Sample records for two-dimensional 2d models

  1. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin


    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  2. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou

    Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  3. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE. (United States)

    Meleady, Paula


    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  4. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang


    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  5. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim


    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  6. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.


    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....

  7. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.


    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.


    Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.

  9. Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa


    We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  10. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems (United States)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.


    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  11. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang


    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.

  12. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine. (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel


    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  13. Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. (United States)

    Berkelman, Tom


    Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.

  14. Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yutaka


    We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.

  15. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.


    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  16. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics (United States)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.


    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library ( and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  17. Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images. (United States)

    Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja


    In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images.

  18. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.


    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  19. MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko


    A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)

  20. Extending models for two-dimensional constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren


    Random fields in two dimensions may be specified on 2 times 2 elements such that the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy may be calculated explicitly. The Pickard random field is one example where probability of a new (non-boundary) element is conditioned on three previous...... elements. To extend the concept we consider extending such a field such that a vector or block of elements is conditioned on a larger set of previous elements. Given a stationary model defined on 2 times 2 elements, iterative scaling is used to define the extended model. The extended model may be used...

  1. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates. (United States)

    Mitri, F G


    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  2. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics. (United States)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold


    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  3. Phase coding by grid cells in unconstrained environments: Two-dimensional (2D) phase precession (United States)

    Climer, Jason R.; Newman, Ehren L.; Hasselmo, Michael E.


    Action potential timing is thought to play a critical role in neural representation. For example, theta phase precession is a robust phenomenon exhibited by spatial cells of the rat entorhinal-hippocampal circuit. In phase precession, the time a neuron fires relative to the phase of theta rhythm (6-10Hz) oscillations in the local field potential reduces uncertainty about the position of the animal. This relationship between neural firing and behavior has made precession an important constraint for hypothetical mechanisms of temporal coding. However, challenges exist in identifying what regulates the spike timing of these cells. We have developed novel analytical techniques for mapping between behavior and neural firing that provide sufficient sensitivity to examine features of grid cell phase coding in open environments. Here, we show robust, omnidirectional phase precession by entorhinal grid cells in openfield enclosures. We present evidence that full phase precession persists regardless of how close the animal comes to the center of a firing field. We found many conjunctive grid cells, previously thought to be phase locked, also exhibit phase coding. However, we were unable to detect directional or field specific phase coding predicted by some variants of models. Finally, we present data that suggests bursting of layer II grid cells contributes to the bimodality of phase precession. We discuss implications of these observations for models of temporal coding and propose the utility of these techniques in other domains where behavior is aligned to neural spiking. PMID:23718553

  4. Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.


    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.

  5. Two-dimensional model of elastically coupled molecular motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Wei; Wen Shu-Tang; Chen Gai-Rong; Li Yu-Xiao; Cao Zhong-Xing; Li Wei


    A flashing ratchet model of a two-headed molecular motor in a two-dimensional potential is proposed to simulate the hand-over-hand motion of kinesins.Extensive Langevin simulations of the model are performed.We discuss the dependences of motion and efficiency on the model parameters,including the external force and the temperature.A good qualitative agreement with the expected behavior is observed.

  6. Towards a two dimensional model of surface piezoelectricity


    Monge Víllora, Oscar


    We want to understand the behaviour of flexoelectricity and surface piezoelectricity and distinguish them in order to go deep into the controversies of the filed. This motivate the construction of a model of continuum flexoelectric theory. The model proposed is a two-dimensional model that integrates the electromechanical equations that include the elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and flexoelectric effect on a rectangular sample. As the flexoelectric and the surface piezoelectric effects ap...

  7. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)


    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  8. WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR: An efficient joint two-dimensional magnetotelluric and direct current resistivity inversion (United States)

    Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai


    An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.

  9. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.


    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.

  10. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M


    Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  11. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175


    We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  12. Multiple Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F


    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of {\\it multiple} $q=2,3,4$ state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the $c>1$ region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for $c>1$. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for $c>1$.

  13. Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.


    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.

  14. The XY model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.


    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, c, carries over to the XY model, which has c=1.

  15. The XY Model Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F; 10.1016/0370-2693(92)91037-A


    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, $c$, carries over to the XY model, which has $c=1$.

  16. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen


    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  17. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0 (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.


    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  18. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.


    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  19. Corner wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam


    We study the interfacial behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model at the corner of weakened bonds. Monte Carlo simulations results show that the interface is pinned to the corner at a lower temperature than a certain temperature Tcw at which it undergoes a corner wetting transition. The temperature Tcw is substantially lower than the temperature of the ordinary wetting transition with a line of weakened bonds. A solid-on-solid-like model is proposed, which provides a supplementary description of the corner wetting transition.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An approach of modeling viscosity, unsteady partially cavitating flows around lifting bodies is presented. By employing an one-fluid Navier-Stokers solver, the algorithm is proved to be able to handle two-dimensional laminar cavitating flows at moderate Reynolds number. Based on the state equation of water-vapor mixture, the constructive relations of densities and pressures are established. To numerically simulate the cavity wall, different pseudo transition of density models are presumed. The finite-volume method is adopted and the algorithm can be extended to three-dimensional cavitating flows.

  1. Another solution of 2D Ising model (United States)

    Vergeles, S. N.


    The partition function of the Ising model on a two-dimensional regular lattice is calculated by using the matrix representation of a Clifford algebra (the Dirac algebra), with number of generators equal to the number of lattice sites. It is shown that the partition function over all loops in a 2D lattice including self-intersecting ones is the trace of a polynomial in terms of Dirac matrices. The polynomial is an element of the rotation group in the spinor representation. Thus, the partition function is a function of a character on an orthogonal group of a high degree in the spinor representation.

  2. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)


    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang


    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

  4. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.


    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  5. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin


    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  6. Two-dimensional Numerical Modeling Research on Continent Subduction Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhimin; XU Bei; ZHOU Yaoqi; XU Hehua; HUANG Shaoying


    Continent subduction is one of the hot research problems in geoscience. New models presented here have been set up and two-dimensional numerical modeling research on the possibility of continental subduction has been made with the finite element software, ANSYS, based on documentary evidence and reasonable assumptions that the subduction of oceanic crust has occurred, the subduction of continental crust can take place and the process can be simplified to a discontinuous plane strain theory model. The modeling results show that it is completely possible for continental crust to be subducted to a depth of 120 km under certain circumstances and conditions. At the same time, the simulations of continental subduction under a single dynamical factor have also been made, including the pull force of the subducted oceanic lithosphere, the drag force connected with mantle convection and the push force of the mid-ocean ridge. These experiments show that the drag force connected with mantle convection is critical for continent subduction.

  7. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment. (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B


    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  8. Ordering in Two-Dimensional Ising Models with Competing Interactions



    We study the 2D Ising model on a square lattice with additional non-equal diagonal next-nearest neighbor interactions. The cases of classical and quantum (transverse) models are considered. Possible phases and their locations in the space of three Ising couplings are analyzed. In particular, incommensurate phases occurring only at non-equal diagonal couplings, are predicted. We also analyze a spin-pseudospin model comprised of the quantum Ising model coupled to XY spin chains in a particular ...

  9. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model (United States)

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A.; Drewes, Jan H.; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael


    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0 ≲U /t ≲20 and temperatures, down to kBT /t =0.63 (2 ) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  10. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed. (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia


    This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.

  11. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao


    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  12. Fermionic Symmetry-Protected Topological Phase in a Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chien; Muechler, Lukas; Car, Roberto; Neupert, Titus; Maciejko, Joseph


    We study the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model using exact diagonalization for spin-1 /2 fermions on the triangular and honeycomb lattices decorated with a single hexagon per site. In certain parameter ranges, the Hubbard model maps to a quantum compass model on those lattices. On the triangular lattice, the compass model exhibits collinear stripe antiferromagnetism, implying d -density wave charge order in the original Hubbard model. On the honeycomb lattice, the compass model has a unique, quantum disordered ground state that transforms nontrivially under lattice reflection. The ground state of the Hubbard model on the decorated honeycomb lattice is thus a 2D fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase. This state—protected by time-reversal and reflection symmetries—cannot be connected adiabatically to a free-fermion topological phase.

  13. A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady

  14. Coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy of a Fano model

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, Felipe; Pullerits, Tõnu; Hansen, Thorsten


    The Fano lineshape arises from the interference of two excitation pathways to reach a continuum. Its generality has resulted in a tremendous success in explaining the lineshapes of many one-dimensional spectroscopies - absorption, emission, scattering, conductance, photofragmentation - applied to very varied systems - atoms, molecules, semiconductors and metals. Unravelling a spectroscopy into a second dimension reveals the relationship between states in addition to decongesting the spectra. Femtosecond-resolved two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is a four-wave mixing technique that measures the time-evolution of the populations, and coherences of excited states. It has been applied extensively to the dynamics of photosynthetic units, and more recently to materials with extended band-structures. In this letter, we solve the full time-dependent third-order response, measured in 2DES, of a Fano model and give the new system parameters that become accessible.

  15. Current fluctuations in a two dimensional model of heat conduction (United States)

    Pérez-Espigares, Carlos; Garrido, Pedro L.; Hurtado, Pablo I.


    In this work we study numerically and analytically current fluctuations in the two-dimensional Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model of heat conduction. For that purpose, we use a recently introduced algorithm which allows the direct evaluation of large deviations functions. We compare our results with predictions based on the Hydrodynamic Fluctuation Theory (HFT) of Bertini and coworkers, finding very good agreement in a wide interval of current fluctuations. We also verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation which depends exclusively on the magnitude of the current vector, not on its orientation. This confirms the recently introduced Isometric Fluctuation Relation (IFR), which results from the time-reversibility of the dynamics, and includes as a particular instance the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem in this context but adds a completely new perspective on the high level of symmetry imposed by timereversibility on the statistics of nonequilibrium fluctuations.

  16. Relations between two-dimensional models from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Natividade, C.P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    In this work we explore the consequences of dimensional reduction of the 3D Maxwell-Chern-Simons and some related models. A connection between topological mass generation in 3D and mass generation according to the Schwinger mechanism in 2D is obtained. Besides, a series of relationships are established by resorting to dimensional reduction and duality interpolating transformations. Nonabelian generalizations are also pointed out. (author) 10 refs.

  17. Two-dimensional model for circulating fluidized-bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, H.; Kruse, M.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Circulating fluidized bed reactors are widely used for the combustion of coal in power stations as well as for the cracking of heavy oil in the petroleum industry. A two-dimensional reactor model for circulating fluidized beds (CFB) was studied based on the assumption that at every location within the riser, a descending dense phase and a rising lean phase coexist. Fluid mechanical variables may be calculated from one measured radial solids flux profile (upward and downward). The internal mass-transfer behavior is described on the basis of tracer gas experiments. The CFB reactor model was tested against data from ozone decomposition experiments in a CFB cold flow model (15.6-m height, 0.4-m ID) operated in the ranges 2.5--4.5 m/s and 9--45 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) of superficial gas velocity and solids mass flux, respectively. Based on effective reaction rate constants determined from the ozone exit concentration, the model was used to predict the spatial reactant distribution within the reactor. Model predictions agreed well with measurements.

  18. Review of simplified Pseudo-two-Dimensional models of lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Jokar, Ali; Rajabloo, Barzin; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel


    Over the last decade, many efforts have been deployed to develop models for the prediction, the control, the optimization and the parameter estimation of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. It appears that the most successful electrochemical-based model for Li-ion battery is the Pseudo-two-Dimensional model (P2D). Due to the fact that the governing equations are complex, this model cannot be used in real-time applications like Battery Management Systems (BMSs). To remedy the situation, several investigations have been carried out to simplify the P2D model. Mathematical and physical techniques are employed to reduce the order of magnitude of the P2D governing equations. The present paper is a review of the studies on the modeling of Li-ion batteries with simplified P2D models. The assumptions on which these models rest are stated, the calculation methods are examined, the advantages and the drawbacks of the models are discussed and their applications are presented. Suggestions for overcoming the shortcomings of the models are made. Challenges and future directions in the modeling of Li-ion batteries are also discussed.

  19. A two-dimensional analytical model for short channel junctionless double-gate MOSFETs (United States)

    Jiang, Chunsheng; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun


    A physics-based analytical model of electrostatic potential for short-channel junctionless double-gate MOSFETs (JLDGMTs) operated in the subthreshold regime is proposed, in which the full two-dimensional (2-D) Poisson's equation is solved in channel region by a method of series expansion similar to Green's function. The expression of the proposed electrostatic potential is completely rigorous and explicit. Based on this expression, analytical models of threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and subthreshold drain current for JLDGMTs were derived. Subthreshold behavior was studied in detail by changing different device parameters and bias conditions, including doping concentration, channel thickness, gate length, gate oxide thickness, drain voltage, and gate voltage. Results predicted by all the analytical models agree well with numerical solutions from the 2-D simulator. These analytical models can be used to investigate the operating mechanisms of nanoscale JLDGMTs and to optimize their device performance.

  20. Simple Screened Hydrogen Model of Excitons in Two-Dimensional Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Latini, Simone; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm;


    We present a generalized hydrogen model for the binding energies (EB) and radii of excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials that sheds light on the fundamental differences between excitons in two and three dimensions. In contrast to the well-known hydrogen model of three-dimensional (3D) excitons...... the recently observed linear scaling of exciton binding energies with band gap. It is also shown that the model accurately reproduces the nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in WS2 and can account for screening from the environment....... that only depends on the excitonic mass and the 2D polarizability α. The model is shown to produce accurate results for 51 transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, over a wide range of polarizabilities the binding energy becomes independent of the mass and we obtain E2DB≈3/(4πα), which explains...

  1. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a tidal estuary (United States)

    Walters, Roy A.; Cheng, Ralph T.


    A finite element model is described which is used in the computation of tidal currents in an estuary. This numerical model is patterned after an existing algorithm and has been carefully tested in rectangular and curve-sided channels with constant and variable depth. One of the common uncertainties in this class of two-dimensional hydrodynamic models is the treatment of the lateral boundary conditions. Special attention is paid specifically to addressing this problem. To maintain continuity within the domain of interest, ‘smooth’ curve-sided elements must be used at all shoreline boundaries. The present model uses triangular, isoparametric elements with quadratic basis functions for the two velocity components and a linear basis function for water surface elevation. An implicit time integration is used and the model is unconditionally stable. The resultant governing equations are nonlinear owing to the advective and the bottom friction terms and are solved iteratively at each time step by the Newton-Raphson method. Model test runs have been made in the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, California (South Bay) as well as in the Bay west of Carquinez Strait. Owing to the complex bathymetry, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Bay system are dictated by the generally shallow basins which contain deep, relict river channels. Great care must be exercised to ensure that the conservation equations remain locally as well as globally accurate. Simulations have been made over several representative tidal cycles using this finite element model, and the results compare favourably with existing data. In particular, the standing wave in South Bay and the progressive wave in the northern reach are well represented.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qicheng Sun


    Liquid foam is a dense random packing of gas or liquid bubbles in a small amount of immiscible liquid containing surfactants. The liquid within the Plateau borders, although small in volume, causes considerable difficulties to the investigation of the spatial structure and physical properties of foams, and the situation becomes even more complicated as the fluid flows. To solve these problems, a discrete model of two-dimensional liquid foams on the bubble scale is proposed in this work. The bubble surface is represented with finite number of nodes, and the liquid within Plateau borders is discretized into lattice particles. The gas in bubbles is treated as ideal gas at constant temperatures. This model is tested by choosing an arbitrary shape bubble as the initial condition. This then automatically evolves into a circular shape, which indicates that the surface energy minimum routine is obeyed without calling external controlling conditions. Without inserting liquid particle among the bubble channels, periodic ordered and disordered dry foams are both simulated, and the fine foam structures are developed. Wet foams are also simulated by inserting fluid among bubble channels. The calculated coordination number, as a function of liquid fractions, agrees well with the standard values.

  3. Development of two-dimensional hot pool model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, H. D


    During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coast-down. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHX{sub s}, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHX{sub s} and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, in this study two-dimensional hot pool model is developed instead of existing one-dimensional model to predict the hot pool coolant temperature and velocity distribution more accurately and is applied to the SSC-K code.

  4. Introducing 2D Materials—a new multidisciplinary journal devoted to all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.


    On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.

  5. An extended two-dimensional mathematical model of vertical ring furnaces (United States)

    Peter, S.; Charette, A.; Bui, R. T.; Tomsett, A.; Potocnik, V.


    An extended two-dimensional (2-D+) mathematical model of vertical anode baking furnaces has been developed. The work was motivated by the fact that a previous 2-D model was unable to predict the nonuniform baking in the transverse direction, i.e., perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the furnace. The modeling strategy based on dividing each section in four zones (underlid, pit, underpit, head wall and fire shaft zones) and introducing two symmetry planes in the exterior pits is explained. The basic heat-transfer relations used are also detailed. Selected results shown include draught and oxygen concentration profiles in the flue, gas and anode temperature distributions and fuel consumption in the back fire ramp. Simulation and experimental results are compared.

  6. Duality and Fisher zeros in the two-dimensional Potts model on a square lattice. (United States)

    Astorino, Marco; Canfora, Fabrizio


    A phenomenological approach to the ferromagnetic two-dimensional (2D) Potts model on square lattice is proposed. Our goal is to present a simple functional form that obeys the known properties possessed by the free energy of the q-state Potts model. The duality symmetry of the 2D Potts model together with the known results on its critical exponent α allows us to fix consistently the details of the proposed expression for the free energy. The agreement of the analytic ansatz with numerical data in the q=3 case is very good at high and low temperatures as well as at the critical point. It is shown that the q>4 cases naturally fit into the same scheme and that one should also expect a good agreement with numerical data. The limiting q=4 case is shortly discussed.

  7. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong


    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  8. Accurate two-dimensional model of an arrayed-waveguide grating demultiplexer and optimal design based on the reciprocity theory. (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing


    An accurate two-dimensional (2D) model is introduced for the simulation of an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer by integrating the field distribution along the vertical direction. The equivalent 2D model has almost the same accuracy as the original three-dimensional model and is more accurate for the AWG considered here than the conventional 2D model based on the effective-index method. To further improve the computational efficiency, the reciprocity theory is applied to the optimal design of a flat-top AWG demultiplexer with a special input structure.

  9. Measuring and modeling two-dimensional irrigation infiltration under film-mulched furrows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongYong Zhang; PuTe Wu; XiNing Zhao; WenZhi Zhao


    Furrow irrigation with film-mulched agricultural beds is being promoted in the arid region of northwest China because it improves water utilization. Two-dimensional infiltration patterns under film-mulched furrows can provide guidelines and criteria for irrigation design and operation. Our objective was to investigate soil water dynamics during ponding irrigation infiltration of mulched furrows in a cross-sectional ridge-furrow configuration, using laboratory experiments and math-ematical simulations. Six experimental treatments, with two soil types (silt loam and sandy loam), were investigated to monitor the wetting patterns and soil water distribution in a cuboid soil chamber. Irrigation of mulched furrows clearly increased water lateral infiltration on ridge shoulders and ridges, due to enhancement of capillary driving force. Increases to both initial soil water content (SWC) and irrigation water level resulted in increased wetted soil volume. Empirical regression equations accurately estimated the wetted lateral distance (Rl) and downward distance (Rd) with elapsed time in a variably wetted soil medium. Optimization of model parameters followed by the Inverse approach resulted in satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted cumulative infiltration and SWC. On the basis of model calibration, HYDRUS-2D model can accurately simulate two-dimensional soil water dynamics under irrigation of mulched furrows. There were significant differences in wetting patterns between unmulched and mulched furrow irrigation using HYDRUS-2D simulation. The Rd under the mulched furrows was 32.14%less than the unmulched furrows. Therefore, film-mulched furrows are recommended in a furrow irrigation system.

  10. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko V.I.


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.

  11. Drude Weight,Optical Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model at Half Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lei; ZHANG Jun


    We study the Drude weight D and optical conductivity of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model at half filling with staggered magnetic flux (SMF).When SMF being introduced,the hopping integrals are modulated by the magnetic flux.The optical sum rule,which is related to the mean kinetic energy of band electrons,is evaluated for this 2D Hubbard Hamiltonian.Our present result gives the dependence of the kinetic energy,D and the optical conductivity on SMF and U.At half filling D vanishes exponentially with system size.We also find in the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity,there is &function peak at ω≈2|m|U and the incoherent excitations begin to present themselves extended to a higher energy region.

  12. A two-dimensional volatility basis set – Part 3: Prognostic modeling and NOx dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chuang


    Full Text Available When NOx is introduced to organic emissions, aerosol production is sometimes, but not always, reduced. Under certain conditions, these interactions will instead increase aerosol concentrations. We expanded the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2-D-VBS to include the effects of NOx on aerosol formation. This includes the formation of organonitrates, where the addition of a nitrate group contributes to a decrease of 2.5 orders of magnitude in volatility. With this refinement, we model outputs from experimental results, such as the atomic N : C ratio, organonitrate mass, and nitrate fragments in AMS measurements. We also discuss the mathematical methods underlying the implementation of the 2-D-VBS and provide the complete code in the Supplemental material. A developer version is available on Bitbucket, an online community repository.

  13. Pairing in the two-dimensional Hubbard model: An exact diagonalization study (United States)

    Lin, H. Q.; Hirsch, J. E.; Scalapino, D. J.


    We have studied the pair susceptibilities for all possible pair wave functions that fit on a two-dimensional (2D) eight-site Hubbard cluster by exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. Band fillings corresponding to four and six electrons were studied (two or four holes in the half-filled band) for a wide range of Hubbard interaction strengths and temperatures. Our results show that all pairing susceptibilities are suppressed by the Hubbard repulsion. We have also carried out perturbation-theory calculations which show that the leading-order U2 contributions to the d-wave pair susceptibility suppresses d-wave pairing over a significant temperature range. These results are consistent with recent Monte Carlo results and provide further evidence suggesting that the 2D Hubbard model does not exhibit superconductivity.

  14. One- and two-dimensional modelling of overland flow in semiarid shrubland, Jornada basin, New Mexico (United States)

    Howes, David A.; Abrahams, Athol D.; Pitman, E. Bruce


    Two distributed parameter models, a one-dimensional (1D) model and a two-dimensional (2D) model, are developed to simulate overland flow in two small semiarid shrubland watersheds in the Jornada basin, southern New Mexico. The models are event-based and represent each watershed by an array of 1-m2 cells, in which the cell size is approximately equal to the average area of the shrubs.Each model uses only six parameters, for which values are obtained from field surveys and rainfall simulation experiments. In the 1D model, flow volumes through a fixed network are computed by a simple finite-difference solution to the 1D kinematic wave equation. In the 2D model, flow directions and volumes are computed by a second-order predictor-corrector finite-difference solution to the 2D kinematic wave equation, in which flow routing is implicit and may vary in response to flow conditions.The models are compared in terms of the runoff hydrograph and the spatial distribution of runoff. The simulation results suggest that both the 1D and the 2D models have much to offer as tools for the large-scale study of overland flow. Because it is based on a fixed flow network, the 1D model is better suited to the study of runoff due to individual rainfall events, whereas the 2D model may, with further development, be used to study both runoff and erosion during multiple rainfall events in which the dynamic nature of the terrain becomes an important consideration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Catalin STOENESCU


    Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.

  16. Two-dimensional biomass combustion modeling of CFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afsin Gungor [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture


    In this study, a 2D model for a CFB biomass combustor has been developed which integrates and simultaneously predicts the hydrodynamics, heat transfer and combustion aspects. Combustor hydrodynamic is modeled taking into account previous work. Simulation model calculates the axial and radial distribution of voidage, velocity, particle size distribution, pressure drop, gas emissions and temperature at each time interval for gas and solid phase both for bottom and upper zones. The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size biomass combustors which uses different types of biomass fuels given in the literature. As a result of sensitivity analysis, it is observed that: major portion of the combustion will take place in the upper zone, the air staging could improve combustion, for industrial-size CFB biomass combustors and the decrease of NOx adversely results in high CO emissions as air ratio decreases. Unexpected results concerning the emissions is caused by using data of different sized CFBs and is clearly an indicator of the necessity to compare the model results with various sized CFBs as far as possible. 71 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings. (United States)

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny


    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  18. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji


    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  19. A Two-Dimensional PEM Fuel Cell Model (United States)

    Shi, Zhongying; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Zhuqian


    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a typical low temperature cell, where hydrogen and air are fed into the porous anodic electrode and cathodic electrode though the gas distributors on the bipolar plates, respectively. Activated by the catalyst on anode side, hydrogen will spilt into protons and electrons. Since only protons will be allowed to pass through the membrane, electrons must go through an external circuit. Electrons and protons meet air on cathode side to produce water and heat catalyzed by the catalyst on the cathode side. Numerical simulations are useful tools to describe the basic transport and electrochemical phenomena of PEM fuel cells. The goal of the present work is to develop 2-D computational models of PEM fuel cells, which take into account fluid flow, multi- species transport, current distribution and electrical potential. The velocity field in free channel described by Navier-Stokes equation and the velocity field in porous media described by Darcy’s Law are coupled along the channel-MEA interface. The governing differential equations are solved over a single computational domain, which consists of two gas channel layers, two gas diffusion layers, two catalyst layers as well as a membrane. The model is solved with commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics 3.2b. Parametric study will be conducted to analyze the effects of various parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cells. The results, including the mass concentration, the polarization curve and the velocity distribution, will be presented.

  20. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi


    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  1. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi


    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  2. Two-Dimensional Core-Collapse Supernova Models with Multi-Dimensional Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Dolence, Joshua C; Zhang, Weiqun


    We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant $\\mathcal{O}(v/c)$ terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate $\\mathcal{O}(v/c)$ terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 milliseconds after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ``ray-by-ray' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ``ray-by-ray' calculations greatly exaggerate the ...

  3. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo


    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  4. Two-dimensional models of early-type fast rotating stars: the ESTER project

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel


    In this talk I present the latest results of the ESTER project that has taken up the challenge of building two dimensional (axisymmetric) models of stars rotating at any rotation rate. In particular, I focus on main sequence massive and intermediate mass stars. I show what should be expected in such stars as far as the differential rotation and the associated meridional circulation are concerned, notably the emergence of a Stewartson layer along the tangent cylinder of the core. I also indicate what may be inferred about the evolution of an intermediate-mass star at constant angular momentum and how Be stars may form. I finally give some comparisons between models and observations of the gravity darkening on some nearby fast rotators as it has been derived from interferometric observations. In passing, I also discuss how 2D models can help to recover the fundamental parameters of a star.

  5. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the longitudinal and lateral channel deformations in alluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Junqiang; WANG Guangqian; WU Baosheng


    Two kinds of bank erosion mechanisms were analyzed, including fluvial and non-fluvial controlled mechanisms, and mechanical methods of simulating the erosion processes of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks were improved. Then a two-dimensional numerical model of the channel deformation was developed, consisting of a 2D flow and sediment transport submodel and bank-erosion submodels of different soil riverbanks. In the model, a new technique for updating the bank geometry during the bed evolution was presented, which combines closely two kinds of submodels. The proposed model is capable of not only predicting the processes of flood routing and longitudinal channel deformation in natural rivers, but also simulating the processes of lateral channel deformation, especially the processes of lateral erosion and failure of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks.

  6. Probability-changing cluster algorithm for two-dimensional XY and clock models (United States)

    Tomita, Yusuke; Okabe, Yutaka


    We extend the newly proposed probability-changing cluster (PCC) Monte Carlo algorithm to the study of systems with the vector order parameter. Wolff's idea of the embedded cluster formalism is used for assigning clusters. The Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions for the two-dimensional (2D) XY and q-state clock models are studied by using the PCC algorithm. Combined with the finite-size scaling analysis based on the KT form of the correlation length, ξ~exp(c/(T/TKT-1)), we determine the KT transition temperature and the decay exponent η as TKT=0.8933(6) and η=0.243(4) for the 2D XY model. We investigate two transitions of the KT type for the 2D q-state clock models with q=6,8,12 and confirm the prediction of η=4/q2 at T1, the low-temperature critical point between the ordered and XY-like phases, systematically.

  7. Assessment of the reliability of reproducing two-dimensional resistivity models using an image processing technique. (United States)

    Ishola, Kehinde S; Nawawi, Mohd Nm; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Sabri, Ali Idriss Aboubakar; Adiat, Kola Abdulnafiu


    This study attempts to combine the results of geophysical images obtained from three commonly used electrode configurations using an image processing technique in order to assess their capabilities to reproduce two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity models. All the inverse resistivity models were processed using the PCI Geomatica software package commonly used for remote sensing data sets. Preprocessing of the 2-D inverse models was carried out to facilitate further processing and statistical analyses. Four Raster layers were created, three of these layers were used for the input images and the fourth layer was used as the output of the combined images. The data sets were merged using basic statistical approach. Interpreted results show that all images resolved and reconstructed the essential features of the models. An assessment of the accuracy of the images for the four geologic models was performed using four criteria: the mean absolute error and mean percentage absolute error, resistivity values of the reconstructed blocks and their displacements from the true models. Generally, the blocks of the images of maximum approach give the least estimated errors. Also, the displacement of the reconstructed blocks from the true blocks is the least and the reconstructed resistivities of the blocks are closer to the true blocks than any other combined used. Thus, it is corroborated that when inverse resistivity models are combined, most reliable and detailed information about the geologic models is obtained than using individual data sets.

  8. Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles.

  9. Experiment and modeling of a two-dimensional piezoelectric energy harvester (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Wu, Hao; Kiong Soh, Chee


    Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials has attracted much research interest in recent years. Numerous efforts have been devoted to improving the efficiency of vibration energy harvesters and broadening their bandwidths. In most reported literature, energy harvesters are designed to harvest energy from vibration source with a specific excitation direction. However, a practical environmental vibration source may include multiple components from different directions. Thus, it is an important concern to design a vibration energy harvester to be adaptive to multiple excitation directions. In this article, a piezoelectric energy harvester with frame configuration is proposed to achieve two-dimensional (2D) vibration energy harvesting. The harvester works in two fundamental modes, i.e., its vertical and horizontal vibration modes. By tuning the structural parameters, the harvester can capture vibration energy from arbitrary directions in a 2D plane. Experimental studies are carried out to prove its feasibility. A finite element model and an equivalent circuit model are built to simulate the system and validate the experiment outcomes. The study of this 2D energy harvester indicates its promising potential in practical vibration scenarios.

  10. Two-dimensional spectroscopy of molecular excitons in a model dimer system (United States)

    Halpin, Alexei

    The physics of molecular excitons has been the subject of many recent studies using electronic two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy (2DPE), particularly in the context of light harvesting in photosynthesis. Since the spectra for multichromophoric aggregates are congested, particularly so at room temperature, we present a study of a model dimer comprised of identical chromophores with a well defined electronic coupling strength, to provide clear signatures for coherences between vibronic excitons in 2D spectra. We begin by describing the design of a broadband passively phase-stabilized interferometer for collection of 2D spectra, which also allows for the investigation of state preparation in 2D spectroscopy by using shaped excitation pulses. In experiments on the model dimer we observe strong oscillating off-diagonal features in the 2D spectra which are present only before the onset of dephasing, which occurs in less than 100 fs due to strong system-bath coupling. This is in contrast with the parent dye, where low amplitude oscillations associated with Raman active vibrations persist for several ps following excitation. The results of this comparative study indicate that the signals observed earlier in photosynthetic proteins likely reflect vibrational motion in isolated pigments, and not delocalized quantum coherence. While long-lived vibrational coherences are of questionable biological relevance at face value, we conclude with a discussion on initial findings using coherently controlled 2D spectroscopy, where we observe long-lived signatures associated to vibronic coherences at room temperature. These results point to new directions of study using multidimensional spectroscopy to unravel the role of coherence in excitation energy transfer in molecular aggregates in an experimentally direct fashion.

  11. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.


    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  12. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun IM


    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  13. Nonlocal Coulomb interaction in the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Falicov–Kimball model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Bhowmick; N K Ghosh


    The two-dimensional (2D) extended Falicov–Kimball model has been studied to observe the role of nonlocal Coulomb interaction (nc) using an exact diagonalization technique. The f-state occupation ($n^f$), the f–d intersite correlation function (fd), the specific heat (), entropy () and the specific heat coefficient () have been examined. Nonlocal Coulomb interaction-induced discontinuous insulator-to-metal transition occurs at a critical f-level energy. More ordered state is obtained with the increase of nc. In the specific heat curves, two-peak structure as well as a singlepeak structure appears. At low-temperature region, a sharp rise in the specific heat coefficient is observed. The peak value of shifts to the higher temperature region with nc.

  14. The two-dimensional Godunov scheme and what it means for macroscopic pedestrian flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    An efficient simulation method for two-dimensional continuum pedestrian flow models is introduced. It is a two-dimensional and multi-class extension of the Go-dunov scheme for one-dimensional road traffic flow models introduced in the mid 1990’s. The method can be applied to continuum pedestrian flo

  15. Block Pickard Models for Two-Dimensional Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn


    whether a PRF consistent with the distribution on the boundary and a 2-D constraint exists. Iterative scaling is used as part of the algorithm, which also determines the conditional probabilities yielding the maximum entropy for the given boundary description if a solution exists. A PRF is defined......In Pickard random fields (PRF), the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy of the field can be calculated explicitly, but only very simple structures can be incorporated into such a field. Given two Markov chains describing a boundary, an algorithm is presented which determines...

  16. Efficient two-dimensional magnetotellurics modelling using implicitly restarted Lanczos method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna Kumar; Pravin K Gupta; Sri Niwas


    This paper presents an efficient algorithm, FDA2DMT (Free Decay Analysis for 2D Magnetotellurics (MT)), based on eigenmode approach to solve the relevant partial differential equation, for forward computation of two-dimensional (2D) responses. The main advantage of this approach lies in the fact that only a small subset of eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors are required for satisfactory results. This small subset (pre-specified number) of eigenmodes are obtained using shift and invert implementation of Implicitly Restarted Lanczos Method (IRLM). It has been established by experimentation that only 15–20% smallest eigenvalue and corresponding eigenvectors are sufficient to secure the acceptable accuracy. Once the single frequency response is computed using eigenmode approach, the responses for subsequent frequencies can be obtained in negligible time. Experiment design results for validation of FDA2DMT are presented by considering two synthetic models from COMMEMI report, Brewitt-Taylor and Weaver (1976) model and a field data based model from Garhwal Himalaya.

  17. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of two-dimensional neovascular network complexity: the surface fractal dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschini Barbara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling the complex development and growth of tumor angiogenesis using mathematics and biological data is a burgeoning area of cancer research. Architectural complexity is the main feature of every anatomical system, including organs, tissues, cells and sub-cellular entities. The vascular system is a complex network whose geometrical characteristics cannot be properly defined using the principles of Euclidean geometry, which is only capable of interpreting regular and smooth objects that are almost impossible to find in Nature. However, fractal geometry is a more powerful means of quantifying the spatial complexity of real objects. Methods This paper introduces the surface fractal dimension (Ds as a numerical index of the two-dimensional (2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular networks, and their behavior during computer-simulated changes in vessel density and distribution. Results We show that Ds significantly depends on the number of vessels and their pattern of distribution. This demonstrates that the quantitative evaluation of the 2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular systems can be useful not only to measure its complex architecture, but also to model its development and growth. Conclusions Studying the fractal properties of neovascularity induces reflections upon the real significance of the complex form of branched anatomical structures, in an attempt to define more appropriate methods of describing them quantitatively. This knowledge can be used to predict the aggressiveness of malignant tumors and design compounds that can halt the process of angiogenesis and influence tumor growth.

  18. Models of Late-Type Disk Galaxies: 1-D Versus 2-D

    CERN Document Server

    Mineikis, Tadas


    We investigate the effects of stochasticity on the observed galaxy parameters by comparing our stochastic star formation two-dimensional (2-D) galaxy evolution models with the commonly used one-dimensional (1-D) models with smooth star formation. The 2-D stochastic models predict high variability of the star formation rate and the surface photometric parameters across the galactic disks and in time.

  19. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  20. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao


    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  1. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  2. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  3. Analytical two-dimensional model of solar cell current-voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldararu, F.; Caldararu, M.; Nan, S.; Nicolaescu, D.; Vasile, S. (ICCE, Bucharest (RO). R and D Center for Electron Devices)


    This paper describes an analytical two-dimensional model for pn junction solar cell I-V characteristic. In order to solve the two-dimensional equations for the minority carrier concentration the Laplace transformation method is used. The model eliminates Hovel's assumptions concerning a one-dimensional model and provides an I-V characteristic that is simpler than those derived from the one-dimensional model. The method can be extended to any other device with two-dimensional symmetry. (author).

  4. Variational tensor network renormalization in imaginary time: Two-dimensional quantum compass model at finite temperature (United States)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.


    Progress in describing thermodynamic phase transitions in quantum systems is obtained by noticing that the Gibbs operator e-β H for a two-dimensional (2D) lattice system with a Hamiltonian H can be represented by a three-dimensional tensor network, the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) β . Coarse graining the network along β results in a 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension D . The coarse graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries. The isometries are optimized variationally, taking into account full tensor environment, to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO. The algorithm is applied to the isotropic quantum compass model on an infinite square lattice near a symmetry-breaking phase transition at finite temperature. From the linear susceptibility in the symmetric phase and the order parameter in the symmetry-broken phase, the critical temperature is estimated at Tc=0.0606 (4 ) J , where J is the isotropic coupling constant between S =1/2 pseudospins.

  5. E and S hysteresis model for two-dimensional magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, N


    We define an effective hysteresis model of two-dimensional magnetic properties for the magnetic field analysis. Our hysteresis model is applicable to both alternating and rotating flux conditions. Moreover, we compare the calculated results with the measured ones, and verify the accuracy of this model. We can calculate iron losses in the magnetic materials exactly. As a result, it is shown that the hysteresis model is generally applicable to two-dimensional magnetic properties of some kinds of magnetic materials.

