJ-II plasmas are determined using three-array cameras of silicon photodiodes (AXUV type from IRD). They have assigned the top and side ports of the same sector of the vacuum vessel. Each array consists of 20 unfiltered detectors. The signals from each of these detectors are the inputs to an iterative algorithm of tomographic reconstruction. Currently, these signals are acquired by a PXI standard system at approximately 50 kS/s, with 12 bits of resolution and are stored for off-line processing. A 0.5 s discharge generates 3 Mbytes of raw data. The algorithm's load exceeds the CPU capacity of the PXI system's controller in a continuous mode, making unfeasible to process the samples in parallel with their acquisition in a PXI standard system. A new architecture model has been developed, making possible to add one or several processing cards to a standard PXI system. With this model, it is possible to define how to distribute, in real-time, the data from all acquired signals in the system among the processing cards and the PXI controller. This way, by distributing the data processing among the system controller and two processing cards, the data processing can be done in parallel with the acquisition. Hence, this system configuration would be able to measure even in long pulse devices.

  12. Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lash, J.S.

    1999-07-01

    The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility.

  13. Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility

  14. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  15. Fully Integrated Linear Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) Array with Parallel Readout Circuit in a Standard 180 nm CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, S.; Bull, S.; Pitter, M. C.; Harrison, Ian.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of a SPAD device and its subsequent use in an actively quenched single photon counting imaging system, and was fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. A low-doped p- guard ring (t-well layer) encircling the active area to prevent the premature reverse breakdown. The array is a 16×1 parallel output SPAD array, which comprises of an active quenched SPAD circuit in each pixel with the current value being set by an external resistor RRef = 300 kΩ. The SPAD I-V response, ID was found to slowly increase until VBD was reached at excess bias voltage, Ve = 11.03 V, and then rapidly increase due to avalanche multiplication. Digital circuitry to control the SPAD array and perform the necessary data processing was designed in VHDL and implemented on a FPGA chip. At room temperature, the dark count was found to be approximately 13 KHz for most of the 16 SPAD pixels and the dead time was estimated to be 40 ns.

  16. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT.

  17. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y; Chang, C-C; Zou, J; Wang, L V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT. (paper)

  18. Choosing processor array configuration by performance modeling for a highly parallel linear algebra algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, R.J.; Maschhoff, K.J.

    1991-04-01

    Many linear algebra algorithms utilize an array of processors across which matrices are distributed. Given a particular matrix size and a maximum number of processors, what configuration of processors, i.e., what size and shape array, will execute the fastest? The answer to this question depends on tradeoffs between load balancing, communication startup and transfer costs, and computational overhead. In this paper we analyze in detail one algorithm: the blocked factored Jacobi method for solving dense eigensystems. A performance model is developed to predict execution time as a function of the processor array and matrix sizes, plus the basic computation and communication speeds of the underlying computer system. In experiments on a large hypercube (up to 512 processors), this model has been found to be highly accurate (mean error ∼ 2%) over a wide range of matrix sizes (10 x 10 through 200 x 200) and processor counts (1 to 512). The model reveals, and direct experiment confirms, that the tradeoffs mentioned above can be surprisingly complex and counterintuitive. We propose decision procedures based directly on the performance model to choose configurations for fastest execution. The model-based decision procedures are compared to a heuristic strategy and shown to be significantly better. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Database Reorganization in Parallel Disk Arrays with I/O Service Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabback, Peter; Onyuksel, Ibrahim; Scheuermann, Peter; Weikum, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for data reorganization in parallel disk systems that is geared towards load balancing in an environment with periodic access patterns. Data reorganization is performed by disk cooling, i.e. migrating files or extents from the hottest disks to the coldest ones. We develop an approximate queueing model for determining the effective arrival rates of cooling requests and discuss its use in assessing the costs versus benefits of cooling.

  20. Large area two dimensional position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, H.; Olmi, A.; Lynen, U.; Stelzer, H.; Gobbi, A.; Bock, R.

    1979-02-01

    After an introduction, a position-sensitive ionization chamber, a parallel-plate detector, and a multiwire position-sensitive chamber are described. Then the data acquisition and analysis methods are considered. Furthermore, the experimental methods for a multi-parameter experiment are described. Finally, the measurement of gamma-ray and neutron multiplicities and sequential fission is considered, and the results are presented. (HSI) [de

  1. Field Programmable Gate Array Based Parallel Strapdown Algorithm Design for Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Hua Ma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new generalized optimum strapdown algorithm with coning and sculling compensation is presented, in which the position, velocity and attitude updating operations are carried out based on the single-speed structure in which all computations are executed at a single updating rate that is sufficiently high to accurately account for high frequency angular rate and acceleration rectification effects. Different from existing algorithms, the updating rates of the coning and sculling compensations are unrelated with the number of the gyro incremental angle samples and the number of the accelerometer incremental velocity samples. When the output sampling rate of inertial sensors remains constant, this algorithm allows increasing the updating rate of the coning and sculling compensation, yet with more numbers of gyro incremental angle and accelerometer incremental velocity in order to improve the accuracy of system. Then, in order to implement the new strapdown algorithm in a single FPGA chip, the parallelization of the algorithm is designed and its computational complexity is analyzed. The performance of the proposed parallel strapdown algorithm is tested on the Xilinx ISE 12.3 software platform and the FPGA device XC6VLX550T hardware platform on the basis of some fighter data. It is shown that this parallel strapdown algorithm on the FPGA platform can greatly decrease the execution time of algorithm to meet the real-time and high precision requirements of system on the high dynamic environment, relative to the existing implemented on the DSP platform.

  2. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  3. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  4. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  5. Metalenses based on the non-parallel double-slit arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongyan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jicheng; Pan, Liang; Sang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Metalenses based on surface plasmon polaritons have played an indispensable role in ultra-thin devices designing. The amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves all can be controlled easily by modifying the metasurface structures. Here we propose and investigate a new type of structure with Babinet-inverted nano-antennas which can provide a series of unit-cells with phase-shifts covering 2π and ensure almost same transmittance simultaneously. As a result, the wavefront can be manipulated by arraying the units in course. Metalenses with the linear asymmetrical double slit unit-cell arrays are designed and the simulative results exhibit their perfect focusing characteristics, including single-focus lenses and multi-focus lenses. The small focus size and high numerical aperture make them stand out from the traditional counterparts in application of precision sensing devices. We expect our designs will provide new insights in the practical applications for metasurfaces in data storages, optical information processing and optical holography.

  6. Properties of the center of gravity as an algorithm for position measurements: Two-dimensional geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Landi, Gregorio

    2003-01-01

    The center of gravity as an algorithm for position measurements is analyzed for a two-dimensional geometry. Several mathematical consequences of discretization for various types of detector arrays are extracted. Arrays with rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular detectors are analytically studied, and tools are given to simulate their discretization properties. Special signal distributions free of discretized error are isolated. It is proved that some crosstalk spreads are able to eliminate the center of gravity discretization error for any signal distribution. Simulations, adapted to the CMS em-calorimeter and to a triangular detector array, are provided for energy and position reconstruction algorithms with a finite number of detectors.

  7. Parallel array of nanochannels grafted with polymer-brushes-stabilized Au nanoparticles for flow-through catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxi; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Jia, Lei; Yu, Bo; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng

    2013-12-07

    Smart systems on the nanometer scale for continuous flow-through reaction present fascinating advantages in heterogeneous catalysis, in which a parallel array of straight nanochannels offers a platform with high surface area for assembling and stabilizing metallic nanoparticles working as catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a method for finely modifying the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), and further integration of nanoreactors. By using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), polymer brushes were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the nanochannels of the AAO membrane, followed by exchanging counter ions with a precursor for nanoparticles (NPs), and used as the template for deposition of well-defined Au NPs. The membrane was used as a functional nanochannel for novel flow-through catalysis. High catalytic performance and instantaneous separation of products from the reaction system was achieved in reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  8. Parallel array of nanochannels grafted with polymer-brushes-stabilized Au nanoparticles for flow-through catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxi; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Jia, Lei; Yu, Bo; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng

    2013-11-01

    Smart systems on the nanometer scale for continuous flow-through reaction present fascinating advantages in heterogeneous catalysis, in which a parallel array of straight nanochannels offers a platform with high surface area for assembling and stabilizing metallic nanoparticles working as catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a method for finely modifying the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), and further integration of nanoreactors. By using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), polymer brushes were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the nanochannels of the AAO membrane, followed by exchanging counter ions with a precursor for nanoparticles (NPs), and used as the template for deposition of well-defined Au NPs. The membrane was used as a functional nanochannel for novel flow-through catalysis. High catalytic performance and instantaneous separation of products from the reaction system was achieved in reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  9. Design and optimization of multi-class series-parallel linear electromagnetic array artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ji, Zhenyu; Shi, Xuetao; You, Fusheng; Fu, Feng; Liu, Ruigang; Xia, Junying; Wang, Nan; Bai, Jing; Wang, Zhanxi; Qin, Xiansheng; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibiting complex and excellent precision has evolved for millions of years. Skeletal muscle has better performance and simpler structure compared with existing driving modes. Artificial muscle may be designed by analyzing and imitating properties and structure of skeletal muscle based on bionics, which has been focused on by bionic researchers, and a structure mode of linear electromagnetic array artificial muscle has been designed in this paper. Half sarcomere is the minimum unit of artificial muscle and electromagnetic model has been built. The structural parameters of artificial half sarcomere actuator were optimized to achieve better movement performance. Experimental results show that artificial half sarcomere actuator possesses great motion performance such as high response speed, great acceleration, small weight and size, robustness, etc., which presents a promising application prospect of artificial half sarcomere actuator.

