WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-color plastic pieces

  1. Pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik

    1990-01-01

    The report presents results from the SIP project (System Representation in Process Control). PIECES is a graphical, interactive user interface system designed and programmed as a tool for building, manipulating and using a Multilevel Flow Model (MFM - Morten Lind, Tecnical University of Denmark...

  2. UTILIZATION OF STEREOLOGY FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF FORMING PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Martinkovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical working leads to final properties of forming pieces, which are affected by conditions of production technology. Utilization of stereology leads to the detail analysis of three-dimensional plastic deformed material structure by different forming technologies, e.g. forging, extruding, upsetting, metal spinning, drawing etc. The microstructure of cold drawing wires was analyzed. Grain boundaries orientation was measured on the parallel section of wire with a different degree of deformation and direct axis plastic deformation was evaluated in bulk formed part. The strain of probes on their sections was obtained using stereology by measurement of degree of grain boundary orientation which was converted to deformation using model of conversion of grain boundary orientation degree to deformation.

  3. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  4. Two-color QCD at high density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boz, Tamer; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, Adelaide University, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Giudice, Pietro [Universität Münster, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Münster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom); Williams, Anthony G. [Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, Adelaide University, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2016-01-22

    QCD at high chemical potential has interesting properties such as deconfinement of quarks. Two-color QCD, which enables numerical simulations on the lattice, constitutes a laboratory to study QCD at high chemical potential. Among the interesting properties of two-color QCD at high density is the diquark condensation, for which we present recent results obtained on a finer lattice compared to previous studies. The quark propagator in two-color QCD at non-zero chemical potential is referred to as the Gor’kov propagator. We express the Gor’kov propagator in terms of form factors and present recent lattice simulation results.

  5. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Eriksen; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Henry S. Carson; Martin Thiel; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Francois Galgani; Ryan, Peter G.; Julia Reisser

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) ...

  6. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  7. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  8. Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2017-09-15

    We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.

  9. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  10. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research methodology is significantly political and in this think piece I try to ...... Critical inquiry in qualitative research: Feminist and poststructural perspectives: ... In: DeMarrais, K.B. & Lapan, S.D. (Eds), Foundations for research: Methods.

  11. Two Color QCD beyond the BEC regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hands, S; Skullerud, J I; Hands, Simon; Kim, Seyong; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2005-01-01

    We present results of simulations of Two Color QCD using two flavors of Wilson quark in the fundamental representation, at non-zero quark chemical potential mu, on an 8^3x16 lattice. Results for the quark number density, quark and gluon energy densities, and superfluid condensate are qualitatively distinct from the behaviour expected on the assumption that the dominant degrees of freedom are tightly bound scalar diquarks which Bose condense; rather the scaling with mu is more suggestive of a Fermi surface disrupted by a Cooper pair condensate. We also present evidence both for screening of the static potential, and color deconfinement, arising solely as a result of a non-zero quark density.

  12. Development of a two-color FQI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Flame Quality Indicator (FQI) concept was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a simple device which could be used to monitor oil burner flames and indicate when a problem was starting to occur. Fault situations which could be identified by the FQI include: fouled nozzle, increased or decreased excess air, blocked air inlet or flue, and use of low quality oil. The basic concept of the FQI is quite simple. A conventional cadmium sulfide photocell is used to measure the amount of light emitted from an oil burner flame when the appliance is fully warmed-up. The measured amount of light is compared to a set point, established during burner tune-up. If the two intensities differ by more than a set range, a {open_quotes}service required{close_quotes} signal is produced. The amount of light which is emitted from an oil burner flame depends upon the amount of {open_quotes}soot{close_quotes} or carbon in the flame, the size and shape of the flame, and the flame temperature. The quality of flame is practically judged by the amount of soot which it is producing and for this reason it is necessary to eliminate effects of other parameters. Temperature is expected to be the most important of these. The FQI eliminates effects due to the chamber environment by establishing a set point for each specific appliance. The transient temperature effects are accounted for by examining the flame brightness only at a single time during the firing cycle. BNL is currently involved with the development of a two-color approach to the monitoring of flame quality. The basic concept involved is the measurement of both flame temperature and total amount of light emitted to allow a more direct estimate to be made of the amount of soot being produced and so the flame quality. The objective is to develop a more sensitive measurement which may be more universally applicable. This paper provides a summary of our approach and results to date in this project.

  13. Combining Digital Watermarks with Two-Color Bitmap Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technology for combining digital watermarks with two-color bitmap image based on the threshold watermarking method is presented. Our technology doesn't add any thing to the digital media, but combines the watermarks in two-color bitmap image by looking for some characteristic values in the bitmap and uses the relationship between the watermarks and the characteristic values to prove the copyright protection. The choice of the characteristic values depends on the choice of a cryptographic key known by the owner of the bitmap. The benefit of using a cryptographic key is to combine the watermarks with the bitmap in a high secure way.

  14. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.

  15. Two-color beam generation based on wakefield excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoni, S.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S.

    2016-05-01

    Several beam manipulation methods have been studied and experimentally tested to generate two-color photon beams in free electron laser facilities to accommodate the user requests. We propose to use the interaction of the beam with an oscillating longitudinal wakefield source to obtain a suitable electron beam structure. The bunch generates two subpulses with different energies and delayed in time passing through a magnetic chicane after its longitudinal phase space has been modulated by the wakefield source. According to this approach the power of the emitted radiation is not degraded compared to the monochromatic beam, and the setup in the machine is quite simple because the bunch is manipulated only in the high energy section, where it is more rigid. We present the design applied to SwissFEL. We identified the parameters and the corresponding range of tunability of the time and energy separation among the two subbunches.

  16. Composition: 3 Piano Pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    3 Piano Pieces is a collection of open composition to be realised by an improvising pianist. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction".......3 Piano Pieces is a collection of open composition to be realised by an improvising pianist. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction"....

  17. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  18. Noise in two-color electronic distance meter measurements revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.

    2004-01-01

    Frequent, high-precision geodetic data have temporally correlated errors. Temporal correlations directly affect both the estimate of rate and its standard error; the rate of deformation is a key product from geodetic measurements made in tectonically active areas. Various models of temporally correlated errors are developed and these provide relations between the power spectral density and the data covariance matrix. These relations are applied to two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) measurements made frequently in California over the past 15-20 years. Previous analysis indicated that these data have significant random walk error. Analysis using the noise models developed here indicates that the random walk model is valid for about 30% of the data. A second 30% of the data can be better modeled with power law noise with a spectral index between 1 and 2, while another 30% of the data can be modeled with a combination of band-pass-filtered plus random walk noise. The remaining 10% of the data can be best modeled as a combination of band-pass-filtered plus power law noise. This band-pass-filtered noise is a product of an annual cycle that leaks into adjacent frequency bands. For time spans of more than 1 year these more complex noise models indicate that the precision in rate estimates is better than that inferred by just the simpler, random walk model of noise.

  19. Two-color, double-slit in vivo flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J; Puoris'haag, M

    2007-10-15

    The in vivo flow cytometer enables the real-time detection and quantification of fluorescent cells circulating within a live animal without the need for incisions or extraction of blood. It has been used in demonstrating flow velocity disparities in biological flows, and in the investigation of the circulation kinetics of various types of cells. However, a shortcoming of this in vivo flow cytometer is that it provides only one excitation slit at one wavelength, resulting in several performance limitations. Therefore, a second in vivo flow cytometer that provides two different laser wavelengths, 473 and 633 nm, and one or two excitation slits has been designed and built. Thus far, the two-color system has been used to acquire circulation kinetics data of two different cell populations each labeled with a different marker, one cell population labeled with two different markers, and one cell population expressing the green-fluorescent protein gene. In addition, accurate arterial red blood cell velocities within a mouse have been determined using the cytometer.

  20. Towards the phase diagram of dense two-color matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cotter, Seamus; Hands, Simon; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We study two-color QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermion as a function of quark chemical potential mu and temperature T. We find evidence of a superfluid phase at intermediate mu and low T where the quark number density and diquark condensate are both very well described by a Fermi sphere of nearly-free quarks disrupted by a BCS condensate. Our results suggest that the quark contribution to the energy density is negative (and balanced by a positive gauge contribution), although this result is highly sensitive to details of the energy renormalisation. We also find evidence that the chiral condensate in this region vanishes in the massless limit. This region gives way to a region of deconfined quark matter at higher T and mu, with the deconfinement temperature, determined from the renormalised Polyakov loop, decreasing only very slowly with increasing chemical potential. The quark number susceptibility chi_q does not exhibit any qualitative change at the deconfinement transition. We argue that this is because ...

  1. A Piece of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Jeffrey T.

    1995-01-01

    A civil engineer describes his first day as a substitute teacher. Despite detailed lesson plans and good intentions, maintaining an orderly class environment is far from a "piece of cake." Recess duty is an ordeal, and lunch in the shabby teacher's lounge is uninspiring. The biggest benefit is appreciation of what constitutes a full-time teacher's…

  2. On Two Color and CCD Methods for the Determination of Astronomic Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    INTRODUCTION .................................... 2 A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry .................. 2 B. Results...value for the astronomic longitude and latitude.-_ A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry The long term objectives consist...The interior of the box was divided into 4 bays containing the telescope, the refractometry optics, the power supplies and the refralctometry

  3. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2010-10-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH(3)OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  4. In situ spatial mapping of Gouy phase slip with terahertz generation in two-color field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Lü, Zhihui; Huang, Yindong; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Wenbo; Zhang, Dongwen; Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin

    2016-05-30

    We establish a one-to-one mapping between the local phase slip and the spatial position near the focus by scanning a thin jet along the propagation direction of laser beams. The measurement shows that the optimal phase of terahertz can be utilized to characterize in situ the spatially dependent relative phase of the two-color field. We also investigate the role of the Gouy phase shift on terahertz generation from two-color laser-induced plasma. The result is of critical importance for phase-dependent applications of two-color laser-field, including high-order harmonic and terahertz generation.

  5. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  6. Maternal detection of neonatal jaundice during birth hospitalization using a novel two-color icterometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolajoko O Olusanya; Tina M Slusher; Donald O Imosemi; Abieyuwa A Emokpae

    2017-01-01

    .... This study therefore, set out to evaluate the performance of a -two-color icterometer (BilistripTM) as a possible screening tool for detecting significant jaundice by mothers or care-givers in the first week of life...

  7. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  8. Two-Color Magneto-Optical Trap with Small Magnetic Field for Ytterbium

    CERN Document Server

    Kawasaki, Akio; Yu, QinQin; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We report a two-color magneto-optical trap (MOT) for ytterbium atoms operating at a low magnetic field gradient down to 2 G/cm where a conventional MOT using the singlet transition (6s^2 1S0 -> 6s6p 1P1) is unable to trap atoms. By simultaneously applying laser light on both the broad-linewidth singlet transition and the narrow-linewidth triplet transition (6s^2 1S0 -> 6s6p 3P1), we load and trap 4.0 x 10^5 atoms directly from an atomic beam at 700 K. In the two-color MOT, the slowing and trapping functions are separately performed by the singlet transition light and the triplet transition light, respectively. The two-color MOT is highly robust against laser power imbalance even at very low magnetic field gradients.

  9. Inkjet printing the three organic functional layers of two-colored organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, Michiel J.J., E-mail: Michiel.Coenen@tmc.nl [Holst Centre, PO BOX 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Slaats, Thijs M.W.L.; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M. [Holst Centre, PO BOX 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Groen, Pim [Holst Centre, PO BOX 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-29

    Inkjet printing allows for the roll-2-roll fabrication of organic electronic devices at an industrial scale. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of two-colored organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which three adjacent organic device layers were inkjet printed from halogen free inks. The resulting devices demonstrate the possibilities offered by this technique for the fabrication of OLEDs for signage and personalized electronics. - Highlights: • Two-colored organic light emitting diodes with 3 inkjet printed device layers were fabricated. • All materials were printed from halogen free inks. • Inkjet printing of emissive materials is suitable for signage applications.

  10. Electron Correlation in Nonsequential Double Ionization of Helium by Two-Color Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue-Ming; LIAO Qing; HUANG Cheng; TONG Ai-Hong; LU Pei-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ We investigate the momentum and energy correlations between the two electrons from nonsequential double ionization(NSDI)of helium by strong two-color pulses with the classical three-dimensional ensemble model.The correlated momentum distribution in the direction parallel to the laser field exhibits an arc-like structure and the sum-energy spectrum shows a sharp peak for the NSDI of helium in the two-color fields.Back analysis reveals that the narrow time interval during which recollisions occur,the low returning energy and the short time delay between recollision and double ionization lead to the novel momentum and energy correlations.

  11. Long-range predissociation in two-color photoassociation of ultracold Na atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    We report two-color photo-associative ionization of sodium in a Magneto-Optical Trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v > 20) of the singly-excited 0^- g state predissociate into the 3²P3/2

  12. Streaking temporal double slit interference by an orthogonal two-color laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Martin; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar P H; Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We investigate electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar by two orthogonally polarized laser pulses of different color. The two-color scheme is used to experimentally control the interference between electron wave packets released at different times within one laser cycle. This intracycle interference pattern is typically hard to resolve in an experiment. With the two-color control scheme these features become the dominant contribution to the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore the second color can be used for streaking of the otherwise interfering wave packets establishing a which-way marker. Our investigation shows that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the degree of the which-way information determined by the controllable phase between the two pulses.

  13. APPLICATION OF TWO-COLOR INTERPHASE FISH USING SEX PROBE IN ALLOGENEIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧兰; 李建勇; 朱康儿; 薛永权; 李杨秋; 刘晓力; 过宇

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using X and Y centromere probe in the engraftment estimation and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Methods: Samples from 12 cases patients in different periods after alloSCT were detected by interphase FISH. Results: All of the 12 patients were proved to obtain engraftment 22(35 days after alloSCT. While traditional karyotype showed as 100%XX or 100%XY invariably, FISH showed different percentages of donor original sex chromosome. Conclusion: Two-color interphase FISH is a more sensitive and simple test for engraftment evaluation and MRD monitoring post SCT, though, it can not entirely replace traditional karyotype analysis and gene detection by RT-PCR.