  6. Two-dimensional MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk (United States)

    Kislov, R. A.; Malova, H. V.; Vasko, I. Y.


    A self-consistent stationary axially symmetric MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk is constructed. This model is a generalization of the models of plane current sheets that have been proposed earlier in order to describe the structure of the current sheet in the magnetotail of the Earth [1, 2]. The model takes centrifugal force, which is induced by the corotation electric field, and the azimuthal magnetic field into account. The configurations of the magnetic field lines for the isothermic (plasma temperature assumed to be constant) and the isentropic (plasma entropy assumed to be constant) models of the magnetodisk are determined. The dependence of the thickness of the magnetodisk on the distance to Jupiter is obtained. The thickness of the magnetodisk and the magnetic field distribution in the isothermic and isentropic models are similar. The inclusion of a low background plasma pressure results in a considerable reduction in the thickness of the magnetodisk. This effect may be attributed to the fact that centrifugal force prevails over the pressure gradient at large distances from the planet. The mechanism of unipolar induction and the related large-scale current system are analyzed. The direct and return Birkeland currents are determined in the approximation of a weak azimuthal magnetic field. The modeling results agree with theoretical estimates from other studies and experimental data.

  7. two - dimensional mathematical model of water flow in open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe


    Sep 1, 1996 ... simplification of the system of the governing shallow water equations ... For optional design of the ... models. One of the facilities for preliminary appraisal of the ... distribution. ..... indicated for the individual methods, located ...

  8. Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity (United States)

    Baillie, Clive F.

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the q=2 (Ising), 3 and 4 Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology with up to 5000 nodes. We find that the measured critical exponents are in reasonable agreement with those from the exact solution of the Ising model and with those calculated from KPZ scaling for q=3,4 where no exact solution is available.

  9. Two-dimensional hydrologic modeling to evaluate aquatic habitat conditions (United States)

    Pamela Edwards; Frederica Wood; Michael Little; Peter Vila; Peter Vila


    We describe the modeling and mapping procedures used to examine aquatic habitat conditions and habitat suitability of a small river in north- central West Virginia where fish survival and reproduction in specific reaches are poor. The study includes: (1) surveying cross sections of streambed reaches and measuring discharges and corresponding water-surface elevations,...

  10. Improved actions for the two-dimensional sigma-model


    Caracciolo, Sergio; Montanari, Andrea; Pelissetto, Andrea


    For the O(N) sigma-model we studied the improvement program for actions with two- and four-spin interactions. An interesting example is an action which is reflection-positive, on-shell improved, and has all the coupling defined on an elementary plaquette. We show the large N solution and preliminary Monte Carlo results for N=3.

  11. Horizontal mixing coefficients for two-dimensional chemical models calculated from National Meteorological Center Data (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Plumb, R. A.


    Calculations of the two-dimensional, species-independent mixing coefficients for two-dimensional chemical models for the troposphere and stratosphere are performed using quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity fluxes and gradients from 4 years of National Meteorological Center data for the four seasons in both hemispheres. Results show that the horizontal mixing coefficient values for the winter lower stratosphere are broadly consistent with those currently employed in two-dimensional models, but the horizontal mixing coefficient values in the northern winter upper stratosphere are much larger than those usually used.

  12. Flow Modelling for partially Cavitating Two-dimensional Hydrofoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnaswamy, Paddy


    The present work addresses te computational analysis of partial sheet hydrofoil cavitation in two dimensions. Particular attention is given to the method of simulating the flow at the end of the cavity. A fixed-length partially cavitating panel method is used to predict the height of the re...... of the model and comparing the present calculations with numerical results. The flow around the partially cavitating hydrofoil with a re-entrant jet has also been treated with a viscous/inviscid interactive method. The viscous flow model is based on boundary layer theory applied on the compound foil......, consisting of the union of the cavity and the hydrofoil surface. The change in the flow direction in the cavity closure region is seen to have a slightly adverse effect on the viscous pressure distribution. Otherwise, it is seen that the viscous re-entrant jet solution compares favourably with experimental...

  13. Numerical modeling of transient two-dimensional viscoelastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Bruno


    This paper deals with the numerical modeling of transient mechanical waves in linear viscoelastic solids. Dissipation mechanisms are described using the Zener model. No time convolutions are required thanks to the introduction of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time differential equations. By appropriately choosing the Zener parameters, it is possible to accurately describe a large range of materials, such as solids with constant quality factors. The evolution equations satisfied by the velocity, the stress, and the memory variables are written in the form of a first-order system of PDEs with a source term. This system is solved by splitting it into two parts: the propagative part is discretized explicitly, using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, and the diffusive part is then solved exactly. Jump conditions along the interfaces are discretized by applying an immersed interface method. Numerical experiments of wave propagation in viscoelastic and fluid media show the efficiency of this nu...

  14. Model and observed seismicity represented in a two dimensional space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caputo


    Full Text Available In recent years theoretical seismology lias introduced
    some formulae relating the magnitude and the seismic moment of earthquakes
    to the size of the fault and the stress drop which generated the
    In the present paper we introduce a model for the statistics of the
    earthquakes based on these formulae. The model gives formulae which
    show internal consistency and are also confirmed by observations.
    For intermediate magnitudes the formulae reproduce also the trend
    of linearity of the statistics of magnitude and moment observed in all the
    seismic regions of the world. This linear trend changes into a curve with
    increasing slope for large magnitudes and moment.
    When a catalogue of the magnitudes and/or the seismic moment of
    the earthquakes of a seismic region is available, the model allows to estimate
    the maximum magnitude possible in the region.

  15. A Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis of Ozone Trend Predictions in a Two Dimensional Model. Revision (United States)

    Considine, D. B.; Stolarski, R. S.; Hollandsworth, S. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Fleming, E. L.


    We use Monte Carlo analysis to estimate the uncertainty in predictions of total O3 trends between 1979 and 1995 made by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) two-dimensional (2D) model of stratospheric photochemistry and dynamics. The uncertainty is caused by gas-phase chemical reaction rates, photolysis coefficients, and heterogeneous reaction parameters which are model inputs. The uncertainty represents a lower bound to the total model uncertainty assuming the input parameter uncertainties are characterized correctly. Each of the Monte Carlo runs was initialized in 1970 and integrated for 26 model years through the end of 1995. This was repeated 419 times using input parameter sets generated by Latin Hypercube Sampling. The standard deviation (a) of the Monte Carlo ensemble of total 03 trend predictions is used to quantify the model uncertainty. The 34% difference between the model trend in globally and annually averaged total O3 using nominal inputs and atmospheric trends calculated from Nimbus 7 and Meteor 3 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) version 7 data is less than the 46% calculated 1 (sigma), model uncertainty, so there is no significant difference between the modeled and observed trends. In the northern hemisphere midlatitude spring the modeled and observed total 03 trends differ by more than 1(sigma) but less than 2(sigma), which we refer to as marginal significance. We perform a multiple linear regression analysis of the runs which suggests that only a few of the model reactions contribute significantly to the variance in the model predictions. The lack of significance in these comparisons suggests that they are of questionable use as guides for continuing model development. Large model/measurement differences which are many multiples of the input parameter uncertainty are seen in the meridional gradients of the trend and the peak-to-peak variations in the trends over an annual cycle. These discrepancies unambiguously indicate model formulation

  16. On Regularity Criteria for the Two-Dimensional Generalized Liquid Crystal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Wang


    Full Text Available We establish the regularity criteria for the two-dimensional generalized liquid crystal model. It turns out that the global existence results satisfy our regularity criteria naturally.

  17. Mesh-free Hamiltonian implementation of two dimensional Darwin model (United States)

    Siddi, Lorenzo; Lapenta, Giovanni; Gibbon, Paul


    A new approach to Darwin or magnetoinductive plasma simulation is presented, which combines a mesh-free field solver with a robust time-integration scheme avoiding numerical divergence errors in the solenoidal field components. The mesh-free formulation employs an efficient parallel Barnes-Hut tree algorithm to speed up the computation of fields summed directly from the particles, avoiding the necessity of divergence cleaning procedures typically required by particle-in-cell methods. The time-integration scheme employs a Hamiltonian formulation of the Lorentz force, circumventing the development of violent numerical instabilities associated with time differentiation of the vector potential. It is shown that a semi-implicit scheme converges rapidly and is robust to further numerical instabilities which can develop from a dominant contribution of the vector potential to the canonical momenta. The model is validated by various static and dynamic benchmark tests, including a simulation of the Weibel-like filamentation instability in beam-plasma interactions.

  18. Two dimensional cellular automaton for evacuation modeling: hybrid shuffle update

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Chikashi; Appert-Rolland, Cécile


    We consider a cellular automaton model with a static floor field for pedestrians evacuating a room. After identifying some properties of real pedestrian flows, we discuss various update schemes, and we introduce a new one, the hybrid shuffle update. The properties specific to pedestrians are incorporated in variables associated to particles called phases, that represent their step cycles. The dynamics of the phases gives naturally raise to some friction, and allows to reproduce several features observed in experiments. We study in particular the crossover between a low- and a high-density regime that occurs when the density of pedestrian increases, the dependency of the outflow in the strength of the floor field, and the shape of the queue in front of the exit.

  19. Staggered Flux State in Two-Dimensional Hubbard Models (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hisatoshi; Tamura, Shun; Ogata, Masao


    The stability and other properties of a staggered flux (SF) state or a correlated d-density wave state are studied for the Hubbard (t-t'-U) model on extended square lattices, as a low-lying state that competes with the dx2 - y2-wave superconductivity (d-SC) and possibly causes the pseudogap phenomena in underdoped high-Tc cuprates and organic κ-BEDT-TTF salts. In calculations, a variational Monte Carlo method is used. In the trial wave function, a configuration-dependent phase factor, which is vital to treat a current-carrying state for a large U/t, is introduced in addition to ordinary correlation factors. Varying U/t, t'/t, and the doping rate (δ) systematically, we show that the SF state becomes more stable than the normal state (projected Fermi sea) for a strongly correlated (U/t ≳ 5) and underdoped (δ ≲ 0.16) area. The decrease in energy is sizable, particularly in the area where Mott physics prevails and the circular current (order parameter) is strongly suppressed. These features are consistent with those for the t-J model. The effect of the frustration t'/t plays a crucial role in preserving charge homogeneity and appropriately describing the behavior of hole- and electron-doped cuprates and κ-BEDT-TTF salts. We argue that the SF state does not coexist with d-SC and is not a "normal state" from which d-SC arises. We also show that a spin current (flux or nematic) state is never stabilized in the same regime.

  20. Two-Dimensional Coupling Model on Social Deprivation and Its Application (United States)

    Fu, Yun

    This paper qualitatively describes the deprivation under different coupling situations of two-dimensional indicators and then establishes the two-dimensional coupling model on social deprivation, using the social welfare function approach and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke P α method. Finally, this paper applies the model to evaluate the social deprivation of 31 provinces in China under the coupling state of capita disposable income and housing price.

  1. Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices. (United States)

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl


    In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.

  2. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino


    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  3. Modeling of pressure sensors based on two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehui XIONG; Ping LU; Deming LIU


    A pressure sensor based on the two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) has been proposed. Under the condition of different pressure, the photonic band gap of the sensor has been studied by means of the plane wave expansion method (PWM). The results show that there is a good linear relation between the cutoff wavelength and the pressure. Apart from being easily implemented, the presented 2D PC pressure sensor holds many characteristics such as high-pressure sensitivity and convenience in achieving demanded pressure range.

  4. Infiltration effects on a two-dimensional molecular dynamics model of landslides

    CERN Document Server

    Martelloni, Gianluca


    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional (2D) computational model, based on a molecular dynamics (MD) approach, for deep landslides triggered by rainfall. Our model is based on interacting particles or grains and describes the behavior of a fictitious granular material along a slope consisting of a vertical section, i.e. with a wide thickness. The triggering of the landslide is caused by the passing of two conditions: a threshold speed and a condition on the static friction of the particles, the latter based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (Coulomb 1776; Mohr 1914). The inter-particle interactions are through a potential that, in the absence of suitable experimental data and due to the arbitrariness of the grain dimension is modeled by means of a potential similar to the Lennard-Jones one (Lennard-Jones 1924), i.e., with an attractive and a repulsive part. For the updating of the particle positions we use a MD method which results to be very suitable to simulate this type of systems (Herrmann and Ludi...

  5. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials. (United States)

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine


    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision.

  6. Port Adriano, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Jensen, Palle Meinert

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU).......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU)....

  7. Bond diluted Ising model in 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouamrane Rachid


    Full Text Available The bond diluted Ising model is studied by Monte Carlo method. The simulation is carried out on a two dimensional square lattice with missing bonds and free boundary conditions. The aim of this work is to investigate the thermodynamical properties of this model for different disorder degree parameter σ. The critical temperature is determined from the Binder cumulant and is shown to decreases as the disorder parameter σ increases linearly.

  8. Two-Dimensional Aerodynamic Models of Insect Flight for Robotic Flapping Wing Mechanisms of Maximum Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thien-Tong Nguyen; Doyoung Byun


    In the "modified quasi-steady" approach, two-dimensional (2D) aerodynamic models of flapping wing motions are analyzed with focus on different types of wing rotation and different positions of rotation axis to explain the force peak at the end of each half stroke. In this model, an additional velocity of the mid chord position due to rotation is superimposed on the translational relative velocity of air with respect to the wing. This modification produces augmented forces around the end of eachstroke. For each case of the flapping wing motions with various combination of controlled translational and rotational velocities of the wing along inclined stroke planes with thin figure-of-eight trajectory, discussions focus on lift-drag evolution during one stroke cycle and efficiency of types of wing rotation. This "modified quasi-steady" approach provides a systematic analysis of various parameters and their effects on efficiency of flapping wing mechanism. Flapping mechanism with delayed rotation around quarter-chord axis is an efficient one and can be made simple by a passive rotation mechanism so that it can be useful for robotic application.

  9. Verification of the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on remote sensing (United States)

    Sazonov, Alexey; Mikhailukova, Polina; Krylenko, Inna; Frolova, Natalya; Kireeva, Mariya


    Mathematical modeling methods are used more and more actively to evaluate possible damage, identify potential flood zone and the influence of individual factors affecting the river during the passage of the flood. Calculations were performed by means of domestic software complex «STREAM-2D» which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional St. Venant equations. One of the major challenges in mathematical modeling is the verification of the model. This is usually made using data on water levels from hydrological stations: the smaller the difference of the actual level and the simulated one, the better the quality of the model used. Data from hydrological stations are not always available, so alternative sources of verification, such as remote sensing, are increasingly used. The aim of this work is to develop a method of verification of hydrodynamic model based on a comparison of actual flood zone area, which in turn is determined on the basis of the automated satellite image interpretation methods for different imaging systems and flooded area obtained in the course of the model. The study areas are Lena River, The North Dvina River, Amur River near Blagoveshchensk. We used satellite images made by optical and radar sensors: SPOT-5/HRG, Resurs-F, Radarsat-2. Flooded area were calculated using unsupervised classification (ISODATA and K-mean) for optical images and segmentation for Radarsat-2. Knowing the flow rate and the water level at a given date for the upper and lower limits of the model, respectively, it is possible to calculate flooded area by means of program STREAM-2D and GIS technology. All the existing vector layers with the boundaries of flooding are included in a GIS project for flood area calculation. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project no. 14-17-00155.

  10. Comparison between one-dimensional and two-dimensional models for Josephson junctions of overlap type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilbeck, J. C; Lomdahl, P.S.; Olsen, O.H.


    A two-dimensional model of Josephson junction of overlap type is presented. The energy input is provided through induced magnetic fields modeled by a set of boundary conditions. In the limit of a very narrow junction, this model reduces to the one-dimensional model. Further, an equation derived f...

  11. Two-dimensional analytical models for asymmetric fully depleted double-gate strained silicon MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hong-Xia; Li Jin; Li Bin; Cao Lei; Yuan Bo


    This paper develops the simple and accurate two-dimensional analytical models for new asymmetric double-gate fully depleted strained-Si MOSFET. The models mainly include the analytical equations of the surface potential, surface electric field and threshold voltage, which are derived by solving two dimensional Poisson equation in strained-Si layer.The models are verified by numerical simulation. Besides offering the physical insight into device physics in the model,the new structure also provides the basic designing guidance for further immunity of short channel effect and drain-induced barrier-lowering of CMOS-based devices in nanometre scale.

  12. A Large Deformation Model for the Elastic Moduli of Two-dimensional Cellular Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guoming; WAN Hui; ZHANG Youlin; BAO Wujun


    We developed a large deformation model for predicting the elastic moduli of two-dimensional cellular materials. This large deformation model was based on the large deflection of the inclined members of the cells of cellular materials. The deflection of the inclined member, the strain of the representative structure and the elastic moduli of two-dimensional cellular materials were expressed using incomplete elliptic integrals. The experimental results show that these elastic moduli are no longer constant at large deformation, but vary significantly with the strain. A comparison was made between this large deformation model and the small deformation model proposed by Gibson and Ashby.

  13. Quantum search on the two-dimensional lattice using the staggered model with Hamiltonians (United States)

    Portugal, R.; Fernandes, T. D.


    Quantum search on the two-dimensional lattice with one marked vertex and cyclic boundary conditions is an important problem in the context of quantum algorithms with an interesting unfolding. It avails to test the ability of quantum walk models to provide efficient algorithms from the theoretical side and means to implement quantum walks in laboratories from the practical side. In this paper, we rigorously prove that the recent-proposed staggered quantum walk model provides an efficient quantum search on the two-dimensional lattice, if the reflection operators associated with the graph tessellations are used as Hamiltonians, which is an important theoretical result for validating the staggered model with Hamiltonians. Numerical results show that on the two-dimensional lattice staggered models without Hamiltonians are not as efficient as the one described in this paper and are, in fact, as slow as classical random-walk-based algorithms.

  14. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, P.


    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  15. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, P.


    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A two-dimensional nonlinear shell model"of Koiter's type"has recently been proposed by the first author. It is shown here that, according to two mutually exclusive sets of assumptions bearing on the associated manifold of admissible inextensional displacements, the leading term of a formal asymptotic expansion of the solution of this two-dimensional model, with the thickness as the"small" parameter, satisfies either the two-dimensional equations of a nonlinearly elastic "membrane" shell or those of a nonlinearly elastic "flexural" shell. These conclusions being identical to those recently drawn by B. Miara, then by V. Lods and B. Miara, for the leading term of a formal asymptotic expansion of the solution of the equations of three-dimensional nonlinear elasticity, again with the thickness as the "small" parameter, the nonlinear shell model of Koiter's type considered here is thus justified, at least formally.

  17. The exact interface model for wetting in the two-dimensional Ising model


    Upton, P. J.


    We use exact methods to derive an interface model from an underlying microscopic model, i.e., the Ising model on a square lattice. At the wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model, the long Peierls contour (or interface) gets depinned from the substrate. Using exact transfer-matrix methods, we find that on sufficiently large length scales (i.e., length scales sufficiently larger than the bulk correlation length) the distribution of the long contour is given by a unique probability...

  18. Stationary states of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model with disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Hendriksen, D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Solitonlike excitations in the presence of disorder in the two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation are analyzed. The continuum as well as the discrete problem are analyzed. In the continuum model, otherwise unstable excitations are stabilized in the presence of disorder. In the discr......Solitonlike excitations in the presence of disorder in the two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation are analyzed. The continuum as well as the discrete problem are analyzed. In the continuum model, otherwise unstable excitations are stabilized in the presence of disorder...

  19. Two-dimensional NMR measurement and point dipole model prediction of paramagnetic shift tensors in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Brennan J.; Davis, Michael C.; Grandinetti, Philip J. [Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Dey, Krishna K. [Department of Physics, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh 470003 (India); Baltisberger, Jay H. [Division of Natural Science, Mathematics, and Nursing, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky 40403 (United States)


    A new two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiment to separate and correlate the first-order quadrupolar and chemical/paramagnetic shift interactions is described. This experiment, which we call the shifting-d echo experiment, allows a more precise determination of tensor principal components values and their relative orientation. It is designed using the recently introduced symmetry pathway concept. A comparison of the shifting-d experiment with earlier proposed methods is presented and experimentally illustrated in the case of {sup 2}H (I = 1) paramagnetic shift and quadrupolar tensors of CuCl{sub 2}⋅2D{sub 2}O. The benefits of the shifting-d echo experiment over other methods are a factor of two improvement in sensitivity and the suppression of major artifacts. From the 2D lineshape analysis of the shifting-d spectrum, the {sup 2}H quadrupolar coupling parameters are 〈C{sub q}〉 = 118.1 kHz and 〈η{sub q}〉 = 0.88, and the {sup 2}H paramagnetic shift tensor anisotropy parameters are 〈ζ{sub P}〉 = − 152.5 ppm and 〈η{sub P}〉 = 0.91. The orientation of the quadrupolar coupling principal axis system (PAS) relative to the paramagnetic shift anisotropy principal axis system is given by (α,β,γ)=((π)/2 ,(π)/2 ,0). Using a simple ligand hopping model, the tensor parameters in the absence of exchange are estimated. On the basis of this analysis, the instantaneous principal components and orientation of the quadrupolar coupling are found to be in excellent agreement with previous measurements. A new point dipole model for predicting the paramagnetic shift tensor is proposed yielding significantly better agreement than previously used models. In the new model, the dipoles are displaced from nuclei at positions associated with high electron density in the singly occupied molecular orbital predicted from ligand field theory.

  20. Modeling A.C. Electronic Transport through a Two-Dimensional Quantum Point Contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, I.E.; Beletskii, N.N.; Berman, G.P.; Campbell, D.K.; Doolen, G.D.; Dudiy, S.V.


    We present the results on the a.c. transport of electrons moving through a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor quantum point contact (QPC). We concentrate our attention on the characteristic properties of the high frequency admittance ({omega}{approximately}0 - 50 GHz), and on the oscillations of the admittance in the vicinity of the separatrix (when a channel opens or closes), in presence of the relaxation effects. The experimental verification of such oscillations in the admittance would be a strong confirmation of the semi-classical approach to the a.c. transport in a QPC, in the separatrix region.

  1. A Direct Calculation of Critical Exponents of Two-Dimensional Anisotropic Ising Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Gang; WANG Xiang-Rong


    Using an exact solution of the one-dimensional quantum transverse-field Ising model, we calculate the critical exponents of the two-dimensional anisotropic classicalIsing model (IM). We verify that the exponents are the same as those of isotropic classical IM. Our approach provides an alternative means of obtaining and verifying these well-known results.

  2. Two-dimensional quantum compass model in a staggered field: some rigorous results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Pei-Song; You Wen-Long; Tian Guang-Shan


    We study the properties of the two-dimensional quantum compass model in a staggered field. Using the PerronFr(o)enius theorem and the reflection positivity method, we rigorously determine the low energy spectrum of this model and its global ground state Ψ0. Furthermore, we show that Ψ0 has a directional long-range order.

  3. Modelling and experimental validation of two-dimensional transverse vibrations in a flexible robot link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Baungaard, Jens Rane


    A general model for a rotating homogenous flexible robot link is developed. The model describes two-dimensional transverse vibrations induced by the actuator due to misalignment of the actuator axis of rotation relative to the link symmetry axis and due to translational acceleration of the link...

  4. Modeling of the financial market using the two-dimensional anisotropic Ising model (United States)

    Lima, L. S.


    We have used the two-dimensional classical anisotropic Ising model in an external field and with an ion single anisotropy term as a mathematical model for the price dynamics of the financial market. The model presented allows us to test within the same framework the comparative explanatory power of rational agents versus irrational agents with respect to the facts of financial markets. We have obtained the mean price in terms of the strong of the site anisotropy term Δ which reinforces the sensitivity of the agent's sentiment to external news.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Naoki; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takuma, E-mail: [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)


    Solar flares are an explosive phenomenon where super-sonic flows and shocks are expected in and above the post-flare loops. To understand the dynamics of post-flare loops, a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) simulation of a solar flare has been carried out. We found new shock structures in and above the post-flare loops, which were not resolved in the previous work by Yokoyama and Shibata. To study the dynamics of flows along the reconnected magnetic field, the kinematics and energetics of the plasma are investigated along selected field lines. It is found that shocks are crucial to determine the thermal and flow structures in the post-flare loops. On the basis of the 2D MHD simulation, we developed a new post-flare loop model, which we defined as the pseudo-2D MHD model. The model is based on the one-dimensional (1D) MHD equations, where all variables depend on one space dimension, and all the three components of the magnetic and velocity fields are considered. Our pseudo-2D model includes many features of the multi-dimensional MHD processes related to magnetic reconnection (particularly MHD shocks), which the previous 1D hydrodynamic models are not able to include. We compared the shock formation and energetics of a specific field line in the 2D calculation with those in our pseudo-2D MHD model, and found that they give similar results. This model will allow us to study the evolution of the post-flare loops in a wide parameter space without expensive computational cost or neglecting important physics associated with magnetic reconnection.

  6. Two dimensional black-hole as a topological coset model of c=1 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhi, S


    We show that a special superconformal coset (with $\\hat c =3$) is equivalent to $c=1$ matter coupled to two dimensional gravity. This identification allows a direct computation of the correlation functions of the $c=1$ non-critical string to all genus, and at nonzero cosmological constant, directly from the continuum approach. The results agree with those of the matrix model. Moreover we connect our coset with a twisted version of a Euclidean two dimensional black hole, in which the ghost and matter systems are mixed.

  7. Two-dimensional structure in a generic model of triangular proteins and protein trimers. (United States)

    Camp, Philip J; Duncan, Peter D


    Motivated by the diversity and complexity of two-dimensional (2D) crystals formed by triangular proteins and protein trimers, we have investigated the structures and phase behavior of hard-disk trimers. In order to mimic specific binding interactions, each trimer possesses an "attractive" disk which can interact with similar disks on other trimers via an attractive square-well potential. At low density and low temperature, the fluid phase mainly consists of tetramers, pentamers, or hexamers. Hexamers provide the structural motif for a high-density, low-temperature periodic solid phase, but we also identify a metastable periodic structure based on a tetramer motif. At high density there is a transition between orientationally ordered and disordered solid phases. The connections between simulated structures and those of 2D protein crystals--as seen in electron microscopy--are briefly discussed.

  8. Simple Two-Dimensional Corrections for One-Dimensional Pulse Tube Models (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.


    One-dimensional oscillating flow models are very useful for designing pulse tubes. They are simple to use, not computationally intensive, and the physical relationship between temperature, pressure and mass flow are easy to understand when used in conjunction with phasor diagrams. They do not possess, however, the ability to directly calculate thermal and momentum diffusion in the direction transverse to the oscillating flow. To account for transverse effects, lumped parameter corrections, which are obtained though experiment, must be used. Or two-dimensional solutions of the differential fluid equations must be obtained. A linear two-dimensional solution to the fluid equations has been obtained. The solution provides lumped parameter corrections for one-dimensional models. The model accounts for heat transfer and shear flow between the gas and the tube. The complex Nusselt number and complex shear wall are useful in describing these corrections, with phase relations and amplitudes scaled with the Prandtl and Valensi numbers. The calculated ratio, a, between a two-dimensional solution of the oscillating temperature and velocity and a one-dimensional solution for the same shows a scales linearly with Va for Va less than 30. In this region alpha less than 0.5, that is, the enthalpy flow calculated with a two-dimensional model is 50% of a calculation using a one-dimensional model. For Va greater than 250, alpha = 0.8, showing that diffusion is still important even when it is confined to a thing layer near the tube wall.

  9. Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model (United States)

    A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...

  10. On two-dimensionalization of three-dimensional turbulence in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sarkar, A.


    Applying a modified version of the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model, the signatures of so-called two-dimensionalization effect of three-dimensional incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic fully developed unforced turbulence have been studied and reproduced. Within the framework of shell...

  11. A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, AJ


    Full Text Available TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2015 A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet Andries J. Groblera, Stanley Robert Holmb, and George van Schoorc a School of Electrical, Electronic...

  12. Proton transport in a membrane protein channel: two-dimensional infrared spectrum modeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Knoester, J.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.


    We model the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectrum of a proton channel to investigate its applicability as a spectroscopy tool to study the proton transport process in biological systems. Proton transport processes in proton channels are involved in numerous fundamental biochemical reactions. How

  13. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.


    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  14. Two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow with open boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tadaki, S I


    A two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow with open boundaries are investigated by computer simulations. The outflow of cars from the system and the average velocity are investigated. The time sequences of the outflow and average velocity have flicker noises in a jamming phase. The low density behavior are discussed with simple jam-free approximation.

  15. A Solvable Model in Two-Dimensional Gravity Coupled to a Nonlinear Matter Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; WANG Shun-Jin; TAO Bi-You


    The two-dimensional gravity model with a coupling constant k = 4 and a vanishing cosmological constant coupled to a nonlinear matter field is investigated. We found that the classical equations of motion are exactly solvable and the static solutions of the induced metric and scalar curvature can be obtained analytically. These solutions may be used to describe the naked singularity at the origin.``

  16. Lattice Methods for Pricing American Strangles with Two-Dimensional Stochastic Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Gao


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to extend the lattice method proposed by Ritchken and Trevor (1999 for pricing American options with one-dimensional stochastic volatility models to the two-dimensional cases with strangle payoff. This proposed method is compared with the least square Monte-Carlo method via numerical examples.

  17. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Abelian spin models. (United States)

    Borisenko, Oleg; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro


    It is argued that two-dimensional U(N) spin models for any N undergo a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT)-like phase transition, similarly to the famous XY model. This conclusion follows from the Berezinskii-like calculation of the two-point correlation function in U(N) models, approximate renormalization group analysis, and numerical investigations of the U(2) model. It is shown, via Monte Carlo simulations, that the universality class of the U(2) model coincides with that of the XY model. Moreover, preliminary numerical results point out that two-dimensional SU(N) spin models with the fundamental and adjoint terms and N>4 exhibit two phase transitions of BKT type, similarly to Z(N) vector models.

  18. Eighth-order phase-field-crystal model for two-dimensional crystallization


    Jaatinen, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.


    We present a derivation of the recently proposed eighth order phase field crystal model [Jaatinen et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 031602 (2009)] for the crystallization of a solid from an undercooled melt. The model is used to study the planar growth of a two dimensional hexagonal crystal, and the results are compared against similar results from dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona, as well as other phase field crystal models. We find that among the phase field crystal models...

  19. Logarithmic discretization and systematic derivation of shell models in two-dimensional turbulence. (United States)

    Gürcan, Ö D; Morel, P; Kobayashi, S; Singh, Rameswar; Xu, S; Diamond, P H


    A detailed systematic derivation of a logarithmically discretized model for two-dimensional turbulence is given, starting from the basic fluid equations and proceeding with a particular form of discretization of the wave-number space. We show that it is possible to keep all or a subset of the interactions, either local or disparate scale, and recover various limiting forms of shell models used in plasma and geophysical turbulence studies. The method makes no use of the conservation laws even though it respects the underlying conservation properties of the fluid equations. It gives a family of models ranging from shell models with nonlocal interactions to anisotropic shell models depending on the way the shells are constructed. Numerical integration of the model shows that energy and enstrophy equipartition seem to dominate over the dual cascade, which is a common problem of two-dimensional shell models.

  20. GIS-based data model and tools for creating and managing two-dimensional cross sections (United States)

    Whiteaker, Timothy L.; Jones, Norm; Strassberg, Gil; Lemon, Alan; Gallup, Doug


    While modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is robust in handling maps and data in plan view, the software generally falls short when representing features in section view. Further complicating the issue is the fact that geologic cross sections are often drawn by connecting a series of wells together that do not fall along a single straight line. In this case, the x-axis of the cross section represents the distance along the set of individual lines connecting the series of wells, effectively "flattening out" the cross section along this path to create a view of the subsurface with which geologists often work in printed folios. Even 3D-enabled GIS cannot handle this type of cross section. A GIS data model and tools for creating and working with two-dimensional cross sections are presented. The data model and tools create a framework that can be applied using ESRI's ArcGIS software, enabling users to create, edit, manage, and print two-dimensional cross sections from within one of the most well-known GIS software packages. The data model is a component of the arc hydro groundwater data model, which means all two-dimensional cross sections are inherently linked to other features in the hydrogeologic domain, including those represented by xyz coordinates in real world space. Thus, the creation of two-dimensional cross sections can be guided by or completely driven from standard GIS data, and geologic interpretations established on two-dimensional cross sections can be translated back to real world coordinates to create three-dimensional features such as fence diagrams, giving GIS users the capacity to characterize the subsurface environment in a variety of integrated views that was not possible before. A case study for the Sacramento Regional Model in California demonstrates the application of the methodology in support of a regional groundwater management plan.

  1. DNA sequencing by two-dimensional materials: As theoretical modeling meets experiments. (United States)

    Liang, Lijun; Shen, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhisen; Wang, Qi


    Owing to their extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties, two-dimensional (2D) materials (mainly including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2 etc.) have stimulated exploding interests in sensor applications. 2D-material based nanoscale DNA sequencing is a single-molecule technique with revolutionary potential. In this paper, we review the methodology of DNA sequencing based on the measurements of ionic current, force peak, and transverse electrical currents etc. by 2D materials. The advantages and disadvantages of DNA sequencing by 2D materials are discussed. Besides the recent development of experiments, we will focus on the theoretical calculations of DNA sequencing, which have been played a critical role in the development of this field. Special emphasis will focus on the disagreements between experiments and theoretical calculations, and the explanations for the discrepancy will be highlighted. Finally, some new plausible sequencing methods from computational studies will be discussed, which may be applied in the realistic DNA sequencing experiments in future.

  2. Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio


    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.

  3. Universality class of the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model. (United States)

    Martins, P H L; Plascak, J A


    In this work, we evaluate the probability distribution function of the order parameter for the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for different spin concentrations p (0.70universality class of the diluted Ising model seems to be independent of the amount of dilution. Logarithmic corrections of the finite-size critical temperature behavior of the model can also be inferred even for such small lattices.

  4. Measurement of the Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Cocchi, Eugenio; Drewes, Jan; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Koehl, Michael


    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly-correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions, 0 constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  5. Numerical study of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional models (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Semenova, Yuliya; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Qiang; Muhamad Hatta, Agus; Farrell, Gerald


    A numerical study is carried out to compare the two-dimensional (2-D) case and three-dimensional (3-D) case for the modelling of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide. It is shown that different waveguide widths on the photomask correspond to different ion concentration distributions after an annealing process. A numerical example is presented of two waveguide sections with different widths indicates that due to the abrupt change of the waveguide width, a 3-D theoretical model is required for an accurate prediction of the parameters of ion-exchanged glass waveguides. The good agreement between the modelled and measured results proves that the developed 3-D numerical model can be beneficially utilized in the generalized design of optical devices based on ion-exchange waveguides.

  6. Analysis of Two-Layered Random Interfaces for Two Dimensional Widom-Rowlinson's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang


    Full Text Available The statistical behaviors of two-layered random-phase interfaces in two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson's model are investigated. The phase interfaces separate two coexisting phases of the lattice Widom-Rowlinson model; when the chemical potential μ of the model is large enough, the convergence of the probability distributions which describe the fluctuations of the phase interfaces is studied. In this paper, the backbones of interfaces are introduced in the model, and the corresponding polymer chains and cluster expansions are developed and analyzed for the polymer weights. And the existence of the free energy for two-layered random-phase interfaces of the two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson model is given.

  7. Evaluation of 2D shallow-water model for spillway flow with a complex geometry (United States)

    Although the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water model is formulated based on several assumptions such as hydrostatic pressure distribution and vertical velocity is negligible, as a simple alternative to the complex 3D model, it has been used to compute water flows in which these assumptions may be ...

  8. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  9. A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.

  10. Canonical quantization of a two-dimensional model with anomalous breaking of gauge invariance


    Girotti, Horacio Oscar; Rothe, Heinz J.; Rothe, Klaus D.


    We investigate in detail the operator quantum dynamics of a two-dimensional model exhibiting anomalous breaking of gauge invariance. The equal-time algebra is systematically obtained by using the Dirac-bracket formalism for constrained systems. For certain values of the regularization parameter the system is shown to undergo drastic changes. For the value of the parameter corresponding to the chiral Schwinger model no operator solutions are found to exist.

  11. Striped periodic minimizers of a two-dimensional model for martensitic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro


    In this paper we consider a simplified two-dimensional scalar model for the formation of mesoscopic domain patterns in martensitic shape-memory alloys at the interface between a region occupied by the parent (austenite) phase and a region occupied by the product (martensite) phase, which can occur in two variants (twins). The model, first proposed by Kohn and Mueller, is defined by the following functional:

  12. Tensor renormalization group approach to two-dimensional classical lattice models. (United States)

    Levin, Michael; Nave, Cody P


    We describe a simple real space renormalization group technique for two-dimensional classical lattice models. The approach is similar in spirit to block spin methods, but at the same time it is fundamentally based on the theory of quantum entanglement. In this sense, the technique can be thought of as a classical analogue of the density matrix renormalization group method. We demonstrate the method - which we call the tensor renormalization group method - by computing the magnetization of the triangular lattice Ising model.

  13. On the geometry of classically integrable two-dimensional non-linear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammedi, N., E-mail: nouri@lmpt.univ-tours.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique (CNRS - UMR 6083), Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)


    A master equation expressing the zero curvature representation of the equations of motion of a two-dimensional non-linear sigma models is found. The geometrical properties of this equation are outlined. Special attention is paid to those representations possessing a spectral parameter. Furthermore, a closer connection between integrability and T-duality transformations is emphasised. Finally, new integrable non-linear sigma models are found and all their corresponding Lax pairs depend on a spectral parameter.

  14. The gauging of two-dimensional bosonic sigma models on world-sheets with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad


    We extend our analysis of the gauging of rigid symmetries in bosonic two-dimensional sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms in the action to the case of world-sheets with defects. A structure that permits a non-anomalous coupling of such sigma models to world-sheet gauge fields of arbitrary topology is analysed, together with obstructions to its existence, and the classification of its inequivalent choices.