  10. High-resolution parallel-detection sensor array using piezo-phototronics effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L.; Pan, Caofeng

    2015-07-28

    A pressure sensor element includes a substrate, a first type of semiconductor material layer and an array of elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures extending upwardly from the first type of semiconductor material layer. A p-n junction is formed between each nanostructure and the first type semiconductor layer. An insulative resilient medium layer is infused around each of the elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures. A transparent planar electrode, disposed on the resilient medium layer, is electrically coupled to the top of each nanostructure. A voltage source is coupled to the first type of semiconductor material layer and the transparent planar electrode and applies a biasing voltage across each of the nanostructures. Each nanostructure emits light in an intensity that is proportional to an amount of compressive strain applied thereto.

  11. Parallel image-acquisition in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance imaging with a surface coil array: Proof-of-concept experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Ayano; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of parallel image-acquisition using a two-channel surface coil array in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging. Parallel EPR imaging was performed by multiplexing of EPR detection in the frequency domain. The parallel acquisition system consists of two surface coil resonators and radiofrequency (RF) bridges for EPR detection. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method of parallel image-acquisition with a surface coil array, three-dimensional EPR imaging was carried out using a tube phantom. Technical issues in the multiplexing method of EPR detection were also clarified. We found that degradation in the signal-to-noise ratio due to the interference of RF carriers is a key problem to be solved.

  12. Sub-nanometre channels embedded in two-dimensional materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-12-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically thin p–n junctions2,3,4,5,6,7,8, metal–semiconductor contacts9,10,11, and metal–insulator barriers12,13,14 have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified other combinations of 2D materials where 1D channels can also be formed. The electronic band structure of these 1D channels offers the promise of carrier confinement in a direct-gap material and the charge separation needed to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  13. Two dimensional spatial distortion correction algorithm for scintillation GAMMA cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, R.; Gray, E.; Jih, F.; King, S.E.; Lim, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial distortion in an Anger gamma camera originates fundamentally from the discrete nature of scintillation light sampling with an array of PMT's. Historically digital distortion correction started with the method based on the distortion measurement by using 1-D slit pattern and the subsequent on-line bi-linear approximation with 64 x 64 look-up tables for X and Y. However, the X, Y distortions are inherently two-dimensional in nature, and thus the validity of this 1-D calibration method becomes questionable with the increasing distortion amplitude in association with the effort to get better spatial and energy resolutions. The authors have developed a new accurate 2-D correction algorithm. This method involves the steps of; data collection from 2-D orthogonal hole pattern, 2-D distortion vector measurement, 2-D Lagrangian polynomial interpolation, and transformation to X, Y ADC frame. The impact of numerical precision used in correction and the accuracy of bilinear approximation with varying look-up table size have been carefully examined through computer simulation by using measured single PMT light response function together with Anger positioning logic. Also the accuracy level of different order Lagrangian polynomial interpolations for correction table expansion from hole centroids were investigated. Detailed algorithm and computer simulation are presented along with camera test results

  14. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-07-31

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2-7, metal-semiconductor contacts8-10, and metal-insulator barriers11-13 have been demonstrated. While 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions are also necessary. Although external one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes14 can be used to locally gate 2D materials, this adds a non-trivial third dimension, complicating device integration and flexibility. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometer 1D MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalyzed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have identified other combinations of 2D materials that could form 1D channels. Density function theory (DFT) calculation predicts these 1D channels display type II band alignment needed for carrier confinement and charge separation to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  15. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Presently, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images are usually reconstructed by arbitrarily selecting a one-dimensional ''window'' function for use in reconstruction. A better method would be to automatically choose among a family of two-dimensional image restoration filters in such a way as to produce ''optimum'' image quality. Two-dimensional image processing techniques offer the advantages of a larger statistical sampling of the data for better noise reduction, and two-dimensional image deconvolution to correct for blurring during acquisition. An investigation of two such ''optimal'' digital image restoration techniques (the count-dependent Metz filter and the Wiener filter) was made. They were applied both as two-dimensional ''window'' functions for preprocessing SPECT images, and for filtering reconstructed images. Their performance was compared by measuring image contrast and per cent fractional standard deviation (% FSD) in multiple-acquisitions of the Jaszczak SPECT phantom at two different count levels. A statistically significant increase in image contrast and decrease in % FSD was observed with these techniques when compared to the results of reconstruction with a ramp filter. The adaptability of the techniques was manifested in a lesser % reduction in % FSD at the high count level coupled with a greater enhancement in image contrast. Using an array processor, processing time was 0.2 sec per image for the Metz filter and 3 sec for the Wiener filter. It is concluded that two-dimensional digital image restoration with these techniques can produce a significant increase in SPECT image quality

  16. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  17. Platinum plasmonic nanostructure arrays for massively parallel single-molecule detection based on enhanced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Toshiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Obara, Takayuki; Itabashi, Naoshi; Imai, Kazumichi

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated platinum bowtie nanostructure arrays producing fluorescence enhancement and evaluated their performance using two-photon photoluminescence and single-molecule fluorescence measurements. A comprehensive selection of suitable materials was explored by electromagnetic simulation and Pt was chosen as the plasmonic material for visible light excitation near 500 nm, which is preferable for multicolor dye-labeling applications like DNA sequencing. The observation of bright photoluminescence (λ = 500-600 nm) from each Pt nanostructure, induced by irradiation at 800 nm with a femtosecond laser pulse, clearly indicates that a highly enhanced local field is created near the Pt nanostructure. The attachment of a single dye molecule was attempted between the Pt triangles of each nanostructure by using selective immobilization chemistry. The fluorescence intensities of the single dye molecule localized on the nanostructures were measured. A highly enhanced fluorescence, which was increased by a factor of 30, was observed. The two-photon photoluminescence intensity and fluorescence intensity showed qualitatively consistent gap size dependence. However, the average fluorescence enhancement factor was rather repressed even in the nanostructure with the smallest gap size compared to the large growth of photoluminescence. The variation of the position of the dye molecule attached to the nanostructure may influence the wide distribution of the fluorescence enhancement factor and cause the rather small average value of the fluorescence enhancement factor.

  18. Parallel recognition of cancer cells using an addressable array of solid-state micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Azhar; Asghar, Waseem; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M

    2014-12-15

    Early stage detection and precise quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients are important for early diagnosis. Early diagnosis improves the effectiveness of the therapy and results in better prognosis. Several techniques have been used for CTC detection but are limited by their need for dye tagging, low throughput and lack of statistical reliability at single cell level. Solid-state micropores can characterize each cell in a sample providing interesting information about cellular populations. We report a multi-channel device which utilized solid-state micropores array assembly for simultaneous measurement of cell translocation. This increased the throughput of measurement and as the cells passed the micropores, tumor cells showed distinctive current blockade pulses, when compared to leukocytes. The ionic current across each micropore channel was continuously monitored and recorded. The measurement system not only increased throughput but also provided on-chip cross-relation. The whole blood was lysed to get rid of red blood cells, so the blood dilution was not needed. The approach facilitated faster processing of blood samples with tumor cell detection efficiency of about 70%. The design provided a simple and inexpensive method for rapid and reliable detection of tumor cells without any cell staining or surface functionalization. The device can also be used for high throughput electrophysiological analysis of other cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in; Joy, Ashwin [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Undriven, incompressible Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional doubly periodic strongly coupled dusty plasma is modelled using generalised hydrodynamics, both in linear and nonlinear regime. A complete stability diagram is obtained for low Reynolds numbers R and for a range of viscoelastic relaxation time τ{sub m} [0 < τ{sub m} < 10]. For the system size considered, using a linear stability analysis, similar to Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0), it is found that for Reynolds number beyond a critical R, say R{sub c}, the Kolmogorov flow becomes unstable. Importantly, it is found that R{sub c} is strongly reduced for increasing values of τ{sub m}. A critical τ{sub m}{sup c} is found above which Kolmogorov flow is unconditionally unstable and becomes independent of Reynolds number. For R < R{sub c}, the neutral stability regime found in Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0) is now found to be a damped regime in viscoelastic fluids, thus changing the fundamental nature of transition of Kolmogorov flow as function of Reynolds number R. A new parallelized nonlinear pseudo spectral code has been developed and is benchmarked against eigen values for Kolmogorov flow obtained from linear analysis. Nonlinear states obtained from the pseudo spectral code exhibit cyclicity and pattern formation in vorticity and viscoelastic oscillations in energy.