  14. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of heteronuclear atom-pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Debashree

    2013-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of heteronuclear atom-pairs. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two heteronuclear atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty $\\it {et.}$ $\\it {al.}$, J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between heteronuclear atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between heteronuclear atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scatt...

  15. Femtosecond Non-degenerate Four Wave Mixing Spectroscopy: The Two Color Photon Echo Peak Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Prall, B S

    2005-01-01

    The couplings between multiple electronic states and electronic and nuclear coordinates are examined for condensed phase systems by femtosecond degenerate and non-degenerate four wave mixing. The two-color photon echo peak shift experiment is developed which allows measurement of the correlation between transition frequencies in two different spectral regions. Two-color photon echo peak shift (2C3PEPS) experiments are used to study coupling between electronic states in the lutetium bisphthalocyanine anion, LuPc2−. Electronically induced mixing between exciton and charge resonance states leads to correlations in transition energies for the two observed transitions. This correlation generates non-zero 2C3PEPS which, when compared with 1C3PEPS, allows experimental determination of the degree of mixing, which was in good agreement with theoretical predictions. By exploiting a coherently excited nuclear wavepacket, the nuclear dependence on the electronic mixing between exciton and charge resonance state...

  16. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L; Soltz, B A

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-mum-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance.

  17. Low-temperature characteristics of two-color InAs/InP quantum dots laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguo Li; Qian Gong; Xinzhong Wang; Li Yue; Oingbo Liu; Hailong Wang

    2012-01-01

    We report on the lasing characteristics of a two-color InAs/InP quantum dots (QDs) laser at a low temperature.Two lasing peaks with a tunable gap are simultaneously observed.At a low temperature of 80 K,a tunable range greater than a 20-nm wavelength is demonstrated by varying the injection current from 30 to 500 mA.Under a special condition,we even observe three lasing peaks,which are in contrast to those observed at room temperature.The temperature coefficient of the lasing wavelength was obtained for the two colors in the 80-280 K temperature range,which is lower than that of the reference quantum well (QW) laser working in the same wavelength region.

  18. Dirac Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac Operator for QCD with Two Colors

    CERN Document Server

    Kieburg, Mario; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-01-01

    We study the lattice artefacts of the Wilson Dirac operator for QCD with two colors and fermions in the fundamental representation from the viewpoint of chiral perturbation theory. These effects are studied with the help of the following spectral observables: the level density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator, the distribution of chirality over the real eigenvalues, and the chiral condensate for the quenched as well as for the unquenched theory. We provide analytical expressions for all these quantities. Moreover we derive constraints for the level density of the real eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator and the number of additional real modes. The latter is a good measure for the strength of lattice artefacts. All computations are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations of the corresponding random matrix theory which agrees with chiral perturbation theory of two color QCD with Wilson fermions.

  19. Autler-Townes splitting in two-color photoassociation of 6Li

    CERN Document Server

    Schloeder, U; Silber, C; Zimmermann, C; Schloeder, Ulrike; Deuschle, Thomas; Silber, Christian; Zimmermann, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We report on high-resolution two-color photoassociation spectroscopy in the triplet system of magneto-optically trapped 6Li. The absolute transition frequencies have been measured. Strong optical coupling of the bound molecular states has been observed as Autler-Townes splitting in the photoassociation signal. The spontaneous bound-bound transition rate is determined and the molecule formation rate is estimated. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with the theoretical model.

  20. Lowest eigenvalues of the Dirac operator for two color QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, E; Markum, H; Pullirsch, R; Bittner, Elmar; Lombardo, Maria-Paola; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in full QCD with two colors and finite chemical potential. Along the strong-coupling axis up to the temperature phase transition, the low-lying Dirac spectrum is well described by random matrix theory (RMT) and exhibits universal behavior. The situation is discussed in the chirally symmetric phase and no universality is seen for the microscopic spectral density.

  1. Polyakov-Quark-Meson-Diquark Model for two-color QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Strodthoff, Nils

    2013-01-01

    We present an update on the phase diagram of two-color QCD from a chiral effective model approach based on a quark-meson-diquark model using the Functional Renormalization Group (FRG). We discuss the impact of perturbative UV contributions, the inclusion of gauge field dynamics via a phenomenological Polyakov loop potential, and the impact of matter backcoupling on the gauge sector. The corresponding phase diagram including these effects is found to be in qualitative agreement with recent lattice investigations.

  2. The study of two-color excitation upconversion of Pr(0.5)Yb(3):ZBLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xiaobo; SONG; Zengfu

    2006-01-01

    The excited state absorption upconversion of Pr(0.5)Yb(3):ZBLAN glass material, under two-color excitation of the 960 nm semiconductor laser and the Xe lamp light simultaneously, is reported in this article. It was found that the upconversion emission spectra of 480.1, 519.0, 601.9 and 631.8 nm coincide with the common emission spectra. Meanwhile, the upconversion-excitation spectrum has three obvious peaks under two-color excitation, and they respectively correspond to the 856.0 nm upconversion excitation transition [1G4(Pr3+)→1I6(Pr3+) and 1G4(Pr3+)→3P1(Pr3+)], the 789.0 nm upconversion excitation transition 1G4(Pr3+)→3P2(Pr3+), and the 803.7 nm upconversion excitation transition 3H6(Pr3+)→1D2(Pr3+). The upconversion excitation transition 1G4(Pr3+)→1I6(Pr3+) is strong because its oscillator strength f = 23.040(10-6 is large, which results in a large peak appearing in the upconversion excitation spectrum. That is just the new interesting two-color excitation upconversion luminescence phenomenon of Pr(0.5)Yb(3):ZBLAN induced by one laser and one continuous normal light simultaneously.

  3. Nonvolatile two-color holographic recording in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals gated by incoherent ultraviolet light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaolin Chen; Xiangming Liu; Bo Fu; Guoquan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Nonvolatile two-color holographic recording gated by incoherent ultraviolet (UV) light centered at 365 nm is investigated in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals. The influence of thermal treatment on the two-color recording is studied. The results show that thermal reduction tends to improve the two-color recording performance, whereas thermal oxidation degrades the two-color recording. With an incoherent 0.2-W/cm2 UV gating light and a 0.25-W/cm2 semiconductor recording laser at 780 nm, a two-color recording sensitivity of 4 x 10-3 cm/J and a recording dynamic range characterized by M/# of 0.12 are achieved in a 2.2-mm thermally reduced near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystal. We attribute the improvement to the prolonged lifetime of small polarons and the increased absorption at the gating wavelength due to thermal reduction.

  4. Assessing probe-specific dye and slide biases in two-color microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Zelanna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary reason for using two-color microarrays is that the use of two samples labeled with different dyes on the same slide, that bind to probes on the same spot, is supposed to adjust for many factors that introduce noise and errors into the analysis. Most users assume that any differences between the dyes can be adjusted out by standard methods of normalization, so that measures such as log ratios on the same slide are reliable measures of comparative expression. However, even after the normalization, there are still probe specific dye and slide variation among the data. We define a method to quantify the amount of the dye-by-probe and slide-by-probe interaction. This serves as a diagnostic, both visual and numeric, of the existence of probe-specific dye bias. We show how this improved the performance of two-color array analysis for arrays for genomic analysis of biological samples ranging from rice to human tissue. Results We develop a procedure for quantifying the extent of probe-specific dye and slide bias in two-color microarrays. The primary output is a graphical diagnostic of the extent of the bias which called ECDF (Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function, though numerical results are also obtained. Conclusion We show that the dye and slide biases were high for human and rice genomic arrays in two gene expression facilities, even after the standard intensity-based normalization, and describe how this diagnostic allowed the problems causing the probe-specific bias to be addressed, and resulted in important improvements in performance. The R package LMGene which contains the method described in this paper has been available to download from Bioconductor.

  5. Two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornostaeva, O.; Deng, B. H.; Garate, E.; Gota, H.; Kinley, J.; Schroeder, J.; Tuszewski, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO{sub 2} laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than {+-}5 deg., corresponding to a line integral density of 3x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}. The time resolution for routine operation is 2 {mu}s.

  6. Control of the polarization of attosecond pulses using a two-color field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Camilo; Hoffmann, David J; Torres, Ricardo; Chipperfield, Luke E; Marangos, Jonathan P [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: camilo@usal.es

    2009-11-15

    Control over the polarization of an attosecond pulse train (APT) is demonstrated theoretically using orthogonally polarized two-color fields. The carrier envelope phase of the two pulses is used as a control parameter to generate both an APT with linear polarization in two nearly perpendicular planes or a train of elliptically polarized pulses of alternating helicity. By using few-cycle driving laser fields an isolated attosecond pulse with elliptical polarization is shown to be generated after selecting the cut-off region of the harmonic spectrum. The control mechanism is explained in terms of classical trajectories.

  7. Tomographic imaging of asymmetric molecular orbitals with a two-color multicycle laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Meiyan; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate a scheme for tomographic reconstruction of asymmetric molecular orbitals based on high-order harmonic generation with a two-color multicycle laser field. It is shown that by adjusting the relative phase of the two fields, the returning electrons can be forced to recollide from one direction for all the orientations of molecules. Thus the reconstruction of the asymmetric orbitals can be carried out with multicycle laser field. This releases the stringent requirement of a single-cycle pulse with a stabilized and controllable carrier-envelop phase for the tomographic imaging of asymmetric molecular orbitals.

  8. Two-Color Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with THz Primary Mode Spacing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, S; Buckley, K; Fehse, R; Amann, A; O'Reilly, E P; Barry, L P; Anandarajah, P; Patchell, J; O'Gorman, J

    2006-01-01

    A class of multiwavelength Fabry-Perot lasers is introduced where the spectrum is tailored through a non-periodic patterning of the cavity effective index. The cavity geometry is obtained using an inverse scattering approach and can be designed such that the spacing of discrete Fabry-Perot lasing modes is limited only by the bandwidth of the inverted gain medium. A specific two-color semiconductor laser with a mode spacing in the THz regime is designed, and measurements are presented demonstrating the simultaneous oscillation of the two wavelengths. The extension of the Fabry-Perot laser concept described presents significant new possibilities in laser cavity design.

  9. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  10. Flank transparency: transparent filters seen in dynamic two-color displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, D; Rodriguez, A M; Hoffman, D D

    2001-01-01

    Flank transparency is the perception of a colored transparent filter evoked by apparent-motion displays containing as few as two colors. Displays of flank transparency contain a random array of line segments placed on a uniform background. Small flanks are added to the line segments if the segments fall in the interior of a moving virtual shape, such as a virtual disk. This leads to the perception of a colored transparent disk with well-defined boundaries moving over the array of lines. Current qualitative and quantitative models of luminance and color conditions for perceptual transparency do not account for flank transparency as they require displays containing at least three different colors.

  11. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses......, and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  12. Semiconductor cluster beams: One and two color ionization studies of Six and Gex

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, J R; Liu, Yuan; O'Brien, S. C.; Zhang, Qing-ling; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F.K.; Smalley, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Supersonic beams of clusters of Si and Ge atoms have been produced by laser vaporization followed by supersonic expansion in a helium carrier. The cluster beams were characterized by F2(7.9 eV) and ArF(6.4 eV) excimer laser ionization accompanied by time-of-flight mass analysis. In addition, the feasibility of a resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopic study was explored by two-color experiments involving initial excitation with the second (2.36 eV) and third (3.54 eV) harmonics of...

  13. Two-color CO2/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostaeva, O; Deng, B H; Garate, E; Gota, H; Kinley, J; Schroeder, J; Tuszewski, M

    2010-10-01

    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO(2) laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than ±5°, corresponding to a line integral density of 3×10(18) m(-2). The time resolution for routine operation is 2 μs.

  14. Controlling Nonsequential Double Ionization in Two-Color Circularly Polarized Femtosecond Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Chaloupka, Jan L.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dollar, Franklin J.; Knut, Ronny; Grychtol, Patrik; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2016-09-01

    Atoms undergoing strong-field ionization in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields exhibit unique two-dimensional photoelectron trajectories and can emit bright circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet and soft-x-ray beams. In this Letter, we present the first experimental observation of nonsequential double ionization in these tailored laser fields. Moreover, we can enhance or suppress nonsequential double ionization by changing the intensity ratio and helicity of the two driving laser fields to maximize or minimize high-energy electron-ion rescattering. Our experimental results are explained through classical simulations, which also provide insight into how to optimize the generation of circularly polarized high harmonic beams.

  15. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A

    2011-07-18

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  16. Generation of strong terahertz field from two-color laser filamentation and optical rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Donghoon; Yoo, Yungjun; Oh, Taek Il; You, Yong Sing; Kim, Ki-Yong

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated strong-field (>8 MV/cm), high-peak-power (12 MW) THz generation with a bandwidth of >20 THz via two-color laser filamentation. Moderate average power (1.4 mW) is also achieved by using a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire amplifier capable of producing 30 fs, 15 mJ pulses at a 1 kHz repetition rate. For maximal THz generation and transmission, we have used a combination of a thin dichroic waveplate and a large Brewster-angled silicon filter. Here we have used a thin BBO crystal for frequency doubling (800 nm to 400 nm) and observed strong terahertz emission from the crystal itself. We also find that this type of terahertz emission can be optimized to yield more output power compared to two-color photoionization. In both cases, we have used a microbolometer camera for real-time THz beam profiling. This cost-effective THz camera along with our intense THz sources can be a useful tool for nonlinear THz studies including broadband THz spectroscopy and imaging. Work supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. 014216-001.