  15. Two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy at a conical intersection: A two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation (United States)

    Sala, Matthieu; Egorova, Dassia


    The multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of ultrafast nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CI) is an emerging field of investigation, which profits also from the recent extension of the techniques to the UV domain. We present a detailed computational study of oscillatory signatures in two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo spectroscopy (also known as 2D electronic spectroscopy, 2DES) for the two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation. Conventional 2D signals as well as the resulting beating maps are considered. Although of a reduced character, the model captures quite well all the main signatures of the excited-state dynamics of the molecule. Due to the ultrafast relaxation via the CI and no excited-state absorption from the low-lying dark state, the oscillatory components of the signal are found to be predominantly determined by the ground state bleach contribution. They reflect, therefore, the ground-state vibrational coherence induced in the Raman active mode. Beating maps provide a way to experimentally differentiate between ground state bleach and stimulated emission oscillatory components. The ultrafast decay of the latter constitutes a clear indirect signature of the CI. In the considered model, because of the sign properties of the involved transition dipole moments, the dominance of the ground-state coherence leads to anti-correlated oscillations of cross peaks located at symmetric positions with respect to the main diagonal.

  16. A Novel Machine Learning Strategy Based on Two-Dimensional Numerical Models in Financial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Xu


    Full Text Available Machine learning is the most commonly used technique to address larger and more complex tasks by analyzing the most relevant information already present in databases. In order to better predict the future trend of the index, this paper proposes a two-dimensional numerical model for machine learning to simulate major U.S. stock market index and uses a nonlinear implicit finite-difference method to find numerical solutions of the two-dimensional simulation model. The proposed machine learning method uses partial differential equations to predict the stock market and can be extensively used to accelerate large-scale data processing on the history database. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the prediction error and improves forecasting precision.

  17. Cluster-algorithm renormalization-group study of universal fluctuations in the two-dimensional Ising model. (United States)

    Palma, G; Zambrano, D


    In this paper we propose a method to study critical systems numerically, which combines collective-mode algorithms and renormalization group on the lattice. This method is an improved version of the Monte Carlo renormalization group in the sense that it has all the advantages of cluster algorithms. As an application we considered the 2D Ising model and studied whether scale invariance or universality are possible underlying mechanisms responsible for the approximate "universal fluctuations" close to a so-called bulk temperature T(L) . "Universal fluctuations" were first proposed in the work of Bramwell, Holdsworth, and Pinton [Nature (London) 396, 552 (1998)] and stated that the probability density function of a global quantity for very dissimilar systems, such as a confined turbulent flow and a two-dimensional (2D) magnetic system, properly normalized to the first two moments, becomes similar to the "universal distribution," originally obtained for magnetization in the 2D XY model in the low-temperature region. The results for the critical exponents and the renormalization-group flow of the probability density function are very accurate and show no evidence to support that the approximate common shape of the PDF should be related to both scale invariance or universal behavior.

  18. Modeling of the optical properties of a two-dimensional system of small conductive particles. (United States)

    Kondikov, A. A.; Tonkaev, P. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.


    Software was developed for quick numerical calculations and graphic display of the absorption, reflection and transmittance spectra of two-dimensional systems of small conductive particles. It allowed us to make instant comparison of calculation results and experimental data. A lattice model was used to simulate nearly distributed particles, and the coherent-potential approximation was applied to obtain a solution to the problem of interacting particles. The Delphi programming environment was used.

  19. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauer, Kyle


    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model on the lattice using Wilson fermions and the fermion loop formulation. We give a complete nonperturbative determination of the ground state structure in the continuum and infinite volume limit. We also present a determination of the particle spectrum in the supersymmetric phase, in the supersymmetry broken phase and across the supersymmetry breaking phase transition. In the supersymmetry broken phase we observe the emergence of the Goldstino particle.

  20. Inflation Cosmological Solutions in Two-Dimensional Brans-Dicke Gravity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The purpose of this paper is to study cosmological properties of two-dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity model. For massless scalar field, the new cosmological solutions are found by integration of field equation, these solutions correspond to the inflation solutions with positive cosmological constant. The result of this paper show that the inflation process of universe is controlled by the classical and quantum effect of the scalar field.

  1. Coexistence of Incommensurate Magnetism and Superconductivity in the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model. (United States)

    Yamase, Hiroyuki; Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter


    We analyze the competition of magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model with a moderate interaction strength, including the possibility of incommensurate spiral magnetic order. Using an unbiased renormalization group approach, we compute magnetic and superconducting order parameters in the ground state. In addition to previously established regions of Néel order coexisting with d-wave superconductivity, the calculations reveal further coexistence regions where superconductivity is accompanied by incommensurate magnetic order.

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Majorana lattice model (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata


    We study interacting Majorana fermions in two dimensions as a low-energy effective model of a vortex lattice in two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. For that purpose, we implement ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation to the Majorana fermion system in which the path-integral measure is given by a semipositive Pfaffian. We discuss spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry at finite temperatures.

  3. Nonequilibrium critical dynamics of the two-dimensional Ising model quenched from a correlated initial state. (United States)

    Környei, László; Pleimling, Michel; Iglói, Ferenc


    The universality class, even the order of the transition, of the two-dimensional Ising model depends on the range and the symmetry of the interactions (Onsager model, Baxter-Wu model, Turban model, etc.), but the critical temperature is generally the same due to self-duality. Here we consider a sudden change in the form of the interaction and study the nonequilibrium critical dynamical properties of the nearest-neighbor model. The relaxation of the magnetization and the decay of the autocorrelation function are found to display a power law behavior with characteristic exponents that depend on the universality class of the initial state.

  4. Modeling two-dimensional water flow and bromide transport in a heterogeneous lignitic mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczko, U.; Gerke, H.H. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)


    Water and solute fluxes in lignitic mine soils and in many other soils are often highly heterogeneous. Here, heterogeneity reflects dumping-induced inclined structures and embedded heterogeneous distributions of sediment mixtures and of lignitic fragments. Such two-scale heterogeneity effects may be analyzed through the application of two-dimensional models for calculating water and solute fluxes. The objective of this study was to gain more insight to what extent spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters contributes to preferential flow at a lignitic mine soil. The simulations pertained to the 'Barenbrucker Hohe' site in Germany where previously water fluxes and applied tracers had been monitored with a cell lysimeter, and from where a soil block had been excavated for detailed two-dimensional characterization of the hydraulic parameters using pedotransfer functions. Based on those previous studies, scenarios with different distributions of hydraulic parameters were simulated. The results show that spatial variability of hydraulic parameters alone can hardly explain the observed flow patterns. The observed preferential flow at the site was probably caused by additional factors such as hydrophobicity, the presence of root channels, anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, and heterogeneous root distributions. To study the relative importance of these other factors by applying two-dimensional flow models to such sites, the experimental database must be improved. Single-continuum model approaches may be insufficient for such sites.

  5. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional large- Q Potts model in an external field (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D. P.


    We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling algorithm to map out the phase diagram of a Q-state Potts model with Q⩽10 in an external field H that couples to one state. Finite-size scaling analyses show that for large Q the first-order phase transition point at H=0 is in fact a triple point at which three first-order phase transition lines meet. One such line is restricted to H=0; another line has H⩽0. The third line, which starts at the H=0 triple point, ends at a critical point (T,H) which needs to be located in a two-dimensional parameter space. The critical field H(Q) is positive and decreases with decreasing Q, which is in qualitative agreement with previous predictions.

  6. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter


    the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the fuzziness and impreciseness of water environmental system, the fuzzy arithmetic was used to simulate the fuzzy and imprecise relations in modeling river water quality. By defining the parameters of water quality model as symmetrical triangular fuzzy numbers, a two-dimensional fuzzy water quality model for sudden pollutant discharge is established. From the fuzzy model, the pollutant concentrations, corresponding to the specified confidence level of α, can be obtained by means of the α-cut technique and arithmetic operations of triangular fuzzy numbers. Study results reveal that it is feasible in theory and reliable on calculation applying triangular fuzzy numbers to the simulation of river water quality.

  8. VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huyakorn, P.S.; Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. (HydroGeoLogic, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States))


    This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;


    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  10. Two-dimensional HRCT for monitoring postoperative results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Zweidimensionale (2-D) CT-Arthrotomographie zur postoperativen Kontrolle einer neuen vorderen Kreuzbandplastik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut); Hertel, P.; Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Unfallchirurgische Klinik)


    Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. (orig.).

  11. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra


    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Temperature dependence of universal fluctuations in the two-dimensional harmonic XY model. (United States)

    Palma, G


    We compute exact analytical expressions for the skewness and kurtosis in the two-dimensional harmonic XY model. These quantities correspond to the third and fourth normalized moments of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnetization of the model. From their behavior, we conclude that they depend explicitly on the system temperature even in the thermodynamic limit, and hence the PDF itself must depend on it. Our results correct the hypothesis called universal fluctuations, they confirm and extend previous results which showed a T dependence of the PDF, including perturbative expansions within the XY model up to first order in temperature.

  13. Eighth-order phase-field-crystal model for two-dimensional crystallization


    Jaatinen, A.; Ala-Nissilä, Tapio


    We present a derivation of the recently proposed eighth-order phase-field crystal model [A. Jaatinen et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 031602 (2009)] for the crystallization of a solid from an undercooled melt. The model is used to study the planar growth of a two-dimensional hexagonal crystal, and the results are compared against similar results from dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona, as well as other phase-field crystal models. We find that among the phase-field crystal mod...

  14. Neimark-Sacker bifurcation of a two-dimensional discrete-time predator-prey model. (United States)

    Khan, A Q


    In this paper, we study the dynamics and bifurcation of a two-dimensional discrete-time predator-prey model in the closed first quadrant [Formula: see text]. The existence and local stability of the unique positive equilibrium of the model are analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the model can undergo a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in a small neighborhood of the unique positive equilibrium and an invariant circle will appear. Some numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our theocratical results and numerically it is shown that the unique positive equilibrium of the system is globally asymptotically stable.

  15. Two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections in the Cerro Prieto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, R.; Martinez, M.


    Using a finite-difference program (Dey, 1976) for two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained by different measuring arrays, four apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained at Cerro Prieto with a Schlumberger array by CFE personnel were modeled (Razo, 1978). Using geologic (Puente and de la Pena, 1978) and lithologic (Diaz, et al., 1981) data from the geothermal region, models were obtained which show clearly that, for the actual resistivity present in the zone, the information contained in the measured pseudosections is primarily due to the near-surface structure and does not show either the presence of the geothermal reservoir or the granitic basement which underlies it.

  16. Functional scale-free networks in the two-dimensional Abelian sandpile model (United States)

    Zarepour, M.; Niry, M. D.; Valizadeh, A.


    Recently, the similarity of the functional network of the brain and the Ising model was investigated by Chialvo [Nat. Phys. 6, 744 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1803]. This similarity supports the idea that the brain is a self-organized critical system. In this study we derive a functional network of the two-dimensional Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model as a self-organized critical model, and compare its characteristics with those of the functional network of the brain, obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with inhomogeneous nearest-neighbor interactions (United States)

    Pelizzola, Alessandro


    An explicit formula for the boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with a strip of inhomogeneous interactions is obtained by means of a transfer matrix mean-field method introduced by Lipowski and Suzuki. There is clear numerical evidence that the formula is exact By taking the limit where the width of the strip approaches infinity and the interactions have well defined bulk limits, I arrive at the boundary magnetization for a model which includes the Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model. The rich critical behavior of the latter magnetization is thereby rederived with little effort.

  18. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav


    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop...... and accurate or equivalent thermal circuit based with moderate accuracy and without spatial temperature distribution. This work presents initial results that can be used as a fundament for the cost-efficient development of the two-dimensional thermal model of lithium-ion battery based on multipoint...

  19. Ground-State Transition in a Two-Dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiao-Ping; ZHENG Zhi-Gang


    The ground state of a generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model with a transversaJ degree of freedom is studied. When the coupling strength, K, and the frequency of & single-Atom vibration in the transversaJ direction, ωou are increased, the ground state of the model undergoes a transition from a two-dimensional configuration to a one-dimensional one. This transition can manifest in different ways. Furthermore, we find that the prerequisite of a two-dimensionai ground state is θ≠1//q.%The ground state of a generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model with a transversal degree of freedom is studied.When the coupling strength,K,and the frequency of a single-atom vibration in the transversal direction,ωoy,are increased,the ground state of the model undergoes a transition from a two-dimensional configuration to a one-dimensional one.This transition can manifest in different ways.Furthermore,we find that the prerequisite of a two-dimensional ground state is θ ≠ 1/q.In recent years,the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model has been applied to a variety of physical systems,such as adsorbed monolayers,[1,2] Josephsonjunction arrays,[3-5] tribology[6-8] and charge-density waves.[9,10] Experimental and large-scale simulation data at the nanoscale have become available,and more complicated FK-type models have been investigated using simulations of molecular dynamics.[11

  20. Two-dimensional, isothermal, multi-component model for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Jagannathan, A.; Idem, R. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering


    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device which is more efficient than an internal combustion engine in converting fuel to power. Numerous fuel cell models have been developed by a number of authors accounting for the various physical processes. Earlier models were restricted to being one dimensional, steady-state, and isothermal while more recent two-dimensional models had several limitations. This paper presented the results of a study that developed a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using a finite element method to solve a multi-component transport model coupled with flow in porous media, charge balance, electrochemical kinetics, and rigorous water balance in the membrane. The mass transport, momentum transport, and electrochemical processes occurring in the membrane electrolyte and catalyst layers were modeled. The local equilibrium was assumed at the interfaces and the model was combined with the kinetics and was analytically solved for the anodic and cathodic current using an agglomerate spherical catalyst pellet. The paper compared the modeling results with previously published experimental data. The study investigated the effects of channel and bipolar plate shoulder size, porosity of the electrodes, temperature, relative humidity and current densities on the cell performance. It was concluded that smaller sized channels and bipolar plate shoulders were required to obtain higher current densities, although larger channels were satisfactory at moderate current densities. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Monte Carlo renormalization-group investigation of the two-dimensional O(4) sigma model (United States)

    Heller, Urs M.


    An improved Monte Carlo renormalization-group method is used to determine the beta function of the two-dimensional O(4) sigma model. While for (inverse) couplings beta = greater than about 2.2 agreement is obtained with asymptotic scaling according to asymptotic freedom, deviations from it are obtained at smaller couplings. They are, however, consistent with the behavior of the correlation length, indicating 'scaling' according to the full beta function. These results contradict recent claims that the model has a critical point at finite coupling.

  2. Thermal metal in network models of a disordered two-dimensional superconductor (United States)

    Chalker, J. T.; Read, N.; Kagalovsky, V.; Horovitz, B.; Avishai, Y.; Ludwig, A. W.


    We study the symmetry class for localization which arises from models of noninteracting quasiparticles in disordered superconductors that have neither time-reversal nor spin-rotation invariance. Two-dimensional systems in this category, which is known as class D, can display phases with three different types of quasiparticle dynamics: metallic, localized, or with a quantized (thermal) Hall conductance. Correspondingly, they can show a variety of delocalization transitions. We illustrate this behavior by investigating numerically the phase diagrams of network models with the appropriate symmetry and show the appearance of the metallic phase.

  3. Digital hardware implementation of a stochastic two-dimensional neuron model. (United States)

    Grassia, F; Kohno, T; Levi, T


    This study explores the feasibility of stochastic neuron simulation in digital systems (FPGA), which realizes an implementation of a two-dimensional neuron model. The stochasticity is added by a source of current noise in the silicon neuron using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. This approach uses digital computation to emulate individual neuron behavior using fixed point arithmetic operation. The neuron model's computations are performed in arithmetic pipelines. It was designed in VHDL language and simulated prior to mapping in the FPGA. The experimental results confirmed the validity of the developed stochastic FPGA implementation, which makes the implementation of the silicon neuron more biologically plausible for future hybrid experiments.

  4. Two-dimensional model of intrinsic magnetic flux losses in helical flux compression generators

    CERN Document Server

    Haurylavets, V V


    Helical Flux Compression Generators (HFCG) are used for generation of mega-amper current and high magnetic fields. We propose the two dimensional HFCG filament model based on the new description of the stator and armature contact point. The model developed enables one to quantitatively describe the intrinsic magnetic flux losses and predict the results of experiments with various types of HFCGs. We present the effective resistance calculations based on the non-linear magnetic diffusion effect describing HFCG performance under the strong conductor heating by currents.

  5. Monte Carlo renormalization-group investigation of the two-dimensional O(4) sigma model (United States)

    Heller, Urs M.


    An improved Monte Carlo renormalization-group method is used to determine the beta function of the two-dimensional O(4) sigma model. While for (inverse) couplings beta = greater than about 2.2 agreement is obtained with asymptotic scaling according to asymptotic freedom, deviations from it are obtained at smaller couplings. They are, however, consistent with the behavior of the correlation length, indicating 'scaling' according to the full beta function. These results contradict recent claims that the model has a critical point at finite coupling.

  6. Two-Dimensional Wang-Landau Sampling of AN Asymmetric Ising Model (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Wang, Fugao; Landau, D. P.

    We study the critical endpoint behavior of an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling method to determine the density of states for this model. An accurate density of states allowed us to map out the phase diagram accurately and observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the derivative of the magnetization coexistence diameter near the critical endpoint, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions.

  7. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies ofTwo-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Anthony Marshall [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In order to better understand the fundamental components that govern catalytic activity, two-dimensional model platinum nanocatalyst arrays have been designed and fabricated. These catalysts arrays are meant to model the interplay of the metal and support important to industrial heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Photolithography and sub-lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography, size reduction lithography and nanoimprint lithography have been employed to create these platinum nanoarrays. Both in-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques and catalytic reaction measurements were used to correlate the structural parameters of the system to catalytic activity.

  8. Precision of meshfree methods and application to forward modeling of two-dimensional electromagnetic sources (United States)

    Li, Jun-Jie; Yan, Jia-Bin; Huang, Xiang-Yu


    Meshfree method offers high accuracy and computational capability and constructs the shape function without relying on predefined elements. We comparatively analyze the global weak form meshfree methods, such as element-free Galerkin method (EFGM), the point interpolation method (PIM), and the radial point interpolation method (RPIM). Taking two dimensional Poisson equation as an example, we discuss the support-domain dimensionless size, the field nodes, and background element settings with respect to their effect on calculation accuracy of the meshfree method. RPIM and EFGM are applied to controlled-source two-dimensional electromagnetic modeling with fixed shape parameters. The accuracy of boundary conditions imposed directly and by a penalty function are discussed in the case of forward modeling of two-dimensional magnetotellurics in a homogeneous medium model. The coupling algorithm of EFG-PIM and EFG-RPIM are generated by integrating the PIM or RPIM and EFGM. The results of the numerical modeling suggest the following. First, the proposed meshfree method and corresponding coupled methods are well-suited for electromagnetic numerical modeling. The accuracy of the algorithm is the highest when the support-domain dimensionless size is 1.0 and the distribution of field nodes is consistent with the nodes of background elements. Second, the accuracy of PIM and RPIM are lower than that of EFGM for the Poisson equation but higher than EFGM for the homogeneous medium MT response. Third, RPIM overcomes the matrix inversion problem of PIM and has a wider selection of support-domain dimensionless sizes as compared to RPIM.

  9. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P


    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  10. Comprehensive two-dimensional river ice model based on boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-yu MAO


    Full Text Available River ice is a natural phenomenon in cold regions, influenced by meteorology, geomorphology, and hydraulic conditions. River ice processes involve complex interactions between hydrodynamic, mechanical, and thermal processes, and they are also influenced by weather and hydrologic conditions. Because natural rivers are serpentine, with bends, narrows, and straight reaches, the commonly-used one-dimensional river ice models and two-dimensional models based on the rectangular Cartesian coordinates are incapable of simulating the physical phenomena accurately. In order to accurately simulate the complicated river geometry and overcome the difficulties of numerical simulation resulting from both complex boundaries and differences between length and width scales, a two-dimensional river ice numerical model based on a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method was developed. The presented model considers the influence of the frazil ice accumulation under ice cover and the shape of the leading edge of ice cover during the freezing process. The model is capable of determining the velocity field, the distribution of water temperature, the concentration distribution of frazil ice, the transport of floating ice, the progression, stability, and thawing of ice cover, and the transport, accumulation, and erosion of ice under ice cover. A MacCormack scheme was used to solve the equations numerically. The model was validated with field observations from the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River. Comparison of simulation results with field data indicates that the model is capable of simulating the river ice process with high accuracy.

  11. Retention modelling of polychlorinated biphenyls in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Incani, Angela; Ruggieri, Fabrizio


    In this paper, we use a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) method to predict the retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). We analyse the GC×GC retention data taken from the literature by comparing predictive capability of different regression methods. The various models are generated using 70 out of 209 PCB congeners in the calibration stage, while their predictive performance is evaluated on the remaining 139 compounds. The two-dimensional chromatogram is initially estimated by separately modelling retention times of PCBs in the first and in the second column ((1) t (R) and (2) t (R), respectively). In particular, multilinear regression (MLR) combined with genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection is performed to extract two small subsets of predictors for (1) t (R) and (2) t (R) from a large set of theoretical molecular descriptors provided by the popular software Dragon, which after removal of highly correlated or almost constant variables consists of 237 structure-related quantities. Based on GA-MLR analysis, a four-dimensional and a five-dimensional relationship modelling (1) t (R) and (2) t (R), respectively, are identified. Single-response partial least square (PLS-1) regression is alternatively applied to independently model (1) t (R) and (2) t (R) without the need for preliminary GA variable selection. Further, we explore the possibility of predicting the two-dimensional chromatogram of PCBs in a single calibration procedure by using a two-response PLS (PLS-2) model or a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with two output neurons. In the first case, regression is carried out on the full set of 237 descriptors, while the variables previously selected by GA-MLR are initially considered as ANN inputs and subjected to a sensitivity analysis to remove the redundant ones. Results show PLS-1 regression exhibits a noticeably better descriptive and predictive

  12. A two-dimensional CA model for traffic flow with car origin and destination (United States)

    In-nami, Junji; Toyoki, Hiroyasu


    Dynamic phase transitions in a two-dimensional traffic flow model defined on a decorated square-lattice are studied numerically. The square-lattice point and the decorated site denote intersections and roads, respectively. In the present model, a car has a finite deterministic path between the origin and the destination, which is assigned to the car from the beginning. In this new model, we found a new phase between the free-flow phase and the frozen-jam phase that is absent from previous models. The new model is characterized by the persistence of a macroscopic cluster. Furthermore, the behavior in this macroscopic cluster phase is classified into three regions characterized by the shape of the cluster. The boundary of the three regions is phenomenologically estimated. When the trip length is short and the car density is high, both ends of the belt-like cluster connect to each other through the periodic boundary with some probability. This type of cluster is classified topologically as a string on a two-dimensional torus.

  13. Two-dimensional habitat modeling in the Yellowstone/Upper Missouri River system (United States)

    Waddle, T. J.; Bovee, K.D.; Bowen, Z.H.


    This study is being conducted to provide the aquatic biology component of a decision support system being developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. In an attempt to capture the habitat needs of Great Plains fish communities we are looking beyond previous habitat modeling methods. Traditional habitat modeling approaches have relied on one-dimensional hydraulic models and lumped compositional habitat metrics to describe aquatic habitat. A broader range of habitat descriptors is available when both composition and configuration of habitats is considered. Habitat metrics that consider both composition and configuration can be adapted from terrestrial biology. These metrics are most conveniently accessed with spatially explicit descriptors of the physical variables driving habitat composition. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models have advanced to the point that they may provide the spatially explicit description of physical parameters needed to address this problem. This paper reports progress to date on applying two-dimensional hydraulic and habitat models on the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers and uses examples from the Yellowstone River to illustrate the configurational metrics as a new tool for assessing riverine habitats.

  14. Numerical model for the shear rheology of two-dimensional wet foams with deformable bubbles. (United States)

    Kähärä, T; Tallinen, T; Timonen, J


    Shearing of two-dimensional wet foam is simulated using an introduced numerical model, and results are compared to those of experiments. This model features realistically deformable bubbles, which distinguishes it from previously used models for wet foam. The internal bubble dynamics and their contact interactions are also separated in the model, making it possible to investigate the effects of the related microscale properties of the model on the macroscale phenomena. Validity of model assumptions was proved here by agreement between the simulated and measured Herschel-Bulkley rheology, and shear-induced relaxation times. This model also suggests a relationship between the shear stress and normal stress as well as between the average degree of bubble deformation and applied shear stress. It can also be used to analyze suspensions of bubbles and solid particles, an extension not considered in this work.

  15. Resonance and Rectification in a Two-Dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova Model with Triangular Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yang; WANG Cang-Long; DUAN Wen-Shan; CHEN Jian-Min


    The mode-locking phenomena in the dc- and ac-driven overdamped two-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova model with triangular symmetric structures are studied. The obtained results show that the transverse velocitylongitudinal velocity(vy) can occur when n is an odd number. It is also found in our simulations that the critical depinning force oscillates with the amplitude of ac-driven force, i.e., the system is dominated by the ac-driven force. The oscillatory behavior is strongly determined by the initial phase of ac force.

  16. p-wave superconductivity in a two-dimensional generalized Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J. Samuel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria, UNACAR, 24180, Cd. de Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Perez, Luis A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang Chumin [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    In this Letter, we consider a two-dimensional Hubbard model that includes a second-neighbor correlated hopping interaction, and we find a triplet p-wave superconducting ground state within the BCS formalism. A small distortion of the square-lattice right angles is introduced in order to break the degeneracy of kx+/-ky oriented p-wave pairing states. For the strong coupling limit, analytical results are obtained. An analysis of the superconducting critical temperature reveals the existence of an optimal electron density and the gap ratio exhibits a non-BCS behavior. Finally, the particular case of strontium ruthenate is examined.

  17. Topological Invariants of Edge States for Periodic Two-Dimensional Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Julio Cesar; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann, E-mail:; Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM (Mexico)


    Transfer matrix methods and intersection theory are used to calculate the bands of edge states for a wide class of periodic two-dimensional tight-binding models including a sublattice and spin degree of freedom. This allows to define topological invariants by considering the associated Bott-Maslov indices which can be easily calculated numerically. For time-reversal symmetric systems in the symplectic universality class this leads to a Z{sub 2} -invariant for the edge states. It is shown that the edge state invariants are related to Chern numbers of the bulk systems and also to (spin) edge currents, in the spirit of the theory of topological insulators.

  18. Existence of a line of critical points in a two-dimensional Lebwohl Lasher model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabnam, Sabana [Department of Physics, Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata 700017 (India); DasGupta, Sudeshna, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata 700017 (India); Roy, Soumen Kumar [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)


    Controversy regarding transitions in systems with global symmetry group O(3) has attracted the attention of researchers and the detailed nature of this transition is still not well understood. As an example of such a system in this paper we have studied a two-dimensional Lebwohl Lasher model, using the Wolff cluster algorithm. Though we have not been able to reach any definitive conclusions regarding the order present in the system, from finite size scaling analysis, hyperscaling relations and the behavior of the correlation function we have obtained strong indications regarding the presence of quasi-long range order and the existence of a line of critical points in our system.

  19. Existence of a line of critical points in a two-dimensional Lebwohl Lasher model (United States)

    Shabnam, Sabana; DasGupta, Sudeshna; Roy, Soumen Kumar


    Controversy regarding transitions in systems with global symmetry group O(3) has attracted the attention of researchers and the detailed nature of this transition is still not well understood. As an example of such a system in this paper we have studied a two-dimensional Lebwohl Lasher model, using the Wolff cluster algorithm. Though we have not been able to reach any definitive conclusions regarding the order present in the system, from finite size scaling analysis, hyperscaling relations and the behavior of the correlation function we have obtained strong indications regarding the presence of quasi-long range order and the existence of a line of critical points in our system.

  20. Topological invariants of edge states for periodic two-dimensional models

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, Julio Cesar; Villegas-Blas, Carlos


    Transfer matrix methods and intersection theory are used to calculate the bands of edge states for a wide class of periodic two-dimensional tight-binding models including a sublattice and spin degree of freedom. This allows to define topological invariants by considering the associated Bott-Maslov indices which can be easily calculated numerically. For time-reversal symmetric systems in the symplectic universality class this leads to a Z_2-invariant for the edge states. It is shown that the edge state invariants are related to Chern numbers of the bulk systems and also to (spin) edge currents, in the spirit of the theory of topological insulators.

  1. The Model for Two-dimensional Layout Optimization Problem with Performance Constraints and Its Optimality Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; En-min Feng


    This paper studies the two-dimensional layout optimization problem.An optimization model with performance constraints is presented.The layout problem is partitioned intofinite subproblems in terms of graph theory,in such a way of that each subproblem overcomes its on-o inature optimal variable.A minimax problem is constructed that is locally equivalent to each subproblem.By using this minimax problem,we present the optimality function for every subproblem and prove that the first order necessary optimality condition is satisfied at a point if and only if this point is a zero of optimality function.

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth modes with dislocations in a two-dimensional elastic lattice model (United States)

    Katsuno, Hiroyasu; Uwaha, Makio; Saito, Yukio


    We study equilibrium shapes of adsorbate crystals by allowing a possibility of dislocations on an elastic substrate in a two-dimensional lattice model. The ground state energy is calculated numerically with the use of an elastic lattice Green's function. From the equilibrium shapes determined for various coverages, we infer the growth mode. As the misfit parameter increases, the growth mode changes from the Frank-van der Merwe (FM) to the Stranski-Krastanov (SK), further to the FM with dislocations for a parameter range of ordinary semiconductor materials. Conceivable growth modes such as the SK with dislocations appear in a parameter range between the SK and the FM with dislocations.

  3. Scaling and universality in the two-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field. (United States)

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Dudalev, Michael Yu; Bazhanov, Vladimir V; Batchelor, Murray T


    The scaling function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the square and triangular lattices is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer-matrix approach. The use of Aharony-Fisher nonlinear scaling variables allowed us to perform calculations sufficiently away from the critical point and to confirm all predictions of the scaling and universality hypotheses. Our results are in excellent agreement with quantum field theory calculations of Fonseca and Zamolodchikov as well as with many previously known exact and numerical calculations, including susceptibility results by Barouch, McCoy, Tracy, and Wu.

  4. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes. (United States)

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten


    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune's symmetry axis - that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  5. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes


    Britt Michelsen; Severin Strobl; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Thorsten Pöschel


    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barc...

  6. Hamiltonian dynamics of the two-dimensional lattice {phi}{sup 4} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiani, Lando [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA/ISAS), Trieste (Italy); Casetti, Lapo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Unita di Ricerca del Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Pettini, Marco [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy)


    The Hamiltonian dynamics of the classical {phi}{sup 4} model on a two-dimensional square lattice is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The macroscopic observables are computed as time averages. The results clearly reveal the presence of the continuous phase transition at a finite energy density and are consistent both qualitatively and quantitatively with the predictions of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The Hamiltonian microscopic dynamics also exhibits critical slowing down close to the transition. Moreover, the relationship between chaos and the phase transition is considered, and interpreted in the light of a geometrization of dynamics. (author)

  7. The Mott metal-insulator transition in half-filled two-dimensional Hubbard models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Sahebsara


    Full Text Available We study the Mott transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model by using the variational cluster approximation. The transition potential obtained is roughly Uc ≈ 2 and 6 for square and triangular lattices, respectively. A comparison between results of this approximation and other quantum cluster methods is presented. Our zero-temperature calculation at strong coupling show that the transition on the triangular and square lattices occur at lower values of compared with other numerical techniques such as DMFT, CDMFT, and DCA. We also study the thermodynamic limit by an extrapolation to infinite size.

  8. Scaling of cluster heterogeneity in the two-dimensional Potts model. (United States)

    Lv, Jian-Ping; Yang, Xianqing; Deng, Youjin


    Cluster heterogeneity, the number of clusters of mutually distinct sizes, has been recently studied for explosive percolation and standard percolation [H. K. Lee et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 020101(R) (2011); J. D. Noh et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 010101(R) (2011)]. In this work we study the scaling of various quantities related with cluster heterogeneity in a broader context of two-dimensional q-state Potts model. We predict, via an analytic approach, the critical exponents for most of the measured quantities, and confirm these predications for various q values using extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Phase Diagram of the Two-Dimensional Ising Model with Dipolar Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Gang; CHU Qian-Jin


    We treat the two-dimensional Ising model with the dipolar interaction by the numerical calculation under the restriction that the spin configurations are distributed with a 4 × 4 period. The phase diagram with respect to temperature and dipolar interaction strength is constructed. Most characters of the phase diagram are consistent with those obtained in the references by the Monte Carlo simulation, except that we find a new rectangle phase, which is ordered in the spin structure with the 1 × 2 rectangle.

  10. Nonlinear kinetic modeling and simulations of Raman scattering in a two-dimensional geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénisti Didier


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS by the means of envelope equations, whose coefficients have been derived using a mixture of perturbative and adiabatic calculations. First examples of the numerical resolution of these envelope equations in a two-dimensional homogeneous plasma are given, and the results are compared against those of particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. These preliminary comparisons are encouraging since our envelope code provides threshold intensities consistent with those of PIC simulations while requiring computational resources reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to full-kinetic codes.

  11. Green's function modeling of response of two-dimensional materials to point probes for scanning probe microscopy (United States)

    Tewary, V. K.; Quardokus, Rebecca C.; DelRio, Frank W.


    A Green's function (GF) method is developed for interpreting scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements on new two-dimensional (2D) materials. GFs for the Laplace/Poisson equations are calculated by using a virtual source method for two separate cases of a finite material containing a rectangular defect and a hexagonal defect. The prescribed boundary values are reproduced almost exactly by the calculated GFs. It is suggested that the GF is not just a mathematical artefact but a basic physical characteristic of material systems, which can be measured directly by SPM for 2D solids. This should make SPM an even more powerful technique for characterization of 2D materials.

  12. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics. (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo


    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  13. An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

  14. Nebular Spectra of SN 1998bw Revisited: Detailed Study by One and Two Dimensional Models

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K; Mazzali, P A; Deng, J


    Refined one- and two-dimensional models for the nebular spectra of the hyper-energetic Type Ic supernova (SN) 1998bw, associated with the gamma-ray burst GRB980425, from 125 to 376 days after B-band maximum are presented. One dimensional, spherically symmetric spectrum synthesis calculations show that reproducing features in the observed spectra, i.e., the sharply peaked [OI] 6300\\AA doublet and MgI] 4570\\AA emission, and the broad [FeII] blend around 5200\\AA, requires the existence of a high-density O-rich core expanding at low velocities ($\\lsim 8,000$ km s$^{-1}$) and of Fe-rich material moving faster than the O-rich material. Synthetic spectra at late phases from aspherical (bipolar) explosion models are also computed with a two-dimensional spectrum synthesis code. The above features are naturally explained by the aspherical model if the explosion is viewed from a direction close to the axis of symmetry ($\\sim 30^{\\rm o}$), since the aspherical model yields a high-density O-rich region confined along the ...

  15. Robust model reference adaptive control for a two-dimensional piezo-driven micro-displacement scanning platform based on the asymmetrical Bouc-Wen model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Yang


    Full Text Available The hysteresis characteristics resulted from piezoelectric actuators (PAs and the residual vibration in the rapid positioning of a two-dimensional piezo-driven micro-displacement scanning platform (2D-PDMDSP will greatly affect the positioning accuracy and speed. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy and speed of the positioning and restrain the residual vibration of 2D-PDMDSP, firstly, Utilizing an online hysteresis observer based on the asymmetrical Bouc-Wen model, the PA with the hysteresis characteristics is feedforward linearized and can be used as a linear actuator; secondly, zero vibration and derivative shaping (ZVDS technique is used to eliminate the residual vibration of the 2D-PDMDSP; lastly, the robust model reference adaptive (RMRA control for the 2D-PDMDSP is proposed and explored. The rapid control prototype of the RMRA controller combining the proposed feedforward linearization and ZVDS control for the 2D-PDMDSP with rapid control prototyping technique based on the real-time simulation system is established and experimentally tested, and the corresponding controlled results are compared with those by the PID control method. The experimental results show that the proposed RMRA control method can significantly improve the accuracy and speed of the positioning and restrain the residual vibration of 2D-PDMDSP.

  16. A numerical study of the alpha model for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mininni, P D; Pouquet, A G


    We explore some consequences of the ``alpha model,'' also called the ``Lagrangian-averaged'' model, for two-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This model is an extension of the smoothing procedure in fluid dynamics which filters velocity fields locally while leaving their associated vorticities unsmoothed, and has proved useful for high Reynolds number turbulence computations. We consider several known effects (selective decay, dynamic alignment, inverse cascades, and the probability distribution functions of fluctuating turbulent quantities) in magnetofluid turbulence and compare the results of numerical solutions of the primitive MHD equations with their alpha-model counterparts' performance for the same flows, in regimes where available resolution is adequate to explore both. The hope is to justify the use of the alpha model in regimes that lie outside currently available resolution, as will be the case in particular in three-dimensional geometry or for magnetic Prandtl number...

  17. An evaluation of the role of eddy diffusion in stratospheric interactive two-dimensional models (United States)

    Schneider, Hans R.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Shi, Guang-Yu; Wang, Wei-Chyung


    An interactive two-dimensional model of the stratosphere, consisting of a primitive equation dynamics module, a simplified HO(x) ozone model, and a full radiative transfer scheme, is used to study the effect of eddy diffusion in the model. Consideration is given to the effects of nonlocal forcing from dissipation in the model troposphere and frictional drag at mesospheric levels, mechanical damping in the stratosphere itself, and potential vorticity flux due to large scale waves. It is found that the ozone distributions generated with the model are very sensitive to the choice of values for the friction and the eddy diffusion coefficients. It is shown that reasonable latitudinal gradients of ozone may be obtained by using small values for the mechanical damping for the mid- and high-latitude stratopsphere.