  20. Fluctuations and symmetries in two-dimensional active gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N; Basu, A

    2011-04-01

    Motivated by the unique physical properties of biological active matter, e.g., cytoskeletal dynamics in eukaryotic cells, we set up effective two-dimensional (2d) coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations for the dynamics of thin active gels with polar or nematic symmetries. We use the well-known three-dimensional (3d) descriptions (K. Kruse et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 5 (2005); A. Basu et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 149 (2008)) for thin active-gel samples confined between parallel plates with appropriate boundary conditions to derive the effective 2d constitutive relations between appropriate thermodynamic fluxes and generalised forces for small deviations from equilibrium. We consider three distinct cases, characterised by spatial symmetries and boundary conditions, and show how such considerations dictate the structure of the constitutive relations. We use these to study the linear instabilities, calculate the correlation functions and the diffusion constant of a small tagged particle, and elucidate their dependences on the activity or nonequilibrium drive.

  1. Two-dimensional PIC-MCC simulation of ion extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiagui; Wang Dewu

    2000-01-01

    To explore more simple and efficient ion extraction methods used in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), two-dimensional (2D) PIC-MCC simulation code is used to simulate and compare several methods: parallel electrode method, II type electrode method, improved M type electrode method, and radio frequency (RF) resonance method. The simulations show that, the RF resonance method without magnetic field is the best among others, then the improved M type electrode method. The result of simulation of II type electrode method is quite different from that calculated by 2D electron equilibrium model. The RF resonance method with or without magnetic field has guide different results. Strong resonance occurs in the simulation without magnetic field, whereas no significant resonance occurs under weak magnetic field. And that is quite different from the strong resonance phenomena occurring in the 1D PIC simulation with weak magnetic field. As for practical applications, the RF resonance method without magnetic field has pros and cons, compared with the M type electrode method

  2. A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady

  3. Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Joohwan; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-12-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display that uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal based on the principle of integral imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, a lens array is located behind a transmission-type display panel to form an array of point-light sources, and a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal is electrically controlled to pass or to scatter light coming from these point-light sources. Therefore, three-dimensional-two-dimensional conversion is accomplished electrically without any mechanical movement. Moreover, the nonimaging structure of the proposed method increases the expressible depth range considerably. We explain the method of operation and present experimental results.

  4. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  5. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  6. Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane.

  7. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  8. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  9. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Su; Deng, Yanqing; Ge, Xulei; Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong; Zhao, Li; Ma, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  10. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Su [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Deng, Yanqing [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ge, Xulei [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhao, Li [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ma, Yanyun [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); and others

    2017-07-11

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  11. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: gorodn@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  12. Melting in Two-Dimensional Lennard-Jones Systems: Observation of a Metastable Hexatic Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Kaplan, T.; Mostoller, M.

    1995-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of two-dimensional melting have been carried out using a recently revised Parrinello-Rahman scheme on massively parallel supercomputers. A metastable state is observed between the solid and liquid phases in Lennard-Jones systems of 36 864 and 102 400 atoms. This intermediate state shows the characteristics of the hexatic phase predicted by the theory of Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young

  13. Efficient construction of two-dimensional cluster states with probabilistic quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qing; Cheng Jianhua; Wang Kelin; Du Jiangfeng

    2006-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for constructing arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) cluster states using probabilistic entangling quantum gates. In our scheme, the 2D cluster state is constructed with starlike basic units generated from 1D cluster chains. By applying parallel operations, the process of generating 2D (or higher-dimensional) cluster states is significantly accelerated, which provides an efficient way to implement realistic one-way quantum computers

  14. Electronic properties in a two-dimensional disordered electron liquid: Spin-valley interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a detailed study of the influence of the spin and valley splittings on such physical observables of the two-dimensional disordered electron liquid as resistivity and spin and valley susceptibilities. We explain qualitatively the nonmonotonic dependence of the resistivity on temperature in the presence of a parallel magnetic field. In the presence of either spin or valley splitting we predict a temperature dependence of the resistivity with two maximum points

  15. MRI of the wrist at 7 tesla using an eight-channel array coil combined with parallel imaging: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gregory; Friedrich, Klaus M; Wang, Ligong; Vieira, Renata L R; Schweitzer, Mark E; Recht, Michael P; Wiggins, Graham C; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2010-03-01

    To determine the feasibility of performing MRI of the wrist at 7 Tesla (T) with parallel imaging and to evaluate how acceleration factors (AF) affect signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and image quality. This study had institutional review board approval. A four-transmit eight-receive channel array coil was constructed in-house. Nine healthy subjects were scanned on a 7T whole-body MR scanner. Coronal and axial images of cartilage and trabecular bone micro-architecture (3D-Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) with and without fat suppression, repetition time/echo time = 20 ms/4.5 ms, flip angle = 10 degrees , 0.169-0.195 x 0.169-0.195 mm, 0.5-1 mm slice thickness) were obtained with AF 1, 2, 3, 4. T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), proton density-weighted FSE, and multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) sequences were also performed. SNR and CNR were measured. Three musculoskeletal radiologists rated image quality. Linear correlation analysis and paired t-tests were performed. At higher AF, SNR and CNR decreased linearly for cartilage, muscle, and trabecular bone (r < -0.98). At AF 4, reductions in SNR/CNR were:52%/60% (cartilage), 72%/63% (muscle), 45%/50% (trabecular bone). Radiologists scored images with AF 1 and 2 as near-excellent, AF 3 as good-to-excellent (P = 0.075), and AF 4 as average-to-good (P = 0.11). It is feasible to perform high resolution 7T MRI of the wrist with parallel imaging. SNR and CNR decrease with higher AF, but image quality remains above-average.

  16. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies ofTwo-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Anthony Marshall [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-05-20

    In order to better understand the fundamental components that govern catalytic activity, two-dimensional model platinum nanocatalyst arrays have been designed and fabricated. These catalysts arrays are meant to model the interplay of the metal and support important to industrial heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Photolithography and sub-lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography, size reduction lithography and nanoimprint lithography have been employed to create these platinum nanoarrays. Both in-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques and catalytic reaction measurements were used to correlate the structural parameters of the system to catalytic activity.

  17. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States); Reno, J. L. [CINT, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.

  19. Infrared laser transillumination CT imaging system using parallel fiber arrays and optical switches for finger joint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Emori, Ryota; Inage, Hiroki; Goto, Masaki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Devaraj, Balasigamani; Akatsuka, Takao

    2004-05-01

    The heterodyne detection technique, on which the coherent detection imaging (CDI) method founds, can discriminate and select very weak, highly directional forward scattered, and coherence retaining photons that emerge from scattering media in spite of their complex and highly scattering nature. That property enables us to reconstruct tomographic images using the same reconstruction technique as that of X-Ray CT, i.e., the filtered backprojection method. Our group had so far developed a transillumination laser CT imaging method based on the CDI method in the visible and near-infrared regions and reconstruction from projections, and reported a variety of tomographic images both in vitro and in vivo of biological objects to demonstrate the effectiveness to biomedical use. Since the previous system was not optimized, it took several hours to obtain a single image. For a practical use, we developed a prototype CDI-based imaging system using parallel fiber array and optical switches to reduce the measurement time significantly. Here, we describe a prototype transillumination laser CT imaging system using fiber-optic based on optical heterodyne detection for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by demonstrating the tomographic imaging of acrylic phantom as well as the fundamental imaging properties. We expect that further refinements of the fiber-optic-based laser CT imaging system could lead to a novel and practical diagnostic tool for rheumatoid arthritis and other joint- and bone-related diseases in human finger.