  17. Two-color HgCdTe infrared staring focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward P.; Pham, Le T.; Venzor, Gregory M.; Norton, Elyse; Newton, Michael; Goetz, Paul; Randall, Valerie; Pierce, Gregory; Patten, Elizabeth A.; Coussa, Raymond A.; Kosai, Ken; Radford, William A.; Edwards, John; Johnson, Scott M.; Baur, Stefan T.; Roth, John A.; Nosho, Brett; Jensen, John E.; Longshore, Randolph E.

    2003-12-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) in collaboration with HRL Laboratories is contributing to the maturation and manufacturing readiness of third-generation two-color HgCdTe infrared staring focal plane arrays (FPAs). This paper will highlight data from the routine growth and fabrication of 256x256 30μm unit-cell staring FPAs that provide dual-color detection in the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectral regions. FPAs configured for MWIR/MWIR, MWIR/LWIR and LWIR/LWIR detection are used for target identification, signature recognition and clutter rejection in a wide variety of space and ground-based applications. Optimized triple-layer-heterojunction (TLHJ) device designs and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth using in-situ controls has contributed to individual bands in all two-color FPA configurations exhibiting high operability (>99%) and both performance and FPA functionality comparable to state-of-the-art single-color technology. The measured spectral cross talk from out-of-band radiation for either band is also typically less than 10%. An FPA architecture based on a single mesa, single indium bump, and sequential mode operation leverages current single-color processes in production while also providing compatibility with existing second-generation technologies.

  18. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  19. Evolution of the THz Beam Profile from a Two-Color Air Plasma Through a Beam Waist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam.......We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam....

  20. Two dye combinations suitable for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography for ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Andreas; Stephan, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents two dye combinations suitable for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography for ethanol. Besides the temperature dependency of the fluorescence, the influences of laser fluence, dye concentration, pressure, dissolved air, and photobleaching are also discussed. The experimental data are compared with models and data available in literature. Based on this, parameter ranges for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography applications can be determined.

  1. Time between plastic displacements of elasto-plastic oscillators subject to Gaussian white noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2001-01-01

    A one degree of freedom elasto-plastic oscillator subject to stationary Gaussian white noise has a plastic displacement response process of intermittent character. During shorter or longer time intervals the oscillator vibrates within the elastic domain without undergoing any plastic displacements....... These pieces of elastic response cannot be distinguished from conditional Gaussian response samples given that they are within the elasticity limits. Therefore, suitable Gaussian process theory can be applied to these pieces. Typically the plastic displacements occur in clumps of random plastic displacements...

  2. Multiscale Monte Carlo equilibration: Two-color QCD with two fermion flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the applicability of a recently proposed multi-scale thermalization algorithm to two-color quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two mass-degenerate fermion flavors. The algorithm involves refining an ensemble of gauge configurations that had been generated using a renormalization group (RG) matched coarse action, thereby producing a fine ensemble that is close to the thermalized distribution of a target fine action; the refined ensemble is subsequently rethermalized using conventional algorithms. Although the generalization of this algorithm from pure Yang-Mills theory to QCD with dynamical fermions is straight-forward, we find that in the latter case, the method is susceptible to numerical instabilities during the initial stages of rethermalization when using the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that these instabilities arise from large fermion forces in the evolution, which are attributed to an accumulation of spurious near-zero modes of the Dirac operator. We propose a simple strategy for ...

  3. Two-color Photodetectors%双波段光电探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁权; 但伟

    2000-01-01

    Photodetectors are the critical parts for implementation of optoelectoronic detection and various optoelectronic technology. The paper introduces two-color photodetectors made of silicon integrated with InGaAs. These photodetectors can detect and respond incident light with the range of 400~1 100 nm and 1 100~1 650 nm simultaneously.%光电探测器是实现光电检测及各种光电技术的核心部件。文章介绍采用Si和In-GaAs两种材料集成制作的双波段光电探测器,它能同时探测并区分400~1100nm和1100~1 650 nm波段的入射光。

  4. Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jinping; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Li, Helong; Xu, Huailiang; Chin, See Leang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate generation of strong narrow-bandwidth emissions with excellent coherent properties at ~391 nm and ~428 nm from molecular ions of nitrogen inside a femtosecond filament in air by an orthogonally polarized two-color driver field (i. e., 800 nm laser pulse and its second harmonic). The durations of the coherent emissions at 391 nm and 428 nm are measured to be ~2.4 ps and ~7.8 ps respectively, both of which are much longer than the duration of the pump and its second harmonic pulses. Furthermore, the measured temporal decay characteristics of the excited molecular systems suggest an "instantaneous" population inversion mechanism that may be achieved in molecular nitrogen ions at an ultrafast time scale comparable to the 800 nm pump pulse.

  5. Statistical analysis of efficient unbalanced factorial designs for two-color microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs that efficiently embed a fixed effects treatment structure within a random effects design structure typically require a mixed-model approach to data analyses. Although mixed model software tailored for the analysis of two-color microarray data is increasingly available, much of this software is generally not capable of correctly analyzing the elaborate incomplete block designs that are being increasingly proposed and used for factorial treatment structures. That is, optimized designs are generally unbalanced as it pertains to various treatment comparisons, with different specifications of experimental variability often required for different treatment factors. This paper uses a publicly available microarray dataset, as based upon an efficient experimental design, to demonstrate a proper mixed model analysis of a typical unbalanced factorial design characterized by incomplete blocks and hierarchical levels of variability.

  6. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  7. Magnetic catalysis (and inverse catalysis) at finite temperature in two-color lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgenfritz, E -M; Petersson, B; Schreiber, A

    2013-01-01

    Two-color lattice QCD with N_f=4 staggered fermion degrees of freedom (no rooting trick is applied) with equal electric charge q is studied in a homogeneous magnetic background field B and at non-zero temperature T. In order to circumvent renormalization as a function of the bare coupling we apply a fixed-scale approach. We study the influence of the magnetic field on the critical temperature. At rather small pseudo-scalar meson mass (m_pi \\approx 175 MeV \\approx T_c(B=0)) we confirm magnetic catalysis for sufficiently strong magnetic field strength, while at T=195 MeV and weak magnetic field (qB {\\lesssim} 0.8 GeV^2) we find a rise of the Polyakov loop with qB and thus, indications for an inverse magnetic catalysis.

  8. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  9. Synthesis of Two-Color Laser Pulses for the Harmonic Cutoff Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Li; Zhou, Li-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2016-05-01

    Increasing simultaneously both the cutoff energy and efficiency is a big challenge to all applications of high-order harmonic generation (HHG). For this purpose, the shaping of the waveform of driving pulse is an alternative approach. Here, we show that the harmonic cutoff can be extended by about two times without reducing harmonic yield after considering macroscopic propagation effects, by adopting a practical way to synthesize two-color fields with fixed energy. Our results, combined with the experimental techniques, show the great potential of HHG as a tabletop light source. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11264036, 11164025, 11364038, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20116203120001, and the Basic Scientific Research Foundation for Institution of Higher Learning of Gansu Province

  10. Biosynthetic labeling and two-color imaging of phospholipids in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Cindy Y; Roth, Mary; Welti, Ruth; Salic, Adrian

    2015-02-09

    Phospholipids with a choline head group are abundant components of all biological membranes, performing critical functions in cellular structure, metabolism, and signaling. In spite of their importance, our ability to visualize choline phospholipids in vivo remains very limited. We present a simple and robust chemical strategy to image choline phospholipids, based on the metabolic incorporation of azidocholine analogues, that accurately reflects the normal biosynthetic incorporation of choline into cellular phospholipids. Azidocholine-labeled phospholipids can be imaged in cells with high sensitivity and resolution, following derivatization with fluorophores, by bio-orthogonal chemical reactions compatible with live-cell imaging. We used this method to visualize the subcellular localization of choline phospholipids. We also demonstrate that double metabolic labeling with azidocholine and propargylcholine allows sensitive two-color imaging of choline phospholipids. Our method represents a powerful approach to directly image phospholipids, and to study their dynamics in cells and tissues.

  11. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  12. Mechanisms of two-color laser-induced field-free molecular orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanner, Michael; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul

    2012-09-14

    Two mechanisms of two-color (ω+2ω) laser-induced field-free molecular orientation, based on the hyperpolarizability and ionization depletion, are explored and compared. The CO molecule is used as a computational example. While the hyperpolarizability mechanism generates small amounts of orientation at intensities below the ionization threshold, ionization depletion quickly becomes the dominant mechanism as soon as ionizing intensities are reached. Only the ionization mechanism leads to substantial orientation (e.g., on the order of ≳0.1). For intensities typical of laser-induced molecular alignment and orientation experiments, the two mechanisms lead to robust, characteristic timings of the field-free orientation wave-packet revivals relative to the alignment revivals and the revival time. The revival timings can be used to detect the active orientation mechanism experimentally.

  13. THz wave emission from argon in two-color laser field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玲玲; 赵松峰; 周效信; 赵增秀

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) wave emission from argon atom in a two-color laser pulses is studied numerically by solving the one-dimensional (1D) time-dependent Schr ¨odinger equation. The THz spectra we obtained include both discontinuous and continuum ones. By using the special basis functions that we previously proposed, our analysis points out that the discontinuous and continuum parts are contributed by bound–bound and continuum–continuum transition of atomic energy levels. Although the atomic wave function is strongly dressed during the interaction with laser fields, our identification for the discontinuous part of the THz wave shows that the transition between highly excited bound states can still be well described by the field-free basis function in the tunneling ionization regime.

  14. Two-color resonance photoionization spectrum of nickelocene in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketkov, S. Yu.; Selzle, H. L.; Schlag, E. W.; Titova, S. N.; Kalakutskaya, L. V.

    2004-10-01

    Two-color photoionization of nickelocene molecules cooled in a supersonic jet is performed using a tunable nanosecond pulsed laser. The first stage of the multiphoton excitation is the transition from the highest occupied molecular orbital of nickelocene to the lowest Rydberg level. Conditions are found under which molecular ions (η 5-C5H5)2Ni+ are the only product of the multiphoton ionization in the one-color experiment. Irradiation of an excited molecule by an intense pulse of another laser increases significantly the yield of molecular ions. The dependence of the yield of (η5-C5H5)2Ni+ ions on the frequency of the second laser makes it possible to determine the adiabatic ionization potential of nickelocene as 6.138±0.012eV.

  15. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXRDF) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXRDF measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXRDF discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXRDF analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  16. BEC-BCS crossover in a cold and magnetized two color NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Dyana C; Farias, R L S; Manso, Pedro H A; Ramos, Rudnei O; Scoccola, N N

    2016-01-01

    The BEC-BCS crossover for a NJL model with diquark interactions is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particular attention is paid to different regularization schemes used in the literature. A thorough comparison of results is performed for the case of a cold and magnetized two-color NJL model. According to our results, the critical chemical potential for the BEC transition exhibits a clear inverse magnetic catalysis effect for magnetic fields in the range $ 1 \\lesssim eB/m_\\pi^2 \\lesssim 20 $. As for the BEC-BCS crossover, the corresponding critical chemical potential is very weakly sensitive to magnetic fields up to $eB \\sim 9\\ m_\\pi^2$, showing a much smaller inverse magnetic catalysis as compared to the BEC transition, and displays a strong magnetic catalysis from this point on.

  17. Two-color in vivo imaging of photoreceptor apoptosis and development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambis, Alexis; Dourlen, Pierre; Steller, Hermann; Mollereau, Bertrand

    2011-03-01

    We report a new two-color fluorescent imaging system to visualize the mosaic adult photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in real-time. Using this method, we examined a collection of 434 mutants and identified genes required for PR survival, planar cell polarity (PCP), patterning and differentiation. We could track the progression of PR degeneration in living flies. By introducing the expression of p35, a caspase inhibitor, we found mutations that specifically activate caspase-dependent death. Moreover, we showed that grh is required in R3 for correct PCP establishment. The "Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT" method allows high-throughput, rapid and precise identification of survival and developmental pathways in living adult PRs at single-cell resolution.

  18. Frequency doubler and two-color mode of operation at free electron laser FLASH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, M.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the results of the first operation of a frequency doubler at FLASH2. The scheme uses the feature of the variable gap of the undulator. Undulator is divided in two parts. The second part of the undulator is tuned to the double frequency of the first part. Modulated electron beam enters the second part of the undulator and generates radiation at the 2nd harmonic. Depending on a balance between the gain of undulator sections, frequency doubler allows operation in a two-color mode and operation at shorter wavelengths with respect to standard SASE scheme. The shortest wavelength of 3.1 nm (photon energy 400 eV) has been achieved at FLASH2 with frequency doubler scheme, which is significantly below the design value for the standard SASE option.

  19. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  20. Two-color infrared FEL facility employing a 250-MeV linac injector of Saga synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Tomimasu, T; Koga, N; Hashiguchi, Y; Ochiai, Y; Ishibashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A two-color infrared free electron laser (FEL) facility is proposed. This FEL facility will employ a new 250-MeV linac injector of the Saga synchrotron light source (SLS). The linac has two operation modes: short macropulse mode of 1 mu s at 250 MeV is for injection to a 1.4-GeV storage ring and long macropulse mode of 13 mu s at 40 MeV is for the two-color FEL facility. The two-color FEL uses a single electron beam and simultaneously provides both infrared (IR) and far-IR laser pulses for pump-probe studies of quantum-well structures and studying vibrational relaxation of molecules. The Saga SLS will be operated in 2004 to promote material science, bio-medical and industrial applications in Kyushu.

  1. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon upon polarization controlled two-color double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Herzlieb, Marcel; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-01-12

    Two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on silicon wafers to study the temporally distributed energy deposition in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated parallel or cross-polarized double-pulse sequences at 400 and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds between the sub-ablation 50-fs-pulses. Multiple two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample. The resulting LIPSS characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism is proposed to explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments extend previous single-color studies and prove the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition for LIPSS formation.