  18. Two dimensional, two fluid model for sodium boiling in LMFBR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granziera, M.R.; Kazimi, M.S.


    A two dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transient was developed using the two fluid set of conservation equations. A semiimplicit numerical differencing scheme capable of handling the problems associated with the ill-posedness implied by the complex characteristic roots of the two fluid problems was used, which took advantage of the dumping effect of the exchange terms. Of particular interest in the development of the model was the identification of the numerical problems caused by the strong disparity between the axial and radial dimensions of fuel assemblies. A solution to this problem was found which uses the particular geometry of fuel assemblies to accelerate the convergence of the iterative technique used in the model. Three sodium boiling experiments were simulated with the model, with good agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions.

  19. One- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation using experimentally generated reversing flow turbuulence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year`s funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge.

  20. Two-dimensional cubic convolution. (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank


    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  1. S2DS: Physics-based compact model for circuit simulation of two-dimensional semiconductor devices including non-idealities (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Saurabh V.; Pop, Eric


    We present a physics-based compact model for two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FETs) based on monolayer semiconductors such as MoS2. A semi-classical transport approach is appropriate for the 2D channel, enabling simplified analytical expressions for the drain current. In addition to intrinsic FET behavior, the model includes contact resistance, traps and impurities, quantum capacitance, fringing fields, high-field velocity saturation, and self-heating, the latter being found to play an important role. The model is calibrated with state-of-the-art experimental data for n- and p-type 2D-FETs, and it can be used to analyze device properties for sub-100 nm gate lengths. Using the experimental fit, we demonstrate the feasibility of circuit simulations using properly scaled devices. The complete model is implemented in SPICE-compatible Verilog-A, and a downloadable version is freely available at the

  2. Simulation of subgrid orographic precipitation with an embedded 2-D cloud-resolving model (United States)

    Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio


    By explicitly resolving cloud-scale processes with embedded two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving models (CRMs), superparameterized global atmospheric models have successfully simulated various atmospheric events over a wide range of time scales. Up to now, however, such models have not included the effects of topography on the CRM grid scale. We have used both 3-D and 2-D CRMs to simulate the effects of topography with prescribed "large-scale" winds. The 3-D CRM is used as a benchmark. The results show that the mean precipitation can be simulated reasonably well by using a 2-D representation of topography as long as the statistics of the topography such as the mean and standard deviation are closely represented. It is also shown that the use of a set of two perpendicular 2-D grids can significantly reduce the error due to a 2-D representation of topography.

  3. Spin Dynamics of $La_{2}CuO_{4}$ and the Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sandvik, A W; Barbara, U C S; Barbara, UC Santa


    The spin-lattice relaxation rate $1/T_1$ and the spin echo decay rate $1/T_{2G}$ for the 2D Heisenberg model are calculated using quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy analytic continuation. The results are compared to recent experiments on La$_2$CuO$_4$, as well as predictions based on the non-linear $\\sigma$-model.

  4. Two-Dimensional Model Test Study of the New Caisson Breakwater at Playa Blanca, Lanzarote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Garborg, Karsten; Stagsted, Esben Rubech

    This report present the results of 2-D physical model tests (length scale 1:42.5) carried out in a wave flume at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) on behalf of SENER Ingenera y Sistemas S.A. Associate Prof. Thomas Lykke Andersen was in charge of the model tests, assisted...

  5. Remarks on Two-Dimensional Power Correction in Soft Wall Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Tao; ZUO Fen


    We present a direct derivation of the two-point correlation function of the vector current in the soft wall model by using the AdS/CFT dictionary. The resulting correlator is exactly the same as the one previously obtained from dispersion relation with the same spectral function as in this model. The coeffcient C2 of the two-dimensional power correction is found to be C2 = -c/2 with c the slope of the Regge trajectory, rather than C2 = -c/3 derived from the strategy of the first quantized string theory. Taking the slope of the p trajectory c ≈ 0.9 CeV2 as input, we then obtain C2 ≈ -0.45 GeV2. The gluon condensate is found to be (αsG2) ≈ 0.064 GeV4, which is almost identical to the QCD sum rule estimation. By comparing these two equivalent derivation of the correlator of scalar glueball operator, we demonstrate that the two-dimensionai correction cannot be eliminated by including the non-leading solution in the bulk-to-boundary propagator, as carried out by Colangelo et al.[arXiv:0711.4747].In other words, the two-dimensional correction does exist in the scalar glueball case. Also it is manifest by using the dispersion relation that the minus sign of gluon condensate and violation of the low energy theorem are related to the subtraction scheme.

  6. A two dimensional thermal network model for a photovoltaic solar wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehra, Himanshu [1-140 Avenue Windsor, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)


    A two dimensional thermal network model is proposed to predict the temperature distribution for a section of photovoltaic solar wall installed in an outdoor room laboratory in Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. The photovoltaic solar wall is constructed with a pair of glass coated photovoltaic modules and a polystyrene filled plywood board as back panel. The active solar ventilation through a photovoltaic solar wall is achieved with an exhaust fan fixed in the outdoor room laboratory. The steady state thermal network nodal equations are developed for conjugate heat exchange and heat transport for a section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The matrix solution procedure is adopted for formulation of conductance and heat source matrices for obtaining numerical solution of one dimensional heat conduction and heat transport equations by performing two dimensional thermal network analyses. The temperature distribution is predicted by the model with measurement data obtained from the section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The effect of conduction heat flow and multi-node radiation heat exchange between composite surfaces is useful for predicting a ventilation rate through a solar ventilation system. (author)

  7. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models (United States)

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S.; Alet, Fabien


    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof’ev and Svistunov [N. Prokof’ev and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)]. The algorithm is defined on the dual lattice and is formulated in terms of bond variables and can therefore be generalized to other two-dimensional models that can be formulated in terms of bond variables. We also discuss two related algorithms formulated on the direct lattice, applicable in any dimension. These latter algorithms turn out to be less efficient but of considerable intrinsic interest. We show how such algorithms quite generally can be “directed” by minimizing the probability for the worms to erase themselves. Explicit proofs of detailed balance are given for all the algorithms. In terms of computational efficiency the dual geometrical worm algorithm is comparable to well known cluster algorithms such as the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms, however, it is quite different in structure and allows for a very simple and efficient implementation. The dual algorithm also allows for a very elegant way of calculating the domain wall free energy.

  8. Hybrid-space density matrix renormalization group study of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model (United States)

    Ehlers, G.; White, S. R.; Noack, R. M.


    The performance of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is strongly influenced by the choice of the local basis of the underlying physical lattice. We demonstrate that, for the two-dimensional Hubbard model, the hybrid-real-momentum-space formulation of the DMRG is computationally more efficient than the standard real-space formulation. In particular, we show that the computational cost for fixed bond dimension of the hybrid-space DMRG is approximately independent of the width of the lattice, in contrast to the real-space DMRG, for which it is proportional to the width squared. We apply the hybrid-space algorithm to calculate the ground state of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model on cylinders of width four and six sites; at n =0.875 filling, the ground state exhibits a striped charge-density distribution with a wavelength of eight sites for both U /t =4.0 and 8.0 . We find that the strength of the charge ordering depends on U /t and on the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the magnetic ordering as well as the decay of the static spin, charge, and pair-field correlation functions.

  9. Development and validation of a two-dimensional fast-response flood estimation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAK


    A finite difference formulation of the shallow water equations using an upwind differencing method was developed maintaining computational efficiency and accuracy such that it can be used as a fast-response flood estimation tool. The model was validated using both laboratory controlled experiments and an actual dam breach. Through the laboratory experiments, the model was shown to give good estimations of depth and velocity when compared to the measured data, as well as when compared to a more complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies show that a relatively numerical scheme used to solve the complete shallow water equations can be used to accurately estimate flood inundation. Future work will focus on further reducing the computation time needed to provide flood inundation estimates for fast-response analyses. This will be accomplished through the efficient use of multi-core, multi-processor computers coupled with an efficient domain-tracking algorithm, as well as an understanding of the impacts of grid resolution on model results.

  10. Research of MPPT for photovoltaic generation based on two-dimensional cloud model (United States)

    Liu, Shuping; Fan, Wei


    The cloud model is a mathematical representation to fuzziness and randomness in linguistic concepts. It represents a qualitative concept with expected value Ex, entropy En and hyper entropy He, and integrates the fuzziness and randomness of a linguistic concept in a unified way. This model is a new method for transformation between qualitative and quantitative in the knowledge. This paper is introduced MPPT (maximum power point tracking, MPPT) controller based two- dimensional cloud model through analysis of auto-optimization MPPT control of photovoltaic power system and combining theory of cloud model. Simulation result shows that the cloud controller is simple and easy, directly perceived through the senses, and has strong robustness, better control performance.

  11. Eighth-order phase-field-crystal model for two-dimensional crystallization (United States)

    Jaatinen, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.


    We present a derivation of the recently proposed eighth-order phase-field crystal model [A. Jaatinen , Phys. Rev. E 80, 031602 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevE.80.031602] for the crystallization of a solid from an undercooled melt. The model is used to study the planar growth of a two-dimensional hexagonal crystal, and the results are compared against similar results from dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona, as well as other phase-field crystal models. We find that among the phase-field crystal models studied, the eighth-order fitting scheme gives results in good agreement with the density functional theory for both static and dynamic properties, suggesting it is an accurate and computationally efficient approximation to the density functional theory.

  12. Two-dimensional modeling of electrochemical and transport phenomena in the porous structures of a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraoui, Melik [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (IPEIT) (Tunisia); Kharrat, Chafik; Halouani, Kamel [UR: Micro-Electro-Thermal Systems (METS-ENIS), Industrial Energy Systems Group, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), University of Sfax, B.P: 1172, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)


    A two-dimensional CFD model of PEM fuel cell is developed by taking into account the electrochemical, mass and heat transfer phenomena occurring in all of its regions simultaneously. The catalyst layers and membrane are each considered as distinct regions with finite thickness and calculated properties such as permeability, local protonic conductivity, and local dissolved water diffusion. This finite thickness model enables to model accurately the protonic current in these regions with higher accuracy than using an infinitesimal interface. In addition, this model takes into account the effect of osmotic drag in the membrane and catalyst layers. General boundary conditions are implemented in a way taking into consideration any given species concentration at the fuel cell inlet, such as water vapor which is a very important parameter in determining the efficiency of fuel cells. Other operating parameters such as temperature, pressure and porosity of the porous structure are also investigated to characterize their effect on the fuel cell efficiency. (author)

  13. Two-dimensional mathematical model of a reciprocating room-temperature Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders;


    heat exchanger. The model simulates the different steps of the AMR refrigeration cycle and evaluates the performance in terms of refrigeration capacity and temperature span between the two heat exchangers. The model was used to perform an analysis of an AMR with a regenerator made of gadolinium...... and water as the heat transfer fluid. The results show that the AMR is able to obtain a no-load temperature span of 10.9 K in a 1 T magnetic field with a corresponding work input of 93.0 kJ m−3 of gadolinium per cycle. The model shows significant temperature differences between the regenerator and the heat...... transfer fluid during the AMR cycle. This indicates that it is necessary to use two-dimensional models when a parallel-plate regenerator geometry is used....

  14. Evidence for an unconventional universality class from a two-dimensional dimerized quantum heisenberg model. (United States)

    Wenzel, Sandro; Bogacz, Leszek; Janke, Wolfhard


    The two-dimensional J-J' dimerized quantum Heisenberg model is studied on the square lattice by means of (stochastic series expansion) quantum Monte Carlo simulations as a function of the coupling ratio alpha=J'/J. The critical point of the order-disorder quantum phase transition in the J-J' model is determined as alpha_c=2.5196(2) by finite-size scaling for up to approximately 10 000 quantum spins. By comparing six dimerized models we show, contrary to the current belief, that the critical exponents of the J-J' model are not in agreement with the three-dimensional classical Heisenberg universality class. This lends support to the notion of nontrivial critical excitations at the quantum critical point.

  15. Finite Element Model for Failure Study of Two-Dimensional Triaxially Braided Composite (United States)

    Li, Xuetao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.


    A new three-dimensional finite element model of two-dimensional triaxially braided composites is presented in this paper. This meso-scale modeling technique is used to examine and predict the deformation and damage observed in tests of straight sided specimens. A unit cell based approach is used to take into account the braiding architecture as well as the mechanical properties of the fiber tows, the matrix and the fiber tow-matrix interface. A 0 deg / plus or minus 60 deg. braiding configuration has been investigated by conducting static finite element analyses. Failure initiation and progressive degradation has been simulated in the fiber tows by use of the Hashin failure criteria and a damage evolution law. The fiber tow-matrix interface was modeled by using a cohesive zone approach to capture any fiber-matrix debonding. By comparing the analytical results to those obtained experimentally, the applicability of the developed model was assessed and the failure process was investigated.

  16. More on two-dimensional O (N ) models with N =(0 ,1 ) supersymmetry (United States)

    Peterson, Adam J.; Kurianovych, Evgeniy; Shifman, Mikhail


    We study the behavior of two-dimensional supersymmetric connections of n copies of O (N ) models with an N =(0 ,1 ) heterotic deformation generated by a right-moving fermion. We develop the model in analogy with the connected N =(0 ,2 ) C P (N -1 ) models for the case of a single connecting fermionic superfield. We calculate the effective potential in the large-N limit and determine the vacuum field configurations. Similarly to other supersymmetry (SUSY) connected models we find that SUSY is unbroken under certain conditions despite the vanishing of the Witten index. Specifically, this preservation of SUSY occurs when we have an even number n of O (N ) families. As in previous cases we show that this result follows from a Zn symmetry under a particular exchange of the O (N ) families. This leads to a definition of a modified Witten index, which guarantees the preservation of SUSY in this case.

  17. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics (United States)

    Schroer, Bert


    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g., chiral models, factorizing models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work, I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff( S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL (2, Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular "Euclideanization" is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J.A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an "Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics" contribution hep-th/0502125.

  18. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [FU Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik


    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g. chiral models, factoring models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff(S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL(2,Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular 'Euclideanization' is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an 'Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics' contribution hep-th/0502125. (author)

  19. 2D model for melt progression through rods and debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichot, F. [IPSN/DRS, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    During the degradation of a nuclear core in a severe accident scenario, the high temperatures reached lead to the melting of materials. The formation of liquid mixtures at various elevations is followed by the flow of molten materials through the core. Liquid mixture may flow under several configurations: axial relocation along the rods, horizontal motion over a plane surface such as the core support plate or a blockage of material, 2D relocation through a debris bed, etc.. The two-dimensional relocation of molten material through a porous debris bed, implemented for the simulation of late degradation phases, has opened a new way to the elaboration of the relocation model for the flow of liquid mixture along the rods. It is based on a volume averaging method, where wall friction and capillary effects are taken into account by introducing effective coefficients to characterize the solid matrix (rods, grids, debris, etc.). A local description of the liquid flow is necessary to derive the effective coefficients. Heat transfers are modelled in a similar way. The derivation of the conservation equations for the liquid mixture falling flow (momentum) in two directions (axial and radial-horizontal) and for the heat exchanges (energy) are the main points of this new model for simulating melt progression. In this presentation, the full model for the relocation and solidification of liquid materials through a rod bundle or a debris bed is described. It is implemented in the ICARE/CATHARE code, developed by IPSN in Cadarache. The main improvements and advantages of the new model are: A single formulation for liquid mixture relocation, in 2D, either through a rod bundle or a porous debris bed, Extensions to complex structures (grids, by-pass, etc..), The modeling of relocation of a liquid mixture over plane surfaces. (author)

  20. Quantization and the Issue of Time for Various Two-Dimensional Models of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Strobl, T


    It is shown that the models of 2D Liouville Gravity, 2D Black Hole- and $R^2$-Gravity are {\\em embedded} in the Katanaev-Volovich model of 2D NonEinsteinian Gravity. Different approaches to the formulation of a quantum theory for the above systems are then presented: The Dirac constraints can be solved exactly in the momentum representation, the path integral can be integrated out, and the constraint algebra can be {\\em explicitely} canonically abelianized, thus allowing also for a (superficial) reduced phase space quantization. Non--trivial dynamics are obtained by means of time dependent gauges. All of these approaches lead to the {\\em same} finite dimensional quantum mechanical system.

  1. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou


    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92...... was on the Dolos breakwater with a high superstructure, where there was almost no overtopping. This case is believed to be the most dangerous one. The test of the Dolos breakwater with a low superstructure was also performed. The objective of the last part of the experiment is to investigate the influence...

  2. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou


    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment...

  3. Improved modeling and numerics to solve two-dimensional elliptic fluid flow and heat transfer problems (United States)

    Chan, B. C.


    A basic, limited scope, fast-running computer model is presented for the solution of two-dimensional, transient, thermally-coupled fluid flow problems. This model is to be the module in the SSC (an LMFBR thermal-hydraulic systems code) for predicting complex flow behavior, as occurs in the upper plenum of the loop-type design or in the sodium pool of the pool-type design. The nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations and the two-equation (two-variable) transport model of turbulence are reduced to a set of linear algebraic equations in an implicit finite difference scheme, based on the control volume approach. These equations are solved iteratively in a line-by-line procedure using the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. The results of calculational examplers are shown in the computer-generated plots.

  4. Hydrodynamics for a model of a confined quasi-two-dimensional granular gas. (United States)

    Brey, J Javier; Buzón, V; Maynar, P; García de Soria, M I


    The hydrodynamic equations for a model of a confined quasi-two-dimensional gas of smooth inelastic hard spheres are derived from the Boltzmann equation for the model, using a generalization of the Chapman-Enskog method. The heat and momentum fluxes are calculated to Navier-Stokes order, and the associated transport coefficients are explicitly determined as functions of the coefficient of normal restitution and the velocity parameter involved in the definition of the model. Also an Euler transport term contributing to the energy transport equation is considered. This term arises from the gradient expansion of the rate of change of the temperature due to the inelasticity of collisions, and it vanishes for elastic systems. The hydrodynamic equations are particularized for the relevant case of a system in the homogeneous steady state. The relationship with previous works is analyzed.

  5. Present status of two-dimensional ESTER models: Application to Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, M


    ESTER two-dimensional models solve the steady state structure of fast rotating early-type stars including the large scale flows associated with the baroclinicity of the radiative zones. Models are compared successfully to the fundamental parameters of the two main components of the triple system $\\delta$ Velorum that have been derived from interferometric and orbit measurements. Testing the models on the Be star Achernar ($\\alpha$ Eri), we cannot reproduce the data and conclude that this star has left the main sequence and is likely crossing the Herzsprung gap. Computing main sequence evolution of fast rotating stars at constant angular momentum shows that their criticality increases with time suggesting that the Be phenomenon and the ensuing mass ejections is the result of evolution.

  6. A two-dimensional model for the study of interpersonal attraction. (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S


    We describe a model for understanding interpersonal attraction in which attraction can be understood as a product of the initial evaluations we make about others. The model posits that targets are evaluated on two basic dimensions, capacity and willingness, such that affective and behavioral attraction result from evaluations of (a) a target's capacity to facilitate the perceiver's goals/needs and (b) a target's potential willingness to facilitate those goals/needs. The plausibility of the two-dimensional model of attraction is evaluated vis-à-vis the extant literature on various attraction phenomena including the reciprocity of liking effect, pratfall effect, matching hypothesis, arousal effects, and similarity effect. We conclude that considerable evidence across a wide range of phenomena supports the idea that interpersonal attraction is principally determined by inferences about the target's capacity and willingness.

  7. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional foams: Physical foundations of the model. (United States)

    Durand, Marc


    In a recent series of papers, a statistical model that accounts for correlations between topological and geometrical properties of a two-dimensional shuffled foam has been proposed and compared with experimental and numerical data. Here, the various assumptions on which the model is based are exposed and justified: the equiprobability hypothesis of the foam configurations is argued. The range of correlations between bubbles is discussed, and the mean-field approximation that is used in the model is detailed. The two self-consistency equations associated with this mean-field description can be interpreted as the conservation laws of number of sides and bubble curvature, respectively. Finally, the use of a "Grand-Canonical" description, in which the foam constitutes a reservoir of sides and curvature, is justified.

  8. Two-dimensional modeling of volatile organic compounds adsorption onto beaded activated carbon. (United States)

    Tefera, Dereje Tamiru; Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Hashisho, Zaher; Philips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark


    A two-dimensional heterogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed and validated to study the mass, heat, and momentum transport in a fixed-bed cylindrical adsorber during the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a gas stream onto a fixed bed of beaded activated carbon (BAC). Experimental validation tests revealed that the model predicted the breakthrough curves for the studied VOCs (acetone, benzene, toluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene) as well as the pressure drop and temperature during benzene adsorption with a mean relative absolute error of 2.6, 11.8, and 0.8%, respectively. Effects of varying adsorption process variables such as carrier gas temperature, superficial velocity, VOC loading, particle size, and channelling were investigated. The results obtained from this study are encouraging because they show that the model was able to accurately simulate the transport processes in an adsorber and can potentially be used for enhancing absorber design and operation.

  9. Two-Dimensional ARMA Modeling for Breast Cancer Detection and Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Schonfeld, Dan


    We propose a new model-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for tumor detection and classification (cancerous v.s. benign) in breast images. Specifically, we show that (x-ray, ultrasound and MRI) images can be accurately modeled by two-dimensional autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) random fields. We derive a two-stage Yule-Walker Least-Squares estimates of the model parameters, which are subsequently used as the basis for statistical inference and biophysical interpretation of the breast image. We use a k-means classifier to segment the breast image into three regions: healthy tissue, benign tumor, and cancerous tumor. Our simulation results on ultrasound breast images illustrate the power of the proposed approach.

  10. Two-dimensional mathematical model of a packed bed dryer and experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basirat-Tabrizi, H.; Saffar-Avval, M.; Assarie, M.R. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    A comprehensive heat and mass transfer model, based on the Eulerian two fluid model (TFM), developed for a packed-bed-drying process. The temperature and moisture content in a particle was considered with the conjugate effects between the gas and particles in a packed bed. Numerical study of the model was carried out on two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical cylindrical coordinates in order to investigate the effects of the different parameters such as particle size, variation of inlet gas temperature on the moisture content, and temperature of solid and gas outlet. For experimental observations, an experimental apparatus was designed and utilized. The theoretical results were then compared to the experimental data, which indicated good agreement. (author)

  11. Synchronizability of Small-World Networks Generated from a Two-Dimensional Kleinberg Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the synchronizability of small-world networks generated from a two-dimensional Kleinberg model, which is more general than NW small-world network. The three parameters of the Kleinberg model, namely, the distance of neighbors, the number of edge-adding, and the edge-adding probability, are analyzed for their impacts on its synchronizability and average path length. It can be deduced that the synchronizability becomes stronger as the edge-adding probability increases, and the increasing edge-adding probability could make the average path length of the Kleinberg small-world network go smaller. Moreover, larger distance among neighbors and more edges to be added could play positive roles in enhancing the synchronizability of the Kleinberg model. The lorentz oscillators are employed to verify the conclusions numerically.

  12. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model (United States)

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko


    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems.

  13. 2D Ising Model with a Defect Line

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C


    We study the two-dimensional Ising model with a defect line and evaluate multipoint energy correlation functions using non-perturbative field-theoretical methods. We also discuss the evaluation of the two spin correlator on the defect line.

  14. Modeling and process design for laser interference lithography used in fabricating two-dimensional periodic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostan, C.G.; Ridder, de R.M.; Dorssen, van I.; Wolferen, van H.A.G.M.; Kuipers, L.; Hulst, van N.F.


    Laser interference lithography (LIL) is a technique that can be successfully used for realization of 2D periodic structures, with excellent uniformity over large areas. However, detailed modeling is needed in order to extract the optimum design parameters. In this paper, we refer to a design procedu

  15. On the diagonal susceptibility of the two-dimensional Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Craig A. [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Widom, Harold [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)


    We consider the diagonal susceptibility of the isotropic 2D Ising model for temperatures below the critical temperature. For a parameter k related to temperature and the interaction constant, we extend the diagonal susceptibility to complex k inside the unit disc, and prove the conjecture that the unit circle is a natural boundary.

  16. Finite size scaling analysis of intermittency moments in the two dimensional Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Burda, Z; Peschanski, R; Wosiek, J


    Finite size scaling is shown to work very well for the block variables used in intermittency studies on a 2-d Ising lattice. The intermittency exponents so derived exhibit the expected relations to the magnetic critical exponent of the model. Email contact:

  17. Crossover from Weakly to Strongly Correlated Regions in the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model — Off-diagonal Wave Function Monte Carlo Studies of Hubbard Model II — (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi


    The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.

  18. Two-dimensional modeling of the back amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction (BACH) photovoltaic device (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Chutinan, Alongkarn; Gougam, Adel B.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Zukotynski, Stefan


    Back Amorphous-Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction (BACH)1 solar cell can be fabricated using low temperature processes while integrating high efficiency features of heterojunction silicon solar cells and back-contact homojunction solar cells. This article presents a two-dimensional modeling study of the BACH cell concept. A parametric study of the BACH cell has been carried out using Sentaurus after benchmarking the software. A detailed model describing the optical generation is defined. Solar cell efficiency of 24.4% is obtained for AM 1.5 global spectrum with VOC of greater than 720 mV and JSC exceeding 40 mA/cm2, considering realistic surface passivation quality and other dominant recombination processes.

  19. Finite element model to study two dimensional unsteady state calcium distribution in cardiac myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Pathak


    Full Text Available The calcium signaling plays a crucial role in expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes. This calcium signaling is achieved by calcium diffusion, buffering mechanisms and influx in cardiac myocytes. The various calcium distribution patterns required for achieving calcium signaling in myocytes are still not well understood. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop a model of calcium distribution in myocytes incorporating diffusion of calcium, point source and excess buffer approximation. The model has been developed for a two dimensional unsteady state case. Appropriate boundary conditions and initial condition have been framed. The finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers and source amplitude on calcium distribution in myocytes.

  20. Thermodynamics of the two-dimensional XY model from functional renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Jakubczyk, Pawel


    We solve the nonperturbative renormalization-group flow equations for the two-dimensional XY model at the truncation level of the (complete) second-order derivative expansion. We compute the thermodynamic properties in the high-temperature phase and compare the non-universal features specific to the XY model with results from Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we study the position and magnitude of the specific heat peak as a function of temperature. The obtained results compare well with Monte Carlo simulations. We additionally gauge the accuracy of simplified nonperturbative renormalization-group treatments relying on $\\phi^4$-type truncations. Our computation indicates that such an approximation is insufficient in the high-$T$ phase and a correct analysis of the specific heat profile requires account of an infinite number of interaction vertices.

  1. Identification of the heat transfer coefficient in the two-dimensional model of binary alloy solidification (United States)

    Hetmaniok, Edyta; Hristov, Jordan; Słota, Damian; Zielonka, Adam


    The paper presents the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in a two-dimensional space. This is a continuation of some previous works of the authors investigating a similar problem but in the one-dimensional domain. Goal of the problem consists in identification of the heat transfer coefficient on boundary of the region and in reconstruction of the temperature distribution inside the considered region in case when the temperature measurements in selected points of the alloy are known. Mathematical model of the problem is based on the heat conduction equation with the substitute thermal capacity and with the liquidus and solidus temperatures varying in dependance on the concentration of the alloy component. For describing this concentration the Scheil model is used. Investigated procedure involves also the parallelized Ant Colony Optimization algorithm applied for minimizing a functional expressing the error of approximate solution.

  2. Two-dimensional water quality modeling of Town Creek embayment on Guntersville Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.D.; Shiao, Ming C.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (USA). Engineering Lab.); Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)


    TVA investigated water quality of Town Creek embayment using a branched two-dimensional model of Guntersville Reservoir. Simulation results were compared in terms of algal biomass, nutrient concentrations, and volume of embayment with depleted dissolved oxygen. Stratification and flushing play a significant role in the embayment water quality. Storms introduce large loadings of organics, nutrients, and suspended solids. Dissolved oxygen depletion is most severe after storms followed by low flow that fails to flush the embayment. Embayment water quality responses to potential animal waste and erosion controls were explored. Modeling indicated animal waste controls were much more cost-effective than erosion controls. Erosion controls will decrease embayment suspended solids and thereby increase algal biomass due to greater light penetration. 29 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Mathematical analysis of a two-dimensional population model of metastatic growth including angiogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Benzekry, Sebastien


    Angiogenesis is a key process in the tumoral growth which allows the cancerous tissue to impact on its vasculature in order to improve the nutrient's supply and the metastatic process. In this paper, we introduce a model for the density of metastasis which takes into account for this feature. It is a two dimensional structured equation with a vanishing velocity field and a source term on the boundary. We present here the mathematical analysis of the model, namely the well-posedness of the equation and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, whose natural regularity led us to investigate some basic properties of the space $\\Wd(\\Om)=\\{V\\in L^1;\\;\\div(GV)\\in L^1\\}$, where $G$ is the velocity field of the equation.

  4. A Two-Dimensional Cloud Model for Condition Assessment of HVDC Converter Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Zhao


    Full Text Available Converter transformers are the key and the most important components in high voltage direct current (HVDC power transmission systems. Statistics show that the failure rate of HVDC converter transformers is approximately twice of that of transformers in AC power systems. This paper presents an approach integrated with a two-dimensional cloud model and an entropy-based weight model to evaluate the condition of HVDC converter transformers. The integrated approach can describe the complexity of HVDC converter transformers and achieve an effective assessment of their condition. Data from electrical testing, DGA, oil testing, and visual inspection were chosen to form the double-level assessment index system. Analysis results show that the integrated approach is capable of providing a relevant and effective assessment which in turn, provides valuable information for the maintenance of HVDC converter transformers.

  5. A meron cluster solution for the sign problem of the two-dimensional O(3) model

    CERN Document Server

    Brechtefeld, F


    The two-dimensional O(3) model at a vacuum angle theta=pi is investigated. This model has a severe sign problem. By a Wolff cluster algorithm an integer or half-integer topological charge is assigned to each cluster. The meron clusters (clusters with half-integer topological charge) are used to construct an improved estimator for the correlation function of two spins at theta=pi. Only configurations with 0 and 2 merons contribute to this correlation function. An algorithm, that generates configurations with only 0 and 2 merons, is constructed and numerical simulations at theta=pi are performed. The numerical results indicate the presence of long range correlations at theta=pi.

  6. Quantum Phase Transition in the Two-Dimensional Random Transverse-Field Ising Model (United States)

    Pich, C.; Young, A. P.


    We study the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model by Monte Carlo simulations. In one-dimension it has been established that this system has the following striking behavior: (i) the dynamical exponent is infinite, and (ii) the exponents for the divergence of the average and typical correlation lengths are different. An important issue is whether this behavior is special to one-dimension or whether similar behavior persists in higher dimensions. Here we attempt to answer this question by studies of the two-dimensional model. Our simulations use the Wolff cluster algorithm and the results are analyzed by anisotropic finite size scaling, paying particular attention to the Binder ratio of moments of the order parameter distribution and the distribution of the spin-spin correlation functions for various distances.

  7. Two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing hulls with open and pressurized air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev


    Full Text Available A method of hydrodynamic discrete sources is applied for two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing surfaces. The water surface deformations, wetted hull lengths, and pressure distribution are calculated at given hull attitude and Froude number. Pressurized air cavities that improve hydrodynamic performance can also be modeled with the current method. Presented results include validation examples, parametric calculations of a single-step hull, effect of trim tabs, and performance of an infinite series of periodic stepped surfaces. It is shown that transverse steps can lead to higher lift-drag ratio, although at reduced lift capability, in comparison with a stepless hull. Performance of a multi-step configuration is sensitive to the wave pattern between hulls, which depends on Froude number and relative hull spacing.

  8. Velocity selection at large undercooling in a two-dimensional nonlocal model of solidification (United States)

    Barbieri, Angelo


    The formation of needle-crystal dendrites from an undercooled melt is investigated analytically, applying the method of Caroli et al. (1986) to Langer's (1980) symmetric two-dimensional nonlocal model of solidification with finite anisotropy in the limit of large undercooling. A solution based on the WKB approximation is obtained, and a saddle-point evaluation is performed. It is shown that needle-crystal solutions exist only if the capillary anisotropy is nonzero, in which case a particular value of the growth velocity can be selected. This finding and the expression for the dependence of the selected velocity on the singular perturbation parameter and the strength of the anisotropy are found to be in complete agreement with the results of a boundary-layer model (Langer and Hong, 1986).

  9. Thermodynamics of the two-dimensional XY model from functional renormalization. (United States)

    Jakubczyk, P; Eberlein, A


    We solve the nonperturbative renormalization-group flow equations for the two-dimensional XY model at the truncation level of the (complete) second-order derivative expansion. We compute the thermodynamic properties in the high-temperature phase and compare the nonuniversal features specific to the XY model with results from Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we study the position and magnitude of the specific-heat peak as a function of temperature. The obtained results compare well with Monte Carlo simulations. We additionally gauge the accuracy of simplified nonperturbative renormalization-group treatments relying on ϕ^{4}-type truncations. Our computation indicates that such an approximation is insufficient in the high-T phase and a correct analysis of the specific-heat profile requires account of an infinite number of interaction vertices.

  10. Averaged model for probabilistic coalescence avalanches in two-dimensional emulsions: Insights into uncertainty propagation (United States)

    Danny Raj, M.; Rengaswamy, R.


    A two-dimensional concentrated emulsion exhibits spontaneous rapid destabilization through an avalanche of coalescence events which propagate through the assembly stochastically. We propose a deterministic model to explain the average dynamics of the avalanching process. The dynamics of the avalanche phenomenon is studied as a function of a composite parameter, the decay time ratio, which characterizes the ratio of the propensity of coalescence to cease propagation to that of propagation. When this ratio is small, the avalanche grows autocatalytically to destabilize the emulsion. Using a scaling analysis, we unravel the relation between a local characteristic of the system and a global system wide effect. The anisotropic nature of local coalescence results in a system size dependent transition from nonautocatalytic to autocatalytic behavior. By incorporating uncertainty into the parameters in the model, several possible realizations of the coalescence avalanche are generated. The results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulations to derive insights into how the uncertainty propagates in the system.

  11. Interfacial adsorption in two-dimensional pure and random-bond Potts models (United States)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Malakis, Anastasios


    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the finite-size scaling behavior of the interfacial adsorption of the two-dimensional square-lattice q -states Potts model. We consider the pure and random-bond versions of the Potts model for q =3 ,4 ,5 ,8 , and 10, thus probing the interfacial properties at the originally continuous, weak, and strong first-order phase transitions. For the pure systems our results support the early scaling predictions for the size dependence of the interfacial adsorption at both first- and second-order phase transitions. For the disordered systems, the interfacial adsorption at the (disordered induced) continuous transitions is discussed, applying standard scaling arguments and invoking findings for bulk critical properties. The self-averaging properties of the interfacial adsorption are also analyzed by studying the infinite limit-size extrapolation of properly defined signal-to-noise ratios.

  12. Phase diagram of the two-dimensional O(3) model from dual lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Kloiber, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin


    We have simulated the asymptotically free two-dimensional O(3) model at nonzero chemical potential using the model's dual representation. We first demonstrate how the latter solves the sign (complex action) problem. The system displays a crossover at nonzero temperature, while at zero temperature it undergoes a quantum phase transition when mu reaches the particle mass (generated dynamically similar to QCD). The density follows a square root behavior universal for repulsive bosons in one spatial dimension. We have also measured the spin stiffness, known to be sensitive to the spatial correlation length, using different scaling trajectories to zero temperature and infinite size. It points to a dynamical critical exponent z=2. Comparisons to thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze are shown as well.

  13. Numerical simulations of blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model (United States)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Homae, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.


    This paper numerically visualizes explosion phenomena in order to discuss blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model. After the shock wave exits via an opening, the blast wave propagates into open space. In the present study, a parametric study was conducted to determine the blast wave characteristics from the room exit by changing the room shape and the mass of the high explosive. Our results show that the blast wave characteristics can be correctly estimated using a scaling factor proposed in the present paper that includes the above parameters. We conducted normalization of the peak overpressure curve using the shock overpressure at the exit and the length scale of the room volume. In the case where the scaling factor has the same value, the normalized peak overpressure curve does not depend on the calculation conditions, and the scaling factor describes the blast wave characteristics emerging from the current room model.

  14. Grain coarsening in two-dimensional phase-field models with an orientation field (United States)

    Korbuly, Bálint; Pusztai, Tamás; Henry, Hervé; Plapp, Mathis; Apel, Markus; Gránásy, László


    In the literature, contradictory results have been published regarding the form of the limiting (long-time) grain size distribution (LGSD) that characterizes the late stage grain coarsening in two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional polycrystalline systems. While experiments and the phase-field crystal (PFC) model (a simple dynamical density functional theory) indicate a log-normal distribution, other works including theoretical studies based on conventional phase-field simulations that rely on coarse grained fields, like the multi-phase-field (MPF) and orientation field (OF) models, yield significantly different distributions. In a recent work, we have shown that the coarse grained phase-field models (whether MPF or OF) yield very similar limiting size distributions that seem to differ from the theoretical predictions. Herein, we revisit this problem, and demonstrate in the case of OF models [R. Kobayashi, J. A. Warren, and W. C. Carter, Physica D 140, 141 (2000), 10.1016/S0167-2789(00)00023-3; H. Henry, J. Mellenthin, and M. Plapp, Phys. Rev. B 86, 054117 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.054117] that an insufficient resolution of the small angle grain boundaries leads to a log-normal distribution close to those seen in the experiments and the molecular scale PFC simulations. Our paper indicates, furthermore, that the LGSD is critically sensitive to the details of the evaluation process, and raises the possibility that the differences among the LGSD results from different sources may originate from differences in the detection of small angle grain boundaries.

  15. Application of Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization Group Method to the Correlation Function of a Two-Dimensional Ising Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春山; 李志兵


    The correlation function of a two-dimensionalIsing model is calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method.We obtain the critical exponent η= 0.2496 with few computer resources.