  20. Surface-modified CMOS IC electrochemical sensor array targeting single chromaffin cells for highly parallel amperometry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Delacruz, Joannalyn B; Ruelas, John C; Rathore, Shailendra S; Lindau, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Amperometry is a powerful method to record quantal release events from chromaffin cells and is widely used to assess how specific drugs modify quantal size, kinetics of release, and early fusion pore properties. Surface-modified CMOS-based electrochemical sensor arrays allow simultaneous recordings from multiple cells. A reliable, low-cost technique is presented here for efficient targeting of single cells specifically to the electrode sites. An SU-8 microwell structure is patterned on the chip surface to provide insulation for the circuitry as well as cell trapping at the electrode sites. A shifted electrode design is also incorporated to increase the flexibility of the dimension and shape of the microwells. The sensitivity of the electrodes is validated by a dopamine injection experiment. Microwells with dimensions slightly larger than the cells to be trapped ensure excellent single-cell targeting efficiency, increasing the reliability and efficiency for on-chip single-cell amperometry measurements. The surface-modified device was validated with parallel recordings of live chromaffin cells trapped in the microwells. Rapid amperometric spikes with no diffusional broadening were observed, indicating that the trapped and recorded cells were in very close contact with the electrodes. The live cell recording confirms in a single experiment that spike parameters vary significantly from cell to cell but the large number of cells recorded simultaneously provides the statistical significance.

  1. Two-dimensional model of a freely expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Q.

    1975-01-01

    The free expansion of an initially confined plasma is studied by the computer experiment technique. The research is an extension to two dimensions of earlier work on the free expansion of a collisionless plasma in one dimension. In the two-dimensional rod model, developed in this research, the plasma particles, electrons and ions are modeled as infinitely long line charges or rods. The line charges move freely in two dimensions normal to their parallel axes, subject only to a self-consistent electric field. Two approximations, the grid approximation and the periodic boundary condition are made in order to reduce the computation time. In the grid approximation, the space occupied by the plasma at a given time is divided into boxes. The particles are subject to an average electric field calculated for that box assuming that the total charge within each box is located at the center of the box. However, the motion of each particle is exactly followed. The periodic boundary condition allows us to consider only one-fourth of the total number of particles of the plasma, representing the remaining three-fourths of the particles as symmetrically placed images of those whose positions are calculated. This approximation follows from the expected azimuthal symmetry of the plasma. The dynamics of the expansion are analyzed in terms of average ion and electron positions, average velocities, oscillation frequencies and relative distribution of energy between thermal, flow and electric field energies. Comparison is made with previous calculations of one-dimensional models which employed plane, spherical or cylindrical sheets as charged particles. In order to analyze the effect of the grid approximation, the model is solved for two different grid sizes and for each grid size the plasma dynamics is determined. For the initial phase of expansion, the agreement for the two grid sizes is found to be good

  2. Application of CRAFT in two-dimensional NMR data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish; Sefler, Andrea M; Russell, David J

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) data are typically truncated in both dimensions, but invariably and severely so in the indirect dimension. These truncated FIDs and/or interferograms are extensively zero filled, and Fourier transformation of such zero-filled data is always preceded by a rapidly decaying apodization function. Hence, the frequency line width in the spectrum (at least parallel to the evolution dimension) is almost always dominated by the apodization function. Such apodization-driven line broadening in the indirect (t 1 ) dimension leads to the lack of clear resolution of cross peaks in the 2D spectrum. Time-domain analysis (i.e. extraction of frequency, amplitudes, line width, and phase parameters directly from the FID, in this case via Bayesian modeling into a tabular format) of NMR data is another approach for spectral resonance characterization and quantification. The recently published complete reduction to amplitude frequency table (CRAFT) technique converts the raw FID data (i.e. time-domain data) into a table of frequencies, amplitudes, decay rate constants, and phases. CRAFT analyses of time-domain data require minimal or no apodization prior to extraction of the four parameters. We used the CRAFT processing approach for the decimation of the interferograms and compared the results from a variety of 2D spectra against conventional processing with and without linear prediction. The results show that use of the CRAFT technique to decimate the t 1 interferograms yields much narrower spectral line width of the resonances, circumventing the loss of resolution due to apodization. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of 13 C and 1 H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface

  4. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.

  5. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  6. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  7. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  8. Nested dissection on a mesh-connected processor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P.H.; Schreiber, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a parallel implementation of Gaussian elimination without pivoting using the nested dissection ordering for solving Ax=b where A is an N x N symmetric positive definite matrix. If the graph of A is a √N x √N finite element mesh then a parallel complexity of O(√N) can be achieved for Gaussian elimination with the nested dissection ordering. The authors' implementation achieves this parallel complexity on a two dimensional MIMD processor array with N processors and nearest neighbors interconnections. Thus nested dissection is a near optimal algorithm for this problem on this interconnection topology. The parallel implementation on this architecture requires 158√N + O(log/sub 2/(√N)) parallel floating point multiplications. It is faster than a Kung-Leiserson systolic array for banded matrices for N≥961, and faster than a serial implementation for N as small as 9

  9. Supercomputers and parallel computation. Based on the proceedings of a workshop on progress in the use of vector and array processors organised by the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and held in Bristol, 2-3 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddon, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is based on the proceedings of a conference on parallel computing held in 1982. There are 18 papers which cover the following topics: VLSI parallel architectures, the theory of parallel computing and vector and array processor computing. One paper on 'Tough Problems in Reactor Design' is indexed separately. All the contributions are on research done in the United Kingdom. Although much of the experience in array processor computing is associated with the ICL distributed array processor (DAP) and this is reflected in the contributions, the research relating to the ICL DAP is relevant to all types of array processors. (UK)

  10. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  11. Two-dimensional electronic femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie J.P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with a femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering probe. The method reveals correlations between excitation energy and excited state vibrational structure following photoexcitation. We demonstrate the method in rhodamine 6G.

  12. Generalized similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009 ... temperature two-dimensional MHD laminar boundary layer of incompressible fluid. ...... Φ η is Blasius solution for stationary boundary layer on the plate,. ( ). 0.

  13. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Kai, Qi; Tao, Zhu; Yong, Chen; Ji-Rong, Ren

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  14. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  15. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  16. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  17. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  18. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  19. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  20. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  1. Coupling between Fano and Bragg bands in the photonic band structure of two- dimensional metallic photonic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markoš, P.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 033845. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14028 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Crystal structure * Photonic crystals * Two-dimensional arrays Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  2. Two-dimensional convolution subject to data-spreading algorithm. Report for August 1985-July 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y C; Wang, H C

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for two-dimensional convolution is proposed to be highly efficient and suitable for parallel processing, and a hardware of pipeline architecture is implemented to realize the algorithm. The implemented hardware is built on an IBM personal computer and acts as an auxiliary processor of the personal computer. This makes the dream come true that high speed, low-cost image processing is feasible on personal computers. The hardware executes two operations of two-dimensional convolution concurrently on an 256 x 256 image frame in less than 500 miniseconds. Several functions are available to users, and parameters such as weighting coefficients and threshold value are programmable. Various processing results of the image frame can be obtained by changing these parameters. Besides, horizontal and vertical edge detection can also be executed concurrently, with results available at the same time.

  3. High figure of merit ultra-compact 3-channel parallel-connected photonic crystal mini-hexagonal-H1 defect microcavity sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Sun, Fujun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Ding, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiawen; Tian, Huiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal (PhC) butt-coupled mini-hexagonal-H1 defect (MHHD) microcavity sensor is proposed. The MHHD microcavity is designed by introducing six mini-holes into the initial H1 defect region. Further, based on a well-designed 1 ×3 PhC Beam Splitter and three optimal MHHD microcavity sensors with different lattice constants (a), a 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is proposed. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations method is performed to demonstrate the high performance of our structures. As statistics show, the quality factor (Q) of our optimal MHHD microcavity attains higher than 7×104, while the sensitivity (S) reaches up to 233 nm/RIU(RIU = refractive index unit). Thus, the figure of merit (FOM) >104 of the sensor is obtained, which is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the previous butt-coupled sensors [1-4]. As for the 3-channel parallel-connected PhC MHHD microcavity sensor array, the FOMs of three independent MHHD microcavity sensors are 8071, 8250 and 8250, respectively. In addition, the total footprint of the proposed 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array is ultra-compactness of 12.5 μm ×31 μm (width × length). Therefore, the proposed high FOM sensor array is an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact highly parallel refractive index (RI) sensing.