  2. Two-color temporal focusing multiphoton excitation imaging with tunable-wavelength excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Abrigo, Gerald; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Chien, Fan-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Wavelength tunable temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) is conducted to visualize optical sectioning images of multiple fluorophore-labeled specimens through the optimal two-photon excitation (TPE) of each type of fluorophore. The tunable range of excitation wavelength was determined by the groove density of the grating, the diffraction angle, the focal length of lenses, and the shifting distance of the first lens in the beam expander. Based on a consideration of the trade-off between the tunable-wavelength range and axial resolution of temporal focusing multiphoton excitation imaging, the presented system demonstrated a tunable-wavelength range from 770 to 920 nm using a diffraction grating with groove density of 830 lines/mm. TPE fluorescence imaging examination of a fluorescent thin film indicated that the width of the axial confined excitation was 3.0±0.7 μm and the shifting distance of the temporal focal plane was less than 0.95 μm within the presented wavelength tunable range. Fast different wavelength excitation and three-dimensionally rendered imaging of Hela cell mitochondria and cytoskeletons and mouse muscle fibers were demonstrated. Significantly, the proposed system can improve the quality of two-color TFMPEM images through different excitation wavelengths to obtain higher-quality fluorescent signals in multiple-fluorophore measurements.

  3. Opportunities for two-color experiments at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Mazza, Tommaso; Meyer, Michael; Serkez, Svitozar [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have been proven to generate short and powerful radiation pulses allowing for a wide class of novel experiments. If an XFEL facility supports the generation of two X-ray pulses with different wavelengths and controllable delay, the range of possible experiments is broadened even further to include X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe applications. In this work we discuss the possibility of applying a simple and cost-effective method for producing two-color pulses at the SASE3 soft X-ray beamline of the European XFEL. The technique is based on the installation of a magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator and can be accomplished in several steps. We discuss the scientific interest of this upgrade for the Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument, in connection with the high-repetition rate of the European XFEL, and we provide start-to-end simulations up to the radiation focus on the sample, proving the feasibility of our concept.

  4. Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-11-14

    Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ∼243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ∼243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ∼243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

  5. Goulphar: rapid access and expertise for standard two-color microarray normalization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servant Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raw data normalization is a critical step in microarray data analysis because it directly affects data interpretation. Most of the normalization methods currently used are included in the R/BioConductor packages but it is often difficult to identify the most appropriate method. Furthermore, the use of R commands for functions and graphics can introduce mistakes that are difficult to trace. We present here a script written in R that provides a flexible means of access to and monitoring of data normalization for two-color microarrays. This script combines the power of BioConductor and R analysis functions and reduces the amount of R programming required. Results Goulphar was developed in and runs using the R language and environment. It combines and extends functions found in BioConductor packages (limma and marray to correct for dye biases and spatial artifacts. Goulphar provides a wide range of optional and customizable filters for excluding incorrect signals during the pre-processing step. It displays informative output plots, enabling the user to monitor the normalization process, and helps adapt the normalization method appropriately to the data. All these analyses and graphical outputs are presented in a single PDF report. Conclusion Goulphar provides simple, rapid access to the power of the R/BioConductor statistical analysis packages, with precise control and visualization of the results obtained. Complete documentation, examples and online forms for setting script parameters are available from http://transcriptome.ens.fr/goulphar/.

  6. Phase diagram of dense two-color QCD within lattice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguta, V. V.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Molochkov, A. V.; Nikolaev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of a low-temperature scan of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD with Nf = 2 quarks. The study is conducted using lattice simulation with rooted staggered quarks. At small chemical potential we observe the hadronic phase, where the theory is in a confining state, chiral symmetry is broken, the baryon density is zero and there is no diquark condensate. At the critical point μ = mπ/2 we observe the expected second order transition to Bose-Einstein condensation of scalar diquarks. In this phase the system is still in confinement in conjunction with nonzero baryon density, but the chiral symmetry is restored in the chiral limit. We have also found that in the first two phases the system is well described by chiral perturbation theory. For larger values of the chemical potential the system turns into another phase, where the relevant degrees of freedom are fermions residing inside the Fermi sphere, and the diquark condensation takes place on the Fermi surface. In this phase the system is still in confinement, chiral symmetry is restored and the system is very similar to the quarkyonic state predicted by SU(Nc) theory at large Nc.

  7. Two-color detector: Mercury-cadmium-telluride as a terahertz and infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizov, F.; Zabudsky, V.; Petryakov, V.; Golenkov, A.; Andreyeva, K.; Tsybrii, Z. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Dvoretskii, S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, issues associated with the development of infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) radiation detectors based on HgCdTe are discussed. Two-color un-cooled and cooled to 78 K narrow-gap mercury-cadmium-telluride semiconductor thin layers with antennas were considered both as sub-THz (sub-THz) direct detection bolometers and 3–10 μm IR photoconductors. The noise equivalent power (NEP) for one of the detectors studied at ν ≈ 140 GHz reaches NEP{sub 300 K} ≈ 4.5 × 10{sup −10} W/Hz{sup 1/2} and NEP{sub 78 K} ≈ 5 × 10{sup −9} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. The same detector used as an IR photoconductor showed the responsivity at temperatures T = 78 K and 300 K with signal-to-noise ratio S/N ≈ 750 and 50, respectively, under illumination by using IR monochromator and globar as a thermal source.

  8. Trajectory selection in high harmonic generation by controlling the phase between orthogonal two-color fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Leonardo; Hoffmann, David J; Siegel, Thomas; Frank, Felix; Zaïr, Amelle; Tisch, John W G; Marangos, Jonathan P

    2011-10-07

    We demonstrate control of short and long quantum trajectories in high harmonic emission through the use of an orthogonally polarized two-color field. By controlling the relative phase ϕ between the two fields we show via classical and quantum calculations that we can steer the two-dimensional trajectories to return, or not, to the core and so control the relative strength of the short or long quantum trajectory contribution. In experiments, we demonstrate that this leads to robust control over the trajectory contributions using a drive field from a femtosecond laser composed of the fundamental ω at 800 nm (intensity ∼1.2×10(14)  W cm(-2)) and its weaker orthogonally polarized second harmonic 2ω (intensity ∼0.3×10(14)  W cm(-2)) with the relative phase between the ω and 2ω fields varied simply by tilting a fused silica plate. This is the first demonstration of short and long quantum trajectory control at the single-atom level.

  9. Study of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD within lattice simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Molochkov, A V; Nikolaev, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we carry out a low-temperature scan of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD with $N_f=2$ quarks. The study is conducted using lattice simulation with rooted staggered quarks. At small chemical potential we observe the hadronic phase, where the theory is in a confining state, chiral symmetry is broken, the baryon density is zero and there is no diquark condensate. At the critical point $\\mu = m_{\\pi}/2$ we observe the expected second order transition to Bose-Einstein condensation of scalar diquarks. In this phase the system is still in confinement in conjunction with nonzero baryon density, but the chiral symmetry is restored in the chiral limit. We have also found that in the first two phases the system is well described by chiral perturbation theory. For larger values of the chemical potential the system turns into another phase, where the relevant degrees of freedom are fermions residing inside the Fermi sphere, and the diquark condensation takes place on the Fermi surface. In this phase t...

  10. Radiation damage free two-color X-ray ghost diffraction with atomic resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Chapman, Henry; Shih, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) can enable diffractive structural determination of protein crystals or single molecules that are too small and radiation-sensitive for conventional X-ray analysis. However the electronic form factor could have been modified during the ultrashort X-ray pulse due to photoionization and electron cascade caused by the intense X-ray pulse. For general X-ray imaging techniques, to minimize radiation damage effect is of major concern to ensure faithful reconstruction of the structure. Here we show that a radiation damage free diffraction can be achieved with an atomic spatial resolution, by using X-ray parametric down-conversion (PDC), and two-color biphoton ghost imaging. We illustrate that formation of the diffractive patterns satisfies a condition analogous to the Bragg equation, with a resolution that could be as fine as the lattice length scale of several Angstrom. Because the samples are illuminated by the optical photons of low energy, they can be free of radiation damage...

  11. Phase diagram of two-color QCD in a Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Pascal Joachim

    2014-04-28

    We investigate two-color QCD with N{sub f}=2 at finite temperatures and chemical potentials using a Dyson-Schwinger approach. We employ two different truncations for the quark loop in the gluon DSE: one based on the Hard-Dense/Hard-Thermal Loop (HDTL) approximation of the quark loop and one based on the back-coupling of the full, self-consistent quark propagator (SCQL). We compare results for the different truncations with each other as well as with other approaches. As expected, we find a phase dominated by the condensation of quark-quark pairs. This diquark condensation phase overshadows the critical end point and first-order phase transition which one finds if diquark condensation is neglected. The phase transition from the phase without diquark condensation to the diquark-condensation phase is of second order. We observe that the dressing with massless quarks in the HDTL approximation leads to a significant violation of the Silver Blaze property and to a too small diquark condensate. The SCQL truncation, on the other hand, is found to reproduce all expected features of the μ-dependent quark condensates. Moreover, with parameters adapted to the situation in other approaches, we also find good to very good agreement with model and lattice calculations in all quark quantities. We find indictions that the physics in recent lattice calculations is likely to be driven solely by the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Discrepancies w.r.t. the lattice are, however, observed in two quantities that are very sensitive to the screening of the gluon propagator, the dressed gluon propagator itself and the phase-transition line at high temperatures.

  12. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  13. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of steel transition piece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the transition piece connecting the hybrid wind turbine towers lower UHPFRC part with the top steel part. The analysis of the transition piece includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS), the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue loads. The an...

  14. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Lestari Kurnia

    2014-12-01

    prosedur bedah dan prosedur prostetik lebih sederhana. Desain ini juga meniadakan celah mikro pada perbatasan implant dan abutment. Desain implant gigi one-piece memiliki keterbatasan pada pilihan prosedur prostetik apabila dibandingkan dengan desain implant gigi two-pieces.   One-Piece Versus Two-pieces Tooth Implant In Daily Practice. Implant had been a gold standard to replace missing tooth. However, implant marketed today was considered complex, and needs a second surgery. Complications may occur such as screw loosening or fracture and the presence of micro gap at implant-abutment-junction that is found causing fixture failure. The one-piece-implant design may offer some advantages. Purpose: this paper was aimed to discuss the pros and cons of one-piece-implants and two-piece-implants. Case 1 A 43-year-old woman came to place an implant on #16. The available bone height was 5 mm. A trans alveolar sinus lift procedure was performed with 0,5 cc allograft. A 12 mm one-piece-implant was inserted. Case 2 A 24-year-old woman came to place an implant on #46. The available bone height was 12 mm and a 10 mm two-piece-implant was inserted. Discussion: One-piece-implant offers some advantage. It needs no second surgery, easier placement protocol, and more natural prosthetic procedures. The design is preventing the failure in implant-abutment-junction failure. The absence of micro gap in one-piece-implant seems superior in preventing crestal bone resorption. However, the prosthetic option was limited in one-piece-implant. Two-piece-implant offers more choices in prosthetic abutment. Conclusion: One-piece-implant was easier and provide simple protocol with limited choice on prosthetic.

  15. Last piece of ATLAS takes the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday 29 February the second small wheel was lowered 100 metres underground into the ATLAS cavern in front of a captivated audience. Although called the "small wheels" they are small in name only - each wheel is 9.3 metres in diameter and weighs 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. This piece completes ATLAS’ muon spectrometer, which has the ability to accurately track particles to the width of a human hair. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and, five years later, this small wheel is the final large piece of the detector to take the subterranean voyage to its final resting place.

  16. Ionization in Orthogonal Two-Color Laser Fields - Origin and Phase Dependence of Trajectory-Resolved Coulomb Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Martin; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Dörner, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    We report on electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar in strong orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields measured with the COLTRIMS technique. We study the effect of Coulomb focusing whose signature is a cusp like feature in the center of the electron momentum spectrum. While the direct electrons show the expected strong dependence on the phase between the two colors, surprisingly the Coulomb focused structure is almost not influenced by the weak second harmonic streaking field. This effect is explained by the use of a CTMC simulation which describes the tunneled electron wave packet in terms of classical trajectories under the influence of the combined Coulomb- and OTC laser field. We find a subtle interplay between the initial momentum of the electron upon tunneling, the ionization phase and the action of the Coulomb field that makes the Coulomb focused part of the momentum spectrum apparently insensitive to the weaker streaking field.

  17. Matching-based fresh-slice method for generating two-color x-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-color high intensity x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs provide powerful tools for probing ultrafast dynamic systems. A novel concept of realizing fresh-slice two-color lasing through slice-dependent transverse mismatch has been proposed by one of the authors [Y. Chao, SLAC Report No. SLAC-PUB-16935, 2016]. In this paper we present a feasible example following this concept based on the Linac Coherent Light Source parameters. Time-dependent mismatch along the bunch is generated by a passive dechirper module and controlled by downstream matching sections, enabling FEL lasing at different wavelength with a split undulator configuration. Simulations for soft x-ray FELs show that tens of gigawatts pulses with femtosecond duration can be generated.

  18. Channel-resolved subcycle interferences of electron wave packets emitted from H$_2$ in two-color laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xinhua; Kartashov, Daniil; Zhang, Li; Baltuška, Andrius; Kitzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We report on the observation of subcycle interferences of electron wave packets released during the strong field ionization of H$_2$ with cycle-shaped two-color laser fields. With a reaction microscope, channel-resolved photoelectron momentum distribution are obtained for different final products originating from single ionization of H$_2$. Our results show that the subcycle interference structures of electron wave packet are very sensitive to the cycle-shape of the two-color laser field. The reason is that the ionization time within an optical cycle is determined by the cycle-shape of the laser field. The subcycle interference structures can be further used to get the subcycle dynamics of molecules during strong field interaction.