  16. A two-dimensional analytical-model-based comparative threshold performance analysis of SOI-SON MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjoy Deb; Saptarsi Ghosh; N Basanta Singh; A K De; Subir Kumar Sarkar


    A generalized threshold voltage model based on two-dimensional Poisson analysis has been developed for SOI/SON MOSFETs.Different short channel field effects,such as fringing fields,junction-induced lateral fields and substrate fields,are carefully investigated,and the related drain-induced barrier-lowering effects are incorporated in the analytical threshold voltage model.Through analytical model-based simulation,the threshold voltage roll-off and subthreshold slope for both structures are compared for different operational and structural parameter variations.Results of analytical simulation are compared with the results of the ATLAS 2D physicsbased simulator for verification of the analytical model.The performance of an SON MOSFET is found to be significantly different from a conventional SOI MOSFET.The short channel effects are found to be reduced in an SON,thereby resulting in a lower threshold voltage roll-offand a smaller subthreshold slope.This type of analysis is quite useful to figure out the performance improvement of SON over SOI structures for next generation short channel MOS devices.

  17. A naive matrix-model approach to two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to matter of arbitrary central charge

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, E


    In the usual matrix-model approach to random discretized two-dimensional manifolds, one introduces n Ising spins on each cell, i.e. a discrete version of 2D quantum gravity coupled to matter with a central charge n/2. The matrix-model consists then of an integral over $2^{n}$ matrices, which we are unable to solve for $n>1$. However for a fixed genus we can expand in the cosmological constant g for arbitrary values of n, and a simple minded analysis of the series yields for n=0,1 and 2 the expected results for the exponent $\\gamma_{string}$ with an amazing precision given the small number of terms that we considered. We then proceed to larger values of n. Simple tests of universality are successfully applied; for instance we obtain the same exponents for n=3 or for one Ising model coupled to a one dimensional target space. The calculations are easily extended to states Potts models, through an integration over $q^{n}$ matrices. We see no sign of the tachyonic instability of the theory, but we have only consid...

  18. Continuous and discrete modeling of the decay of two-dimensional nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castez, Marcos F; Albano, Ezequiel V [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, (1900) La Plata, UNLP, CONICET (Argentina)


    In this work we review some recent research on the surface diffusion-mediated decay of two-dimensional nanostructures. These results include both a continuous, vectorial model and a discrete kinetic Monte Carlo approach. Predictions from the standard linear continuous theory of surface-diffusion-driven interface decay are contrasted with simulational results both from kinetic and morphological points of view. In particular, we focused our attention on high-aspect-ratio nanostructures, where strong deviations from linear theory take place, including nonexponential amplitude decay and the emergence of several interesting nanostructures such as overhangs developing, nanoislands and nanovoids formation, loss of convexity, nanostructures-pinch off and nanostructures-break off, etc. (topical review)

  19. Superconducting phase and pairing fluctuations in the half-filled two-dimensional Hubbard model. (United States)

    Sentef, Michael; Werner, Philipp; Gull, Emanuel; Kampf, Arno P


    The two-dimensional Hubbard model exhibits superconductivity with d-wave symmetry even at half-filling in the presence of a next-nearest neighbor hopping. Using plaquette cluster dynamical mean-field theory with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver, we reveal the non-Fermi liquid character of the metallic phase in proximity to the superconducting state. Specifically, the low-frequency scattering rate for momenta near (π, 0) varies nonmonotonically at low temperatures, and the dc conductivity is T linear at elevated temperatures with an upturn upon cooling. Evidence is provided that pairing fluctuations dominate the normal-conducting state even considerably above the superconducting transition temperature.

  20. Isotropic model of fractional transport in two-dimensional bounded domains. (United States)

    Kullberg, A; del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Morales, G J; Maggs, J E


    A two-dimensional fractional Laplacian operator is derived and used to model nonlocal, nondiffusive transport. This integro-differential operator appears in the long-wavelength, fluid description of quantities undergoing non-Brownian random walks without characteristic length scale. To study bounded domains, a mask function is introduced that modifies the kernel in the fractional Laplacian and removes singularities at the boundary. Green's function solutions to the fractional diffusion equation are presented for the unbounded domain and compared to the one-dimensional Cartesian approximations. A time-implicit numerical integration scheme is presented to study fractional diffusion in a circular disk with azimuthal symmetry. Numerical studies of steady-state reveal temperature profiles in which the heat flux and temperature gradient are in the same direction, i.e., uphill transport. The response to off-axis heating, scaling of confinement time with system size, and propagation of cold pulses are investigated.

  1. Subtlety in the Critical Behavior of the Two Dimensional XY Model (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kwon


    We study the two dimensional classical XY model using the single cluster Monte Carlo algorithm^1. We present extensive high -temperature -phase bulk data that are extracted based on a novel finite- size- scaling Monte Carlo technique^2. The largest value of the estimated bulk correlation length is 1390 in lattice units. Our data reveal that η=1/4 sets in near criticality. The standard finite-size-scaling analysis of the data close to criticality, however, seems to indicate that η=1/4 is compatible only for a critical temperature (T_c) over the range 0.900 Wolff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 361 (1989) ^2 J.-K. Kim, Euro. Phys. Lett. 28, 211 (1994) Research supported in part by the NSF

  2. Breakdown of the Nagaoka phase in the two-dimensional t-J model (United States)

    Eisenberg, E.; Berkovits, R.; Huse, David A.; Altshuler, B. L.


    In the limit of weak exchange J at low hole concentration δ the ground state of the two-dimensional t-J model is believed to be ferromagnetic. We study the leading instability of this Nagaoka state, which emerges with increasing J. Both exact diagonalization of small clusters, and a semiclassical analytical calculation of larger systems show that above a certain critical value of the exchange, Jcr~tδ2, Nagaoka's state is unstable to phase separation. In a finite-size system a bubble of antiferromagnetic Mott insulator appears in the ground state above this threshold. The size of this bubble depends on δ and scales as a power of the system size N.

  3. Critical Casimir force scaling functions of the two-dimensional Ising model for various boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hobrecht, Hendrik


    We present a systematic method to calculate the scaling functions for the critical Casimir force and the according potential of the two-dimensional Ising model with various boundary conditions. Therefore we start with the dimer representation of the corresponding partition function $Z$ on an $L\\times M$ square lattice, wrapped around a torus with aspect ratio $\\rho=L/M$. By assuming periodic boundary conditions and translational invariance in at least one direction, we systematically reduce the problem to a $2\\times2$ transfer matrix representation. For the torus we first reproduce the results by Kaufman and then give a detailed calculation of the scaling functions. Afterwards we present the calculation for the cylinder with open boundary conditions. All scaling functions are given in form of combinations of infinite products and integrals. Our results reproduce the known scaling functions in the limit of thin films $\\rho\\to 0$. Additionally, for the cylinder at criticality our result confirms the predictions...

  4. A nonlinear vertex-based model for animation of two-dimensional dry foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelager, Micky; Erleben, Kenny


    Foam is the natural phenomenon of bubbles that arise due to nucleation of gas in liquids. The current state of art in Computer Graphics rarely includes foam effects on large scales. In this paper we introduce a vertexbased, quasi-static equilibrium model from the field of Computational Physics as...... simulations with free dynamic boundary conditions. The presented model is interesting and well suited for 2D graphics applications like video games and procedural or animated textures....

  5. DISPLAY-2: a two-dimensional shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion including complex features. (United States)

    Venetsanos, A G; Bartzis, J G; Würtz, J; Papailiou, D D


    A two-dimensional shallow layer model has been developed to predict dense gas dispersion, under realistic conditions, including complex features such as two-phase releases, obstacles and inclined ground. The model attempts to predict the time and space evolution of the cloud formed after a release of a two-phase pollutant into the atmosphere. The air-pollutant mixture is assumed ideal. The cloud evolution is described mathematically through the Cartesian, two-dimensional, shallow layer conservation equations for mixture mass, mixture momentum in two horizontal directions, total pollutant mass fraction (vapor and liquid) and mixture internal energy. Liquid mass fraction is obtained assuming phase equilibrium. Account is taken in the conservation equations for liquid slip and eventual liquid rainout through the ground. Entrainment of ambient air is modeled via an entrainment velocity model, which takes into account the effects of ground friction, ground heat transfer and relative motion between cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The model additionally accounts for thin obstacles effects in three ways. First a stepwise description of the obstacle is generated, following the grid cell faces, taking into account the corresponding area blockage. Then obstacle drag on the passing cloud is modeled by adding flow resistance terms in the momentum equations. Finally the effect of extra vorticity generation and entrainment enhancement behind obstacles is modeled by adding locally into the entrainment formula without obstacles, a characteristic velocity scale defined from the obstacle pressure drop and the local cloud height.The present model predictions have been compared against theoretical results for constant volume and constant flux gravity currents. It was found that deviations of the predicted cloud footprint area change with time from the theoretical were acceptably small, if one models the frictional forces between cloud and ambient air, neglecting the Richardson

  6. A two-dimensional simulation model for the molded underfill process in flip chip packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xue Ru; Young, Wen Bin [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)


    The flip chip process involves the deposition of solder bumps on the chip surface and their subsequent direct attachment and connection to a substrate. Underfilling traditional flip chip packaging is typically performed following a two-step approach. The first step uses capillary force to fill the gap between the chip and the substrate, and the second step uses epoxy molding compound (EMC) to overmold the package. Unlike traditional flip chip packaging, the molded underfill (MUF) concept uses a single-step approach to simultaneously achieve both underfill and overmold. MUF is a simpler and faster process. In this study, a 2D numerical model is developed to simulate the front movement of EMC flow and the void formation for different geometric parameters. The 2D model simplifies the procedures of geometric modeling and reduces the modeling time for the MUF simulation. Experiments are conducted to verify the prediction results of the model. The effect on void formation for different geometric parameters is investigated using a 2D model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1-D and 2-D mathematical models for dam break flow were established and verified with the measured data in laboratory. The 1-D and 2-D models were then coupled, and used to simulate the dam break flow from the reservoir tail to the dam site, the propagation of dam break waves in the downstream channel, and the submergence of dam break flow in the downstream town with the hydrodynamics method. As a numerical example, the presented model was employed to simulate dam break flow of a hydropower station under construction. In simulation, different dam-break durations, upstream flows and water levels in front of dam were considered, and these influencing factors of dam break flow were analyzed, which could be referenced in planning and designing hydropower stations.

  8. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel


    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...... probes. The probes were installed parallel to the tillage direction at different positions in the potato ridge. The new Daisy 2D model showed to be able to simulate crop growth, water use and soil water distribution fairly well...

  9. A Vertical Two-Dimensional Model to Simulate Tidal Hydrodynamics in A Branched Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Cheng; WU Chung-Hsing


    A vertical (laterally averaged) two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is developed for tides, tidal current, and salinity in a branched estuarine system. The governing equations are solved with the hydrostatic pressure distribution assumption and the Boussinesq approximation. An explicit scheme is employed to solve the continuity equations. The momentum and mass balance equations are solved implicitly in the Cartesian coordinate system. The tributaries are governed by the same dynamic equations. A control volume at the junctions is designed to conserve mass and volume transport in the finite difference schemes, based on the physical principle of continuum medium of fluid. Predictions by the developed model are compared with the analytic solutions of steady wind-driven circulatory flow and tidal flow. The model results for the velocities and water surface elevations coincide with analytic results. The model is then applied to the Tanshui River estuarine system. Detailed model calibration and verification have been conducted with measured water surface elevations,tidal current, and salinity distributions. The overall performance of the model is in qualitative agreement with the available field data. The calibrated and verified numerical model has been used to quantify the tidal prism and flushing rate in the Tanshui River-Tahan Stream, Hsintien Stream, and Keelung River.

  10. Two Dimensional Mathematical Model of Tumor Angiogenesis: Coupling of Avascular Growth and Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Hosseini


    Full Text Available Introduction As a tumor grows, the demand for oxygen and nutrients increases and it grows further if acquires the ability to induce angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to present a two-dimensional continuous mathematical model for avascular tumor growth, coupled with a discrete model of angiogenesis. Materials and Methods In the avascular growth model, tumor is considered as a single mass, which uptakes oxygen through diffusion and invades the extracellular matrix (ECM. After the tumor reaches its maximum size in the avascular growth phase, tumor cells may be in three different states (proliferative, quiescent and apoptotic, depending on oxygen availability. Quiescent cells are assumed to secrete tumor angiogenic factors, which diffuse into the surrounding tissue until reaching endothelial cells. The mathematical model for tumor angiogenesis is consisted of a five-point finite difference scheme to simulate the progression of endothelial cells in ECM and their penetration into the tumor. Results The morphology of produced networks was investigated, based on various ECM degradation patterns. The generated capillary networks involved the rules of microvascular branching and anastomosis. Model predictions were in qualitative agreement with experimental observations and might have implications as a supplementary model to facilitate mathematical analyses for anti-cancer therapies. Conclusion Our numerical simulations could facilitate the qualitative comparison between three layers of tumor cells, their TAF-producing abilities and subsequent penetration of micro-vessels in order to determine the dynamics of microvascular branching and anastomosis in ECM and three different parts of the tumor.

  11. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B


    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g. chiral models, factorizing models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) and a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff(S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime. As a special case of the thermal duality, the SL(2,Z) modular Verlinde relation is thus a consequence of the principles of thermal QFT togeth...

  12. Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow (United States)

    Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.


    Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.

  13. Milgrom Relation Models for Spiral Galaxies from Two-Dimensional Velocity Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, E I; Sellwood, J A; Barnes, Eric I.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Sellwood, Jerry A.


    Using two-dimensional velocity maps and I-band photometry, we have created mass models of 40 spiral galaxies using the Milgrom relation (the basis of modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND) to complement previous work. A Bayesian technique is employed to compare several different dark matter halo models to Milgrom and Newtonian models. Pseudo-isothermal dark matter halos provide the best statistical fits to the data in a majority of cases, while the Milgrom relation generally provides good fits as well. We also find that Milgrom models give mass-to-light ratios that roughly correlate with galaxy color, as predicted by stellar population models. A subsample of galaxies in the Hydra cluster follow a tight relation between mass-to-light and color, but one that is significantly different from relations found in previous studies. Ruling out the Milgrom relation with rotational kinematics is difficult due to systematic uncertainties in the observations as well as underlying model assumptions. We discuss in detail two...

  14. Two-dimensional discrete mathematical model of tumor-induced angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai-ping ZHAO; Er-yun CHEN; Jie WU; Shi-xiong XU; M.W. Collins; Quan LONG


    A 2D discrete mathematical model of a nine-point finite difference scheme is built to simulate tumor-induced angiogenesis. Nine motion directions of an individual endothelial cell and two parent vessels are extended in the present model. The process of tumor-induced angiogenesis is performed by coupling random motility, chemotaxis, and haptotaxis of endothelial cell in different mechanical environments inside and outside the tumor. The results show that nearly realistic tumor microvascular networks with neoplastic pathophysiological characteristics can be generated from the present model. Moreover, the theoretical capillary networks generated in numerical simulations of the discrete model may provide useful information for further clinical research.

  15. BatTri: A two-dimensional bathymetry-based unstructured triangular grid generator for finite element circulation modeling (United States)

    Bilgili, Ata; Smith, Keston W.; Lynch, Daniel R.


    A brief summary of Delaunay unstructured triangular grid refinement algorithms, including the recent "off-centers" method, is provided and mesh generation requirements that are imperative to meet the criteria of the circulation modeling community are defined. A Matlab public-domain two-dimensional (2-D) mesh generation package (BatTri) based on these requirements is then presented and its efficiency shown through examples. BatTri consists of a graphical mesh editing interface and several bathymetry-based refinement algorithms, complemented by a set of diagnostic utilities to check and improve grid quality. The final output mesh node locations, node depths and element incidence list are obtained starting from only a basic set of bathymetric data. This simple but efficient setup allows fast interactive mesh customization and provides circulation modelers with problem-specific flexibility while satisfying the usual requirements on mesh size and element quality. A test of the "off-centers" method performed on 100 domains with randomly generated coastline and bathymetry shows an overall 25% reduction in the number of elements with only slight decrease in element quality. More importantly, this shows that BatTri is easily upgradeable to meet the future demands by the addition of new grid generation algorithms and Delaunay refinement schemes as they are made available.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The governing equation for sediment pollutions was derived based on the turbulent diffusion of pollutants in shallow lakes. Coupled with shallow water equations, a depth-averaged 2-D flow and water quality model was developed. By means of the conservation law, a proposed differential equation for the change of sediment pollutants was linked to the 2-D equations. Under the framework of the finite volume method, the Osher approximate Riemann solver was employed to solve the equations. An analytical resolution was used to examine the model capabilities. Simulated results matched the exact solutions especially well. As an example, the simulation of CODMn in the Wuli Lake, a part of the Taihu lake, was conducted, which led to reasonable results. This study provides a new approach and a practical tool for the simulation of flow and water quality in shallow lakes.

  17. Snapshot Observation for 2D Classical Lattice Models by Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization Group


    Ueda, K.; Otani, R.; Nishio, Y; Gendiar, A.; Nishino, T


    We report a way of obtaining a spin configuration snapshot, which is one of the representative spin configurations in canonical ensemble, in a finite area of infinite size two-dimensional (2D) classical lattice models. The corner transfer matrix renormalization group (CTMRG), a variant of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), is used for the numerical calculation. The matrix product structure of the variational state in CTMRG makes it possible to stochastically fix spins each by ea...

  18. A two-dimensional CFD model of a refrigerated display case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stribling, D.; Tassou, S.A. [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores plc, Middlesex (United Kingdom)


    The discomfort caused by the cold air overspill from vertical refrigerated display cases in supermarkets is widely accepted as being a problem to customers. This, together with the adverse effect on case performance caused by heat and moisture transfer across the air curtain, suggests that there may be room for improvement in the design and fundamental operation of these display fixtures. This paper presents a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a vertical dairy display case that could be used in the design and optimization of such equipment. Comparisons are also made with experimentally obtained values of velocity and temperature measured around the case in order to assess the accuracy and viability of such a model. Parameters of the computer model, such as the size of the calculation grid, the turbulence model, and the discretization scheme, were also varied to determine their effect on the converged solution, and these results are presented. The CFD model showed good qualitative agreement with measured values and requires only fine tuning to make it quantitatively accurate.

  19. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models (United States)

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle


    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  20. A two-dimensional model of the methane cycle in a sedimentary accretionary wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Archer


    Full Text Available A two-dimensional model of sediment column geophysics and geochemistry has been adapted to the problem of an accretionary wedge formation, patterned after the margin of the Juan de Fuca plate as it subducts under the North American plate. Much of the model description is given in a companion paper about the application of the model to an idealized passive margin setting; here we build on that formulation to simulate the impact of the sediment deformation, as it approaches the subduction zone, on the methane cycle. The active margin configuration of the model shares sensitivities with the passive margin configuration, in that sensitivities to organic carbon deposition and respiration kinetics, and to vertical bubble transport and redissolution in the sediment, are stronger than the sensitivity to ocean temperature. The active margin simulation shows a complex sensitivity of hydrate inventory to plate subduction velocity, with results depending strongly on the geothermal heat flux. In low heat-flux conditions, the model produces a larger inventory of hydrate per meter of coastline in the passive margin than active margin configurations. However, the local hydrate concentrations, as pore volume saturation, are higher in the active setting than in the passive, as generally observed in the field.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  2. Two-Dimensional Depth-Averaged Beach Evolution Modeling: Case Study of the Kizilirmak River Mouth, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykal, Cüneyt; Ergin, Ayşen; Güler, Işikhan


    transformation model, a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical waveinduced circulation model, a sediment transport model, and a bottom evolution model. To validate and verify the numerical model, it is applied to several cases of laboratory experiments. Later, the model is applied to a shoreline change problem...

  3. Two-Dimensional Analytical Modeling Of Threshold Voltage Of Doped Short-Channel Triple-Material Double-Gate (TM-DG MOSFET’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Dubey


    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-channel threshold voltage model is presented for triple-material double-gate(TM-DG MOSFET with uniform doping profile in the channel region. To obtain the channel potential expression, the two-dimensional (2D Poisson’s equation has been solved using the parabolic potential approximation with suitable boundary conditions. Subsequently, the surface potential expression has been employed to derive an analytical expression of thresholod. The threshold voltage variation with various device parameters has been shown. To validate the model, ATLASTM based numerical simulation results have been used.

  4. A 2-D Analytical Threshold Voltage Model for Symmetric Double Gate MOSFET's Using Green’s Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Garg


    Full Text Available We propose a new two dimensional (2D analytical solution of Threshold Voltage for undoped (or lightly doped Double Gate MOSFETs. We have used Green’s function technique to solve the 2D Poisson equation, and derived the threshold voltage model using minimum surface potential concept. This model is assumed uniform doping profile in Si region. The proposed model compared with existing literature and experimental data and we obtain excellent agreements with previous techniques.

  5. A Two-Dimensional Modeling Procedure to Estimate the Loss Equivalent Resistance Including the Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Salas


    Full Text Available We propose a modeling procedure specifically designed for a ferrite inductor excited by a waveform in time domain. We estimate the loss resistance in the core (parameter of the electrical model of the inductor by means of a Finite Element Method in 2D which leads to significant computational advantages over the 3D model. The methodology is validated for an RM (rectangular modulus ferrite core working in the linear and the saturation regions. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental data and the computational results.

  6. Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites. (United States)

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper


    Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California, have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron buildup in agroforesty systems, a mathematical model was developed to simulate non-conservative boron transport. The developed dynamic two-dimensional finite element model simulates water flow and boron transport in saturated-unsaturated soil system, including boron sorption and boron uptake by root-water extraction processes. The simulation of two different observed field data sets by the developed model is satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 1.5 mg/L and relative error of 6.5%. Application of the model to three different soils shows that boron adsorption is higher in silt loam soil than that in sandy loam and clay loam soils. This result agrees with the laboratory experimental observations. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that boron uptake by root-water extraction process influences the boron concentration distribution along the root zone. Also, absorption coefficient and maximum adsorptive capacity of a soil for boron are found to be sensitive parameters.

  7. Spatiotemporal chaos and two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves in Lugiato-Lefever model (United States)

    Panajotov, Krassimir; Clerc, Marcel G.; Tlidi, Mustapha


    Driven nonlinear optical cavities can exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics. We consider the paradigmatic Lugiato-Lefever model describing driven nonlinear optical resonator. This model is one of the most-studied nonlinear equations in optics. It describes a large spectrum of nonlinear phenomena from bistability, to periodic patterns, localized structures, self-pulsating localized structures and to a complex spatiotemporal behavior. The model is considered also as prototype model to describe several optical nonlinear devices such as Kerr media, liquid crystals, left handed materials, nonlinear fiber cavity, and frequency comb generation. We focus our analysis on a spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics in one-dimension. We identify a route to spatiotemporal chaos through an extended quasiperiodicity. We have estimated the Kaplan-Yorke dimension that provides a measure of the strange attractor complexity. Likewise, we show that the Lugiato-Leferver equation supports rogues waves in two-dimensional settings. We characterize rogue-wave formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  8. Nonequilibrium critical dynamics of two dimensional interacting monomer-dimer model: non-Ising criticality (United States)

    Nam, Keekwon; Kim, Bongsoo; Jong Lee, Sung


    We investigate the nonequilibrium relaxation dynamics of an interacting monomer-dimer model with nearest neighbor repulsion on a square lattice, which possesses two symmetric absorbing states. The model is known to exhibit two nearby continuous transitions: the Z2 symmetry-breaking order-disorder transition and the absorbing transition with directed percolation criticality. We performed a more detailed analysis of our extensive simulations on bigger lattice systems which reaffirms that the symmetry-breaking transition exhibits a non-Ising critical behavior with β ≃ 0.149(2) and η ≃ 0.30(1) that are distinct from those values of a pure two dimensional Ising model. Finite size scaling of dimer density near the symmetry breaking transition gives logarithmic scaling (α = 0.0) which is consistent with the hyperscaling relation but the corresponding exponent of νB ≃ 1.37(2) exhibits a conspicuous deviation from the pure Ising value of 1. The value of dynamic critical exponent z, however, is found to be close to that of the kinetic Ising model as 1/z ≃ 0.466(5) from the relaxation of staggered magnetization (and also similar but slightly smaller values from coarsening).

  9. Ca2+ movement in smooth muscle cells studied with one- and two-dimensional diffusion models. (United States)

    Kargacin, G; Fay, F S


    Although many of the processes involved in the regulation of Ca2+ in smooth muscle have been studied separately, it is still not well known how they are integrated into an overall regulatory system. To examine this question and to study the time course and spatial distribution of Ca2+ in cells after activation, one- and two-dimensional diffusion models of the cell that included the major processes thought to be involved in Ca regulation were developed. The models included terms describing Ca influx, buffering, plasma membrane extrusion, and release and reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. When possible these processes were described with known parameters. Simulations with the models indicated that the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca pump is probably primarily responsible for the removal of cytoplasmic Ca2+ after cell activation. The plasma membrane Ca-ATPase and Na/Ca exchange appeared more likely to be involved in the long term regulation of Ca2+. Pumping processes in general had little influence on the rate of rise of Ca transients. The models also showed that spatial inhomogeneities in Ca2+ probably occur in cells during the spread of the Ca signal following activation and during the subsequent return of Ca2+ to its resting level.

  10. A 2D spring model for the simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in nonlinear hysteretic media. (United States)

    Delsanto, P P; Gliozzi, A S; Hirsekorn, M; Nobili, M


    A two-dimensional (2D) approach to the simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in nonclassical nonlinear (NCNL) media is presented. The approach represents the extension to 2D of a previously proposed one dimensional (1D) Spring Model, with the inclusion of a PM space treatment of the intersticial regions between grains. The extension to 2D is of great practical relevance for its potential applications in the field of quantitative nondestructive evaluation and material characterization, but it is also useful, from a theoretical point of view, to gain a better insight of the interaction mechanisms involved. The model is tested by means of virtual 2D experiments. The expected NCNL behaviors are qualitatively well reproduced.

  11. Multi-GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm for the simulation of two-dimensional q-state Potts model

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro


    We present the multiple GPU computing with the common unified device architecture (CUDA) for the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm of two-dimensional (2D) q-state Potts model. Extending our algorithm for single GPU computing [Comp. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1155], we realize the GPU computation of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm for multiple GPUs. We implement our code on the large-scale open science supercomputer TSUBAME 2.0, and test the performance and the scalability of the simulation of the 2D Potts model. The performance on Tesla M2050 using 256 GPUs is obtained as 37.3 spin flips per a nano second for the q=2 Potts model (Ising model) at the critical temperature with the linear system size L=65536.

  12. Image segmentation and classification based on a 2D distributed hidden Markov model (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Schonfeld, Dan; Khokhar, Ashfaq


    In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional distributed hidden Markovmodel (2D-DHMM), where dependency of the state transition probability on any state is allowed as long as causality is preserved. The proposed 2D-DHMM model is result of a novel solution to a more general non-causal two-dimensional hidden Markovmodel (2D-HMM) that we proposed. Our proposed models can capture, for example, dependency among diagonal states, which can be critical in many image processing applications, for example, image segmentation. A new sets of basic image patterns are designed to enrich the variability of states, which in return largely improves the accuracy of state estimations and segmentation performance. We provide three algorithms for the training and classification of our proposed model. A new Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm suitable for estimation of the new model is derived, where a novel General Forward-Backward (GFB) algorithm is proposed for recursive estimation of the model parameters. A new conditional independent subset-state sequence structure decomposition of state sequences is proposed for the 2D Viterbi algorithm. Application to aerial image segmentation shows the superiority of our model compared to the existing models.

  13. Two Dimensional Analytical Modeling for SOI and SON MOSFET and Their Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarsi Ghosh


    Full Text Available During last few decade continuous device performance improvements have been achieved through a combination of device scaling, new device structures and material property improvement to its fundamental limits. Conventional silicon (bulk CMOS technology can’t overcome the fundamental physical limitations belong to sub-micro or nanometer region which leads to alternative device technology like Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI technology and its recent innovative modification Silicon-On-Nothing (SON MOSFET. Analytical simulation is very important to understand the relative performance of those devices under different structural and operational parameter variations. For present analytical simulation asymmetric structure of Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI MOSFET and Silicon-On-Nothing (SON MOSFET are considered. The proposed structure of SON MOSFET is similar to that of the SOI MOSFET with the only exception being the oxide layer here is substituted with air which has much lower permittivity than Silicon-dioxide. Variation of threshold voltage against effective channel lengths is compared for both the structures. From our simulation it is observed that the proposed SON model has lower drain to source current (IDS than SOI model. In our modeling based on solution of two dimensional Poisson’s equation short channel effects such as DIBL and fringing field effects are also taken into account. SON is found to provide better suppression of SCE s than SOI. The results predicted by our analytical simulation hold good agreement with experimental results.

  14. A New Paradigm of Modeling Two-Dimensional Overland Watershed Water Quality (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Yeh, G. G.


    This paper presents the development of sediment and reactive chemical transport under non-isotherm condition in two-dimensional overland watershed system. Through decomposition of reaction network via Gauss-Jordan column reduction, (a) redundant fast reactions and irrelevant kinetic reactions are removed from the system; (b) fast reactions and slow reactions can be decoupled; (c) species reaction equations are transformed into two sets: equilibrium species mass action equations and kinetic-variable reaction equations. This enable our model to include as many types of reactions as possible, choose kinetic-variables instead of chemical species as primary dependent variables, and simplify the reaction terms in transport equations. In our model two options are provided to solve the advection-dispersion transport equation: Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, and Finite Element Method in Conservative Form, and three options to deal with the reaction term: Fully-implicit, Predictor-corrector, and Operator-splitting methods. The production-consumption rate of chemical species is determined by reaction-based formulations. One example problem is employed to demonstrate the design capability of the model and the robustness of the numerical simulations.

  15. Phase diagram and correlation functions of the two-dimensional dissipative quantum XY model (United States)

    Hou, Changtao; Varma, Chandra M.


    The two-dimensional quantum XY model, with a Caldeira-Leggett form of dissipation, is applicable to the quantum-critical properties of diverse experimental systems, ranging from superconductor to insulator transitions, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transitions in metals, to the loop-current order transition in cuprates. We solve the reexpression of this model in terms of orthogonal topological excitations, vortices, and a variety of instantons, by renormalization group methods. The calculations explain the extraordinary properties of the model discovered in Monte Carlo calculations: the product form of the quantum-critical fluctuations in space and time, a spatial correlation length proportional to the logarithm of the temporal correlation length near the transition from a disordered to a fully ordered state, and the occurrence of a phase with spatial order without temporal order. They are intimately related to the flow of the metric of time in relation to the metric of space, i.e., of the dynamical critical exponent z . These properties appear to be essential in understanding the strange metallic phase found in a variety of quantum-critical transitions as well as the accompanying high-temperature superconductivity.

  16. Evolution of desertification in a two-dimensional energy balance model coupled with thermodynamics and dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The relationship between desert evolution and change in albedo has been investigated quasi-analytically using a zonal mean two-dimensional energy balance model which considers the radiation transmission process due to thermodynamics and bound- ary layer movement caused by kinetics. A climate state including temperature, zonal wind, meridional wind and vertical wind can be simulated according to the current zonal distribution of albedo. Given desert distribution, characterized by the value and distribution of albedo, the response of climate on albedo has been studied to analyze the evolution of desert climate. One significant result is that the simple model can reproduce mean meridional circulation. Another result indicates that climate corresponds to two equilibria. This happens when the junction temperature between vegetation and desert is higher than a certain critical value. As for the first equilibrium, the desert belt is predicted to move southward in the northern hemisphere with the increasing values of albedo, which corresponds to the current trend of climate change. For the second equilibrium, vegetation will expand northward with increasing values of albedo, which would indicate a narrowing of the desert belt. In order to determine if the two equilibria exist, new physical models are needed.

  17. Design considerations for pulsed-flow comprehensive two-dimensional GC: dynamic flow model approach. (United States)

    Harvey, Paul McA; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R


    A dynamic flow model, which maps carrier gas pressures and carrier gas flow rates through the first dimension separation column, the modulator sample loop, and the second dimension separation column(s) in a pulsed-flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (PFM-GCxGC) system is described. The dynamic flow model assists design of a PFM-GCxGC modulator and leads to rapid determination of pneumatic conditions, timing parameters, and the dimensions of the separation columns and connecting tubing used to construct the PFM-GCxGC system. Three significant innovations are introduced in this manuscript, which were all uncovered by using the dynamic flow model. A symmetric flow path modulator improves baseline stability, appropriate selection of the flow restrictors in the first dimension column assembly provides a generally more stable and robust system, and these restrictors increase the modulation period flexibility of the PFM-GCxGC system. The flexibility of a PFM-GCxGC system resulting from these innovations is illustrated using the same modulation interface to analyze Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel using 3 s and 9 s modulation periods.

  18. Stable topological modes in two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau models with trapping potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalache, D; Skarka, V; Malomed, B A; Leblond, H; Aleksić, N B; Lederer, F


    Complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) models of laser media (with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity) do not contain an effective diffusion term, which makes all vortex solitons unstable in these models. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the addition of a two-dimensional periodic potential, which may be induced by a transverse grating in the laser cavity, to the CGL equation stabilizes compound (four-peak) vortices, but the most fundamental "crater-shaped" vortices (CSVs), alias vortex rings, which are, essentially, squeezed into a single cell of the potential, have not been found before in a stable form. In this work we report families of stable compact CSVs with vorticity S=1 in the CGL model with the external potential of two different types: an axisymmetric parabolic trap, and the periodic potential. In both cases, we identify stability region for the CSVs and for the fundamental solitons (S=0). Those CSVs which are unstable in the axisymmetric potential break up into robust dipoles. All the vortices with S=2 a...

  19. A two-dimensional modeling of solid oxide fuel cell button cells with detailed electrochemistry mechanism (United States)

    Li, Jingde; Bai, Zhengyu; Croiset, Eric


    A two-dimensional model of nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was developed for a button cell system. The model integrates the detailed catalytic, electrochemical elementary reactions with ionic/electronic conduction and multiple gas transport processes in SOFC. The model is validated using published experimental data for H2-H2O fuel gas under different cell sizes and operating conditions. The distributions of gas/surface phase species concentration and current density were predicted and the effects of operating temperature, fuel gas composition and fuel channel tube design on the cell performance were studied. The results show that the electrochemical reaction processes occurs mainly within a 20 μm distance from the anode/electrolyte interface and that the Ni catalyst surface is covered mainly by H(s). For the chamber channel design, the calculations show that the tube chamber should have a diameter no smaller than the cathode electrode to obtain the best SOFC performance.

  20. Understanding Ground Motion in Las Vegas: Insights from Data Analysis and Two-Dimensional Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D


    Seismic ground motions are amplified in low velocity sedimentary basins relative to adjacent sites on high velocity hard rock. We used historical recordings of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquake recordings in Las Vegas Valley to quantify frequency-dependent basin amplification using Standard Spectral Ratios. We show that amplifications, referred to as site response, can reach a factor of 10 in the frequency band 0.4-2.0 Hz. Band-averaged site response between 0.4-2.0 Hz is strongly correlated with basin depth. However, it is also well known that site response is related to shallow shear-wave velocity structure. We simulated low frequency (f<1Hz) ground motion and site response with two-dimensional elastic finite difference simulations. We demonstrate that physically plausible models of the shallow subsurface, including low velocity sedimentary structure, can predict relative amplification as well as some of the complexity in the observed waveforms. This study demonstrates that site response can be modeled without invoking complex and computationally expensive three-dimensional structural models.

  1. Effects of a polar stratospheric cloud parameterization on ozone depletion due to stratospheric aircraft in a two-dimensional model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, D.B. [Applied Research Corp., Landover, MD (United States); Douglass, A.R.; Jackman, C.H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    A parameterization of Type 1 and 2 polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is presented which is appropriate for use in two-dimensional (2-D) photochemical models of the stratosphere. The calculation of PSC frequency of occurrence and surface area density uses climatological temperature probability distributions obtained from National Meteorological Center data to avoid using zonal mean temperatures, which are not good predictors of PSC behavior. The parameterization does not attempt to model the microphysics of PSCs. The parameterization predicts changes in PSC formation and heterogeneous processing due to perturbations of stratospheric trace constituents. It is therefore useful in assessing the potential effects of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft (high speed civil transports, or HSCTs) on stratospheric composition. The model calculated frequency of PSC occurrence agrees well with a climatology based on stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM) II observations. PSCs are predicted to occur in the tropics. Their vertical range is narrow, however, and their impact on model O{sub 3} fields is small. When PSC and sulfate aerosol heterogeneous processes are included in the model calculations, the O{sub 3} change for 1980-1990 is in substantially better agreement with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) - derived O{sub 3} trend than otherwise. However, significant discrepancies in the northern midlatitudes remain. The overall changes in model O{sub 3} response to standard HSCT perturbation scenarios produced by the parameterization are small and tend to decrease the model sensitivity to the HSCT perturbation. However, in the southern hemisphere spring a significant increase in O{sub 3} sensitivity to HSCT perturbations is found. At this location and time, increased PSC formation leads to increased levels of active chlorine, which produce the O{sub 3} decrease. 38 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Effects of a polar stratosphere cloud parameterization on ozone depletion due to stratospheric aircraft in a two-dimensional model (United States)

    Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.