  4. Final Report, Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing: Co-Array Fortran, Grant Number DE-FC02-01ER25505

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Numrich

    2008-04-22

    The major accomplishment of this project is the production of CafLib, an 'object-oriented' parallel numerical library written in Co-Array Fortran. CafLib contains distributed objects such as block vectors and block matrices along with procedures, attached to each object, that perform basic linear algebra operations such as matrix multiplication, matrix transpose and LU decomposition. It also contains constructors and destructors for each object that hide the details of data decomposition from the programmer, and it contains collective operations that allow the programmer to calculate global reductions, such as global sums, global minima and global maxima, as well as vector and matrix norms of several kinds. CafLib is designed to be extensible in such a way that programmers can define distributed grid and field objects, based on vector and matrix objects from the library, for finite difference algorithms to solve partial differential equations. A very important extra benefit that resulted from the project is the inclusion of the co-array programming model in the next Fortran standard called Fortran 2008. It is the first parallel programming model ever included as a standard part of the language. Co-arrays will be a supported feature in all Fortran compilers, and the portability provided by standardization will encourage a large number of programmers to adopt it for new parallel application development. The combination of object-oriented programming in Fortran 2003 with co-arrays in Fortran 2008 provides a very powerful programming model for high-performance scientific computing. Additional benefits from the project, beyond the original goal, include a programto provide access to the co-array model through access to the Cray compiler as a resource for teaching and research. Several academics, for the first time, included the co-array model as a topic in their courses on parallel computing. A separate collaborative project with LANL and PNNL showed how to

  5. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: Two-Dimensional Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Didier F.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth's limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. Measurements are made every 19 seconds along the orbit track, which corresponds to a distance of about 150km. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. All the existing retrieval algorithms rely on a spherical symmetry assumption for the atmosphere structure. While this assumption is reasonable in most of the stratosphere, it is no longer valid in regions of prime scientific interest, such as polar vortex and UTLS regions. The paper will describe a two-dimensional retrieval algorithm whereby the ozone distribution is simultaneously retrieved vertically and horizontally for a whole orbit. The retrieval code relies on (1) a forward 2D Radiative Transfer code (to model limb

  6. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S B

    2018-02-23

    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  7. Two-dimensional analytic weighting functions for limb scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Through the inversion of limb scatter measurements it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of trace species in the atmosphere. Many of these inversion methods require what is often referred to as weighting functions, or derivatives of the radiance with respect to concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. Several radiative transfer models have implemented analytic methods to calculate weighting functions, alleviating the computational burden of traditional numerical perturbation methods. Here we describe the implementation of analytic two-dimensional weighting functions, where derivatives are calculated relative to atmospheric constituents in a two-dimensional grid of altitude and angle along the line of sight direction, in the SASKTRAN-HR radiative transfer model. Two-dimensional weighting functions are required for two-dimensional inversions of limb scatter measurements. Examples are presented where the analytic two-dimensional weighting functions are calculated with an underlying one-dimensional atmosphere. It is shown that the analytic weighting functions are more accurate than ones calculated with a single scatter approximation, and are orders of magnitude faster than a typical perturbation method. Evidence is presented that weighting functions for stratospheric aerosols calculated under a single scatter approximation may not be suitable for use in retrieval algorithms under solar backscatter conditions.

  8. Wide-field two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Wang, Lidai; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Maslov, Konstantin; Engelbach, John A.; Garbow, Joel R.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technique that directly images optical absorption in tissue at high spatial resolution. To date, the majority of OR-PAM systems are based on single focused optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, limiting the wide-field imaging speed. While one-dimensional multifocal OR-PAM (1D-MFOR-PAM) has been developed, the potential of microlens and transducer arrays has not been fully realized. Here, we present the development of two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy (2D-MFOR-PACM), using a 2D microlens array and a full-ring ultrasonic transducer array. The 10 × 10 mm2 microlens array generates 1800 optical foci within the focal plane of the 512-element transducer array, and raster scanning the microlens array yields optical-resolution photoacoustic images. The system has improved the in-plane resolution of a full-ring transducer array from ≥100 µm to 29 µm and achieved an imaging time of 36 seconds over a 10 × 10 mm2 field of view. In comparison, the 1D-MFOR-PAM would take more than 4 minutes to image over the same field of view. The imaging capability of the system was demonstrated on phantoms and animals both ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24322226

  9. Observation of layered antiferromagnetism in self-assembled parallel NiSi nanowire arrays on Si(110) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Zan

    2018-03-01

    The layered antiferromagnetism of parallel nanowire (NW) arrays self-assembled on Si(110) have been observed at room temperature by direct imaging of both the topographies and magnetic domains using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (SP-STM/STS). The topographic STM images reveal that the self-assembled unidirectional and parallel NiSi NWs grow into the Si(110) substrate along the [\\bar{1}10] direction (i.e. the endotaxial growth) and exhibit multiple-layer growth. The spatially-resolved SP-STS maps show that these parallel NiSi NWs of different heights produce two opposite magnetic domains, depending on the heights of either even or odd layers in the layer stack of the NiSi NWs. This layer-wise antiferromagnetic structure can be attributed to an antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling between the adjacent layers in the multiple-layer NiSi NW with a B2 (CsCl-type) crystal structure. Such an endotaxial heterostructure of parallel magnetic NiSi NW arrays with a layered antiferromagnetic ordering in Si(110) provides a new and important perspective for the development of novel Si-based spintronic nanodevices.

  10. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  11. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  12. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  13. Velocity and Dispersion for a Two-Dimensional Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the transport of a two-dimensional random walk. The velocity and the dispersion of this two-dimensional random walk are derived. It mainly show that: (i) by controlling the values of the transition rates, the direction of the random walk can be reversed; (ii) for some suitably selected transition rates, our two-dimensional random walk can be efficient in comparison with the one-dimensional random walk. Our work is motivated in part by the challenge to explain the unidirectional transport of motor proteins. When the motor proteins move at the turn points of their tracks (i.e., the cytoskeleton filaments and the DNA molecular tubes), some of our results in this paper can be used to deal with the problem. (general)

  14. Equatorial spread F studies using SAMI3 with two-dimensional and three-dimensional electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Aveiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a study of equatorial F region irregularities using the NRL SAMI3/ESF model, comparing results using a two-dimensional (2-D and a three-dimensional (3-D electrostatic potential solution. For the 3-D potential solution, two cases are considered for parallel plasma transport: (1 transport based on the parallel ambipolar field, and (2 transport based on the parallel electric field. The results show that the growth rate of the generalized Rayleigh–Taylor instability is not affected by the choice of the potential solution. However, differences are observed in the structures of the irregularities between the 2-D and 3-D solutions. Additionally, the plasma velocity along the geomagnetic field computed using the full 3-D solution shows complex structures that are not captured by the simplified model. This points out that only the full 3-D model is able to fully capture the complex physics of the equatorial F region.

  15. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  16. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  17. Pair Interaction of Dislocations in Two-Dimensional Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, C.; Gasser, U.; Keim, P.; Maret, G.; von Grünberg, H. H.

    2005-10-01

    The pair interaction between crystal dislocations is systematically explored by analyzing particle trajectories of two-dimensional colloidal crystals measured by video microscopy. The resulting pair energies are compared to Monte Carlo data and to predictions derived from the standard Hamiltonian of the elastic theory of dislocations. Good agreement is found with respect to the distance and temperature dependence of the interaction potential, but not regarding the angle dependence where discrete lattice effects become important. Our results on the whole confirm that the dislocation Hamiltonian allows a quantitative understanding of the formation and interaction energies of dislocations in two-dimensional crystals.

  18. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  19. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  20. Two-dimensional QCD in the Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefed'ev, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Various aspects of the 't Hooft model for two-dimensional QCD in the limit of infinite number of colours in the Coulomb gauge are discussed. The properties of mesonic excitations are studied, with special emphasis on the pion. Attention is paid to the dual role of the pion. which, while a genuine qq-bar state, is a Goldstone boson of two-dimensional QCD as well. In particular, the validity of the soft-pion theorems is demonstrated. It is shown that the Coulomb gauge is the most suitable choice for the study of hadronic observables involving pions [ru

  1. Quantum Communication Through a Two-Dimensional Spin Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoming; Gu Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the state or entanglement transfer through a two-dimensional spin network. We show that for state transfer, better fidelity can be gained along the diagonal direction but for entanglement transfer, when the initial entanglement is created along the boundary, the concurrence is more inclined to propagate along the boundary. This behavior is produced by quantum mechanical interference and the communication quality depends on the precise size of the network. For some number of sites, the fidelity in a two-dimensional channel is higher than one-dimensional case. This is an important result for realizing quantum communication through high dimension spin chain networks.