  19. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akemann, Gernot [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/SPhT Saclay, Unite associee CNRS/SPM/URA 2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Bittner, Elmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Augustplatz 10/11, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Lombardo, Maria-Paola [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Markum, Harald [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pullirsch, Rainer [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-03-15

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis.

  20. Improved treatment of the turning point in tunnel ionization of atoms in a low-frequency two color laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, V. M.; Miladinović, T. B.

    2016-12-01

    The tunneling photoionization rate for a two color (bichromatic) field consisting of coherent superposition of the fundamental laser field frequency ω and its second harmonic with frequency 2ω , was studied theoretically within the framework of the adiabatic Landau-Dykhne approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the case of fixed specified values of relative phase shift, \\varphi =0 between the harmonics of the incident bichromatic field.

  1. Generation of an isolated sub-30 attosecond pulse in a two-color laser field and a static electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Bai Ting-Ting; Zhang Mei-Guang

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation(HHG)from a helium ion model in a two-color laser field,which is synthesized by a fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse.It is shown that a supercontinuum spectrum can be generated in the two-color field.However,the spectral intensity is very low,limiting the application of the generated attosecond(as)pulse.By adding a static electric field to the synthesized two-color field,not only is the ionization yield of electrons contributing to the harmonic emission remarkably increased,but also the quantum paths of the HHG can be significantly modulated.As a result,the extension and enhancement of the supercontinuum spectrum are achieved,producing an intense isolated 26-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.5 eV.In particular,we also analyse the influence of the laser parameters on the ultrabroad supercontinuum spectrum and isolated sub-30-as pulse generation.

  2. Two-color above threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and combined with intense laser light

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

    2016-01-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultra-violet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target (atoms) with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analogue to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of t...

  3. Plastic deformation of a wedge by a sliding punch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, R. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present a self-similar solution of the problem of deformation of an ideally plastic wedge by a sliding punch with regard to contact friction; such a solution generalizes the well-known solutions of the problem of wedge penetration into a plastic half-space and of compression of an ideally plastic wedge by a plane punch. The problem is of interest for modeling the processes of plastic deformation of rough surfaces of metal pieces by a rigid tool.

  4. Development of a novel two color tracer perfusion technique for the hydrodynamic study of aqueous outflow in bovine eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-yin; YE Wen; GONG Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevation of intraocular pressure is usually associated with primary open angle glaucoma and caused by increased outflow resistance. A two-color fluorescent tracer technique was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics of aqueous humor outflow with changing intraocular pressure within the same eye, to better understand the relationship between outflow facility and effective filtration area. Methods Eighteen enucleated bovine eyes were first perfused at 30 mmHg with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose. After a stable baseline facility, red fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% v/v) were exchanged and perfused. Eyes in the one-color control group (n=6) were immediately perfused with fixative. In the experimental group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer after intraocular pressure reduced to 7 mmHg, while in the two-color control group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer with intraocular pressure remaining at 30 mmHg. All 12 eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Outflow facility was continuously recorded in all eyes. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall of the aqueous plexus and the percent of the effective filtration length (PEFL; length of inner wall exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of inner wall) was measured. The relationships between outflow facility and PEFL were analyzed statistically. Results No significant differences were found in baseline facilities (ulmin~(-1)·mmHg~(-1)) among the three groups (the experimental group: 0.93 0.12; the two-color control group: 0.90 0.19; the one-color control group: 0.98 0.13). In the experimental group, the outflow facility was significantly higher at 7 mmHg (4.29±1.01) than that at 30 mmHg (1.90±0.67, P <0.001), which corresponded to a significant increase in the PEFL at 7 mmHg (54.70±8.42) from that at 30 mmHg ((11.76±4.56)%, P<0.001). The PEFL labeled by red fluorescent microspheres in the experimental group ((11.76±4.56)%) showed no

  5. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  6. Stimulated emission pumping of NH in flames by using two-color resonant four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Frey, H.M.; Mischler, B.; Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In this work we examine the analytical potential of two-color resonant four-wave mixing for the determination and characterization of trace elements in a combustion environment. Experimental results for NH in flames at atmospheric pressure are presented. The selectivity of the technique is used to simplify the Q-branch region of the (0-0)A{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{Sigma} vibronic transition of NH. In addition, we demonstrate that the technique is sensitive to state changing collisions. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Enhanced harmonic generation and wave-mixing via two-color multiphoton excitation of atoms/molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, H K; Mkrtchian, G F

    2016-01-01

    We consider harmonics generation and wave-mixing by two-color multi photon resonant excitation of three-level atoms/molecules in strong laser fields. The coherent part of the spectra corresponding to multicolor harmonics generation is investigated. The obtained analytical results on the basis of generalized rotating wave approximation are in a good agreement with numerical calculations. The results applied to the hydrogen atom and homonuclear diatomic molecular ion show that one can achieve efficient generation of moderately high multicolor harmonics via multiphoton resonant excitation by appropriate laser pulses.

  8. Efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses with high beam-quality by two-color Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Qingbin; Wang, Shaoyi; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-01-01

    The generation of isolated attosecond pulses with high efficiency and high beam quality is essential for attosec- ond spectroscopy. We numerically investigate the supercontinuum generation in a neutral rare-gas medium driven by a two-color Bessel-Gauss beam. The results show that an efficient smooth supercontinuum in the plateau is obtained after propagation, and the spatial profile of the generated attosecond pulse is Gaussian-like with the divergence angle of 0.1 degree in the far field. This bright source with high beam quality is beneficial for detecting and controlling the microscopic processes on attosecond time scale.

  9. Two unnoticed pieces of medieval polyphony

    OpenAIRE

    Hiley, David

    1992-01-01

    The two pieces introduced and briefly discussed in this article have so far remained unnoticed because of the manner of their notation. In each case pieces of two-voice polyphony were notated with the two voices separate, instead of in the score notation which has been usual since, roughly, the second half of the twelfth century. In the one case, the sequence Magnus deus in universa terra in a manuscript from Marchiennes of the fourteenth century, a second voice was added at the back of the b...

  10. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  11. Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Alaiza Martínez, P; Davoine, X; Debayle, A; Gremillet, L; Bergé, L

    2016-06-03

    We numerically investigate terahertz (THz) pulse generation by linearly-polarized, two-color femtosecond laser pulses in highly-ionized argon. Major processes consist of tunneling photoionization and ponderomotive forces associated with transverse and longitudinal field excitations. By means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we reveal the importance of photocurrent mechanisms besides transverse and longitudinal plasma waves for laser intensities >10(15) W/cm(2). We demonstrate the following. (i) With two-color pulses, photoionization prevails in the generation of GV/m THz fields up to 10(17) W/cm(2) laser intensities and suddenly loses efficiency near the relativistic threshold, as the outermost electron shell of ionized Ar atoms has been fully depleted. (ii) PIC results can be explained by a one-dimensional Maxwell-fluid model and its semi-analytical solutions, offering the first unified description of the main THz sources created in plasmas. (iii) The THz power emitted outside the plasma channel mostly originates from the transverse currents.

  12. Simulation of Far-Field Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging with Two-Color One-Photon Excitation of Reversible Photoactivatable Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen; QIAO Ling-Ling; MAO Zheng-Le

    2011-01-01

    We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon (2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins. Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins, such as dronpa, the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam. The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is "engineered" by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them. Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy.%@@ We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon(2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins.Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins,such as dronpa,the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam.The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is "engineered" by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them.Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy.

  13. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium upon single- and two-color femtosecond double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-10-05

    Single- and two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on titanium to study the dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences in two configurations - either at 800 nm only, or at 400 and 800 nm wavelengths. The inter-pulse delays of the individual 50-fs pulses ranged up to some tens of picoseconds. Multiple of these single- or two-color double-fs-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surface. In both experimental configurations, the peak fluence of each individual pulse was kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and the periods were quantified by Fourier analyses. The LIPSS periods along with the orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. A plasmonic model successfully explains the delay-dependence of the LIPSS on titanium and confirms the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  14. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  15. 29 CFR 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” and “Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,” or any other poster which contains at least the same... mounting and inflation. (4) The size (bead diameter and tire/wheel widths) and type of both the tire...

  16. Two-color light-emitting diodes with polarization-sensitive high extraction efficiency based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Sattarian; S, Shojaei; E, Darabi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, graphene photonic crystals are employed to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of two-color, red and blue, light-emitting diode (LED). The transmission characteristics of one-dimensional (1D) Fibonacci graphene photonic crystal LED (FGPC-LED) are investigated by using the transfer matrix method and the scaling study is presented. We analyzed the influence of period, thickness, and permittivity in the structure to enhance the LEE. The transmission spectrum of 1D FGPC has been optimized in detail. In addition, the effects of the angle of incidence and the state of polarization are investigated. As the main result, we found the optimum values of relevant parameters to enhance the extraction of red and blue light from an LED as well as provide perfect omnidirectional and high peak transmission filters for the TE and TM modes.

  17. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between -10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  18. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-16

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between −10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  19. The research on two-color photon sources in infrared and X-ray ranges by compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Zhao

    2001-01-01

    The generation of a two-color source of FEL light in both the infrared and soft X-ray ranges by intracavity Compton backscattering is demonstrated by the Beijing FEL facility. 1.20-1.35 keV soft X-rays are successfully extracted from the optical cavity of the FEL through a porous metallic mirror, while a 9-10 mu m FEL laser is output in the other dielectric mirror simultaneously. The average output flux of X-ray is 10 sup 2 -10 sup 3 photons/s when the average output FEL laser power is 6-20 mW. The experimental result allows us to envision a convenient way to expand the application areas of IR FEL facilities into X-ray or gamma-ray ranges.

  20. Ultrafast molecular photoionization by two-color orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses: Effects of relative pulse phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2017-09-01

    We present molecular photoionization by two-color 2ω1 =ω2 orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H+ by numerically solving time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Two ionization processes with one ω2 photon interfering with two ω1 photon absorption are studied at different molecular alignments. Molecular frame photoelectron momentum and angular distributions exhibit asymmetries which are functions of the relative pulse phase. For resonant excitation processes by the ω1 pulse, symmetric distributions are obtained. An attosecond ionization model is adopted to describe the ultrafast ionization dynamics. The dependence of the ionization asymmetry on the molecular alignment allows to further monitor interference effects on orbital symmetry.

  1. Flow cytometric quantification of all phases of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a two-color fluorescence plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vignon

    Full Text Available An optimal technology for cell cycle analysis would allow the concomitant measurement of apoptosis, G0, G1, S, G2 and M phases in combination with cell surface phenotyping. We have developed an easy method in flow cytometry allowing this discrimination in an only two-color fluorescent plot. It is based on the concomitant use of 7-amino-actinomycin D and the antibodies anti-Ki67 and anti-phospho(Ser10-histone H3, both conjugated to Alexa Fluor®488 to discriminate G0 and M phases, respectively. The method is particularly valuable in a clinical setting as verified in our laboratory by analyzing human leukemic cells from marrow samples or after exposure to cell cycle modifiers.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity of air flow over 1000°C using two color phosphor thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masatoshi; Someya, Satoshi; Munakata, Tetsuo; LCS Team

    2016-11-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were applied to the gas turbines and the internal combustion engines for the high thermal efficiency. The evaluation and the improvement of coatings require to measure transient gaseous flow near the wall with coatings. An aim of this study is to combine a two color phosphor thermometry with the PIV to measure simultaneously temperature and velocity of the gas over 1000°C. The temperature and velocity distribution of an impinging jet of high temperature air was simultaneously visualized in experiments. The temperature was estimated from an intensity ratio of luminescent in different ranges of wavelength, 500 600 nm and 400 480 nm. Uncertainty of measured temperature was less than 10°C. Temperatures measured by the developed method and by thermocouples were agreed well. The measured velocity by the PIV with phosphor particles were also agreed well with the velocity measured by a Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

  3. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Lestari Kurnia; Amilia Ramadhani; Rikko Hudyono

    2014-01-01

    Saat ini, implant merupakan pilihan terbaik untuk menggantikan gigi yang tanggal, akan tetapi prosedur pemasangannya terbilang rumit dan memerlukan prosedur bedah kedua untuk pemasangan prostetik. Beberapa komplikasi seperti screw patah atau longgar dan adanya celah mikro pada batas pertemuan implant dan abutment dapat menyebabkan kegagalan implant. Studi kasus ini bertujuan untuk membahas mengenai keuntungan dan kerugian desain implant gigi one-piece dan two-pieces. Kasus pertama, seorang wa...

  4. Three little pieces for computer and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Numerical relativity has made big strides over the last decade. A number of problems that have plagued the field for years have now been mostly solved. This progress has transformed numerical relativity into a powerful tool to explore fundamental problems in physics and astrophysics, and I present here three representative examples. These "three little pieces" reflect a personal choice and describe work that I am particularly familiar with. However, many more examples could be made.

  5. Two Color Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Samblowski, Aiko; Grosse, Nicolai; Lam, Ping Koy; Schnabel, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We report on the generation of entangled states of light between the wavelengths 810 and 1550 nm in the continuous variable regime. The fields were produced by type I optical parametric oscillation in a standing-wave cavity build around a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, operated above threshold. Balanced homodyne detection was used to detect the non-classical noise properties, while filter cavities provided the local oscillators by separating carrier fields from the entangled sidebands. We were able to obtain an inseparability of I=0.82, corresponding to about -0.86 dB of non-classical quadrature correlation.