    A parameterization of Type 1 and 2 polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is presented which is appropriate for use in two-dimensional (2-D) photochemical models of the stratosphere. The calculations of PSC frequency of occurrence and surface area density uses climatological temperature probability distributions obtained from National Meteorological Center data to avoid using zonal mean temperatures, which are not good predictors of PSC behavior. The parameterization does not attempt to model the microphysics of PSCs. The parameterization predicts changes in PSC formation and heterogeneous processing due to perturbations of stratospheric trace constituents. It is therefore useful in assessing the potential effects of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft (high speed civil transports, or HSCTs) on stratospheric composition. the model calculated frequency of PSC occurrence agrees well with a climatology based on stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM) 2 observations. PSCs are predicted to occur in the tropics. Their vertical range is narrow, however, and their impact on model O3 fields is small. When PSC and sulfate aerosol heterogeneous processes are included in the model calculations, the O3 change for 1980 - 1990 is in substantially better agreement with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)-derived O3 trend than otherwise. The overall changes in model O3 response to standard HSCT perturbation scenarios produced by the parameterization are small and tend to decrease the model sensitivity to the HSCT perturbation. However, in the southern hemisphere spring a significant increase in O3 sensitivity to HSCT perturbations is found. At this location and time, increased PSC formation leads to increased levels of active chlorine, which produce the O3 decreases.

  3. Spin correlations in the two-dimensional quantum s=1/2 XY model (United States)

    Sznajd, J.


    A quantum version of the Niemeijer-van Leeuwen real-space renormalization-group method is used to study the temperature dependence of the two- and four-spin correlations in the quantum XY model on the triangular lattice. The first-order cumulant expansion results suggest, similarly to other methods, a low-temperature phase of an essentially different kind from that predicted for the classical model. The possible explanation of the origin of the spurious 2D Heisenberg-like nontrivial fixed point in some renormalization-group calculations is also proposed.

  4. Coexistence in the two-dimensional May-Leonard model with random rates (United States)

    He, Q.; Mobilia, M.; Täuber, U. C.


    We employ Monte Carlo simulations to numerically study the temporal evolution and transient oscillations of the population densities, the associated frequency power spectra, and the spatial correlation functions in the (quasi-) steady state in two-dimensional stochastic May-Leonard models of mobile individuals, allowing for particle exchanges with nearest-neighbors and hopping onto empty sites. We therefore consider a class of four-state three-species cyclic predator-prey models whose total particle number is not conserved. We demonstrate that quenched disorder in either the reaction or in the mobility rates hardly impacts the dynamical evolution, the emergence and structure of spiral patterns, or the mean extinction time in this system. We also show that direct particle pair exchange processes promote the formation of regular spiral structures. Moreover, upon increasing the rates of mobility, we observe a remarkable change in the extinction properties in the May-Leonard system (for small system sizes): (1) as the mobility rate exceeds a threshold that separates a species coexistence (quasi-) steady state from an absorbing state, the mean extinction time as function of system size N crosses over from a functional form ˜ e c N / N (where c is a constant) to a linear dependence; (2) the measured histogram of extinction times displays a corresponding crossover from an (approximately) exponential to a Gaussian distribution. The latter results are found to hold true also when the mobility rates are randomly distributed.

  5. A two-dimensional (azimuthal-axial) particle-in-cell model of a Hall thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coche, P.; Garrigues, L., E-mail: [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)


    We have developed a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell model in the azimuthal and axial directions of the Hall thruster. A scaling method that consists to work at a lower plasma density to overcome constraints on time-step and grid-spacing is used. Calculations are able to reproduce the breathing mode due to a periodic depletion of neutral atoms without the introduction of a supplementary anomalous mechanism, as in fluid and hybrid models. Results show that during the increase of the discharge current, an electron-cyclotron drift instability (frequency in the range of MHz and wave number on the order of 3000 rad s{sup −1}) is formed in the region of the negative gradient of magnetic field. During the current decrease, an axial electric wave propagates from the channel toward the exhaust (whose frequency is on the order of 400 kHz) leading to a broadening of the ion energy distribution function. A discussion about the influence of the scaling method on the calculation results is also proposed.

  6. Numerical Simulations of an atmospheric pressure discharge using a two dimensional fluid model (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad M.; Turner, Miles M.


    We present numerical simulations of a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge using a two-dimensional fluid model with symmetric boundary conditions in pure helium and He-N2 gases at atmospheric pressure. The periodic stationary pattern of electrons and molecular helium ions density is shown at different times during one breakdown pulse for the pure helium gas. The temporal behavior of the helium metastables and excimers species density is examined and their influences on the discharge characteristics are exhibited for an APD. The atmospheric pressure discharge modes (APGD and APTD) are affected with small N2 impurities and the discharge mode structures are described under different operating conditions. The uniform and filamentary behavior of the discharge is controlled with the variable relative permittivity of the dielectric barrier material. The influence of nitrogen impurities plays a major role for the production of the filaments in the after glow phase of He-N2 discharge and the filaments are clearly observed with the increased recombination coefficient of nitrogen ions. The creation and annihilation mechanism of filaments is described with the production and destruction of nitrogen ions at different applied voltages and driving frequencies for a complete cycle. The results of the fluid model are validated by comparison with the experimental atmospheric pressure discharge results in He-N2 plasma discharge.

  7. Finite-time scaling via linear driving: application to the two-dimensional Potts model. (United States)

    Huang, Xianzhi; Gong, Shurong; Zhong, Fan; Fan, Shuangli


    We apply finite-time scaling to the q-state Potts model with q=3 and 4 on two-dimensional lattices to determine its critical properties. This consists in applying to the model a linearly varying external field that couples to one of its q states to manipulate its dynamics in the vicinity of its criticality and that drives the system out of equilibrium and thus produces hysteresis and in defining an order parameter other than the usual one and a nonequilibrium susceptibility to extract coercive fields. From the finite-time scaling of the order parameter, the coercivity, and the hysteresis area and its derivative, we are able to determine systematically both static and dynamic critical exponents as well as the critical temperature. The static critical exponents obtained in general and the magnetic exponent delta in particular agree reasonably with the conjectured ones. The dynamic critical exponents obtained appear to confirm the proposed dynamic weak universality but unlikely to agree with recent short-time dynamic results for q=4. Our results also suggest an alternative way to characterize the weak universality.

  8. Sequential identification of model parameters by derivative double two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and calibration-free approach for chemical reaction systems. (United States)

    Spegazzini, Nicolas; Siesler, Heinz W; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    A sequential identification approach by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis for the identification of a chemical reaction model, activation, and thermodynamic parameters is presented in this paper. The identification task is decomposed into a sequence of subproblems. The first step is the construction of a reaction model with the suggested information by model-free 2D correlation analysis using a novel technique called derivative double 2D correlation spectroscopy (DD2DCOS), which enables one to analyze intensities with nonlinear behavior and overlapped bands. The second step is a model-based 2D correlation analysis where the activation and thermodynamic parameters are estimated by an indirect implicit calibration or a calibration-free approach. In this way, a minimization process for the spectral information by sample-sample 2D correlation spectroscopy and kinetic hard modeling (using ordinary differential equations) of the chemical reaction model is carried out. The sequential identification by 2D correlation analysis is illustrated with reference to the isomeric structure of diphenylurethane synthesized from phenylisocyanate and phenol. The reaction was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of the isomeric structures of diphenylurethane linked through a hydrogen bonding equilibrium were studied by means of an integration of model-free and model-based 2D correlation analysis called a sequential identification approach. The study determined the enthalpy (ΔH = 15.25 kJ/mol) and entropy (TΔS = 13.20 kJ/mol) of C═O···H hydrogen bonding of diphenylurethane through direct calculation from the differences in the kinetic parameters (δΔ(‡)H, -TδΔ(‡)S) at equilibrium in the chemical reaction system.

  9. Sensitivity of two-dimensional model predictions of ozone response to stratospheric aircraft: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, D.B.; Douglass, A.R.; Jackman, C.H. [Applied Research Corp., Landover, MD (United States)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) two-dimensional model of stratospheric photochemistry and dynamics has been used to calculate the O3 response to stratospheric aircraft (high-speed civil transport (HSCT)) emissions. The sensitivity of the model O3 response was examined for systematic variations of five parameters and two reaction rates over a wide range, expanding on calculations by various modeling groups for the NASA High Speed Research Program and the World Meteorological Organization. In all, 448 model runs were required to test the effects of variations in the latitude, altitude, and magnetitude of the aircraft emissions perturbation, the background chlorine levels, the background sulfate aerosol surface area densities, and the rates of two key reactions. No deviation from previous conclusions concerning the response of O3 to HSCTs was found in this more exhaustive exploration of parameter space. Maximum O3 depletions occur for high-altitude, low altitude HSCT perturbations. Small increases in global total O3 can occur for low-altitude, high-altitude injections. Decreasing aerosol surface area densities and background chlorine levels increases the sensitivity of model O3 to the HSCT perturbations. The location of the aircraft emissions is the most important determinant of the model response. Response to the location of the HSCT emissions is not changed qualitatively by changes in background chlorine and aerosol loading. The response is also not very sensitive to changes in the rates of the reactions NO + HO2 yields NO2 + OH and HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2O2 over the limits of their respective uncertainties. Finally, levels of lower stratospheric HO(sub x) generally decrease when the HSCT perturbation is included, even though there are large increases in H2O due to the perturbation.

  10. Two-dimensional modeling of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with long flow channel. Part I. Model development



    A two-dimensional single-phase model is developed for the steady-state and transient analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Based on diluted and concentrated solution theories, viscous flow is introduced into a phenomenological multi-component modeling framework in the membrane. Characteristic variables related to the water uptake are discussed. A ButlereVolmer formulation of the current-overpotential relationship is developed based on an elementary mechanism of elect...

  11. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of dissolved and particulate pollutant transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir (United States)

    Hu, W.; Wang, L.-J.; Chen, H.; Holbach, A.; Zheng, B.-H.; Norra, S.; Westrich, B.


    After impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in 2003, hydrological regimes of the Yangtze River, upstream and downstream of the Three Gorges Dam, have been changed enormously, leading to significant environmental, ecological and social impacts. Nutrients and pollutants from agriculture, industry and municipalities are of concern due to their impact on the aquatic environment and hence, transport behavior of sediment associated pollutants must be modeled and analyzed to establish a sustainable water reservoir management. As part of the Chinese-German Yangtze-Project [1], two-dimensional numerical model TELEMAC is applied to study the dissolved and particulate pollutant transport at different locations of concern in the TGR. In-situ measurement campaigns for morphology and water quality data using mobile measuring device (MINIBAT) are carried out to provide detailed information for the different water bodies at different time. Additional morphological data are taken from cross-section profiles in the literature, the digital elevation model (DEM) of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from CGIAR. Daily and hourly water level and discharge, suspended sediment concentration and pollutant loads are obtained from the authorities and extracted from literature. The model describes the spatial-temporal flow field, transport and dispersion of sediment associated pollutants with emphasis on the dynamic interaction and mutual influence of the river Yangtze, its major tributaries and adjacent lagoon-like dead water bodies due to the 30 meter annual reservoir water level fluctuation. Since algae bloom, especially in the tributaries and side arms of the mainstream, is one of the major issues occurred after 2003, the results of the numerical modeling together with the statistical analysis of the MINIBAT measurements are used for the eutrophication status analysis. Acknowledgments The Yangtze-Project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF

  12. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation (United States)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor


    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  13. Nonequilibrium critical dynamics of the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model at the Baxter line (United States)

    Fernandes, H. A.; da Silva, R.; Caparica, A. A.; de Felício, J. R. Drugowich


    We investigate the short-time universal behavior of the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model at the Baxter line by performing time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations. First, as preparatory results, we obtain the critical parameters by searching the optimal power-law decay of the magnetization. Thus, the dynamic critical exponents θm and θp, related to the magnetic and electric order parameters, as well as the persistence exponent θg, are estimated using heat-bath Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we estimate the dynamic exponent z and the static critical exponents β and ν for both order parameters. We propose a refined method to estimate the static exponents that considers two different averages: one that combines an internal average using several seeds with another, which is taken over temporal variations in the power laws. Moreover, we also performed the bootstrapping method for a complementary analysis. Our results show that the ratio β /ν exhibits universal behavior along the critical line corroborating the conjecture for both magnetization and polarization.

  14. A Method for Geometry Optimization in a Simple Model of Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaohui; Protas, Bartosz


    This investigation is motivated by the problem of optimal design of cooling elements in modern battery systems. We consider a simple model of two-dimensional steady-state heat conduction described by elliptic partial differential equations and involving a one-dimensional cooling element represented by a contour on which interface boundary conditions are specified. The problem consists in finding an optimal shape of the cooling element which will ensure that the solution in a given region is close (in the least squares sense) to some prescribed target distribution. We formulate this problem as PDE-constrained optimization and the locally optimal contour shapes are found using a gradient-based descent algorithm in which the Sobolev shape gradients are obtained using methods of the shape-differential calculus. The main novelty of this work is an accurate and efficient approach to the evaluation of the shape gradients based on a boundary-integral formulation which exploits certain analytical properties of the sol...

  15. Non-equilibrium relaxation in a two-dimensional stochastic lattice Lotka-Volterra model (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Täuber, Uwe C.

    We employ Monte Carlo simulations to study a stochastic Lotka-Volterra model on a two-dimensional square lattice with periodic boundary conditions. There are stable states when the predators and prey coexist. If the local prey carrying capacity is finite, there emerges an extinction threshold for the predator population at a critical value of the predation rate. We investigate the non-equilibrium relaxation of the predator density in the vicinity of this critical point. The expected power law dependence between the relaxation time and predation rate is observed (critical slowing down). The numerically determined associated critical exponents are in accord with the directed percolation universality class. Following a sudden predation rate change to its critical value, one observes critical aging for the predator density autocorrelation function with a universal scaling exponent. This aging scaling signature of the absorbing state phase transition emerges at significantly earlier times than stationary critical power laws, and could thus serve as an advanced indicator of the population's proximity to its extinction threshold. This research is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-09ER46613.

  16. Critical Casimir force scaling functions of the two-dimensional Ising model at finite aspect ratios (United States)

    Hobrecht, Hendrik; Hucht, Alfred


    We present a systematic method to calculate the universal scaling functions for the critical Casimir force and the according potential of the two-dimensional Ising model with various boundary conditions. Therefore we start with the dimer representation of the corresponding partition function Z on an L× M square lattice, wrapped around a torus with aspect ratio ρ =L/M . By assuming periodic boundary conditions and translational invariance in at least one direction, we systematically reduce the problem to a 2× 2 transfer matrix representation. For the torus we first reproduce the results by Kaufman and then give a detailed calculation of the scaling functions. Afterwards we present the calculation for the cylinder with open boundary conditions. All scaling functions are given in form of combinations of infinite products and integrals. Our results reproduce the known scaling functions in the limit of thin films ρ \\to 0 . Additionally, for the cylinder at criticality our results confirm the predictions from conformal field theory.

  17. Electron-phonon vertex in the two-dimensional one-band Hubbard model (United States)

    Huang, Z. B.; Hanke, W.; Arrigoni, E.; Scalapino, D. J.


    Using quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we study the effects of electronic correlations on the effective electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in a two-dimensional one-band Hubbard model. We consider a momentum-independent bare ionic el-ph coupling. In the weak- and intermediate-correlation regimes, we find that the on-site Coulomb interaction U acts to effectively suppress the ionic el-ph coupling at all electron and phonon momenta. In this regime, our numerical simulations are in good agreement with the results of perturbation theory to order U2. However, entering the strong-correlation regime, we find that the forward-scattering process stops decreasing and begins to substantially increase as a function of U, leading to an effective el-ph coupling which is peaked in the forward direction. Whereas at weak and intermediate Coulomb interactions, screening is the dominant correlation effect suppressing the el-ph coupling, at larger U values irreducible vertex corrections become more important and give rise to this increase. These vertex corrections depend crucially on the renormalized electronic structure of the strongly correlated system.

  18. Two-dimensional model of a slow-mode expansion fan at Io (United States)

    Krisko, P. H.; Hill, T. W.


    A 2D model for the standing slow-mode expansion fan that is expected to exist downstream of the Jovian moon Io is developed. The leading edge of the expansion fan makes an angle of 45 deg with the upstream magnetic field direction, and the fan width is about 114 deg. The plasma flow returns to its upstream direction by way of a slow-mode shock behind Io where the MHD parameters return asymptotically to their upstream conditions. The magnetic field perturbation within the fan is much smaller than that associated with the Alfven wing, which lies farther upstream.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Two-Dimensional Temperature Dynamics Across Ice-Wedge Polygons (United States)

    Garayshin, Viacheslav V.

    The ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska have been forming for many millennia, when the ground cracked and the cracks were filled with snowmelt water. The infiltrated water then became frozen and turned into ice. When the annual and summer air temperatures become higher, the depth of the active layer increases. A deeper seasonal thawing may cause melting of ice wedges from their tops. Consequently, the ground starts to settle and a trough begins to form above the ice wedge. The forming trough creates a local temperature anomaly in the surrounding ground, and the permafrost located immediately under the trough starts degrading further. Once the trough is formed, the winter snow cover becomes deeper at the trough area further degrading the permafrost. In this thesis we present a computational approach to study the seasonal temperature dynamics of the ground surrounding an ice wedge and ground subsidence associated with ice wedge degradation. A thermo-mechanical model of the ice wedge based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics was developed and will be presented. The model includes heat conduction and quasi-static mechanical equilibrium equations, a visco-elastic rheology for ground deformation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for temperature, ground displacement and ground porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of equations, which was solved iteratively. The model employs temperature and moisture content data collected from a field experiment at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) sites in Barrow, Alaska. The model describes seasonal dynamics of temperature and the long-term ground motion near the ice wedges and helps to explain destabilization of the ice wedges north of Alaska's Brooks

  20. Nonlinear sigma model in the case of N x. cap alpha. N rectangular matrices in two-dimensional euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhov, L.O.


    Matrix nonlinear sigma models are discussed and the matrix nonlinear sigma model in the case of N x ..cap alpha..N rectangular matrices is considered. The authors show that in two-dimensional Euclidean space, the model is renormalizable with respect to ..cap alpha.. and 1/N. The fulfillment of the chirality identity is demonstrated in the operator expansion for the renormalized theory.

  1. Phase transitions in the two-dimensional Anisotropic Biquadratic Heisenberg Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, A.R., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (Brazil); Pires, A.S.T., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil); Pereira, A.R., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil)


    In this paper we study the influence of the single-ion anisotropy in the two-dimensional biquadratic Heisenberg model (ABHM) on the square lattice at zero and finite low temperatures. It is common to represent the bilinear and biquadratic terms by J{sub 1}=Jcosθ and J{sub 2}=Jsinθ, respectively, and the many phases present in the model as a function of θ are well documented. However we have adopted a constant value for the bilinear constant (J{sub 1}=1) and small values of the biquadratic term (|J{sub 2}|D{sub c}, the excited states are gapped and there is no spin long-range order (LRO) even at zero temperature. Using Schwinger bosonic representation and Self-Consistent Harmonic Approximation (SCHA), we have studied the quantum and thermal phase transitions as a function of the bilinear and biquadratic constants. - Highlights: • We study the anisotropic biquadric bilinear Heisenberg model on a square lattice. • We show the quantum phase transition associated with the anisotropic constant. • We obtain a thermal phase transition similar to the BKT transition.

  2. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models. (United States)

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine


    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  3. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.;

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  4. Disordered loops in the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin-fermion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enss, T. [CNR-INFM-SMC Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail:; Caprara, S.; Castellani, C.; Di Castro, C.; Grilli, M. [CNR-INFM-SMC Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)


    The spin-fermion model has long been used to describe the quantum-critical behavior of 2d electron systems near an antiferromagnetic (AFM) instability. Recently, the standard procedure to integrate out the fermions and obtain an effective action for spin waves has been questioned in the clean case. We show that, in the presence of disorder, the single fermion loops display two crossover scales: upon lowering the energy, the singularities of the clean fermionic loops are first cut off, but below a second scale new singularities arise that lead again to marginal scaling. In addition, impurity lines between different fermion loops generate new relevant couplings which dominate at low energies. We outline a non-linear {sigma} model formulation of the single-loop problem, which allows to control the higher singularities and provides an effective model in terms of low-energy diffusive as well as spin modes.

  5. Two-dimensional modelling of benzene transport and biodegradation in a laboratory-scale aquifer. (United States)

    Choi, N C; Choi, J W; Kim, S B; Park, S J; Kim, D J


    In this study biodegradation of aqueous benzene during transport in a laboratory-scale aquifer model was investigated by conducting a 2-D plume test and numerical modelling. Benzene biodegradation and transport was simulated with the 2-D numerical model developed for solute transport coupled with a Haldane-Andrews type function for inclusion of an inhibition constant which is effective for high concentrations. Experimental data revealed that in the early stages the benzene plume showed a rather clear shape but lost its shape with increased travel time. The mass recoveries of benzene at 9, 16, and 22 h were 37, 13 and 8%, respectively, showing that a significant mass reduction of aqueous benzene occurred in the model aquifer. The major processes responsible for the mass reduction were biodegradation and irreversible sorption. The modelling results also indicated that the simulation based on the microbial parameters from the batch experiments slightly overestimated the mass reduction of benzene during transport. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the benzene plume was sensitive to the maximum specific growth rate and slightly sensitive to the half-saturation constant of benzene but almost insensitive to the Haldane inhibition constant. The insensitivity to the Haldane inhibition constant was due to the rapid decline of the benzene peak concentration by natural attenuation such as hydrodynamic dispersion and irreversible sorption. An analysis of the model simulation also indicated that the maximum specific growth rate was the key parameter controlling the plume behaviour, but its impact on the plume was affected by competing parameter such as the irreversible sorption rate coefficient.

  6. Two-dimensional thermal modeling of power monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) (United States)

    Fan, Mark S.; Christou, Aris; Pecht, Michael G.


    Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional temperature distributions for a typical GaAs MMIC circuit are conducted, aiming at understanding the heat conduction process of the circuit chip and providing temperature information for device reliability analysis. The method used is to solve the two-dimensional heat conduction equation with a control-volume-based finite difference scheme. In particular, the effects of the power dissipation and the ambient temperature are examined, and the criterion for the worst operating environment is discussed in terms of the allowed highest device junction temperature.

  7. Spin transport in the two-dimensional quantum disordered anisotropic Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, L.S. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pires, A.S.T.; Costa, B.V. [Departamento de Física ICEx, UFMG, CP 702, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    We use the self consistent harmonic approximation together with the Linear Response Theory to study the effect of nonmagnetic disorder on spin transport in the quantum diluted two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with spin S=1 in a square lattice. The model has a BKT transition at zero dilution. We calculate the regular part of the spin conductivity σ{sup reg}(ω) and the Drude weight D{sub S}(T) as a function of the non-magnetic concentration, x. Our calculations show that the spin conductivity drops abruptly to zero at x{sub c}{sup SCHA}≈0.5 indicating that the system changes from an ideal spin conductor state to an insulator. This value is far above the site percolation threshold x{sub c}{sup site}≈0.41. Although the SCHA fails in determining precisely the percolation threshold, both the spin conductivity and the Drude weight show a quite regular behavior inside 0≤x≤x{sub c}{sup SCHA} indicating that the transition stays in the same universality class all along the interval. - Highlights: • The site dilution generates a large influence on regular part of the spin conductivity, σ{sup reg}(ω), and in the Drude weight, D(T). • In a concentration of impurities about x≈0.5, the regular part of the spin conductivity and the Drude weight fall to zero. • In this point we have a change in the state of the system from an ideal spin conductor to a spin insulator.

  8. On the two-dimensional dynamical Ising model in the phase coexistence region (United States)

    Martinelli, F.


    We consider a Glauber dynamics reversible with respect to the two-dimensional Ising model in a finite square of side L, in the absence of an external field and at large inverse temperature β. We first consider the gap in the spectrum of the generator of the dynamics in two different cases: with plus and open boundary conditions. We prove that, when the symmetry under global spin flip is broken by the boundary conditions, the gap is much larger than the case in which the symmetry is present. For this latter we compute exactly the asymptotics of -(1/β L) log(gap) as L→∞ and show that it coincides with the surface tension along one of the coordinate axes. As a consequence we are able to study quite precisely the large deviations in time of the magnetization and to obtain an upper bound on the spin-spin time correlation in the infinite-volume plus phase. Our results establish a connection between the dynamical large deviations and those of the equilibrium Gibbs measure studied by Shlosman in the framework of the rigorous description of the Wulff shape for the Ising model. Finally we show that, in the case of open boundary conditions, it is possible to rescale the time with L in such a way that, as L→∞, the finite-dimensional distributions of the time-rescaled magnetization converge to those of a symmetric continuous-time Markov chain on the two-state space {- m *(β), m *(β)}, m *(β) being the spontaneous magnetization. Our methods rely upon a novel combination of techniques for bounding from below the gap of symmetric Markov chains on complicated graphs, developed by Jerrum and Sinclair in their Markov chain approach to hard computational problems, and the idea of introducing "block Glauber dynamics" instead of the standard single-site dynamics, in order to put in evidence more effectively the effect of the boundary conditions in the approach to equilibrium.

  9. Transfer matrix computation of critical polynomials for two-dimensional Potts models (United States)

    Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Scullard, Christian R.


    In our previous work [1] we have shown that critical manifolds of the q-state Potts model can be studied by means of a graph polynomial PB(q, v), henceforth referred to as the critical polynomial. This polynomial may be defined on any periodic two-dimensional lattice. It depends on a finite subgraph B, called the basis, and the manner in which B is tiled to construct the lattice. The real roots v = eK - 1 of PB(q, v) either give the exact critical points for the lattice, or provide approximations that, in principle, can be made arbitrarily accurate by increasing the size of B in an appropriate way. In earlier work, PB(q, v) was defined by a contraction-deletion identity, similar to that satisfied by the Tutte polynomial. Here, we give a probabilistic definition of PB(q, v), which facilitates its computation, using the transfer matrix, on much larger B than was previously possible. We present results for the critical polynomial on the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices for bases of up to respectively 96, 162, and 243 edges, compared to the limit of 36 edges with contraction-deletion. We discuss in detail the role of the symmetries and the embedding of B. The critical temperatures vc obtained for ferromagnetic (v > 0) Potts models are at least as precise as the best available results from Monte Carlo simulations or series expansions. For instance, with q = 3 we obtain vc(4, 82) = 3.742 489 (4), vc(kagome) = 1.876 459 7 (2), and vc(3, 122) = 5.033 078 49 (4), the precision being comparable or superior to the best simulation results. More generally, we trace the critical manifolds in the real (q, v) plane and discuss the intricate structure of the phase diagram in the antiferromagnetic (v < 0) region.

  10. Self Organized Criticality in a two dimensional Cellular Automaton model of a magnetic flux tube with background flow

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Mocanu, Gabriela


    We investigate the transition to Self Organized Criticality in a two-dimensional model of a flux tube with a background flow. The magnetic induction equation, represented by a partial differential equation with a stochastic source term, is discretized and implemented on a two dimensional cellular automaton. The energy released by the automaton during one relaxation event is the magnetic energy. As a result of the simulations we obtain the time evolution of the energy release, of the system control parameter, of the event lifetime distribution and of the event size distribution, respectively, and we establish that a Self Organized Critical state is indeed reached by the system. Moreover, energetic initial impulses in the magnetohydrodynamic flow can lead to one dimensional signatures in the magnetic two dimensional system, once the Self Organized Critical regime is established. The applications of the model for the study of Gamma Ray Bursts is briefly considered, and it is shown that some astrophysical paramet...

  11. The success of Fermi gas model for overall scaling of 2D metal-to-insulator transition data (United States)

    Cheremisin, M. V.


    The melting condition for two-dimensional Wigner solid (Platzman and Fukuyama, 1974) [14] is shown to contain an error of a factor of π. The analysis of experimental data for apparent 2D metal-to-insulator transition shows that the Wigner solidification (Tanatar and Ceperley, 1989) [16] has been never achieved. Within routine Fermi gas model both the metallic and insulating behavior of different 2D system for actual range of carrier densities and temperatures is explained.

  12. Nonlinear sigma-model in the case of rectangular Nx. alpha. N matrices in two-dimensional euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhov, L.O.


    Matrix nonlinear sigma-model is considered in the case of rectangular matrices of the dimension Nx..alpha..N. Renormalizability of the model with respect to ..alpha.. and 1/N is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional Euclidean space. Validity of the chiral identity is proved in the operator expansion for the renormalized theory.

  13. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel


    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... and sandy loam. An automatic roof was used to exclude the lysimeters from natural precipitation. The potatoes were drip irrigated following different strategies: Fully irrigated (FI), deficit irrigation (65% FI), and partial root zone drying (PRD). Gas exchange measurements were carried as well as sampling...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  14. A two-dimensional MHD global coronal model - Steady-state streamers (United States)

    Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.


    A 2D, time-dependent, numerical, MHD model for the simulation of coronal streamers from the solar surface to 15 solar is presented. Three examples are given; for dipole, quadrupole and hexapole (Legendre polynomials P1, P2, and P3) initial field topologies. The computed properties are density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field. The calculation is set up as an initial-boundary value problem wherein a relaxation in time produces the steady state solution. In addition to the properties of the solutions, their accuracy is discussed. Besides solutions for dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole geometries, the model use of realistic values for the density and Alfven speed while still meeting the requirement that the flow speed be super-Alfvenic at the outer boundary by extending the outer boundary to 15 solar radii.

  15. Model for ballistic spin-transport in ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas/ferromagnet structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapers, T; Nitta, J; Heersche, HB; Takayanagi, H


    The spin dependent conductance of a ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas ferromagnet structure is theoretically examined in the ballistic transport regime. It is shown that the spin signal can be improved considerably by making use of the spin filtering effect of a barrier at the ferromagnet two

  16. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Collapse of (2 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams that in a homogeneous medium would collapse may...

  17. Two-dimensional time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing


    Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a trade-off between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2-D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second order in time and fourth order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.

  18. A two-dimensional algebraic quantum liquid produced by an atomic simulator of the quantum Lifshitz model. (United States)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Zhou, Qi


    Bosons have a natural instinct to condense at zero temperature. It is a long-standing challenge to create a high-dimensional quantum liquid that does not exhibit long-range order at the ground state, as either extreme experimental parameters or sophisticated designs of microscopic Hamiltonians are required for suppressing the condensation. Here we show that synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms, using either the Raman scheme or shaken lattices, provide physicists a simple and practical scheme to produce a two-dimensional algebraic quantum liquid at the ground state. This quantum liquid arises at a critical Lifshitz point, where a two-dimensional quartic dispersion emerges in the momentum space, and many fundamental properties of two-dimensional bosons are changed in its proximity. Such an ideal simulator of the quantum Lifshitz model allows experimentalists to directly visualize and explore the deconfinement transition of topological excitations, an intriguing phenomenon that is difficult to access in other systems.

  19. New 2D diffraction model and its applications to terahertz parallel-plate waveguide power splitters (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Kaijun; Fan, Yong


    A two-dimensional (2D) diffraction model for the calculation of the diffraction field in 2D space and its applications to terahertz parallel-plate waveguide power splitters are proposed in this paper. Compared with the Huygens-Fresnel principle in three-dimensional (3D) space, the proposed model provides an approximate analytical expression to calculate the diffraction field in 2D space. The diffraction filed is regarded as the superposition integral in 2D space. The calculated results obtained from the proposed diffraction model agree well with the ones by software HFSS based on the element method (FEM). Based on the proposed 2D diffraction model, two parallel-plate waveguide power splitters are presented. The splitters consist of a transmitting horn antenna, reflectors, and a receiving antenna array. The reflector is cylindrical parabolic with superimposed surface relief to efficiently couple the transmitted wave into the receiving antenna array. The reflector is applied as computer-generated holograms to match the transformed field to the receiving antenna aperture field. The power splitters were optimized by a modified real-coded genetic algorithm. The computed results of the splitters agreed well with the ones obtained by software HFSS verify the novel design method for power splitter, which shows good applied prospects of the proposed 2D diffraction model.

  20. A two-dimensional model of the plasmasphere - Refilling time constants (United States)

    Rasmussen, Craig E.; Guiter, Steven M.; Thomas, Steven G.


    A 2D model of the plasmasphere has been developed to study the temporal evolution of plasma density in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. This model includes the supply and loss of hydrogen ions due to ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling as well as the effects of E x B convection. A parametric model describing the required coupling fluxes has been developed which utilizes empirical models of the neutral atmosphere, the ionosphere and the saturated plasmasphere. The plasmaspheric model has been used to examine the time it takes for the plasmasphere to refill after it has been depleted by a magnetic storm. The time it takes for the plasmasphere to reach 90 percent of its equilibrium level ranges from 3 days at L = 3 during solar minimum to as high as 100 days at L = 5 during solar maximum. Refilling is also dependent on the month of the year, with refilling requiring a longer period of time at solar maximum during June than during December for L greater than 3.2.

  1. A stock market forecasting model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis and radial basis function neural network. (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Wang, Huaiqing; Yang, Jie; Miller, David J


    In this paper, we propose and implement a hybrid model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA) and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) to forecast stock market behavior. First, 36 stock market technical variables are selected as the input features, and a sliding window is used to obtain the input data of the model. Next, (2D)2PCA is utilized to reduce the dimension of the data and extract its intrinsic features. Finally, an RBFNN accepts the data processed by (2D)2PCA to forecast the next day's stock price or movement. The proposed model is used on the Shanghai stock market index, and the experiments show that the model achieves a good level of fitness. The proposed model is then compared with one that uses the traditional dimension reduction method principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). The empirical results show that the proposed model outperforms the PCA-based model, as well as alternative models based on ICA and on the multilayer perceptron.

  2. A stock market forecasting model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis and radial basis function neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Guo

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose and implement a hybrid model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D2PCA and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN to forecast stock market behavior. First, 36 stock market technical variables are selected as the input features, and a sliding window is used to obtain the input data of the model. Next, (2D2PCA is utilized to reduce the dimension of the data and extract its intrinsic features. Finally, an RBFNN accepts the data processed by (2D2PCA to forecast the next day's stock price or movement. The proposed model is used on the Shanghai stock market index, and the experiments show that the model achieves a good level of fitness. The proposed model is then compared with one that uses the traditional dimension reduction method principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA. The empirical results show that the proposed model outperforms the PCA-based model, as well as alternative models based on ICA and on the multilayer perceptron.

  3. Metastability of the Two-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model with Zero Chemical Potential and Small Magnetic Field (United States)

    Landim, C.; Lemire, P.


    We consider the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model with zero chemical potential and small magnetic field evolving on a large but finite torus. We obtain sharp estimates for the transition time, we characterize the set of critical configurations, and we prove the metastable behavior of the dynamics as the temperature vanishes.

  4. Improved energy extrapolation with infinite projected entangled-pair states applied to the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corboz, P.


    An infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) is a variational tensor network ansatz for two-dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit where the accuracy can be systematically controlled by the bond dimension D. We show that for the doped Hubbard model in the strongly correlated reg

  5. Application of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to benchmark models for the amide I band of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarenko, Anna S.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.


    In this paper, we present a novel benchmarking method for validating the modelling of vibrational spectra for the amide I region of proteins. We use the linear absorption spectra and two-dimensional infrared spectra of four experimentally well-studied proteins as a reference and test nine combinatio

  6. Two-dimensional vertical moisture-pressure dynamics above groundwater waves: Sand flume experiments and modelling (United States)

    Shoushtari, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Jazayeri; Cartwright, Nick; Perrochet, Pierre; Nielsen, Peter


    This paper presents a new laboratory dataset on the moisture-pressure relationship above a dispersive groundwater wave in a two-dimensional vertical unconfined sand flume aquifer driven by simple harmonic forcing. A total of five experiments were conducted in which all experimental parameters were kept constant except for the oscillation period, which ranged from 268 s to 2449 s between tests. Moisture content and suction head sensor pairings were co-located at two locations in the unsaturated zone both approximately 0.2 m above the mean watertable elevation and respectively 0.3 m and 0.75 m from the driving head boundary. For all oscillation periods except for the shortest (T = 268s), the formation of a hysteretic moisture-pressure scanning loop was observed. Consistent with the decay of the saturated zone groundwater wave, the size of the observed moisture-pressure scanning loops decayed with increasing distance landward and the decay rate is larger for the shorter oscillation periods. At the shortest period (T = 268s), the observed moisture-pressure relationship was observed to be non-hysteretic but with a capillary capacity that differs from that of the static equilibrium wetting and drying curves. This finding is consistent with observations from existing one-dimensional vertical sand column experiments. The relative damping of the moisture content with distance landward is higher than that for the suction head consistent with the fact that transmission of pressure through a porous medium occurs more readily than mass transfer. This is further supported by the fact that observed phase lags for the unsaturated zone variables (i.e. suction head and moisture content) relative to the driving head are greater than the saturated zone variables (i.e. piezometric head). Harmonic analysis of the data reveals no observable generation of higher harmonics in either moisture or pressure despite the strongly non-linear relationship between the two. In addition, a phase lag

  7. Numerical simulation of shallow-water flooding using a two-dimensional finite volume model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Bing; SUN Jian; YUAN De-kui; TAO Jian-hua


    A 2-D Finite Volume Model (FVM) is developed for shallow water flows over a complex topography with wetting and drying processes.The numerical fluxes are computed using the Harten,Lax,and van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver.Second-order accuracy is achieved by employing the MUSCL reconstruction method with a slope limiter in space and an explicit two-stage Runge-Kutta method for time integration.A simple and efficient method is introduced to deal with the wetting and drying processes without any correction of the numerical flux term or the source term.In this new method,a switch of alternative schemes is used to compute the water depths at the cell interface to obtain the numerical flux.The model is verified against benchmark tests with analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data.The numerical results show that the model can simulate different types of flood waves from the ideal flood wave to cases over complex terrains.The satisfactory performance indicates an extensive application prospect of the present model in view of its simplicity and effectiveness.