  2. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  3. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, P T; Constantinides, A G [Signal Processing Section, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging. 7 refs, 2 figs.

  4. Finite element solution of two dimensional time dependent heat equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaz

    1999-01-01

    A Microsoft Windows based computer code, named FHEAT, has been developed for solving two dimensional heat problems in Cartesian and Cylindrical geometries. The programming language is Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. The code makes use of Finite element formulation for spatial domain and Finite difference formulation for time domain. Presently the code is capable of solving two dimensional steady state and transient problems in xy- and rz-geometries. The code is capable excepting both triangular and rectangular elements. Validation and benchmarking was done against hand calculations and published results. (author)

  5. Chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional noninvertible maps

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, Christian; Cathala, Jean-Claude; Gardini, Laura

    1996-01-01

    This book is essentially devoted to complex properties (Phase plane structure and bifurcations) of two-dimensional noninvertible maps, i.e. maps having either a non-unique inverse, or no real inverse, according to the plane point. They constitute models of sets of discrete dynamical systems encountered in Engineering (Control, Signal Processing, Electronics), Physics, Economics, Life Sciences. Compared to the studies made in the one-dimensional case, the two-dimensional situation remained a long time in an underdeveloped state. It is only since these last years that the interest for this resea

  6. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Fast Estimation Method of Space-Time Two-Dimensional Positioning Parameters Based on Hadamard Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation speed of positioning parameters determines the effectiveness of the positioning system. The time of arrival (TOA and direction of arrival (DOA parameters can be estimated by the space-time two-dimensional multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC algorithm for array antenna. However, this algorithm needs much time to complete the two-dimensional pseudo spectral peak search, which makes it difficult to apply in practice. Aiming at solving this problem, a fast estimation method of space-time two-dimensional positioning parameters based on Hadamard product is proposed in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, and the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB is also presented. Firstly, according to the channel frequency domain response vector of each array, the channel frequency domain estimation vector is constructed using the Hadamard product form containing location information. Then, the autocorrelation matrix of the channel response vector for the extended array element in frequency domain and the noise subspace are calculated successively. Finally, by combining the closed-form solution and parameter pairing, the fast joint estimation for time delay and arrival direction is accomplished. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity and guarantee that the estimation accuracy is not only better than estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT algorithm and 2D matrix pencil (MP algorithm but also close to 2D-MUSIC algorithm. Moreover, the proposed algorithm also has certain adaptability to multipath environment and effectively improves the ability of fast acquisition of location parameters.

  8. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  9. One- and two-dimensional chemical exchange nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the creatine kinase catalyzed reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gober, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium chemical exchange dynamics of the creatine kinase enzyme system were studied by one- and two-dimensional 31 P NMR techniques. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants were measured by the saturation transfer method under an array of experimental conditions of pH and temperature. Quantitative one-dimensional spectra were collected under the same conditions in order to calculate the forward and reverse reaction rates, the K eq , the hydrogen ion stoichiometry, and the standard thermodynamic functions. The pure absorption mode in four quadrant two-dimensional chemical exchange experiment was employed so that the complete kinetic matrix showing all of the chemical exchange process could be realized

  10. Evolution of two-dimensional soap froth with a single defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, B.

    1994-01-01

    The temporal evolution of two-dimensional soap froth, starting from a particle initial state, is studied. The initial state is a hexagonal array of bubbles in which a single defect is introduced. A cluster of transformed bubbles grows; the time dependence of the number of bubbles in this cluster in investigated and the distribution of the topological classes in the evolving part of the system is calculated. The distribution appears to approach a fixed limiting one, which differs from that obtained for the usual scaling state of the froth

  11. Entropy of Bit-Stuffing-Induced Measures for Two-Dimensional Checkerboard Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Vaarby, Torben Strange

    2007-01-01

    A modified bit-stuffing scheme for two-dimensional (2-D) checkerboard constraints is introduced. The entropy of the scheme is determined based on a probability measure defined by the modified bit-stuffing. Entropy results of the scheme are given for 2-D constraints on a binary alphabet....... The constraints considered are 2-D RLL (d, infinity) for d = 2, 3 and 4 as well as for the constraint with a minimum 1-norm distance of 3 between Is. For these results the entropy is within 1-2% of an upper bound on the capacity for the constraint. As a variation of the scheme, periodic merging arrays are also...

  12. Airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and multi-pole magnets towards enhanced power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, the airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively magnetized formation of 6 magnets to explore enhanced power density. In particular, the magnet array was positioned in parallel to the trajectory of the tip coil within its tip deflection span. The finite element simulations of the magnetic flux density and induced voltages at an open circuit condition were studied to find the maximum number of alternatively magnetized magnets that was required for the proposed energy harvester. Experimental results showed that the energy harvester with a pair of 6 alternatively magnetized linear magnet arrays was able to generate an induced voltage (V o ) of 20 V, with an open circuit condition, and 475 mW, under a 30 Ω optimal resistance load operating with the wind speed (U) at 7 m/s and a natural bending frequency of 3.54 Hz. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic energy harvester with a single magnet moving through a coil, the proposed energy harvester, containing multi-pole magnets and parallel array motion, enables the moving coil to accumulate a stronger magnetic flux in each period of the swinging motion. In addition to the comparison made with the airfoil-based piezoelectric energy harvester of the same size, our proposed electromagnetic energy harvester generates 11 times more power output, which is more suitable for high-power-density energy harvesting applications at regions with low environmental frequency.

  13. Renal magnetic resonance angiography at 3.0 Tesla using a 32-element phased-array coil system and parallel imaging in 2 directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Michael; Nael, Kambiz; Deshpande, Vibhas S; Finn, J Paul; Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan; Ruehm, Stefan; Laub, Gerhard

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of renal magnetic resonance angiography at 3.0 T using a phased-array coil system with 32-coil elements. Specifically, high parallel imaging factors were used for an increased spatial resolution and anatomic coverage of the whole abdomen. Signal-to-noise values and the g-factor distribution of the 32 element coil were examined in phantom studies for the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) sequence. Eleven volunteers (6 men, median age of 30.0 years) were examined on a 3.0-T MR scanner (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) using a 32-element phased-array coil (prototype from In vivo Corp.). Contrast-enhanced 3D-MRA (TR 2.95 milliseconds, TE 1.12 milliseconds, flip angle 25-30 degrees , bandwidth 650 Hz/pixel) was acquired with integrated generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA), in both phase- and slice-encoding direction. Images were assessed by 2 independent observers with regard to image quality, noise and presence of artifacts. Signal-to-noise levels of 22.2 +/- 22.0 and 57.9 +/- 49.0 were measured with (GRAPPAx6) and without parallel-imaging, respectively. The mean g-factor of the 32-element coil for GRAPPA with an acceleration of 3 and 2 in the phase-encoding and slice-encoding direction, respectively, was 1.61. High image quality was found in 9 of 11 volunteers (2.6 +/- 0.8) with good overall interobserver agreement (k = 0.87). Relatively low image quality with higher noise levels were encountered in 2 volunteers. MRA at 3.0 T using a 32-element phased-array coil is feasible in healthy volunteers. High diagnostic image quality and extended anatomic coverage could be achieved with application of high parallel imaging factors.

  14. Vectorized Matlab Codes for Linear Two-Dimensional Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Koko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A vectorized Matlab implementation for the linear finite element is provided for the two-dimensional linear elasticity with mixed boundary conditions. Vectorization means that there is no loop over triangles. Numerical experiments show that our implementation is more efficient than the standard implementation with a loop over all triangles.

  15. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  16. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  17. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  18. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ¿-¿, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of

  19. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...

  20. Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)

  1. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  2. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  3. First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Sharad Babu, E-mail: sbpillai001@gmail.com; Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K. [Department. of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.

  4. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides

  6. Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures

  7. Exterior calculus and two-dimensional supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuto, S.

    1980-01-01

    An important property of the calculus of differential forms on superspace is pointed out, and an economical way to treat the linear problem associated with certain supersymmetric two-dimensional models is discussed. A generalization of the super sine-Gordon model is proposed; its bosonic limit is a new model whose associate linear set has an SU(3) structure. (orig.)

  8. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for N. 2) is carried ... extensively used for the case of non-linear partial differential equation by various authors. [3,4–7,12 ..... found to be integrable just by accident.