  6. Use of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of scrap-material of a first group from magnetic pieces of scrap- material of a second group, wherein a mixture of pieces of scrap-material from the first group and from the second group is collectively transported with a conveyor to a separating

  7. Tunable Two-color Luminescence and Host–guest Energy Transfer of Fluorescent Chromophores Encapsulated in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng; Tang, Yanqun; Lin, Heyang; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Co-assembly of chromophore guests with host matrices can afford materials which have photofunctionalities different from those of individual components. Compared with clay and zeolite materials, the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as a host structure for fabricating luminescent host–guest materials is still at an early stage. Herein, we report the incorporation of a laser dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), into stilbene-based and naphthalene-based MOF systems. The resulting materials exhibit blue/red two-color emission, and the intensity ratio of blue to red fluorescence varies in different planes within the MOF crystal as detected by 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy. The observed changes in ratiometric fluorescence suggest the occurrence of energy transfer from MOF host to DCM molecules, which can be further confirmed by periodic density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. Moreover, selective changes in luminescence behavior are observed on treating the guest@MOF samples with volatile organic compounds (methanol, acetone and toluene), indicating that these host–guest systems have potential applications as fluorescence sensors. It can be expected that by rational selection of MOF hosts and guest chromophores with suitable emissive colors and energy levels, a wide variety of multi-color luminescent and energy-transfer systems can readily be prepared in a similar manner. PMID:24614015

  8. Intramolecular triplet energy transfer via higher triplet excited state during stepwise two-color two-laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseki, Yosuke; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Masanori; Majima, Tetsuro

    2007-10-01

    We studied the energy transfer processes in the molecular array consisting of pyrene (Py), biphenyl (Ph2), and bisphthalimidethiophene (ImT), (Py-Ph2)2-ImT, during two-color two-laser flash photolysis (2-LFP). The first laser irradiation predominantly generates ImT in the lowest triplet excited state (ImT(T1)) because of the efficient singlet energy transfer from Py in the lowest singlet excited state to ImT and, then, intersystem crossing of ImT. ImT(T1) was excited to the higher triplet excited state (Tn) with the second laser irradiation. Then, the triplet energy was rapidly transferred to Py via a two-step triplet energy transfer (TET) process through Ph2. The efficient generation of Py(T1) was suggested from the nanosecond-picosecond 2-LFP. The back-TET from Py(T1) to ImT was observed for several tens of microseconds after the second laser irradiation. The estimated intramolecular TET rate from Py(T1) to ImT was as slow as 3.1 x 104 s-1. Hence, long-lived Py(T1) was selectively and efficiently produced during the 2-LFP.

  9. Ultrafast energy redistribution in C(60) fullerenes: a real time study by two-color femtosecond spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchatsinin, Ihar; Laarmann, Tim; Zhavoronkov, Nick; Schulz, Claus Peter; Hertel, Ingolf V

    2008-11-28

    Strong-field excitation and energy redistribution dynamics of C(60) fullerenes are studied by means of time-resolved mass spectrometry in a two-color femtosecond pump-probe setup. Resonant pre-excitation of the electronic system via the first dipole-allowed HOMO-->LUMO+1(t(1g)) (HOMO denotes highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO denotes lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) transition with ultrashort 25 fs pulses at 399 nm of some 10(12) W cm(-2) results in a highly nonequilibrium distribution of excited electrons and vibrational modes in the neutral species. The subsequent coupling among the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is monitored by probing the system with time-delayed 27 fs pulses at 797 nm of some 10(13) W cm(-2). Direct information on the characteristic relaxation time is derived from the analysis of transient singly and multiply charged parent and fragment ion signals as a function of pump-probe delay and laser pulse intensity. The observed relaxation times tau(el) approximately 60-400 fs are attributed to different microcanonical ensembles prepared in the pre-excitation process and correspond to different total energy contents and energy sharing between electronic and vibrational degrees. The characteristic differences and trends allow one to extract a consistent picture for the formation dynamics of ions in different charge states and their fullerenelike fragments and give evidence to collective effects in multiple ionization such as plasmon-enhanced energy deposition.

  10. Stimulated Emission Pumping by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing: Rotational Characterization of Vibrationally Excited HCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Tulej, M.; Knopp, G.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T.

    2004-03-01

    Stimulated emission pumping by applying two-color resonant four-wave mixing is used to measure rotationally resolved spectra of the HCO (0,0,0) B {sup 2}A' - (0,3,1) X {sup 2}A' transition. The formyl radical is produced by photodissociation of formaldehyde at 31710.8 cm{sup -1} under thermalized conditions in a low pressure cell. In contrast to the highly congested one-color spectrum of HCO at room temperature, the doubleresonance method yields well isolated transitions which are assigned unambiguously due to intermediate level labeling. 89 rotational transitions have been assigned and yield accurate rotational constants for the vibrationally excited (0,3,1) band of the electronic ground state X {sup 2}A' of HCO. The determined rotational constant A = 25.84{+-}0.01 cm-1 is considerably higher than that for the vibrationless ground state and reflects the structural change due to excitation of the bending mode of the formyl radical. (author)

  11. Two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy enables multiplexed molecular imaging in the alveolar space of human lung tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Akram, Ahsan R.; Choudhary, Tushar R.; McDonald, Neil; Tanner, Michael G.; Pedretti, Ettore; Dalgarno, Paul A.; Scholefield, Emma; Girkin, John M.; Moore, Anne; Bradley, Mark; Dhaliwal, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a fast two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy system capable of simultaneously detecting several disease targets in intact human ex vivo lung tissue. We characterize the system for light throughput from the excitation light emitting diodes, fluorescence collection efficiency, and chromatic focal shifts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the instrument by imaging bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in ex vivo human lung tissue. We describe a mechanism of bacterial detection through the fiber bundle that uses blinking effects of bacteria as they move in front of the fiber core providing detection of objects smaller than the fiber core and cladding (˜3 μm). This effectively increases the measured spatial resolution of 4 μm. We show simultaneous imaging of neutrophils, monocytes, and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) in ex vivo human lung tissue. The instrument has 10 nM and 50 nM sensitivity for fluorescein and Cy5 solutions, respectively. Lung tissue autofluorescence remains visible at up to 200 fps camera acquisition rate. The optical system lends itself to clinical translation due to high-fluorescence sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to multiplex several pathological molecular imaging targets simultaneously.

  12. Generation of attosecond x-ray pulses with a multi-cycle two-color ESASE scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Bucksbaum, P.; /SLAC; Merdji, H.; /Saclay /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Generation of attosecond x-ray pulses is attracting much attention within the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user community. Several schemes using extremely short laser pulses to manipulate the electron bunches have been proposed. In this paper, we extend the attosecond two-color ESASE scheme proposed by Zholents et al. to the long optical cycle regime using a second detuned laser and a tapered undulator. Both lasers can be about ten-optical-cycles long, with the second laser frequency detuned from the first to optimize the contrast between the central and side current spikes. A tapered undulator mitigates the degradation effect of the longitudinal space charge (LSC) force in the undulator and suppresses the FEL gain of all side current peaks. Simulations using the LCLS parameters show a single attosecond x-ray spike of {approx} 110 attoseconds can be produced. The second laser can also be detuned to coherently control the number of the side x-ray spikes and the length of the radiation pulse.

  13. Two-color vibrational, femtosecond, fully resonant electronically enhanced CARS (FREE-CARS) of gas-phase nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Schmidt, Jacob B.; Wrzesinski, Paul J.; Gord, James R.

    2016-09-01

    A resonantly enhanced, two-color, femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) approach is demonstrated and used to explore the nature of the frequency- and time-dependent signals produced by gas-phase nitric oxide (NO). Through careful selection of the input pulse wavelengths, this fully resonant electronically enhanced CARS (FREE-CARS) scheme allows rovibronic-state-resolved observation of time-dependent rovibrational wavepackets propagating on the vibrationally excited ground-state potential energy surface of this diatomic species. Despite the use of broadband, ultrafast time-resolved input pulses, high spectral resolution of gas-phase rovibronic transitions is observed in the FREE-CARS signal, dictated by the electronic dephasing timescales of these states. Analysis and computational simulation of the time-dependent spectra observed as a function of pump-Stokes and Stokes-probe delays provide insight into the rotationally resolved wavepacket motion observed on the excited-state and vibrationally excited ground-state potential energy surfaces of NO, respectively.

  14. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  15. Fractal dimension analysis of complexity in Ligeti piano pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Fractal correlation dimensional analysis has been performed with whole solo piano pieces by Gyrgy Ligeti at every 50ms interval of the pieces. The resulting curves of development of complexity represented by the fractal dimension showed up a very reasonable correlation with the perceptional density of events during these pieces. The seventh piece of Ligeti's ``Musica ricercata'' was used as a test case. Here, each new part of the piece was followed by an increase of the fractal dimension because of the increase of information at the part changes. The second piece ``Galamb borong,'' number seven of the piano Etudes was used, because Ligeti wrote these Etudes after studying fractal geometry. Although the piece is not fractal in the strict mathematical sense, the overall structure of the psychoacoustic event-density as well as the detailed event development is represented by the fractal dimension plot.

  16. Relaxation Algorithm of Piecing-Error for Sub-Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yueping; TANG Pushan

    2001-01-01

    During the process of automatic image recognition or automatic reverse design of IC, people often encounter the problem that some sub-images must be pieced together into a whole image. In the traditional piecing algorithm for sub images, a large accumulated error will be made. In this paper, a relaxation algorithm of piecing-error for sub-images is presented. It can eliminate the accumulated error in the traditional algorithm and greatly improve the quality of pieced image. Based on an initial pieced image, one can continuously adjust the center of every sub-image and its angle to lessen the error between the adjacent sub-images, so the quality of pieced image can be improved. The presented results indicate that the proposed algorithm can dramatically decrease the error while the quality of ultimate pieced image is still acceptable. The time complexity of this algorithm is O(n In n).

  17. Fabrication of two-color annular hybrid wave plate for three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Iketaki, Yoshinori; Jahn, Kornel; Bokor, Nador

    2016-03-01

    In super-resolution microscopy, we use fluorescence depletion, where an erase beam quenches a molecule in the S1 state generated by a pump beam, and then prevents fluorescence from the S1 state. When a tight doughnut shaped erase beam with is focused on the dyed sample together with a Gaussian pump beam, the remaining fluorescence spot in the focal plane becomes smaller than the diffraction-limited size. Applying destructive interference to the erase beam, erase beam has a minute three-dimensional dark spot surrounded by the light near the focal region. Since this spot introduces fluorescence depletion along the optical axis as in the focal plane, we can achieve three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy. However, to overcome the diffraction limit, an extremely precise optical alignment is required for projecting the focused pump beam into the dark spot of the erase beam. To resolve this technical issue, we fabricated a two-color annular hybrid wave plate (TAHWP) by combining two multi-order wave quartz plates. Although the pump and erase beams co-axially pass through the plate; the pump beam retains its original Gaussian shape, while the erase beam undergoes destructive interference. Inserting the TAHWP into a commercial scanning laser microscope, a three-dimensional spherical fluorescence spot with a volume of (~100 nm)3 can be created. Beside eliminating alignment problems and yielding a compact setup, the TAHWP makes our proposed method very suitable for commercial microscope systems. In this study, we report about detailed fabrication procedure and three-dimensional image properties given by the TAHWP.

  18. Two-color two-photon excited fluorescence of indole: Determination of wavelength-dependent molecular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrich, Sebastian; Al-Hadhuri, Tawfik; Gericke, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: k.Gericke@tu-bs.de [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Straße 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Shternin, Peter S., E-mail: pshternin@gmail.com; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S., E-mail: osv@pms.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Politekhnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Smolin, Andrey G. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-14

    We present a detailed study of two-color two-photon excited fluorescence in indole dissolved in propylene glycol. Femtosecond excitation pulses at effective wavelengths from 268 to 293.33 nm were used to populate the two lowest indole excited states {sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}L{sub b} and polarized fluorescence was then detected. All seven molecular parameters and the two-photon polarization ratio Ω containing information on two-photon absorption dynamics, molecular lifetime τ{sub f}, and rotation correlation time τ{sub rot} have been determined from experiment and analyzed as a function of the excitation wavelength. The analysis of the experimental data has shown that {sup 1}L{sub b}–{sup 1}L{sub a} inversion occurred under the conditions of our experiment. The two-photon absorption predominantly populated the {sup 1}L{sub a} state at all excitation wavelengths but in the 287–289 nm area which contained an absorption hump of the {sup 1}L{sub b} state 0-0 origin. The components of the two-photon excitation tensor S were analyzed giving important information on the principal tensor axes and absorption symmetry. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the results reported by other groups. The lifetime τ{sub f} and the rotation correlation time τ{sub rot} showed no explicit dependence on the effective excitation wavelength. Their calculated weighted average values were found to be τ{sub f} = 3.83 ± 0.14 ns and τ{sub rot} = 0.74 ± 0.06 ns.

  19. A new piece of the puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The team responsible for the installation of the hadronic calorimeter's central barrel after completion of the assembly work. Assembly of the great ATLAS puzzle continues underground. On 10 December, the final module of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter was assembled. This piece of the tile calorimeter had already been assembled above ground during a "dress rehearsal" in 2003 (see Bulletin no 46/2003, 10 November 2003). The hadronic calorimeter's two other barrels, the so-called "extended barrels", remain to be assembled with this first central barrel, which now surrounds the electromagnetic calorimeter barrel that was lowered into the cavern at the end of October. At the end of November, the second of the eight barrel toroid coils was also installed.

  20. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  1. Two-color femtosecond experiments by use of two independently tunable Ti:sapphire lasers with a sample-and-hold switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, J Y; Ahn, Y H; Yee, K J; Kim, D S

    1999-09-20

    We performed femtosecond two-color experiments (four-wave mixing and pump probe) using two independently tunable, partially synchronized femtosecond lasers. Despite the fact that the jitter is of the order of 5-10 ps, the time resolution is limited only by the pulse width when a homemade sample-and-hold switch is used.