  8. Computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.


    This report presents a model that simulates solute transport in flowing ground water. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be applied to a wide range of problem types. It is applicable to one- or two-dimensional problems involving steady-state or transient flow. The model computes changes in concentration over time caused by the processes of convective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, and mixing (or dilution) from fluid sources. The model assumes that the solute is non-reactive and that gradients of fluid density, viscosity, and temperature do not affect the velocity distribution. However, the aquifer may be heterogeneous and (or) anisotropic. The model couples the ground-water flow equation with the solute-transport equation. The digital computer program uses an alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve a finite-difference approximation to the ground-water flow equation, and it uses the method of characteristics to solve the solute-transport equation. The latter uses a particle- tracking procedure to represent convective transport and a two-step explicit procedure to solve a finite-difference equation that describes the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion, fluid sources and sinks, and divergence of velocity. This explicit procedure has several stability criteria, but the consequent time-step limitations are automatically determined by the program. The report includes a listing of the computer program, which is written in FORTRAN IV and contains about 2,000 lines. The model is based on a rectangular, block-centered, finite difference grid. It allows the specification of any number of injection or withdrawal wells and of spatially varying diffuse recharge or discharge, saturated thickness, transmissivity, boundary conditions, and initial heads and concentrations. The program also permits the designation of up to five nodes as observation points, for which a summary table of head and concentration versus time is printed at the end of the

  9. Construction of two-dimensional quantum field models through Longo-Witten endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Yoh


    We present a procedure to construct families of local, massive and interacting Haag-Kastler nets on the two-dimensional spacetime through an operator-algebraic method. An existence proof of local observable is given without relying on modular nuclearity. By a similar technique, another family of wedge-local nets is constructed using certain endomorphisms of conformal nets recently studied by Longo and Witten.

  10. Graphene as a Prototypical Model for Two-Dimensional Continuous Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lambin


    Full Text Available This paper reviews a few problems where continuous-medium theory specialized to two-dimensional media provides a qualitatively correct picture of the mechanical behavior of graphene. A critical analysis of the parameters involved is given. Among other results, a simple mathematical description of a folded graphene sheet is proposed. It is also shown how the graphene–graphene adhesion interaction is related to the cleavage energy of graphite and its C 33 bulk elastic constant.

  11. An immersed interface method for two-dimensional modelling of stratified flow in pipes


    Berthelsen, Petter Andreas


    This thesis deals with the construction of a numerical method for solving two-dimensional elliptic interface problems, such as fully developed stratified flow in pipes. Interface problems are characterized by its non-smooth and often discontinuous behaviour along a sharp boundary separating the fluids or other materials. Classical numerical schemes are not suitable for these problems due to the irregular geometry of the interface. Standard finite difference discretization across the interface...

  12. Accurate modeling and reconstruction of three-dimensional percolating filamentary microstructures from two-dimensional micrographs via dilation-erosion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, En-Yu [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Chawla, Nikhilesh [Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Jing, Tao [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Torquato, Salvatore [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Jiao, Yang, E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)


    Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and synthetic situations and have a wide range of important engineering applications. Accurate modeling and reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of topologically complex materials from limited morphological information such as a two-dimensional (2D) micrograph is crucial to the assessment and prediction of effective material properties and performance under extreme conditions. Here, we extend a recently developed dilation–erosion method and employ the Yeong–Torquato stochastic reconstruction procedure to model and generate 3D austenitic–ferritic cast duplex stainless steel microstructure containing percolating filamentary ferrite phase from 2D optical micrographs of the material sample. Specifically, the ferrite phase is dilated to produce a modified target 2D microstructure and the resulting 3D reconstruction is eroded to recover the percolating ferrite filaments. The dilation–erosion reconstruction is compared with the actual 3D microstructure, obtained from serial sectioning (polishing), as well as the standard stochastic reconstructions incorporating topological connectedness information. The fact that the former can achieve the same level of accuracy as the latter suggests that the dilation–erosion procedure is tantamount to incorporating appreciably more topological and geometrical information into the reconstruction while being much more computationally efficient. - Highlights: • Spatial correlation functions used to characterize filamentary ferrite phase • Clustering information assessed from 3D experimental structure via serial sectioning • Stochastic reconstruction used to generate 3D virtual structure 2D micrograph • Dilation–erosion method to improve accuracy of 3D reconstruction.

  13. Dynamics of kinks in one- and two-dimensional hyperbolic models with quasidiscrete nonlinearities. (United States)

    Rotstein, H G; Mitkov, I; Zhabotinsky, A M; Epstein, I R


    We study the evolution of fronts in the Klein-Gordon equation when the nonlinear term is inhomogeneous. Extending previous works on homogeneous nonlinear terms, we describe the derivation of an equation governing the front motion, which is strongly nonlinear, and, for the two-dimensional case, generalizes the damped Born-Infeld equation. We study the motion of one- and two-dimensional fronts finding a much richer dynamics than in the homogeneous system case, leading, in most cases, to the stabilization of one phase inside the other. For a one-dimensional front, the function describing the inhomogeneity of the nonlinear term acts as a "potential function" for the motion of the front, i.e., a front initially placed between two of its local maxima asymptotically approaches the intervening minimum. Two-dimensional fronts, with radial symmetry and without dissipation can either shrink to a point in finite time, grow unboundedly, or their radius can oscillate, depending on the initial conditions. When dissipation effects are present, the oscillations either decay spirally or not depending on the value of the damping dissipation parameter. For fronts with a more general shape, we present numerical simulations showing the same behavior.

  14. Two-dimensional magnetic modeling of ferromagnetic materials by using a neural networks based hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Laudani, A.; Lozito, G.M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via V. Volterra 62, 00146 Rome (Italy)


    This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. That approach aims to be coupled together with numerical treatments of magnetic hysteresis such as FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, allowing a complete computer simulation with acceptable run times. The proposed Hybrid Neural System consists of four inputs representing the magnetic induction and magnetic field components at each time step and it is trained by 2D and scalar measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the Hybrid Neural System returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. Within the Hybrid Neural System, a suitably trained neural network is used for predicting the hysteretic behavior of the material to be modeled. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for symmetric, non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  15. 2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry (United States)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Sundell, Per; Torres-Gomez, Alexander


    In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.

  16. 2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonezzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)


    In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.

  17. 2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry



    In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.

  18. 2D Poisson Sigma Models with Gauged Vectorial Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Torres-Gomez, Alexander


    In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.

  19. Structure of a model salt bridge in solution investigated with 2D-IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Woutersen, Sander


    Salt bridges are known to be important for the stability of protein conformation, but up to now it has been difficult to study their geometry in solution. Here we characterize the spatial structure of a model salt bridge between guanidinium (Gdm+) and acetate (Ac-) using two-dimensional vibrational (2D-IR) spectroscopy. We find that as a result of salt bridging the infrared response of Gdm+ and Ac- change significantly, and in the 2D-IR spectrum, salt bridging of the molecules appears as cross peaks. From the 2D-IR spectrum we determine the relative orientation of the transition-dipole moments of the vibrational modes involved in the salt bridge, as well as the coupling between them. In this manner we reconstruct the geometry of the solvated salt bridge.

  20. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals


    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai


    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  1. Two-dimensional model of a Space Station Freedom thermal energy storage canister (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.


    The Solar Dynamic Power Module being developed for Space Station Freedom uses a eutectic mixture of LiF-CaF2 phase change salt contained in toroidal canisters for thermal energy storage. Results are presented from heat transfer analyses of the phase change salt containment canister. A 2-D, axisymmetric finite difference computer program which models the canister walls, salt, void, and heat engine working fluid coolant was developed. Analyses included effects of conduction in canister walls and solid salt, conduction and free convection in liquid salt, conduction and radiation across salt vapor filled void regions and forced convection in the heat engine working fluid. Void shape, location, growth or shrinkage (due to density difference between the solid and liquid salt phases) were prescribed based on engineering judgement. The salt phase change process was modeled using the enthalpy method. Discussion of results focuses on the role of free-convection in the liquid salt on canister heat transfer performance. This role is shown to be important for interpreting the relationship between ground based canister performance (in l-g) and expected on-orbit performance (in micro-g). Attention is also focused on the influence of void heat transfer on canister wall temperature distributions. The large thermal resistance of void regions is shown to accentuate canister hot spots and temperature gradients.

  2. A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic hysteresis (United States)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Laudani, A.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A.


    This paper deals with a neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. Such approach to the problem seems promising in order to couple the numerical treatment of magnetic hysteresis to FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, making possible a full computer simulation in a reasonable time. The neural system proposed consists of four inputs representing the magnetic field and the magnetic inductions components at each time step and it is trained by 2-d measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the neural system returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. A suitable partitioning of the neural system, described in the paper, makes the computing process rather fast. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  3. Comparison between a coupled 1D-2D model and a fully 2D model for supercritical flow simulation in crossroads

    KAUST Repository

    Ghostine, Rabih


    In open channel networks, flow is usually approximated by the one-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations coupled with an empirical junction model. In this work, a comparison in terms of accuracy and computational cost between a coupled 1D-2D shallow water model and a fully two-dimensional (2D) model is presented. The paper explores the ability of a coupled model to simulate the flow processes during supercritical flows in crossroads. This combination leads to a significant reduction in the computational time, as a 1D approach is used in branches and a 2D approach is employed in selected areas only where detailed flow information is essential. Overall, the numerical results suggest that the coupled model is able to accurately simulate the main flow processes. In particular, hydraulic jumps, recirculation zones, and discharge distribution are reasonably well reproduced and clearly identified. Overall, the proposed model leads to a 30% reduction in run times. © 2014 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

  4. Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, J; Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F


    We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is switched off suddenly. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model.

  5. On the Aerodynamic Characteristics over Idealized Two-Dimensional Urban Street Canyon Models (United States)

    Leung, K. K.; Liu, C. H.


    There are numerous anthropogenic pollutant sources in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) nowadays, which mainly attributed to human activities in urban areas. Hence, how urban morphology affects the heat and mass transfer in built environment is a popular research problem in the urban climate community. However, our understanding of street-level transport processes is rather limited. Laboratory experiments often serve as complementary solutions to modeling results. Although there are laboratory results available for the mass transfer over idealized urban roughness, the transport processes are not examined in details. In this paper, we attempt to demystify the pollutant removal mechanism from urban areas to the urban ABL. Laboratory measurements, which were conducted in the wind tunnel in Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used concurrently. The spatial air pollutant transport from the street region to the urban ABL was represented by means of water evaporation method from the soaked filter paper applied on the surfaces of the building facades and ground surface. Street canyon models of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios in the range of 0.125 to 2 are carried out. The local mass transfer velocity along the street canyons was measured and archived a good comparison with the outside literature. Besides, both the laboratory and CFD results show that the pollutant removal from 2D street canyons increases with decreasing ARs. It arrives a local maximum then decreases thereafter. In the comparison between laboratory and CFD results, the difference in the size of the street canyon models, also known as scaling effects, is needed to be considered. Therefore, despite of representing the transfer behavior by the local pollutant exchange rate, scaled local/overall pollutant removal coefficient is proposed for a comparison of pollutant removal performance in a more reasonable manner. Such effect is found

  6. Inversion for basal friction coefficients with a two-dimensional flow line model using Tikhonov regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Konovalov


    Full Text Available We present results of basal friction coefficient inversion. The inversion was performed by a 2D flow line model for one of the four fast flowing ice streams on the southern side of the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap in the Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The input data for the performance of both the forward and the inverse problems included synthetic aperture radar interferometry ice surface velocities, ice surface elevations and ice thicknesses obtained by airborne measurements (all were taken from Dowdeswell et al., 2002. Numerical experiments with: i different sea level shifts; and ii randomly perturbed friction coefficient have been carried out in the forward problem. The impact of sea level changes on vertical distribution of horizontal velocity and on shear stress distribution near the ice front has been investigated in experiments with different sea level shifts. The experiments with randomly perturbed friction coefficient have revealed that the modeled surface velocity is weakly sensitive to the perturbations and, therefore, the inverse problem should be considered ill posed. To mitigate ill posedness of the inverse problem, Tikhonov’s regularization was applied. The regularization parameter was determined from the relation of the discrepancy between observed and modeled velocities to the regularization parameter. The inversion was performed for both linear and non-linear sliding laws. The inverted spatial distributions of the basal friction coefficient are similar for both sliding laws. The similarity between these inverted distributions suggests that the changes in the friction coefficient are accompanied by appropriate water content variations at the glacier base.

  7. Modeling and optimization of non-phased two-dimensional ultrasonic arrays (United States)

    Denisov, Alexey A.

    Ultrasonic image acquisition with non-phased 2D arrays is a relatively new method in NDE inspection. Historically, ultrasonic array development progressed mostly in the medical imaging where phased arrays found a great application. However, in the field of NDE inspection of metals, heavy plastics and composites, and many other materials the applicability of phased arrays is often restricted due to physical limitations. On the other hand, using versatile systems with mechanical scanning is not always convenient. Therefore, non-phased arrays of independent elements have a strong potential for becoming a valuable tool for rapid ultrasonic image acquisition in the industrial environment as well as in many other areas where conventional methods may not be applicable. The main motivation of this work is to build the necessary mathematical apparatus for estimating the process of signal and image formation in such systems. A model of signal penetration through a complex multilayered structure with non-parallel interfaces is discussed in the plane-wave approximation. This model is then refined to finite-size transducers and finite-size defects inside the sample. A new method of obtaining the beam structure in such multi-layered media is presented. The advantage of this method is that it allows for a very fast calculation while the precision is still comparable to more precise and more computationally expensive methods. A new method of calculating the response of the transducer to defects inside the sample is presented and discussed. The results of numerical calculations using these two methods are discussed and compared with experimental data. Using these models, image formation algorithms together with new image refining techniques are discussed.

  8. Numerical model for two-dimensional hydrodynamics and energy transport. [VECTRA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, D.S.


    The theoretical basis and computational procedure of the VECTRA computer program are presented. VECTRA (Vorticity-Energy Code for TRansport Analysis) is designed for applying numerical simulation to a broad range of intake/discharge flows in conjunction with power plant hydrological evaluation. The code computational procedure is based on finite-difference approximation of the vorticity-stream function partial differential equations which govern steady flow momentum transport of two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous fluids in conjunction with the transport of heat and other constituents.

  9. Modelling and design of complete photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha


    In this paper, we investigate the existence and variation of complete photonic band gap size with the introduction of asymmetry in the constituent dielectric rods with honeycomb lattices in two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC) using the plane-wave expansion (PWE) method. Two examples, one consisting of elliptical rods and the other comprising of rectangular rods in honeycomb lattices are considered with a view to estimate the design parameters for maximizing the complete photonic band gap. Further, it has been shown that complete photonic band gap size changes with the variation in the orientation angle of the constituent dielectric rods.

  10. A discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional PDE models of Asian options (United States)

    Hozman, J.; Tichý, T.; Cvejnová, D.


    In our previous research we have focused on the problem of plain vanilla option valuation using discontinuous Galerkin method for numerical PDE solution. Here we extend a simple one-dimensional problem into two-dimensional one and design a scheme for valuation of Asian options, i.e. options with payoff depending on the average of prices collected over prespecified horizon. The algorithm is based on the approach combining the advantages of the finite element methods together with the piecewise polynomial generally discontinuous approximations. Finally, an illustrative example using DAX option market data is provided.

  11. An efficient two-dimensional ALE modelling and experimental validation for pulsed laser-matter interaction (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Dong, Zhiwei


    We have developed two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) code which is used to study the physical processes, the plasma absorption, the crater profile, and the temperature distribution on metallic target and below the surface. The ALE method overcomes problems with Lagrangian moving mesh distortion by mesh smoothing and conservative quantities remapping from Lagrangian mesh to smoothed one. The results of numerical simulation of pulsed laser ablation are presented. The study presents particular interest for the analysis of experimental results obtained during pulsed laser ablation.

  12. Modeling strong motions produced by earthquakes with two-dimensional numerical codes


    Helmberger, Donald V.; Vidale, John E.


    We present a scheme for generating synthetic point-source seismograms for shear dislocation sources using line source (two-dimensional) theory. It is based on expanding the complete three-dimensional solution of the wave equation expressed in cylindrical coordinates in an asymptotic form which provides for the separation of the motions into SH and P-SV systems. We evaluate the equations of motion with the aid of the Cagniard-de Hoop technique and derive close-formed expressions appropriate fo...

  13. Spin-Orbit Splitting in Semiconductor Quantum Dots with a Two-Dimensional Ring Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-Sheng; LIU Zheng


    We present a theoretical study of the energy levels with two-dimensional ring confining potential in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction.The features of some low-lying states in various strengths of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction are investigated.The Rashba spin-orbit splitting can also be influenced by the width of the potential barrier.The computed results show that the spin-polarized electronic states can be more easily achieved in a weakly confined dot when the confinement strength for the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is larger than a critical value.

  14. Port Adriano, 2D-Model tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    the crown wall have been measured. The model has been subjected to irregular waves corresponding to typical conditions offshore from the intended prototype location. Characteristic situations have been video recorded. The stability of the toe has been investigated. The wave-generated forces on the caisson...... and the crown have been recorded. The maximum of horizontal wave force and the related tilting moment together with the pressure distribution are documented for waves in the range of design conditions. The parameters and results in the report are given in full-scale values, if nothing else is stated....

  15. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation (United States)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo


    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  16. Cosmological model in 2d dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mishima, T; Mishima, Takashi; Nakamichi, Akika


    We apply CGHS-type dilaton gravity model to (1+1)-dimensional cosmological situations. First the behavior of a compact 1-dimensional universe (i.e. like a closed string) is classified on the assumption of homogeneity of universe. Several interesting solutions are found, which include a Misner-type universe having closed time-like curves, and an asymptotically de Sitter universe first pointed out by Yoshimura. In the second half of this talk, we discuss the modification of the classical homogeneous solutions, considering inhomogeneity of classical conformal matters and also quantum back-reaction respectively. (An expanded version of the talk presented by T. Mishima at Yukawa Institute of Theoretical Physics workshop `Quantum Gravity' 24-27, November 1992.)

  17. Validating two-dimensional leadership models on three-dimensionally structured fish schools (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Holbrook, Robert I.; Biro, Dora; Burt de Perera, Theresa


    Identifying leader–follower interactions is crucial for understanding how a group decides where or when to move, and how this information is transferred between members. Although many animal groups have a three-dimensional structure, previous studies investigating leader–follower interactions have often ignored vertical information. This raises the question of whether commonly used two-dimensional leader–follower analyses can be used justifiably on groups that interact in three dimensions. To address this, we quantified the individual movements of banded tetra fish (Astyanax mexicanus) within shoals by computing the three-dimensional trajectories of all individuals using a stereo-camera technique. We used these data firstly to identify and compare leader–follower interactions in two and three dimensions, and secondly to analyse leadership with respect to an individual's spatial position in three dimensions. We show that for 95% of all pairwise interactions leadership identified through two-dimensional analysis matches that identified through three-dimensional analysis, and we reveal that fish attend to the same shoalmates for vertical information as they do for horizontal information. Our results therefore highlight that three-dimensional analyses are not always required to identify leader–follower relationships in species that move freely in three dimensions. We discuss our results in terms of the importance of taking species' sensory capacities into account when studying interaction networks within groups.

  18. Second-order phase transition in two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow containing road sections (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qiu; Wu, Yi-Qi; Li, Hong; Zhong, Rui


    Two-dimensional cellular automaton model has been broadly researched for traffic flow, as it reveals the main characteristics of the traffic networks in cities. Based on the BML models, a first-order phase transition occurs between the low-density moving phase in which all cars move at maximal speed and the high-density jammed phase in which all cars are stopped. However, it is not a physical result of a realistic system. We propose a new traffic rule in a two-dimensional traffic flow model containing road sections, which reflects that a car cannot enter into a road crossing if the road section in front of the crossing is occupied by another car. The simulation results reveal a second-order phase transition that separates the free flow phase from the jammed phase. In this way the system will not be entirely jammed (“don’t block the box” as in New York City).

  19. Numerical Methods and Comparisons for 1D and Quasi 2D Streamer Propagation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mengmin; Guan, Huizhe; Zeng, Rong


    In this work, we propose four different strategies to simulate the one-dimensional (1D) and quasi two-dimensional (2D) model for streamer propagation. Each strategy involves of one numerical method for solving Poisson's equation and another method for solving continuity equations in the models, and a total variation diminishing three-stage Runge-Kutta method in temporal discretization. The numerical methods for Poisson's equation include finite volume method, discontinuous Galerkin methods, mixed finite element method and least-squared finite element method. The numerical method for continuity equations is chosen from the family of discontinuous Galerkin methods. The accuracy tests and comparisons show that all of these four strategies are suitable and competitive in streamer simulations from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. By applying any strategy in real simulations, we can study the dynamics of streamer propagations and influences due to the change of parameters in both of 1D and quasi 2D models. T...

  20. Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko


    The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations......, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo......-chemical-mechanical analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D...

  1. Dynamic Critical Behavior of Multi-Grid Monte Carlo for Two-Dimensional Nonlinear $\\sigma$-Models


    Mana, Gustavo; Mendes, Tereza; Pelissetto, Andrea; Sokal, Alan D.


    We introduce a new and very convenient approach to multi-grid Monte Carlo (MGMC) algorithms for general nonlinear $\\sigma$-models: it is based on embedding an $XY$ model into the given $\\sigma$-model, and then updating the induced $XY$ model using a standard $XY$-model MGMC code. We study the dynamic critical behavior of this algorithm for the two-dimensional $O(N)$ $\\sigma$-models with $N = 3,4,8$ and for the $SU(3)$ principal chiral model. We find that the dynamic critical exponent $z$ vari...

  2. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.


    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  3. Modeling 2-D jets impinging on Stirling regenerators (United States)

    Gedeon, David


    The extent to which flow leaving Stirling coolers or heaters in the form of high-velocity jets penetrate the regenerator matrix is visually modeled using a computer program. Two-dimensional laminar jets are shown impinging on regenerator samples of variable permeability ranging from no matrix at all to matrices dense enough to stop the jet dead on. The results lend credibility to a simple tension for flow uniformity as a function of penetration depth.

  4. Two-dimensional hybrid models of H+-He++ expanding solar wind plasma heating (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Viñas, A. F.; Maneva, Y.


    Preferential heating and acceleration of the solar wind He++ ions compared to protons in fast solar wind streams have been known for decades, thanks to in situ spacecraft measurements at 0.29-5 AU. Turbulent magnetic field fluctuations with approximate power law spectra have been observed as well. However, the exact causes of these processes are still not known due to the lack of detailed information on the magnetic field fluctuations and ion velocity distributions in the acceleration region of the solar wind. Here the collisionless heating processes in expanding solar wind plasma are investigated using 2-D hybrid modeling with parameters appropriate to the heliocentric distance of 10 RS. In this study the ion dynamics is described kinetically, while electrons are treated as a background massless fluid in an expanding solar wind model. The source of free energy for the heating is introduced through an initial nonequilibrium state of the plasma with large He++ ion temperature anisotropy or with super-Alfvénic relative ion drift. We also employ an externally imposed spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in the frequency range below the proton gyroresonant frequency to heat the He++ ions. We investigate the effects of solar wind radial expansion by modeling several values of the expansion rate in a parametric study. We find that the preferential ion heating is attained in both nonexpanding and expanding solar wind models. Thus, the expansion has little effect on the preferential He++ ion heating by the processes considered here. Moreover, the expansion leads to faster evolution of the magnetosonic drift instability, reducing the drift velocity to lower values sooner, and the corresponding generation of the magnetic fluctuations that heat the ions, compared to the nonexpanding case. This is due to the reduction of the perpendicular particle velocities in the expanding (inflated) frame. For cases with little proton perpendicular heating, the solar wind expansion leads to

  5. Two-dimensional semi-analytical model of subthreshold surface potential and drain current for double-doping polysilicon gate MOSFET (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Fang; Dai, Yue-Hua; Xu, Jian-Bin; Li, Ning; Yang, Jin; Zheng, Chang-Yong


    A semi-analytical subthreshold surface potential model for double-doping polysilicon gate (DDPG) MOSFETs is presented. By introducing two rectangular sources located in the gate insulator and the channel-depleted region, the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equations are solved using a semi-analytical method combined with an eigenfunction expansion method. Expressions for the potentials are obtained as special functions of infinite series expressions. A subthreshold drain current is proposed on the basis of the potential profile, and it accounts for the carriers’ drift diffusion and thermionic emission theory. The advantage of this work is that the two-dimensional treatment of the gate insulator region has resulted in physical consistency across a dielectric boundary. The proposed model not only offers physical insight into device physics but also provides the basic designing guideline for DDPG MOSFETs, enabling the designer to optimize the device in accordance with the application. Very good agreement for both the subthreshold surface potential and drain current is observed between the model calculations and the simulated results.

  6. A two-dimensional threshold voltage analytical model for metal-gate/high-k/SiO2/Si stacked MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fei; Liu Hong-Xia; Fan Ji-Bin; Wang Shu-Long


    In this paper the influences of the metal-gate and high-k/SiO2/Si stacked structure on the metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) axe investigated.The flat-band voltage is revised by considering the influences of stacked structure and metal-semiconductor work function fluctuation. The two-dimensional Poisson's equation of potential distribution is presented.A threshold voltage analytical model for metal-gate/high-k/SiO2/Si stacked MOSFETs is developed by solving these Poisson's equations using the boundary conditions.The model is verified by a two-dimensional device simulator,which provides the basic design guidance for metal-gate/high-k/SiO2/Si stacked MOSFETs.

  7. Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun


    The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.

  8. Two-grain nanoindentation using the quasicontinuum method: Two-dimensional model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Rodrigo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones, Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Edificio Integrador, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba, CP 5000 (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Leiva, Ezequiel P.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones, Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Edificio Integrador, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba, CP 5000 (Argentina)


    The quasicontinuum method (two-dimensional) developed by Tadmor et al. [Tadmor EB, Ortiz M, Phillips R. Philos Mag 1996;73:1529] is applied to an indentation process taking account of the atomic structure of the indenter and the substrate subject to indentation. Slip vectors, dislocation nucleation and nanostructure formation are analyzed for different indenter materials (Ag, Cu and Pd) and indenter crystal orientations. Slip vectors near to the contact region show that, depending on the material and orientation of the indenter, plastic deformations occur either inside the indenter or the substrate. Long-range material deformations appear during the indentation or retraction of the indenter. All of these aspects mainly dictate the formation of nanoclusters or nanoholes on the substrate surface.

  9. Two-dimensional-lattice spin models with long-range antiferromagnetic interactions (United States)

    Romano, S.


    We consider a classical system, consisting of m-component unit vectors (m=2,3), associated with a two-dimensional lattice \\{uk||k∈openZ2\\} and interacting via translationally and rotationally invariant antiferromagnetic pair potentials of the long-range form W=Wjk=ɛ||xj-xk||, p>2, where ɛ is a positive quantity, setting energy and temperature scales (i.e., T*=kBT/ɛ), and xk are the coordinates of the lattice sites. A spin-wave approach predicts orientational disorder (in the thermodynamic limit) at all finite temperatures and for all p>2 this agrees with available rigorous results for p>=4, whereas no such theorems are known in the literature when 22.

  10. Hydrodynamic limit for an evolutional model of two-dimensional Young diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa


    We construct dynamics of two-dimensional Young diagrams, which are naturally associated with their grandcanonical ensembles, by allowing the creation and annihilation of unit squares located at the boundary of the diagrams. The grandcanonical ensembles, which were introduced by Vershik, are uniform measures under conditioning on their size (or equivalently, area). We then show that, as the averaged size of the diagrams diverges, the corresponding height variable converges to a solution of a certain non-linear partial differential equation under a proper hydrodynamic scaling. Furthermore, the stationary solution of the limit equation is identified with the so-called Vershik curve. We discuss both uniform and restricted uniform statistics for the Young diagrams.

  11. An Investigation of Two-Dimensional CAD Generated Models with Body Decoupled Cartesian Grids for DSMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presents an investigation of a technique for using two-dimensional bodies composed of simple polygons with a body decoupled uniform Cmtesian grid in the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The method employs an automated grid pre-processing scheme beginning form a CAD geometry definition file, and is based on polygon triangulation using a trapezoid algorithm. A particle-body intersection time comparison is presented between the Icarus DSMC code using a body-fitted structured grid and using a structured body-decoupled Cartesian grid with both linear and logarithmic search techniques. A comparison of neutral flow over a cylinder is presented using the structured body fitted grid and the Cartesian body de-coupled grid.

  12. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D.; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M.; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal


    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  13. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems. (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J Anibal


    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  14. Superfluid-insulator transition in a disordered two-dimensional quantum rotor model with random on-site interactions (United States)

    An, Taeyang; Cha, Min-Chul


    We study the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a disordered two-dimensional quantum rotor model with random on-site interactions in the presence of particle-hole symmetry. Via worm-algorithm Monte Carlo calculations of superfluid density and compressibility, we find the dynamical critical exponent z ~ 1 . 13 (2) and the correlation length critical exponent 1 / ν ~ 1 . 1 (1) . These exponents suggest that the insulating phase is a incompressible Mott glass rather than a Bose glass.

  15. A Hybrid Support Vector Machines and Two-dimensional Risk Matrix Model for Supply Chain Risk Assessment


    Fan Jiang; Junfei Chen


    In recent years, the supply chain managements have been paid more and more attention. The supply chain risk management is an important content for enterprises implementing supply chain management. Therefore, how to measure the risk of supply chain is quite important. In this study, a supply chain risk evaluation model based on support vector machines and two-dimensional risk matrix is proposed. The index system of supply chain risk assessment which includes 14 indices is established. The case...

  16. Exact field-driven interface dynamics in the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model with helicoidal boundary conditions


    de Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.


    We investigate the interface dynamics of the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model in an external field under helicoidal boundary conditions. At sufficiently low temperatures and fields, the dynamics of the interface is described by an exactly solvable high-spin asymmetric quantum Hamiltonian that is the infinitesimal generator of the zero range process. Generally, the critical dynamics of the interface fluctuations is in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class of critical behavior. We re...

  17. Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models (United States)

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yan; Hu, Yihe; Peng, Qinghai


    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets were studied as new generation ultrasound contrast agents via acoustic or optical droplet vaporization (ADV or ODV). Little is known about the ODV irradiated vaporization mechanisms of PFC-microparticle complexs and the stability of the new bubbles produced. In this study, fluorescent perfluorohexane (PFH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were used as a model to study the process of particle vaporization and bubble stability following excitation in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell models. We observed localization of the fluorescent agent on the microparticle coating material initially and after vaporization under fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the stability and growth dynamics of the newly created bubbles were observed for 11 min following vaporization. The particles were co-cultured with 2-D cells to form 3-D spheroids and could be vaporized even when encapsulated within the spheroids via laser irradiation, which provides an effective basis for further work.

  18. The Research of Mobile phone Entrance Guard System Model based on the Encryption Two-dimensional Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Jianli


    Full Text Available This article designs a new mobile-phone entrance guard system, uses the encryption two-dimensional code for identity authentication. Different from other similar products in the market, this system does not rely on specialized mobile phone card or NFC (near field communication module. It can be directly realized through mobile-phone software, and it can be operated simple and safer. This article designs the whole system model, includes structure, function and workflow. It also analyzes and researches the main algorithms used in the system, which include security policy algorithm, encryption two-dimensional code algorithm and image recognition algorithm. Finally, it provides the solution method for the problem in the experimental simulation. It also evaluated and summarized the experimental results.

  19. Analysis of bandgap characteristics of two-dimensional periodic structures by using the source-model technique. (United States)

    Ludwig, Alon; Leviatan, Yehuda


    We introduce a solution based on the source-model technique for periodic structures for the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a two-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal slab illuminated by a transverse-magnetic plane wave. The proposed technique takes advantage of the periodicity of the slab by solving the problem within the unit cell of the periodic structure. The results imply the existence of a frequency bandgap and provide a valuable insight into the relationship between the dimensions of a finite periodic structure and its frequency bandgap characteristics. A comparison shows a discrepancy between the frequency bandgap obtained for a very thick slab and the bandgap obtained by solving the corresponding two-dimensionally infinite periodic structure. The final part of the paper is devoted to explaining in detail this apparent discrepancy.

  20. Properties of the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice with interlayer coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löw


    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of the two-dimensional S=1/2 (quantum antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice with and without interlayer coupling are studied by means of a continuous Euclidean time Quantum Monte-Carlo algorithm. The internal energy, the magnetic susceptibility and the staggered magnetization are determined in the full temperature range. For the two-dimensional system the ground-state energy/bond is found to be E0hc=-0.36303(13, and the zero temperature staggered magnetization mst=0.2681(8. For coupled planes of honeycomb systems a phase transition from an ordered phase to a disordered phase is found at T/J=0.695(10.

  1. Modelling of Oscillations in Two-Dimensional Echo-Spectra of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Birgit; Kramer, Tobias; Rodríguez, Mirta


    Recent experimental observations of time-dependent beatings in the two-dimensional echo-spectra of light-harvesting complexes at ambient temperatures have opened up the question whether coherence and wave-like behaviour plays a significant role in photosynthesis. We perform a numerical study of the absorption and echo-spectra of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex in chlorobium tepidum and analyse the requirements in the theoretical model needed to reproduce beatings in the calculated spectra. The energy transfer in the FMO pigment-protein complex is theoretically described by an exciton Hamiltonian coupled to a phonon bath which account for the pigments electronic and vibrational excitations respectively. We use the hierarchical equations of motions method to treat the strong couplings in a non-perturbative way. We show that the oscillations in the two-dimensional echo-spectra persist in the presence of thermal noise and static disorder.

  2. Finite size scaling study of dynamical phase transitions in two dimensional models: ferromagnet, symmetric and non symmetric spin glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.U.; Derrida, B.


    We study the time evolution of two configurations submitted to the same thermal noise for several two dimensional models (Ising ferromagnet, symmetric spin glass, non symmetric spin glass). For all these models, we find a non zero critical temperature above which the two configurations always meet. Using finite size scaling ideas, we determine for these three models this dynamical phase transition and some of the critical exponents. For the ferromagnet, the transition T/sub c/ approx. = 2.25 coincides with the Curie temperature whereas for the two spin glass models +- J distribution of bonds) we obtain T/sub c/ approx. = 1.5-1.7.

  3. Shock Wave Loading on a Two-Dimensional Generic Truck/Shelter Model (United States)


    66 3"SlUHTT:24-42-1S 5TATM:I 24 8 2 4 a I S TX’ M TEST:2D TRC 2ŕ SMST: 24-02-15 STATION:2 II *24 8 8 li TEST:2D T•J 3M ~SHOT: 24.-42-I S STA•m:$3 24e...STATI•: 7 I S2 4 3 IS TIME. am EST:D TRUCK SWOT : 24-42-2 STATIN: ,a 24 a a i TEST:2 TRUCK SHOT: 24-2-22 STATION:9 90 S 2 4 6 S ’i TM. EC Figure B-14

  4. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem. (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Luo, Zhendong


    In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE) reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE) model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D) unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  5. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey standard elevation products in a two-dimensional hydraulic modeling application for a low relief coastal floodplain (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.


    Growing use of two-dimensional (2-D) hydraulic models has created a need for high resolution data to support flood volume estimates, floodplain specific engineering data, and accurate flood inundation scenarios. Elevation data are a critical input to these models that guide the flood-wave across the landscape allowing the computation of valuable engineering specific data that provides a better understanding of flooding impacts on structures, debris movement, bed scour, and direction. High resolution elevation data are becoming publicly available that can benefit the 2-D flood modeling community. Comparison of these newly available data with legacy data suggests that better modeling outcomes are achieved by using 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) lidar point data and the derived 1 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product relative to the legacy 3 m, 10 m, or 30 m products currently available in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset. Within the low topographic relief of a coastal floodplain, the newer 3DEP data better resolved elevations within the forested and swampy areas achieving simulations that compared well with a historic flooding event. Results show that the 1 m DEM derived from 3DEP lidar source provides a more conservative estimate of specific energy, static pressure, and impact pressure for grid elements at maximum flow relative to the legacy DEM data. Better flood simulations are critically important in coastal floodplains where climate change driven storm frequency and sea level rise will contribute to more frequent flooding events.

  6. Two-dimensional modeling and analysis of a nanometer transistor as a THz emitter (United States)

    Rahmatallahpur, Sh.; Rostami, Ali


    In this paper, we report on the influences of quantum effects, electron exchange-correlation, Fermi velocity, gate to channel distance and viscosity on the plasma frequency and instability of the plasma waves in a nanometer transistor. By extending the analysis to two-dimensional case, allowing oblique wave propagation, including viscosity and departing from gradual channel approximation, we obtain a general analytical expression for dispersion relation, plasma frequency, and "increment." We found that, while the plasma frequency decreases with the electron exchange-correlation effect, it increases with quantum effects and Fermi velocity. It is shown that the spectrums of plasma waves are discrete both in longitudinal and lateral (transverse) direction. We also express the total radiated power in terms of transistor parameters especially the lateral dimension. Viscosity which is inherently presented in the structure and cannot be neglected, dramatically decrease the emitted power and set a lower limit on the length of transistor. We show that a nanometer transistor with a long width (a long lateral dimension) has advantages for the realization of practical terahertz emitters.

  7. 2D/3D velocity model for the high resolution 2D and 3D seismic data from the CO2SINK Ketzin Project (United States)

    Ivanova, A.; Asch, G.; Lueth, S.; Goetz, J.


    Seismic traveltime inversion, traveltime tomography and seismic reflection techniques have been applied for two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) data acquired in conjunction with characterization and monitoring aspects at a carbon dioxide (CO2) geological storage site at Ketzin, Germany (the CO2SINK project) (S.Yordkayhun, 2008). A seismic source comparison from the 2D pilot study regarding acquisition parameters have been tested at the side has shown the weight drop source is suitable concerning the signal penetration, frequency content of the data and minimizing time and costs for the 3D data acquisition. For the Ketzin seismic data, the ability to obtain an accurate 2D/3D interval velocity model is limited by the acquisition geometry, source-generated noise and time shifts due to the near-surface effects producing severe distortions in the data. Moreover, these time shifts are comparable to the dominant periods of the reflections and to the size of structures to be imaged. Therefore, a combination of seismic refraction and state-of-the-art processing techniques, including careful static corrections and more accurate velocity analysis, has resulted in key improvements of the images and has allowed new information about the 2D/3D interval velocities. The results from these studies together with borehole information, hydrogeologic models and seismic modeling will be combined into an integrated 2D/3D velocity model. After that a careful 2D/3D depth migration is to be provided. It can be used as a database for the future monitoring program at the site.