  9. Quantitative optical mapping of two-dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Bjarke S.; Whelan, Patrick R.; Mackenzie, David M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The pace of two-dimensional materials (2DM) research has been greatly accelerated by the ability to identify exfoliated thicknesses down to a monolayer from their optical contrast. Since this process requires time-consuming and error-prone manual assignment to avoid false-positives from image...

  10. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Two-dimensional molecular line transfer for a cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutowicz, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the proposed axisymmetric model of the cometary coma the gas density profile is described by an angular density function. Three methods for treating two-dimensional radiative transfer are compared: the Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) (the Sobolev method), Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and accelerated Monte Carlo (MC).

  12. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2

  13. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  14. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  15. Two-dimensional ion effects in relativistic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    In relativistic diodes, ions are emitted from the anode plasma. The effects and properties of these ions are studied via a two-dimensional particle simulation code. The space charge of these ions enhances the electron emission, and this additional current (including that of the ions, themselves) aids in obtaining superpinched electron beams for use in pellet fusion studies. (U.S.)

  16. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run-l...

  17. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  18. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  19. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  20. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  1. Mass relations for two-dimensional classical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataru-Mihai, P.

    1980-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional sigma-nonlinear models as a framework mass relations for classical configurations of instanton/soliton type are derived. Our results suggest an interesting differential-geometric interpretation of the mass of a classical configuration in terms of the topological characteristics of an associated manifold. (orig.)

  2. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  3. Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,

  4. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  5. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  6. Two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Sommer, H.A.

    1978-11-01

    Circular, large-area two-dimensional Si(Li) position sensitive detectors have been fabricated. The detectors employ a thin lithium-diffused n + resisitive layer for one contact and a boron implanted p + resistive layer for the second contact. A position resolution of the order of 100 μm is indicated

  7. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL POSITION SENSITIVE SI(LI) DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jack T.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Haller, Eugene E.; Sommer, Heinrich A.

    1978-11-01

    Circular, large-area two-dimensional Si(Li) position sensitive detectors have been fabricated. The detectors employ a thin lithium-diffused n{sup +} resistive layer for one contact and a boron implanted p{sup +} resistive layer for the second contact. A position resolution of the order of 100 {micro}m is indicated.

  8. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  9. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; Meulen ,van der Martin; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core

  10. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...

  11. Two-Dimensional Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J. J.; Roelofs, W. S. C.; Mathijssen, S. G. J.; Shehu, A.; Cramer, T.; Biscarini, F.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of carrier confinement on the charge-transport properties of organic field-effect transistors. Confinement is achieved experimentally by the use of semiconductors of which the active layer is only one molecule thick. The two-dimensional confinement of charge carriers provides

  12. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  13. Two-dimensional dissipation in third sound resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.L.; Mochel, J.M.; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1981-01-01

    The first determination of non-linear superflow dissipation in a truly two-dimensional helium film is reported. Superfluid velocities were measured using third sound resonance on a closed superfluid film. The predicted power law dissipation function, with exponent of approximately eight, is observed at three temperatures in a film of 0.58 mobile superfluid layers. (orig.)

  14. Graphene: a promising two-dimensional support for heterogeneous catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin eFan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has many advantages that make it an attractive two-dimensional (2D support for heterogeneous catalysts. It not only allows the high loading of targeted catalytic species, but also facilitates the mass transfer during the reaction processes. These advantages, along with its unique physical and chemical properties, endow graphene great potential as catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Two-dimensional interpolation with experimental data smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejbal, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A method of two-dimensional interpolation with smoothing of time statistically deflected points is developed for processing of magnetic field measurements at the U-120M field measurements at the U-120M cyclotron. Mathematical statement of initial requirements and the final result of relevant algebraic transformations are given. 3 refs

  16. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavity...

  17. Two-Dimensional Tellurene as Excellent Thermoelectric Material

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sitansh; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    We study the thermoelectric properties of two-dimensional tellurene by first-principles calculations and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. The HSE06 hybrid functional results in a moderate direct band gap of 1.48 eV at the Γ point. A high

  18. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...

  19. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...

  20. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  1. Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media

  2. Two-dimensional QCD as a model for strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1977-01-01

    After an introduction to the formalism of two-dimensional QCD, its applications to various strong interaction processes are reviewed. Among the topics discussed are spectroscopy, deep inelastic cross-sections, ''hard'' processes involving hadrons, ''Regge'' behaviour, the existence of the Pomeron, and inclusive hadron cross-sections. Attempts are made to abstracts features useful for four-dimensional QCD phenomenology. (author)

  3. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...

  4. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  5. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual

  6. Equilibrium spherically curved two-dimensional Lennard-Jones systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van Dantzig, R.

    2005-01-01

    To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N < 800) equilibrium configu- rations are traced

  7. Giant 1/f noise in two-dimensional polycrystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarskii, A.; Bezsudnov, I.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of excess (1/f noise) in two-dimensional polycrystalline media is investigated. On the base of current trap model, it is shown that there exists a certain anisotropy value of conductivity tensor for polycrystalline media when the amplitude of 1/f noise becomes giant

  8. FPGA Implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antone, I.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the hardware implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata (CAs). After a general introduction to the cellular automata, we consider a one-dimensional CA used to implement pseudo-random techniques in built-in self test for VLSI. Due to the increase in digital ASIC complexity, testing is becoming one of the major costs in the VLSI production. The high electronics complexity, used in particle physics experiments, demands higher reliability than in the past time. General criterions are given to evaluate the feasibility of the circuit used for testing and some quantitative parameters are underlined to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton. Furthermore, we propose a two-dimensional CA that performs a peak finding algorithm in a matrix of cells mapping a sub-region of a calorimeter. As in a two-dimensional filtering process, the peaks of the energy clusters are found in one evolution step. This CA belongs to Wolfram class II cellular automata. Some quantitative parameters are given to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton implemented in a commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA)

  9. Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.

    2004-01-01

    The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively

  10. Kinetic Theory of a Confined Quasi-Two-Dimensional Gas of Hard Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Brey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a system of hard spheres enclosed between two parallel plates separated a distance smaller than two particle diameters is described at the level of kinetic theory. The interest focuses on the behavior of the quasi-two-dimensional fluid seen when looking at the system from above or below. In the first part, a collisional model for the effective two-dimensional dynamics is analyzed. Although it is able to describe quite well the homogeneous evolution observed in the experiments, it is shown that it fails to predict the existence of non-equilibrium phase transitions, and in particular, the bimodal regime exhibited by the real system. A critical revision analysis of the model is presented , and as a starting point to get a more accurate description, the Boltzmann equation for the quasi-two-dimensional gas has been derived. In the elastic case, the solutions of the equation verify an H-theorem implying a monotonic tendency to a non-uniform steady state. As an example of application of the kinetic equation, here the evolution equations for the vertical and horizontal temperatures of the system are derived in the homogeneous approximation, and the results compared with molecular dynamics simulation results.

  11. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS BETWEEN EXPLICIT SCHEDULING AND IMPLICIT SCHEDULING OF PARALLEL ARRAY-BASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION USING OPENMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED FAIZ ABOALMAALY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous revolution of multicore architecture, several parallel programming platforms have been introduced in order to pave the way for fast and efficient development of parallel algorithms. Back into its categories, parallel computing can be done through two forms: Data-Level Parallelism (DLP or Task-Level Parallelism (TLP. The former can be done by the distribution of data among the available processing elements while the latter is based on executing independent tasks concurrently. Most of the parallel programming platforms have built-in techniques to distribute the data among processors, these techniques are technically known as automatic distribution (scheduling. However, due to their wide range of purposes, variation of data types, amount of distributed data, possibility of extra computational overhead and other hardware-dependent factors, manual distribution could achieve better outcomes in terms of performance when compared to the automatic distribution. In this paper, this assumption is investigated by conducting a comparison between automatic and our newly proposed manual distribution of data among threads in parallel. Empirical results of matrix addition and matrix multiplication show a considerable performance gain when manual distribution is applied against automatic distribution.

  12. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  13. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, I; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; LeBlanc, B; Kozub, T A; Parker, R R; Stratton, B C

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  14. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-Ua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, I.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Tritz, K.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Parker, R. R.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  15. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States); Stratton, B. C. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  16. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Tritz, K.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed

  17. Two dimensional electron transport in disordered and ordered distributions of magnetic flux vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Hedegaard, P.