  2. The effect of frequency chirping on electron-positron pair production in the one- and two-color laser pulse fields

    CERN Document Server

    Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the frequency chirping on momentum spectrum and pair production rate in one- and two-color laser pulse fields is investigated by solving the quantum Vlasov equation. A small frequency chirp shifts the momentum spectrum along the momentum axis. The positive and negative frequency chirp parameters play the same role in increasing the pair number density. The sign change of frequency chirp parameter at the moment $t=0$ leads pulse shape and momentum spectrum to be symmetric, and the number density to be increased. The number density of produced pairs in the two-color pulse field is much higher than that in the one-color pulse field and the larger frequency chirp pulse field dominates more strongly. In the two-color pulse fields, the relation between the frequency ratio of two colors and the number density is not sensitive to the parameters of small frequency chirp added in either low frequency strong field or high frequency weak field but sensitive to the parameters of large frequency chirp added i...

  3. The 2 1Ag state of isolated cis-trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene: two-color resonance enhanced two-photon ionization studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Kohler; T. Shaler; W.J. Buma

    1992-01-01

    Vibrationally resolved 1 1Ag2 1Ag excitation spectra and decay times for cis,trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene seeded in a supersonic He expansion have been measured by two-color resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The excitation energy of the 1 1Ag2 1Ag 0-0 band (29 035 cm-1 ) is ~6500

  4. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert

    2016-09-01

    To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The missing piece syndrome in peer-to-peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hajek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical protocols for peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet divide files to be shared into pieces. New peers strive to obtain a complete collection of pieces from other peers and from a seed. In this paper we investigate a problem that can occur if the seeding rate is not large enough. The problem is that, even if the statistics of the system are symmetric in the pieces, there can be symmetry breaking, with one piece becoming very rare. If peers depart after obtaining a complete collection, they can tend to leave before helping other peers receive the rare piece. Assuming that peers arrive with no pieces, there is a single seed, random peer contacts are made, random useful pieces are downloaded, and peers depart upon receiving the complete file, the system is stable if the seeding rate (in pieces per time unit is greater than the arrival rate, and is unstable if the seeding rate is less than the arrival rate. The result persists for any piece selection policy that selects from among useful pieces, such as rarest first, and it persists with the use of network coding.

  6. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  7. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  8. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  9. EDGE3: A web-based solution for management and analysis of Agilent two color microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craven Mark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to generate transcriptional data on the scale of entire genomes has been a boon both in the improvement of biological understanding and in the amount of data generated. The latter, the amount of data generated, has implications when it comes to effective storage, analysis and sharing of these data. A number of software tools have been developed to store, analyze, and share microarray data. However, a majority of these tools do not offer all of these features nor do they specifically target the commonly used two color Agilent DNA microarray platform. Thus, the motivating factor for the development of EDGE3 was to incorporate the storage, analysis and sharing of microarray data in a manner that would provide a means for research groups to collaborate on Agilent-based microarray experiments without a large investment in software-related expenditures or extensive training of end-users. Results EDGE3 has been developed with two major functions in mind. The first function is to provide a workflow process for the generation of microarray data by a research laboratory or a microarray facility. The second is to store, analyze, and share microarray data in a manner that doesn't require complicated software. To satisfy the first function, EDGE3 has been developed as a means to establish a well defined experimental workflow and information system for microarray generation. To satisfy the second function, the software application utilized as the user interface of EDGE3 is a web browser. Within the web browser, a user is able to access the entire functionality, including, but not limited to, the ability to perform a number of bioinformatics based analyses, collaborate between research groups through a user-based security model, and access to the raw data files and quality control files generated by the software used to extract the signals from an array image. Conclusion Here, we present EDGE3, an open-source, web

  10. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  11. One Piece Orbitozygomatic Approach Based on the Sphenoid Ridge Keyhole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge was exami......The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge...

  12. The last piece of the ring

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In a sequel to the recent success at CMS, the last section of the LHC beam vacuum system was installed in ATLAS on Monday 16 June. The place where experiment and accelerator meet, the completion of the last part of the continuous 27 km beampipe signals how near the LHC is to the circulation of its first beam. Watch the video! The last section of the LHC beampipe being installed in ATLAS.Although a seemingly simple piece of technology in comparison with the complexity of the detectors, the beampipe is a carefully designed and essential part of both the experiments and the LHC. The section of beam pipe that completed the LHC ring on Monday 16 June is about 20 metres from the centre of ATLAS, very close to where the first magnets of the LHC are located. Unlike the central ATLAS beampipe, which is made of beryllium, the final section is made of stainless steel. An aluminium cone surrounds the stainless steel tube with the super slim...

  13. Model Checking in Bits and Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Namjoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated verification of concurrent programs is a difficult problem, primarily because of state explosion: the exponential growth of a program state space with the number of its concurrently active components. It is natural to apply a divide and conquer strategy to ameliorate state explosion, by analyzing only a single component at a time. We show that this strategy leads to the notion of a "split" invariant, an assertion which is globally inductive, while being structured as the conjunction of a number of local, per-component invariants. This formulation is closely connected to the classical Owicki-Gries method and to Rely-Guarantee reasoning. We show how the division of an invariant into a number of pieces with limited scope makes it possible to apply new, localized forms of symmetry and abstraction to drastically simplify its computation. Split invariance also has interesting connections to parametric verification. A quantified invariant for a parametric system is a split invariant for every instance. We show how it is possible, in some cases, to invert this connection, and to automatically generalize from a split invariant for a small instance of a system to a quantified invariant which holds for the entire family of instances.

  14. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  15. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  16. Spectral dynamics of THz pulses generated by two-color laser filaments in air: The role of Kerr nonlinearities and pump wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, A; Dechard, J; Thiele, I; Babushkin, I; Skupin, S; Berge, L

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the influence of both instantaneous and Raman-delayed Kerr nonlinearities as well as a long-wavelength pump in the terahertz (THz) emissions produced by two-color femtosecond filaments in air. Although the Raman-delayed nonlinearity induced by air molecules weakens THz generation, four-wave mixing is found to impact the THz spectra accumulated upon propagation via self-, cross-phase modulations and self-steepening. Besides, using the local current theory, we show that the scaling of laser-to-THz conversion efficiency with the fundamental laser wavelength strongly depends on the relative phase between the two colors, the pulse duration and shape, rendering a universal scaling law impossible. Scaling laws in powers of the pump wavelength may only provide a rough estimate of the increase in the THz yield. We confront these results with comprehensive numerical simulations of strongly focused pulses and of filaments propagating over meter-range distances.

  17. High harmonic generation in a two-color field composed of a pump field and a weak subsidiary high frequency field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    “Coherent control of high-harmonic generation in a two-color field” has been widely concerned. Using split-operator algorithm, we have calculated the high-harmonic generation for helium ion He+ in a two-color field which is composed of a driving field and a weak subsidiary high frequency field (Is=I0/100, (ω,13ω), …(ω, 120ω)) and found that such a field can produce much higher harmonic intensity, typically increasing the harmonics corresponding to the incident frequency of the subsidiary field. The different effects coming from the different subsidiary fields are calculated and analyzed. It is indicated that one of the important underlying mechanisms is high frequency photon induced radiation.

  18. Silicon isotope separation utilizing infrared multiphoton dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Hashimoto, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishii, Takeshi; Ohya, Akio [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arai, Shigeyoshi [Hill Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Silicon isotope separation has been done by utilizing the Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser lights. The two-color excitation method improved the separation efficiency keeping the high enrichment factors. For example, 99.74% of {sup 28}Si was obtained at 49.63% dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} after the simultaneous irradiation of 200 pulses with 966.23 cm{sup -1} photons (0.084 J/cm{sup 2}) and 954.55 cm{sup -1} photons (0.658 J/cm{sup 2}), while 2000 pulses were needed to obtain 99.35% of {sup 28}Si at 35.6% dissociation in the case of only one-color irradiation at 954.55 cm{sup -1} (0.97 J/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  19. Identification of the origin of marker chromosomes by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in azoospermic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C L; Cheng, J L; Yang, W C; Li, L Y; Cheng, H C; Fu, J J

    2015-11-19

    Y chromosomal microdeletions at the azoospermia factor locus and chromosome abnormalities have been implicated as the major causes of idiopathic male infertility. A marker chromosome is a structurally abnormal chromosome in which no part can be identified by cytogenetics. In this study, to identify the origin of the marker chromosomes and to perform a genetic diagnosis of patients with azoospermia, two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were carried out. The marker chromosomes for the two patients with azoospermia originated in the Y chromosome; it was ascertained that the karyotype of both patients was 46,X, ish del(Y)(q11)(DYZ3+, DXZ1-). The combination of two-color FISH and PCR techniques is an important method for the identification of the origin of marker chromosomes. Thus, genetic counseling and a clear genetic diagnosis of patients with azoospermia before intracytoplasmic sperm injection or other clinical managements are important.

  20. Two-color injection mould for the handle of egg mixer%鸡蛋搅拌机手柄双色注射模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡; 陈乐平; 毛金明

    2012-01-01

    The structure layout, design points and working process of a two-color injection mould for the handle of an egg mixer were analyzed; and the design of gating system was presented in detail. The application of composite half-mechanism and mechanism of core-pulling by inclined ejector pin achieves sequential parting of the two-color mould.%分析了鸡蛋搅拌机手柄双色注射模的结构、设计要点和工作过程,详细介绍了模具浇注系统设计,采用复合哈夫机构和斜推杆内抽芯机构,实现了双色模具顺序分型动作.实践表明,模具结构可靠,运动平稳顺畅,制品精度和外观质量均符合要求.

  1. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on Fused Silica, Silicon, and Titanium is studied upon parallel and cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation on Fused Silica follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS formation on Silicon and Titanium can be explained by a plasmonic model. - Abstract: In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach–Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  3. 29 CFR 530.202 - Piece rates-work measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piece rates-work measurement. 530.202 Section 530.202 Labor... Piece rates—work measurement. (a) No certificate will be issued pursuant to § 530.101 of subpart B to an... different types of items produced using stop watch time studies or other work measurement...

  4. 75 FR 28051 - Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice announcing public workshop. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Pieces of Privacy.'' DATES: The workshop will be held on June 10, 2010, from 8...

  5. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  6. How do we select multiple features? Transient costs for selecting two colors rather than one, persistent costs for color-location conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu; Holcombe, Alex O

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study Lo, Howard, & Holcombe (Vision Research 63:20-33, 2012), selecting two colors did not induce a performance cost, relative to selecting one color. For example, requiring possible report of both a green and a red target did not yield a worse performance than when both targets were green. Yet a cost of selecting multiple colors was observed when selection needed be contingent on both color and location. When selecting a red target to the left and a green target to the right, superimposing a green distractor to the left and a red distractor to the right impeded performance. Possibly, participants cannot confine attention to a color at a particular location. As a result, distractors that share the target colors disrupt attentional selection of the targets. The attempt to select the targets must then be repeated, which increases the likelihood that the trial terminates when selection is not effective, even for long trials. Consistent with this, here we find a persistent cost of selecting two colors when the conjunction of color and location is needed, but the cost is confined to short exposure durations when the observer just has to monitor red and green stimuli without the need to use the location information. These results suggest that selecting two colors is time-consuming but effective, whereas selection of simultaneous conjunctions is never entirely successful.

  7. The Three-Color and Two-Color Tantrix(TM) Rotation Puzzle Problems are NP-Complete via Parsimonious Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Dorothea

    2007-01-01

    Holzer and Holzer (Discrete Applied Mathematics 144(3):345--358, 2004) proved the Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem with four colors NP-complete. Baumeister and Rothe (MCU 2007) modified their construction to achieve a parsimonious reduction from satisfiability to this problem. Since parsimonious reductions preserve the number of solutions, it follows that the unique version of the four-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is DP-complete under randomized reductions. In this paper, we study the three-color and the two-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem. Restricting the number of allowed colors to three (respectively, to two) reduces the set of available Tantrix(TM) tiles from 56 to 14 (respectively, to 8). We prove that both the three-color and the two-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is NP-complete, which answers a question raised by Holzer and Holzer in the affirmative. Since both these reductions are parsimonious, it follows that both the unique three-color and the unique two-color Ta...

  8. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  9. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S., E-mail: hoehm@mbi-berlin.de.de [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on fused silica is studied upon cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS periods are determined by the wavelength of the first pulse. • LIPSS area is increased for temporally overlapping pulses due to nonlinear absorption. - Abstract: The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation)

  10. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  11. Assessment of potential plastic-degrading fungi in Jordanian habitats

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, Ibrahim N.; MARAQA, Anwar; Hameed, Khalid M.

    2011-01-01

    Out of 70 fungal isolates recovered from soil, wall paints (Latex), and pieces of plastic debris from different habitats in Jordan and plastic shields of street light posts on campus, 35 isolates showed varied potential to degrade polyester-polyurethane (PS-PUR). Six of these isolates (Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, Spicaria spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus) were selected on the basis of their growth rates on basal salt media amended with PS-PUR as...

  12. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  13. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  14. Comparison of Nd: YAG capsulotomy rate between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic intraocular lenses: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Chung, Young Kwon; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Mee Yon; Lee, Young-Chun; Kim, Su-Young

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to compare Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses. Among 924 eyes of 762 patients who received cataract surgery, we selected the 303 patients (404 eyes) implanted with an SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) or a YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens (Hoya Co., Tokyo, Japan). For intraindividual comparison, we enrolled the 17 patients implanted with an SN60WF in 1 eye and a YA-60BBR in the contralateral eye. We compared Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses 24 months after the operation. Of the 404 eyes in this study, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in 20 of 268 eyes (7.5%) in the SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens group and 24 of 136 eyes (17.6%) in the YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .002). Among the 17 patients (34 eyes) who were implanted with 2 different inraocular lenses, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in only 2 eyes (12%) in the SN60WF group and 9 eyes (53%) in the YA-60BBR group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .020).The authors found a significantly greater incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in eyes who received 3-piece lenses compared with those who received 1-piece lenses.