  8. QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;


    activity relationship (QSAR) modelling systems. They cross validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 71%, 81% and 82%, respectively. Discrete organic European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) chemicals were screened to predict an approximate percentage of CYP 2D6...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....

  9. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model. (United States)

    Velazco, Julio G; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P; Jordan, David R; Eilers, Paul H C; Malosetti, Marcos; van Eeuwijk, Fred A


    A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and selection of genotypes. Current mixed model methods of spatial analysis are based on a multi-step modelling process where global and local trends are fitted after trying several candidate spatial models. This paper reports the application of a novel spatial method that accounts for all types of continuous field variation in a single modelling step by fitting a smooth surface. The method uses two-dimensional P-splines with anisotropic smoothing formulated in the mixed model framework, referred to as SpATS model. We applied this methodology to a series of large and partially replicated sorghum breeding trials. The new model was assessed in comparison with the more elaborate standard spatial models that use autoregressive correlation of residuals. The improvements in precision and the predictions of genotypic values produced by the SpATS model were equivalent to those obtained using the best fitting standard spatial models for each trial. One advantage of the approach with SpATS is that all patterns of spatial trend and genetic effects were modelled simultaneously by fitting a single model. Furthermore, we used a flexible model to adequately adjust for field trends. This strategy reduces potential parameter identification problems and simplifies the model selection process. Therefore, the new method should be considered as an efficient and easy-to-use alternative for routine analyses of plant breeding trials.

  10. A Semi-implicit Numerical Scheme for a Two-dimensional, Three-field Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Jeong, Jaejoon


    The behavior of two-phase flow is modeled, depending on the purpose, by either homogeneous model, drift flux model, or separated flow model, Among these model, in the separated flow model, the behavior of each flow phase is modeled by its own governing equation, together with the interphase models which describe the thermal and mechanical interactions between the phases involved. In this study, a semi-implicit numerical scheme for two-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field is derived. The work is an extension to the previous study for the staggered, semi-implicit numerical scheme in one-dimensional geometry (KAERI/TR-3239/2006). The two-dimensional extension is performed by specifying a relevant governing equation set and applying the related finite differencing method. The procedure for employing the semi-implicit scheme is also described in detail. Verifications are performed for a 2-dimensional vertical plate for a single-phase and two-phase flows. The calculations verify the mass and energy conservations. The symmetric flow behavior, for the verification problem, also confirms the momentum conservation of the numerical scheme.

  11. A Hybrid Support Vector Machines and Two-dimensional Risk Matrix Model for Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang


    Full Text Available In recent years, the supply chain managements have been paid more and more attention. The supply chain risk management is an important content for enterprises implementing supply chain management. Therefore, how to measure the risk of supply chain is quite important. In this study, a supply chain risk evaluation model based on support vector machines and two-dimensional risk matrix is proposed. The index system of supply chain risk assessment which includes 14 indices is established. The case study shows that the proposed model is reasonable, effective and it can provide an important reference for supply chain risk management.

  12. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2 (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis


    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  13. A two-dimensional model for gas mixing in the upper dilute zone of a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, M.; Schoenfelder, H.; Werther, J. [Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)


    A two-dimensional two-phase flow model for gas/solid flow and gas mixing in the upper zone of a circulating fluidized bed is described. Continuous functions are used to describe variations of local flow parameters horizontally and vertically. Numerical values of dispersion parameters and interfacial mass transfer coefficients are derived from the results of tracer gas mixing experiments. There is good agreement between calculated and measured tracer gas profiles in the upper dilute zone of the circulating fluidized bed. The model is applicable to calculation of chemical reactions in CFB risers. 37 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Simplified 2D Bidomain Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and ECG Generation (United States)

    Sovilj, Siniša; Magjarević, Ratko; Abed, Amr Al; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates


    The aim of this study was the development of a geometrically simple and highly computationally-efficient two dimensional (2D) biophysical model of whole heart electrical activity, incorporating spontaneous activation of the sinoatrial node (SAN), the specialized conduction system, and realistic surface ECG morphology computed on the torso. The FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) equations were incorporated into a bidomain finite element model of cardiac electrical activity, which was comprised of a simplified geometry of the whole heart with the blood cavities, the lungs and the torso as an extracellular volume conductor. To model the ECG, we placed four electrodes on the surface of the torso to simulate three Einthoven leads VI, VII and VIII from the standard 12-lead system. The 2D model was able to reconstruct ECG morphology on the torso from action potentials generated at various regions of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, His bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers, and ventricles. Our 2D cardiac model offers a good compromise between computational load and model complexity, and can be used as a first step towards three dimensional (3D) ECG models with more complex, precise and accurate geometry of anatomical structures, to investigate the effect of various cardiac electrophysiological parameters on ECG morphology.

  15. Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Wildschut


    Full Text Available Background: A two-dimensional diagnostic model for (complex trauma-related and personality disorders has been proposed to assess the severity and prognosis of the impact of early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. An important question that awaits empirical examination is whether a distinction between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders reflects reality when focusing on survivors of early childhood trauma. And, is a continuum of trauma diagnoses a correct assumption and, if yes, what does it look like? Objective: We describe the design of a cross-sectional cohort study evaluating this two-dimensional model of the impact of trauma and neglect. To provide the rationale of our study objectives, we review the existing literature on the impact of early childhood trauma and neglect on trauma-related disorders and personality disorders. Aims of the study are to: (1 quantify the two-dimensional model and test the relation with trauma and neglect; and (2 compare the two study groups. Method: A total of 200 consecutive patients referred to two specific treatment programs (100 from a personality disorder program and 100 from a trauma-related disorder program in the north of Holland will be included. Data are collected at the start of treatment. The assessments include all DSM-5 trauma-related and personality disorders, and general psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and perceived emotional neglect. Discussion: The results will provide an evaluation of the model and an improvement of the understanding of the relationship between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders and early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. This may improve both diagnostic as well as indication procedures. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations of the design.

  16. Investigation of Efficient Turbulence Model for Two-Dimensional Nozzle Designed for Supersonic Cruise Using STAR-CCM+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Mummidisetti


    Full Text Available In the present work, investigation of various turbulence models has been carried out for predicting the efficient turbulence model for a two-dimensional nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise nozzle. Initially, a computational domain was created for a two-dimensional nozzle for a supersonic cruise, then, with an appropriate mesh size, various turbulence models has been used for simulations. The main objective of the present work is to determine the efficient turbulence model for nozzle designs. As till date, commercial software’s are implementing many advanced technique, the test of turbulence model is very much needed for today’s research. The results obtained from the computational approach were compared with experimental approach which was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.2 by NASA Langley Research Centre, Virginia. These supersonic cruise nozzles have a wide range of applications in designing Fighter jets and supersonic cruise aircraft's. The present work was conducted by using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics Software, STAR-CCM+. Initially, Nozzle at a free stream Mach number 0.9 was designed and all the initial and boundary conditions were calculated. From the results obtained in the present investigation, we can conclude that there was an excellent correlation between the experimental and computational data for K-Epsilon turbulence model.

  17. Numerical Simulation for Two-Phase Water Hammer Flows in Pipe by Quasi-Two-Dimensional Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Uk Jang; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Qiang Sun


    The features of a quasi⁃two⁃dimensional ( quasi⁃2D) model for simulating two⁃phase water hammer flows with vaporous cavity in a pipe are investigated. The quasi⁃2D model with discrete vaporous cavity in the pipe is proposed in this paper. This model uses the quasi⁃2D model for pure liquid zone and one⁃dimensional ( 1D ) discrete vapor cavity model for vaporous cavity zone. The quasi⁃2D model solves two⁃dimensional equations for both axial and radial velocities and 1D equations for both pressure head and discharge by the method of characteristics. The 1D discrete vapor cavity model is used to simulate the vaporous cavity occurred when the pressure in the local pipe is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid. The proposed model is used to simulate two⁃phase water flows caused by the rapid downstream valve closure in a reservoir⁃pipe⁃valve system. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with those by the corresponding 1D model and the experimental ones provided by the literature, respectively. The comparison shows that the maximum pressure heads simulated by the proposed model are more accurate than those by the corresponding 1D model.

  18. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.


    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a rectangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  19. A model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in an $AdS_3$ background

    CERN Document Server

    Frick, Rudolf


    In this paper we study a model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in a 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter background. We use a generalized Schr\\"odinger picture in which the analogs of the Schr\\"odinger operators of the particle are independent of both the time and the space coordinates in different representations. The spacetime independent operators of the particle induce the Lie algebra of Killing vector fields of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. In this picture, we have a metamorphosis of the Heisenberg's uncertainty relations.

  20. A model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in an AdS{sub 3} background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, R. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Cologne (Germany)


    In this paper we study a model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in a three-dimensional anti-de Sitter background. We use a generalized Schroedinger picture in which the analogs of the Schroedinger operators of the particle are independent of both the time and the space coordinates in different representations. The spacetime independent operators of the particle induce the Lie algebra of Killing vector fields of the AdS{sub 3} spacetime. In this picture, we have a metamorphosis of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. (orig.)

  1. Critical behavior of the Higgs- and Goldstone-mass gaps for the two-dimensional S=1 XY model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiyama


    Full Text Available Spectral properties for the two-dimensional quantum S=1 XY model were investigated with the exact diagonalization method. In the symmetry-broken phase, there appear the massive Higgs and massless Goldstone excitations, which correspond to the longitudinal and transverse modes of the spontaneous magnetic moment, respectively. The former excitation branch is embedded in the continuum of the latter, and little attention has been paid to the details, particularly, in proximity to the critical point. The finite-size-scaling behavior is improved by extending the interaction parameters. An analysis of the critical amplitude ratio for these mass gaps is made.

  2. Dynamic Proportional Reinsurance and Approximations for Ruin Probabilities in the Two-Dimensional Compound Poisson Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li


    Full Text Available We consider the dynamic proportional reinsurance in a two-dimensional compound Poisson risk model. The optimization in the sense of minimizing the ruin probability which is defined by the sum of subportfolio is being ruined. Via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach we find a candidate for the optimal value function and prove the verification theorem. In addition, we obtain the Lundberg bounds and the Cramér-Lundberg approximation for the ruin probability and show that as the capital tends to infinity, the optimal strategies converge to the asymptotically optimal constant strategies. The asymptotic value can be found by maximizing the adjustment coefficient.

  3. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras (United States)

    Arias, Cesar; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Torres-Gomez, Alexander


    We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to a worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

  4. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Cesar; Sundell, Per; Torres-Gomez, Alexander


    We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to any worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

  5. 2D sigma models and differential Poisson algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Cesar [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson,Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)


    We construct a two-dimensional topological sigma model whose target space is endowed with a Poisson algebra for differential forms. The model consists of an equal number of bosonic and fermionic fields of worldsheet form degrees zero and one. The action is built using exterior products and derivatives, without any reference to a worldsheet metric, and is of the covariant Hamiltonian form. The equations of motion define a universally Cartan integrable system. In addition to gauge symmetries, the model has one rigid nilpotent supersymmetry corresponding to the target space de Rham operator. The rigid and local symmetries of the action, respectively, are equivalent to the Poisson bracket being compatible with the de Rham operator and obeying graded Jacobi identities. We propose that perturbative quantization of the model yields a covariantized differential star product algebra of Kontsevich type. We comment on the resemblance to the topological A model.

  6. Multi-scale coupling strategy for fully two-dimensional and depth-averaged models for granular flows (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Domnik, Birte; Miller, Stephen A.


    We developed a full two-dimensional Coulomb-viscoplastic model and applied it for inclined channel flows of granular materials from initiation to their deposition. The model includes the basic features and observed phenomena in dense granular flows like the exhibition of a yield strength and a non-zero slip velocity. A pressure-dependent yield strength is proposed to account for the frictional nature of granular materials. The yield strength can be related to the internal friction angle of the material and plays an important role, for example, in deposition processes. The interaction of the flow with the solid boundary is modelled by a pressure and rate-dependent Coulomb-viscoplastic sliding law. We developed an innovative multi-scale strategy to couple the full two-dimensional, non depth-averaged model (N-DAM) with a one-dimensional, depth-averaged model (DAM). The coupled model reduces computational complexity dramatically by using DAM only in regions with smooth changes of flow variables. The numerics uses N-DAM in regions where depth-averaging becomes inaccurate, for instance, in the initiation and deposition regions, and (particularly) when the flow hits an obstacle or a defense structure. In these regions, momentum transfer must be, and is, considered in all directions. We observe very high coupling performance, and show that the numerical results deviate only slightly from results of the much more cumbersome full two-dimensional model. This shows that the coupled model, which retains all the basic physics of the flow, is an attractive alternative to an expensive, full two-dimensional simulations. We compare simulation results with different experimental data for shock waves appearing in rapid granular flows down inclined channels and impacting a wall. The model predicts the evolution of the strong shock wave and the impact force on a rigid wall for different inclination angles and sliding surfaces. It is demonstrated that the internal friction angle plays an


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre JULIEN; Rosalía ROJAS


    Developed at Colorado State University, CASC2D-SED is a physically-based model simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed to a distributed rainfall field. The time-dependent processes include:precipitation, interception, infiltration, surface runoff and channel routing, upland erosion, transport and sedimentation. CASC2D-SED is applied to Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The watershed covers 21 km2and has been extensively monitored both at the outlet and at several internal locations by the ARS-NSL at Oxford, MS. The model has been calibrated and validated using rainfall data from 16 meteorological stations, 6 stream gauging stations and 6 sediment gauging stations. Sediment erosion/deposition rates by size fraction are predicted both in space and time. Geovisualization, a powerful data exploration technique based on GIS technology, is used to analyze and display the dynamic output time series generated by the CASC2D-SED model.

  8. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Models of Super Star Clusters with a Positive Star Formation Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, R; Palous, J; Silich, S


    Using the hydrodynamic code ZEUS, we perform 2D simulations to determine the fate of the gas ejected by massive stars within super star clusters. It turns out that the outcome depends mainly on the mass and radius of the cluster. In the case of less massive clusters, a hot high velocity ($\\sim 1000$ km s$^{-1}$) stationary wind develops and the metals injected by supernovae are dispersed to large distances from the cluster. On the other hand, the density of the thermalized ejecta within massive and compact clusters is sufficiently large as to immediately provoke the onset of thermal instabilities. These deplete, particularly in the central densest regions, the pressure and the pressure gradient required to establish a stationary wind, and instead the thermally unstable parcels of gas are rapidly compressed, by a plethora of re-pressurizing shocks, into compact high density condensations. Most of these are unable to leave the cluster volume and thus accumulate to eventually feed further generations of star for...

  9. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.


    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ji-huan


    The micropolar fluid model is an essential generalization of the well-established Navier-Stokes model in the sense that it takes into account the microstructure of the fluid.This paper is devolted to establishing a variational principle for 2-D incompressible micropolar blood flow.

  11. Two-dimensional numerical and eco-toxicological modeling of chemical spills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang HUANG; Yafei JIA; Sam S. Y. WANG


    The effects of chemical spills on aquatic nontarget organisms were evaluated in this study. Based on a review of three types of current eco-toxicological models of chemicals, i.e., ACQUATOX model of the US-EPA, Hudson River Model of PCBs, and critical body residual (CBR) model and dynamic energy budget (DEBtox)model, this paper presents an uncoupled numerical ecotoxicological model. The transport and transformation of spilled chemicals were simulated by a chemical transport model (including flow and sediment transport), and the mortalities of an organism caused by the chemicals were simulated by the extended threshold damage model,separately. Due to extreme scarcity of data, this model was applied to two hypothetical cases of chemical spills happening upstream of a lake. Theoretical analysis and simulated results indicated that this model is capable of reasonably predicting the acute effects of chemical spills on aquatic ecosystems or organism killings.

  12. Quasicomplex N=2, d=1 Supersymmetric Sigma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Ivanov


    Full Text Available We derive and discuss a new type of N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical sigma models which appear when the superfield action of the (1,2,1 multiplets is modified by adding an imaginary antisymmetric tensor to the target space metric, thus completing the latter to a non-symmetric Hermitian metric. These models are not equivalent to the standard de Rham sigma models, but are related to them through a certain special similarity transformation of the supercharges. On the other hand, they can be obtained by a Hamiltonian reduction from the complex supersymmetric N=2 sigma models built on the multiplets (2,2,0 and describing the Dolbeault complex on the manifolds with proper isometries. We study in detail the extremal two-dimensional case, when the target space metric is defined solely by the antisymmetric tensor, and show that the corresponding quantum systems reveal a hidden N=4 supersymmetry.

  13. Vibration induced flow in hoppers: DEM 2D polygon model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A two-dimensional discrete element model (DEM) simulation of cohesive polygonal particles has been developed to assess the benefit of point source vibration to induce flow in wedge-shaped hoppers. The particle-particle interaction model used is based on a multi-contact principle.The first part of the study investigated particle discharge under gravity without vibration to determine the critical orifice size (Be) to just sustain flow as a function of particle shape. It is shown that polygonal-shaped particles need a larger orifice than circular particles. It is also shown that Be decreases as the number of particle vertices increases. Addition of circular particles promotes flow of polygons in a linear manner.The second part of the study showed that vibration could enhance flow, effectively reducing Be. The model demonstrated the importance of vibrator location (height), consistent with previous continuum model results, and vibration amplitude in enhancing flow.

  14. Evaluation of excess carbon 14 and strontium 90 data for suitability to test two-dimensional stratospheric models (United States)

    Johnston, Harold


    From reports by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning the atmospheric distribution of radionucleides following the nuclear bomb tests of 1958-1959 and 1961-1962, excess carbon 14 data from the period 1959-1970 and strontium 90 data from 1963-1967 are reviewed for possible use as inert tracers to test two-dimensional stratospheric-tropospheric models. Contrary to some views expressed in the literature, it is concluded that the carbon 14 data are suitable to test (1) the altitude (at 4 latitudes) of the transition region between troposphere and stratosphere with respect to transport of an inert tracer, (2) some aspects of transport between the northern and southern hemispheres, (3) horizontal and vertical transport as the vertical profile between 4.5 and 33 km and at 31°N evolves from a skewed Gaussian in 1963 to an almost stair-step profile in 1966, and (4) the long-term one-dimensional aspect of a two-dimensional model over the period 1966-1970. More tentatively, it is concluded that the strontium 90 data may be used as a model for the distribution and gross settling rate of the natural stratospheric aerosol layer between 15 and 25 km. Data from difficultly obtained laboratory reports and suggested initial conditions and boundary conditions are included as a microfiche supplement to this paper.

  15. Degenerate ground states and multiple bifurcations in a two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model. (United States)

    Dai, Yan-Wei; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T; Zhou, Huan-Qiang


    We numerically investigate the two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model on the infinite square lattice by using the infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm. We show that the quantum fidelity, defined as an overlap measurement between an arbitrary reference state and the iPEPS ground state of the system, can detect q-fold degenerate ground states for the Z_{q} broken-symmetry phase. Accordingly, a multiple bifurcation of the quantum ground-state fidelity is shown to occur as the transverse magnetic field varies from the symmetry phase to the broken-symmetry phase, which means that a multiple-bifurcation point corresponds to a critical point. A (dis)continuous behavior of quantum fidelity at phase transition points characterizes a (dis)continuous phase transition. Similar to the characteristic behavior of the quantum fidelity, the magnetizations, as order parameters, obtained from the degenerate ground states exhibit multiple bifurcation at critical points. Each order parameter is also explicitly demonstrated to transform under the Z_{q} subgroup of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. We find that the q-state quantum Potts model on the square lattice undergoes a discontinuous (first-order) phase transition for q=3 and q=4 and a continuous phase transition for q=2 (the two-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model).

  16. A Two-dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Atmosphere-land System in the Lake-dominated Alaskan Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Feng; ZHANG Ting-jun


    Understanding lake ice growth and its sensitivity to climate change is vital to understand the thermal regime of thaw lake systems and predict their response to climate change. In this paper, a physically-based, two-dimensional, non-steady mathematical model is developed for studying the role of shallow tundra lakes in the Alaskan Arctic. Both the radiation absorption in lake water and the phasechange in permafrost are considerd in the model. The materials the model includes are snow, ice, water, unfrozen and frozen soil (peat, silt,sand and gravel). The basic inputs to the model observed mean daily air temperature and snow depth. The ability of this model to simulate lake ice growth and thickness variation, lake water temperature distribution, the thermal regime of permafrost and talik dynamics beneath lakes, and thawing rate of permafrost below and adjacent to shallow thaw lakes offers the potential to describe the effects of climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  17. A restricted dimer model on a two-dimensional random causal triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Wheater, J. F.


    We introduce a restricted hard dimer model on a random causal triangulation that is exactly solvable and generalizes a model recently proposed by Atkin and Zohren (2012 Phys. Lett. B 712 445–50). We show that the latter model exhibits unusual behaviour at its multicritical point; in particular, its...

  18. Dynamical scaling, domain-growth kinetics, and domain-wall shapes of quenched two-dimensional anisotropic XY models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Praestgaard, Eigil


    temperature, the domain-growth kinetics is found to be independent of the value of this parameter over several decades of its range. This suggests that a universal principle is operative. The domain-wall shape is analyzed and shown to be well represented by a hyperbolic tangent function. The growth process......The domain-growth kinetics in two different anisotropic two-dimensional XY-spin models is studied by computer simulation. The models have uniaxial and cubic anisotropy which leads to ground-state orderings which are twofold and fourfold degenerate, respectively. The models are quenched from...... infinite to zero temperature as well as to nonzero temperatures below the ordering transition. The continuous nature of the spin variables causes the domain walls to be ‘‘soft’’ and characterized by a finite thickness. The steady-state thickness of the walls can be varied by a model parameter, P. At zero...

  19. Two-dimensional Model of Ciliwung River Flood in DKI Jakarta for Development of the Regional Flood Index Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Formánek


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present a sophisticated method of developing supporting material for flood control implementation in DKI Jakarta. High flow rates in the Ciliwung River flowing through Jakarta regularly causes extensive flooding in the rainy season. The affected area comprises highly densely populated villages. For developing an efficient early warning system in view of decreasing the vulnerability of the locations a flood index map has to be available. This study analyses the development of a flood risk map of the inundation area based on a two-dimensional modeling using FESWMS. The reference event used for the model was the most recent significant flood in 2007. The resulting solution represents flood characteristics such as inundation area, inundation depth and flow velocity. Model verification was performed by confrontation of the results with survey data. The model solution was overlaid with a street map of Jakarta. Finally, alternatives for flood mitigation measures are discussed.

  20. More on Two-Dimensional $O(N)$ Models with $\\mathcal{N} = (0,1)$ Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Adam J; Shifman, Mikhail


    We study the behavior of two dimensional supersymmetric connections of $n$ copies of $O(N)$ models with an $\\mathcal{N} = (0,1)$ heterotic deformation generated by a right moving fermion. We develop the model in analogy with the connected $\\mathcal{N}=(0,2)$ $CP(N-1)$ models for the case of a single connecting fermionic superfield. We calculate the effective potential in the large $N$ limit and determine the vacuum field configurations. Similarily to other SUSY connected models we find that SUSY is unbroken under certain conditions despite the vanishing of the Witten index. Specifically, this preservation of SUSY occurs when we have an even number $n$ of $O(N)$ families. As in previous cases we show that this result follows from a $Z_n$ symmetry under a particular exchange of the $O(N)$ families. This leads to a definition of a modified Witten index, which gaurantees the preservation of SUSY in this case.

  1. A two-dimensional mathematical model of a Zn-MnO2 alkaline cell(1)%A two-dimensional mathematical model of a Zn-MnO2 alkaline cell (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue-min; CHEH Huk-yuk


    A two-dimensional mathematical model based on the macrohomogeneous theory of porous electrodes was developed for a cylindrical Zn-MnO2 alkaline cell. The model was applied to understand the effect of the length of the anode current collector on the cell performance. Results are presented for the continuous discharge at a high rate of lA and a moderate rate of 0.2A for a AA - sized cell.With a typical length of an anode current collector at about 70% of the cell height, the analysis showed that an increase in the length of the anode current collector would benefit the lower rate of discharge more than the higher rate of discharge.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zu-xin; Yin Hai-long


    Based on numerical computation model RMA2 and RMA4 with open source code, finite element meshes representing the study domain are created, then the finite element hydrodynamic and water quality model for Huangpu River is developed and calibrated, and the simulation results are analyzed. This developed hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to analyze the influence of discharged wastewater from planning Wastwater Treatment Plant (WWTP) on Huangpu River's water quality.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ken; Larry E. Banta; Jiang Gangyi


    In this paper, an approach to predicting randomly-shaped particle volume based on its twoDimensional (2-D) digital image is explored. Conversion of gray-scale image of the particles to its binary counterpart is first performed using backlighting technique. The silhouette of particle is thus obtained, and consequently, informative features such as particle area, centroid and shape-related descriptors are collected. Several dimensionless parameters are defined, and used as regressor variables in a multiple linear regression model to predict particle volume. Regressor coefficients are found by fitting to a randomly selected sample of 501 particles ranging in size from 4.75mm to 25mm. The model testing experiment is conducted against a different aggregate sample of the similar statistical properties, the errors of the model-predicted volume of the batch is within ±2%.

  4. Observation of spatial charge and spin correlations in the 2D Fermi-Hubbard model. (United States)

    Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Lawrence, Katherine R; Okan, Melih; Zhang, Hao; Khatami, Ehsan; Trivedi, Nandini; Paiva, Thereza; Rigol, Marcos; Zwierlein, Martin W


    Strong electron correlations lie at the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. Its essence is believed to be captured by the Fermi-Hubbard model of repulsively interacting fermions on a lattice. Here we report on the site-resolved observation of charge and spin correlations in the two-dimensional (2D) Fermi-Hubbard model realized with ultracold atoms. Antiferromagnetic spin correlations are maximal at half-filling and weaken monotonically upon doping. At large doping, nearest-neighbor correlations between singly charged sites are negative, revealing the formation of a correlation hole, the suppressed probability of finding two fermions near each other. As the doping is reduced, the correlations become positive, signaling strong bunching of doublons and holes, in agreement with numerical calculations. The dynamics of the doublon-hole correlations should play an important role for transport in the Fermi-Hubbard model.

  5. A substitute model of two-dimensional dry friction exposed to dither generated by rolling contact of wheel and rail (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jerzy


    Dither generated by rolling contact of wheel and rail smoothes dry friction damping provided by the primary suspension dampers of freight wagons and it should be taken into account in numerical simulations. But numerically the problem is non-smooth and this leads to long execution time during simulation, especially when the vehicle with friction dampers is modelled in the environment of an multi-body system simulation program, whose solver has to cope with many strong non-linearities. The other difficulty is the necessity of handling within the code a number of big volume files of recorded dither sampled with high frequency. To avoid these difficulties, a substitute model of two-dimensional dry friction exposed to dither is proposed that does not need application of dither during simulation, but it behaves as if dither were applied. Due to this property of the model, the excitation of the vehicle model by track irregularities may be supplied as low-frequency input, which allows fast execution and, the necessity of handling high-volume files of recorded dither is avoided. The substitute model is numerically effective. To identify parameters of the substitute model, a pre-processing employing a sample of the realistic dither is carried-out on a simple two-degrees-of-freedom system. The substitute model is anisotropic, describing anisotropic properties of the two-dimensional friction arising in the presence of one-dimensional dither. The model may be applied in other branches of engineering, for example, in mechatronics and robotics, where application of dither may improve the accuracy of positioning devices.

  6. Two-dimensional modelling of overwash at Santa Rosa Island during Hurricane Ivan (United States)

    McCall, R. T.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; Roelvink, J. A.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Thompson, D. M.; Plant, N. G.


    Approximately 10% of the world's coastline consists of low-lying barrier coasts, which are susceptible to coastal flooding, dune overwash and breaching. Although several numerical cross shore models exist to calculate beach and dune profile change during storms, overwash and breaching are not necessarily incorporated. Additionally, these models assume longshore uniformity and therefore do not include longshore variation in for instance dune height, shoreline angle and wave conditions. In order to simulate overwash on a barrier island we use a new numerical model for the nearshore and coast called XBeach (Roelvink et al., ICCE 2008). This process-based and time dependent model solves coupled short and long wave propagation, sediment transport and morphology in 2DH. The model has a robust numerical scheme, allowing it to simulate flooding and drying, thereby removing the need for separate dry and wet domains and procedures. XBeach is used to model a section of Santa Rosa Island, Florida, during Hurricane Ivan in 2004. This island was heavily overwashed during the hurricane and breached in one location. The model is set-up using high resolution airborne LIDAR altimetry and bathymetry data and forced using surge and wave data from larger scale numerical models. The modelled final bed elevation is compared to airborne LIDAR data acquired three days after the storm. The results show that XBeach is capable of simulating the complex hydrodynamics that occur during extreme overwash events. It is shown that the model can recreate the morphological developments that occurred on the island during the storm and that the model has considerable quantitative skill in predicting the final bed elevation.

  7. Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saux Picart


    Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its

  8. Two-dimensional surrogate contact modeling for computationally efficient dynamic simulation of total knee replacements. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chung; Haftka, Raphael T; Queipo, Nestor V; Fregly, Benjamin J


    Computational speed is a major limiting factor for performing design sensitivity and optimization studies of total knee replacements. Much of this limitation arises from extensive geometry calculations required by contact analyses. This study presents a novel surrogate contact modeling approach to address this limitation. The approach involves fitting contact forces from a computationally expensive contact model (e.g., a finite element model) as a function of the relative pose between the contacting bodies. Because contact forces are much more sensitive to displacements in some directions than others, standard surrogate sampling and modeling techniques do not work well, necessitating the development of special techniques for contact problems. We present a computational evaluation and practical application of the approach using dynamic wear simulation of a total knee replacement constrained to planar motion in a Stanmore machine. The sample points needed for surrogate model fitting were generated by an elastic foundation (EF) contact model. For the computational evaluation, we performed nine different dynamic wear simulations with both the surrogate contact model and the EF contact model. In all cases, the surrogate contact model accurately reproduced the contact force, motion, and wear volume results from the EF model, with computation time being reduced from 13 min to 13 s. For the practical application, we performed a series of Monte Carlo analyses to determine the sensitivity of predicted wear volume to Stanmore machine setup issues. Wear volume was highly sensitive to small variations in motion and load inputs, especially femoral flexion angle, but not to small variations in component placements. Computational speed was reduced from an estimated 230 h to 4 h per analysis. Surrogate contact modeling can significantly improve the computational speed of dynamic contact and wear simulations of total knee replacements and is appropriate for use in design sensitivity

  9. A two-dimensional simulation model of phosphorus uptake including crop growth and P-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollier, A.; Willigen, de P.; Heinen, M.; Morel, C.; Schneider, A.; Pellerin, S.


    Modelling nutrient uptake by crops implies considering and integrating the processes controlling the soil nutrient supply, the uptake by the root system and relationships between the crop growth response and the amount of nutrient absorbed. We developed a model that integrates both dynamics of maize

  10. A method for geometric modelling of magnetic anomalies: Two dimensional bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.

    for bodies of different shapes. A procedure has been evolved to compute the anomalies for all types of step and dyke models from a single formula by suitably reorienting the 'step model and by redefining its edges and the slope or dip angle. This method also...

  11. The relationship between four-dimensional θ = π Yang-Mills theory and the two-dimensional Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Used the dimensional reduction in the sense of Parisi and Sourlas, the gauge fixing term of the four-dimensionalYang-Mills field without the theta term is reduced to a two-dimensional principal chiral model. By adding the θ term(θ = π), the two-dimensional principal chiral model changes into the two-dimensional level 1 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model. The non-trivial fixed point indicates that Yang-Mills theory at θ = π is a critical theory without massgap and confinement.

  12. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows with high Mach number (United States)

    Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Yu, Xijun; Li, Yingjun


    In this paper we present an improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible Navier-Stokes system with high Mach number. The model is composed of three components: (i) the discrete-velocity-model by M. Watari and M. Tsutahara [Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 036306], (ii) a modified Lax-Wendroff finite difference scheme where reasonable dissipation and dispersion are naturally included, (iii) artificial viscosity. The improved model is convenient to compromise the high accuracy and stability. The included dispersion term can effectively reduce the numerical oscillation at discontinuity. The added artificial viscosity helps the scheme to satisfy the von Neumann stability condition. Shock tubes and shock reflections are used to validate the new scheme. In our numerical tests the Mach numbers are successfully increased up to 20 or higher. The flexibility of the new model makes it suitable for tracking shock waves with high accuracy and for investigating nonlinear nonequilibrium complex systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasan


    Full Text Available Monitoring the behavior and activities of people in Video surveillance has gained more applications in Computer vision. This paper proposes a new approach to model the human body in 2D view for the activity analysis using Thinning algorithm. The first step of this work is Background subtraction which is achieved by the frame differencing algorithm. Thinning algorithm has been used to find the skeleton of the human body. After thinning, the thirteen feature points like terminating points, intersecting points, shoulder, elbow, and knee points have been extracted. Here, this research work attempts to represent the body model in three different ways such as Stick figure model, Patch model and Rectangle body model. The activities of humans have been analyzed with the help of 2D model for the pre-defined poses from the monocular video data. Finally, the time consumption and efficiency of our proposed algorithm have been evaluated.

  14. Backbone exponents of the two-dimensional q-state Potts model: a Monte Carlo investigation. (United States)

    Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W J; Nienhuis, Bernard


    We determine the backbone exponent X(b) of several critical and tricritical q-state Potts models in two dimensions. The critical systems include the bond percolation, the Ising, the q=2-sqrt[3], 3, and 4 state Potts, and the Baxter-Wu model, and the tricritical ones include the q=1 Potts model and the Blume-Capel model. For this purpose, we formulate several efficient Monte Carlo methods and sample the probability P2 of a pair of points connected via at least two independent paths. Finite-size-scaling analysis of P2 yields X(b) as 0.3566(2), 0.2696(3), 0.2105(3), and 0.127(4) for the critical q=2-sqrt[3], 1,2, 3, and 4 state Potts model, respectively. At tricriticality, we obtain X(b)=0.0520(3) and 0.0753(6) for the q=1 and 2 Potts model, respectively. For the critical q-->0 Potts model it is derived that X(b)=3/4. From a scaling argument, we find that, at tricriticality, X(b) reduces to the magnetic exponent, as confirmed by the numerical results.

  15. Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Intracontinental Extension: A Case Study Of the Baikal Rift Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, H.; Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina

    and geophysical studies, the geodynamic origin and evolution of the BRZ is still debated. We applytwo-dimensional finite difference code to model the lithosphere-scale de-formation in several locations across the strike of the Baikal Rift zone. The model se-tup takes an advantage of regional geophysical models...... to determinethe set of parameters that may define regional li-thosphere evolution towards the present lithosphere structure, which we further con-trol by gravity data, regional volcanism, and the age of the BRZ formation. We dem-onstrate the roleof pre-existing faults on the BRZ evolution and on formation of "off...

  16. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael

    This report is an extension of the study presented in Lykke Andersen and Brorsen, 2006 and includes results from the irregular wave tests, where Lykke Andersen & Brorsen, 2006 focused on regular waves. The 2D physical model tests were carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil...

  17. Neel order in the two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg Model


    Löw, Ute


    The existence of Neel order in the S=1/2 Heisenberg model on the square lattice at T=0 is shown using inequalities set up by Kennedy, Lieb and Shastry in combination with high precision Quantum Monte Carlo data.

  18. Two-dimensional analytic modeling of acoustic diffraction for ultrasonic beam steering by phased array transducers. (United States)

    Wang, Tiansi; Zhang, Chong; Aleksov, Aleksandar; Salama, Islam; Kar, Aravinda


    Phased array ultrasonic transducers enable modulating the focal position of the acoustic waves, and this capability is utilized in many applications, such as medical imaging and non-destructive testing. This type of transducers also provides a mechanism to generate tilted wavefronts in acousto-optic deflectors to deflect laser beams for high precision advanced laser material processing. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for the diffraction of ultrasonic waves emitted by several phased array transducers into an acousto-optic medium such as TeO2 crystal. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the distribution of the ultrasonic displacement field in the crystal. The model prediction is found to be in good agreement with the results of a numerical model that is based on a non-paraxial multi-Gaussian beam (NMGB) model.

  19. A homogenization-based constitutive model for two-dimensional viscoplastic porous media (United States)

    Danas, Kostas; Idiart, Martin I.; Ponte Castañeda, Pedro


    An approximate model based on the so-called 'second-order' nonlinear homogenization method is proposed to estimate the effective behavior of viscoplastic porous materials exhibiting transversely isotropic symmetry. The model is constructed in such a way that it reproduces exactly the behavior of a 'composite-cylinder assemblage' in the limit of in-plane hydrostatic loading, and therefore coincides with the hydrostatic limit of Gurson's criterion for plastic porous materials. As a consequence, the new model improves on earlier 'second-order' homogenization estimates, which have been found to be overly stiff at sufficiently high triaxialities and nonlinearities. The proposed model is compared with exact results obtained for a special class of porous materials with sequentially laminated microstructures. The agreement is found to be excellent for the entire range of stress triaxialities, and all values of the porosity and nonlinearity considered. To cite this article: K. Danas et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  20. a Numerical Test of Kpz Scaling:. Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    We perform Monte-Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the q=2 (Ising), 3, 4 and q=10 Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology with up to 5000 nodes. We find that the measured critical exponents are in reasonable agreement with those from the exact solution of the Ising model and with those calculated from KPZ scaling for q=3, 4 where no exact solution is available. Using Binder’s cumulant we find that the q=10 Potts model displays a first order phase transition on a dynamical graph, as it does on a fixed lattice. We also examine the internal geometry of the graphs generated in the simulation, finding a linear relationship between ring length probabilities and the central charge of the Potts model.