    1994-04-01

    We have considered the conductivity properties of a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in two different kinds of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, i.e. a disordered distribution of magnetic flux vortices, and a periodic array of magnetic flux vortices. The work falls in two parts. In the first part we show how the phase shifts for an electron scattering on an isolated vortex, can be calculated analytically, and related to the transport properties through the differential cross section. In the second part we present numerical results for the Hall conductivity of the 2DEG in a periodic array of flux vortices found by exact diagonalization. We find characteristic spikes in the Hall conductance, when it is plotted against the filling fraction. It is argued that the spikes can be interpreted in terms of ''topological charge'' piling up across local and global gaps in the energy spectrum. (au) (23 refs.)

  18. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  19. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  20. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  1. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  2. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  3. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem

  4. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  5. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Fulling, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed. (author)

  6. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine......Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  7. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  8. Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, E.J.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed

  9. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kahn, Yonatan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Tully, Christopher G.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-09-01

    We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  10. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  11. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W.; Fulling, S A [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed.

  12. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  13. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  14. The finite element solution of two-dimensional transverse magnetic scattering problems on the connection machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, S.; Costillo, S.; Dalton, K.; Hensel, E.

    1990-01-01

    A study is conducted of the finite element solution of the partial differential equations governing two-dimensional electromagnetic field scattering problems on a SIMD computer. A nodal assembly technique is introduced which maps a single node to a single processor. The physical domain is first discretized in parallel to yield the node locations of an O-grid mesh. Next, the system of equations is assembled and then solved in parallel using a conjugate gradient algorithm for complex-valued, non-symmetric, non-positive definite systems. Using this technique and Thinking Machines Corporation's Connection Machine-2 (CM-2), problems with more than 250k nodes are solved. Results of electromagnetic scattering, governed by the 2-d scalar Hemoholtz wave equations are presented in this paper. Solutions are demonstrated for a wide range of objects. A summary of performance data is given for the set of test problems

  15. Two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin disordered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the understanding of two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin, disordered thin films is reviewed. The different consequences of microscopic versus macroscopic disorder are stressed. It is shown that microscopic disorder leads to a rapid suppression of the mean-field transition temperature. The consequences of macroscopic disorder are not well understood, but a universal behavior of the zero-bias resistance as a function of field and temperature has been observed. (orig.)

  16. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  17. Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaposnik, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model

  18. Two-dimensional color-code quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Austin G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe in detail how to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation on a two-dimensional color code, making use of only nearest neighbor interactions. Three defects (holes) in the code are used to represent logical qubits. Triple-defect logical qubits are deformed into isolated triangular sections of color code to enable transversal implementation of all single logical qubit Clifford group gates. Controlled-NOT (CNOT) is implemented between pairs of triple-defect logical qubits via braiding.

  19. Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio

    2017-09-01

    We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.

  20. An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.; Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)

  1. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  2. Hall effect in the two-dimensional Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Hall effect in the normal state is a commom theme of all the cuprate superconductors and has been one of the more puzzling observations on these puzzling materials. We describe a general scheme within the Luttinger liquid theory of these two-dimensional quantum fluids which corrrelates the anomalous Hall and resistivity observations on a wide variety of both pure and doped single crystals, especially the data in the accompanying Letter of Chien, Wang, and Ong

  3. Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    order to be published, he sent the paper to Einstein to translate it. The other contributing scientist is world famous physicist Albert Einstein , maybe...mechanical state, a Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC), where the atoms cease to behave like distinguishable entities, and instead form a single macroscopic...model in both three- and two-dimensional geometries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bose Einstein condensation, ultracold physics, condensed matter, dipoles 16

  4. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  5. Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence in a Circular Container

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional decaying turbulence at initial Reynolds number 5×104 in a circular container with no-slip boundary conditions. Starting with random initial conditions the flow rapidly exhibits self-organization into coherent vortices. We study their formation and the role of the viscous boundary layer on the production and decay of integral quantities. The no-slip wall produces vortices which are injected into the bulk flow and tend to compensate the...

  6. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  7. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  8. The Convergence Acceleration of Two-Dimensional Fourier Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anry Nersessian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereby, the convergence acceleration of two-dimensional trigonometric interpolation for a smooth functions on a uniform mesh is considered. Together with theoretical estimates some numerical results are presented and discussed that reveal the potential of this method for application in image processing. Experiments show that suggested algorithm allows acceleration of conventional Fourier interpolation even for sparse meshes that can lead to an efficient image compression/decompression algorithms and also to applications in image zooming procedures.

  9. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286

  10. GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces

  11. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  12. Two-dimensional manifolds with metrics of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    2000-01-01

    This is a study of the topological and metric structure of two-dimensional manifolds with a metric that is locally a metric of revolution. In the case of compact manifolds this problem can be thoroughly investigated, and in particular it is explained why there are no closed analytic surfaces of revolution in R 3 other than a sphere and a torus (moreover, in the smoothness class C ∞ such surfaces, understood in a certain generalized sense, exist in any topological class)

  13. Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra

    2016-01-01

    Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.

  14. Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.

    1976-03-01

    The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)

  15. Two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, R.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1979-11-01

    A fully two-dimensional eigenmode analysis of the trapped-ion instability in axisymmetric toroidal geometry is presented. The calculations also takes into account the basic dynamics associated with other low frequency modes such as the trapped-electron instability and the ion-temperature-gradient instability. The poloidal structure of the mode is taken into account by Fourier expanding the perturbed electrostatic potential, PHI, in theta

  16. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  17. A two-dimensional Zn coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuhong; Ding, Yan; Li, Qiuyu; Zhang, Liping

    2017-10-01

    The title compound, poly[bis-{μ 2 -4,4'-bis-[(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]biphenyl-κ 2 N 4 : N 4' }bis-(nitrato-κ O )zinc(II)], [Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (C 18 H 16 N 6 ) 2 ] n , is a two-dimensional zinc coordination polymer constructed from 4,4'-bis-[(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1,1'-biphenyl units. It was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Zn II cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two O atoms from two symmetry-related nitrate groups and four N atoms from four symmetry-related 4,4'-bis-[(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1,1'-biphenyl ligands, forming a distorted octa-hedral {ZnN 4 O 2 } coordination geometry. The linear 4,4'-bis-[(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1,1'-biphenyl ligand links two Zn II cations, generating two-dimensional layers parallel to the crystallographic (132) plane. The parallel layers are connected by C-H⋯O, C-H⋯N, C-H⋯π and π-π stacking inter-actions, resulting in a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  18. A two-dimensional Zn coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[bis{μ2-4,4′-bis[(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]biphenyl-κ2N4:N4′}bis(nitrato-κOzinc(II], [Zn(NO32(C18H16N62]n, is a two-dimensional zinc coordination polymer constructed from 4,4′-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]-1,1′-biphenyl units. It was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The ZnII cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two O atoms from two symmetry-related nitrate groups and four N atoms from four symmetry-related 4,4′-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]-1,1′-biphenyl ligands, forming a distorted octahedral {ZnN4O2} coordination geometry. The linear 4,4′-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]-1,1′-biphenyl ligand links two ZnII cations, generating two-dimensional layers parallel to the crystallographic (132 plane. The parallel layers are connected by C—H...O, C—H...N, C—H...π and π–π stacking interactions, resulting in a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  19. Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jun; Qin Zheng; Xu Zhaohui; Chen Xiqun; Leng Biao; Jiang Zineng

    2012-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.

  20. High-speed fan-beam reconstruction using direct two-dimensional Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Mizutani, Toshio; Takahashi, Yoshizo; Inouye, Tamon.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first development of X-ray computer tomography (CT), various efforts have been made to obtain high quality of high-speed image. However, the development of high resolution CT and the ultra-high speed CT to be applied to hearts is still desired. The X-ray beam scanning method was already changed from the parallel beam system to the fan-beam system in order to greatly shorten the scanning time. Also, the filtered back projection (DFBP) method has been employed to directly processing fan-beam projection data as reconstruction method. Although the two-dimensional Fourier transform (TFT) method significantly faster than FBP method was proposed, it has not been sufficiently examined for fan-beam projection data. Thus, the ITFT method was investigated, which first executes rebinning algorithm to convert the fan-beam projection data to the parallel beam projection data, thereafter, uses two-dimensional Fourier transform. By this method, although high speed is expected, the reconstructed images might be degraded due to the adoption of rebinning algorithm. Therefore, the effect of the interpolation error of rebinning algorithm on the reconstructed images has been analyzed theoretically, and finally, the result of the employment of spline interpolation which allows the acquisition of high quality images with less errors has been shown by the numerical and visual evaluation based on simulation and actual data. Computation time was reduced to 1/15 for the image matrix of 512 and to 1/30 for doubled matrix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)