  15. Application of SFM and laser scanning technology to the description of mosaics piece by piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajioka, O.; Hori, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Mosaic floors of surviving buildings in Ostia have been mainly recorded in photographs. From 2008, Japanese research group carries out a project of 3d measuring of the whole structure of ancient Roman city Ostia using laser scanners, including its landscape, city blocks, streets, buildings, wall paintings and mosaics. The laser scanner allows for a more detailed analysis and a greater potential for recording mosaics. We can record the data of mosaics, which are described piece by piece. However it is hard to acquire enough high dense point cloud and the internal camera of the laser scanner produce low quality images. We introduce a possible technology of 3D recording of mosaics with high-quality colour information; SFM. The use of this technique permits us to create 3D models from images provided from a CCD camera without heavy and large laser scanners. We applied SFM system to different three types of the mosaics laid down on the floors of "the House of the Dioscuroi", "the Insula of the Muse" and "the House of Jove and Ganymede", and created high resolution orthographic images. Then we examined to compare these orthographic images with that are created from the point cloud data. As a result, we confirmed that SFM system has sufficient practical utility for the mosaic research. And we present how much of density of point cloud or ground resolution are required for the documentation of mosaics accurately.

  16. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  17. Melody-based knowledge discovery in musical pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnik, Mariusz; Jastrzebska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    The paper is focused on automated knowledge discovery in musical pieces, based on transformations of digital musical notation. Usually a single musical piece is analyzed, to discover the structure as well as traits of separate voices. Melody and rhythm is processed with the use of three proposed operators, that serve as meta-data. In this work we focus on melody, so the processed data is labeled using fuzzy labels, created for detecting various voice characteristics. A comparative analysis of two musical pieces may be performed as well, that compares them in terms of various rhythmic or melodic traits (as a whole or with voice separation).

  18. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  19. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  20. Existential field 8: appendix to the report - special focus pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, Myria; Haddon, Leslie; Helsper, Ellen; Wang, Yinhan

    2010-01-01

    This appendix contains five special focus pieces on Diasporic families and media consumption, The place of mobile technology in European families, Families’ digital disadvantage and exclusion, ICT and intimate relationships, and Girl culture and Web 2.0.

  1. OBJECT ORIENTED SOFTWARE FOR MICRO WORK PIECE RECOGNITION IN MICROASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo-Ramírez, G.K.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe object oriented software for the automatic micro work piece handling system.The general task of this system is the recognition of work pieces with neural classifier and detection of theirpositions. Other important functions of the system are work piece styles database administration, work piecedatabase administration for neural classifier training and testing, neural classifier interface between database, userand work piece finder. The software is object oriented and widely commented, that makes its modification,adaptation and improvement easier. Most of the software modules can be used in other research projects. Thesoftware was tested on image database. The results of experiments prove its effectiveness in chosen task.

  2. One-Piece Faraday Generator: A Paradoxical Experiment from 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, M. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment based on Faraday's one-piece generator, where the rotating disk is replaced by a cylindrical permanent magnet. Explains the apparent paradox that an observer in an inertial frame could measure his absolute velocity. (GA)

  3. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada.

  4. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Chris; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  5. A folded-sandwich polarization-entangled two-color photon pair source with large tuning capability for applications in hybrid quantum architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Dietz, Otto; Kreißl, Thomas; Herzog, Ulrike; Kroh, Tim; Ahlrichs, Andreas; Benson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-color entangled pho ton pair source which can be adapted easily to a wide range of wavelengths combinations. A Fresnel rhomb as a geometrical quarter-wave plate and a versatile combination of compensation crystals are key components of the source. Entanglement of two photons at the Cs D1 line (894.3 nm) and at the telecom O-band (1313.1 nm) with a fidelity of $F = 0.753 \\pm 0.021$ is demonstrated and improvements of the setup are discussed.

  6. 40 Years of Processing Pieces of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, C. E.; Funk, R. C.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    representative sample, either a 1-3 gram chip or thin section is sent to the Smithsonian Institution for classification. After Antarctic meteorites have been classified and approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society, they are announced in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which is published twice per year (fall and spring) so that scientists may review which meteorites are available to study. Requests for Antarctic Meteorite samples are welcomed from research scientists, regardless of their current state of funding for meteorite studies. Since its inception over 3,300 requests have been made for pieces of these meteorites and over 400 investigators worldwide are active in the study of meteorites.. Research on these samples has been published in more than1500 peer reviewed articles; a listing of papers for any meteorite sample can be generated by accessing http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/referencesearch.cfm. Antarctic meteorite samples requested by scientists are prepared several different ways. Most samples are prepared as chips, either using a rock splitter or using a chisel and chipping bowl. In special situations, a researcher may request a meteorite slab in which case the samples are cut using a diamond-bladed bandsaw inside of a dry nitrogen glove box. The meteorites are always cut in a 100 percent liquid-free environment. Additionally, thin/thick sections of Antarctic meteorites are also prepared at JSC. The meteorite thin section lab at JSC can prepare standard 30-micron thin sections, thick sections of variable thickness (100 to 200 microns), or demountable sections using superglue, all section are prepared without using water. Although many of the techniques used back in the '70's are still used today, advances in computers, software, databases, available tools and instrumentation have helped to streamline and shorten the duration of the classification process. In conjunction with present day missions to asteroids and other planets

  7. The spatial distribution in high-order harmonic generation of H2+ with different time delays of the two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xue-Fei; Du, Hui; Xu, Tong-Tong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and the spatial distribution in HHG of the H2+ molecule by introducing a time-delayed two-color laser field which consists of the mid-infrared and near-infrared laser field. For the different time delays of the two-color laser fields, the pulse shapes are changed which result in the variation of the electron recombined with the nuclei along the positive- or negative-z direction. When the time delay is 0 fs (1.34 fs), a smooth harmonic plateau from the electron recombined with the nuclei along the negative (positive)-z direction can be achieved. An isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 99 as is generated when the time delay is 1.34 fs. We perform the classical analysis which is consistent with the numerical results from the one-dimensional non-Born-Oppenheimer time dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to further understand the underlying physical mechanism.

  8. P1-9: Relationship between Color Shifts in Land's Two-Color Method and Higher- and Lower-Level Visual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Iwaida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land's two-color method gives rise to apparent full-color perception, even though only two colors (e.g., red and gray are used. Previous studies indicate that chromatic adaptation, color memory, and inductive effects contribute to the shifts of color perception from real to illusory colors (e.g., Kuriki, 2006 Vision Research 46 3055–3066. This paper investigates the relationship between the color shifts induced by Land images and the skewness of the luminance histogram. In Experiment 1, several Land images are created based on a yellow ball, and the magnitude of the color shifts of the images are measured. The results of Experiment 1 show a significant correlation between the magnitude of the color shifts and skewness, suggesting that skewness is critical for the color shifts. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that color shifts depends on just skewness; the color shifts should be invariant even if the Land images are scrambled. However, the results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that scrambled Land images exhibit less intense color shifts, suggesting that color shifts are determined by the object's overall shape or surface gloss, not just skewness. Taken together, we conclude that both low-level visual processes, such as those associated with luminance histogram skew, and high-level cognitive functions, such as object interpretation or understanding of surface gloss, are involved in the color shift of Land images.

  9. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation).

  10. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  11. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  12. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring.

  13. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.

    2016-04-26

    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  14. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  15. Atom waveguide and 1D optical lattice using a two-color evanescent light field around an optical micro/nano-fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Fu; Xiang Yin; Ningyuan Li; Limin Tong

    2008-01-01

    We propose a two-color scheme of atom waveguides and one-dimensional(1D)optical lattices using evanescent wave fields of different transverse modes around an optical micro/nano-fiber.The atom guide potential can be produced when the optical fiber carries a red-detuned light with TE01 mode and a blue-detuned light with HE11 mode,and the 1D optical lattice potential can be produced when the red-detuned light is transformed to the superposition of the TE01 mode and HE11 mode.The two trapping potentials can be transformed to each other for accurately controlling mode transformation for the red-detuned light.This might provide a new approach to realize flexible transition between the guiding and trapping states of atoms.

  16. Pseudo-rephasing and pseudo-free-induction-decay mechanism in two-color three-pulse photon echo of a binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Ryu, Ian Seungwan; Fleming, Graham R

    2013-12-27

    We investigate the two-color three-pulse photon echo peak shift in a (left-right) binary system, where each component consists of a heterodimer. On the basis of the model, we find that the effect of the excitonic asymmetry between two components leads to an additional factor in the peak shift. A pseudo-rephasing and pseudo-free-induction-decay mechanism is proposed to explain the resultant negative peak shift, when the differences between the two left/right components have the opposite sign. In such a case, estimates of the electronic coupling strength via two- and one-color peak shift experiments lead to an underestimate of the coupling magnitude.

  17. The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reisser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-sized plastics are numerically abundant and widespread across the world's ocean surface. These buoyant macroscopic particles can be mixed within the upper water column due to turbulent transport. Models indicate that the largest decrease in their concentration occurs within the first few meters of water, where subsurface observations are very scarce. By using a new type of multi-level trawl at 12 sites within the North Atlantic accumulation zone, we measured concentrations and physical properties of plastics from the air–seawater interface to a depth of 5 m, at 0.5 m intervals. Our results show that plastic concentrations drop exponentially with water depth, but decay rates decrease with increasing Beaufort scale. Furthermore, smaller pieces presented lower rise velocities and were more susceptible to vertical transport. This resulted in higher depth decays of plastic mass concentration (mg m−3 than numerical concentration (pieces m−3. Further multi-level sampling of plastics will improve our ability to predict at-sea plastic load, size distribution, drifting pattern, and impact on marine species and habitats.

  18. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen concentration conditions. The ambient conditions were set as follows: four oxygen cases including 10%, 15%, 18% and 21% at 1000 K ambient temperature. KL factor and soot temperature were determined based on the two-color pyrometry technique using two band-pass filters with wavelengths of 650 nm and 550 nm. The results show that low soot temperature is observed in the upstream inner flame along the centerline, which is surrounded by high soot temperature regions, and a high KL factor is found in the same region with a low soot temperature. The results under different times suggest that soot temperature is higher for high O2 conditions during the entire flame development; meanwhile, both integrated KL factor and soot area decrease with the increase of O2 concentration. The two fuels share a similar trend of soot temperature and KL factor, however, diesel flame has a higher soot temperature and a larger high soot temperature area compared to jet-A flame. On the other hand, diesel flame shows a lower soot level during the quasi-steady state with a higher total soot level at the end of the combustion under low O2 conditions. A lower O2 concentration range from 10% to 15% is expected to have the possibility to achieve a simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx in sooting flames under the 1000 K ambient temperature condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  19. Torque Removal Evaluation of Screw in One-Piece and Two-Piece Abutments Tightened with a Handheld screwdriver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some clinicians use a handheld screw driver instead of a torque wrench to definitively tighten abutment screws. The aim of this study was to compare the removal torque of one-piece and two-piece abutments tightened with a handheld driver and a torque control ratchet. Methods: 40 ITI implants were placed in acrylic blocks and divided into 4 groups. In groups one and two, 10 ITI one-piece abutments (Solid® and in groups three and four, 10 ITI two-piece abutments (Synocta® were placed on the implants. In groups one and three abutments were tightened by 5 experienced males and 5 experienced females using a handheld driver. In groups two and four abutments were tightened using a torque wrench with torque values of 10, 20 and 35 N.cm. Insertion torque and removal torque values of the abutments were measured with a digital torque meter. Results: The insertion torque values (ITVs of males in both abutments were significantly higher than those of females. ITVs in both Solid® and Synocta® abutments tightened with a handheld screwdriver were similar to the torque of 20 N.cm in the torque wrench. Removal torque values (RTVs of solid® abutments were higher than those of synocta® abutments. Conclusion: The one- piece abutments (solid® showed higher RTVs than the two-piece abutments (synocta®. Hand driver does not produce sufficient preload force for the final tightening of the abutment

  20. Managed land settlement process: "Thought piece" on basic services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This thought piece is deliberately about issues and principles, rather than about setting out a step-by-step process for the planning and provision of services. What is important - and needs to be fully understood - are these issues and principles...

  1. Presence of plastic particles in waterbirds faeces collected in Spanish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Delgado, J A; Guijarro, D; Gosálvez, R U; López-Iborra, G M; Ponz, A; Velasco, A

    2017-01-01

    Plastic intake by marine vertebrates has been widely reported, but information about its presence in continental waterfowl is scarce. Here we analyzed faeces of waterbirds species (European coot, Fulica atra, mallard, Anas platyrhynchos and shelduck, Tadorna tadorna) for plastic debris in five wetlands in Central Spain. We collected 89 faeces of shelduck distributed in four lakes, 43.8% of them presented plastic remnants. Sixty percent of 10 faeces of European coot and 45% of 40 faeces of mallard contained plastic debris. Plastic debris found was of two types, threads and fragments, and were identified as remnants of plastic objects used in agricultural fields surrounding the lakes. Differences in prevalence of plastic in faeces, number of plastic pieces per excrement and size of the plastic pieces were not statistically significant between waterfowl species. Thus, our results suggest that plastic may also be frequently ingested by waterfowl in continental waters, at least in our study area. Future studies should address this potential problem for waterbird conservation in other wetlands to evaluate the real impact of this pollutant on waterbirds living in inland water.

  2. Use of a Novel Two Color PALM Method to Examine Structural Properties of Drp1 Helical Rings during Mammalian Mitochondrial Fission In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Alyssa Blair

    In this thesis, we accomplish two goals: 1) we develop a novel two color photoactivatable light microscopy (PALM) method for imaging in mammalian cells and 2) we explore our original biological question and discern the structural properties of the Drp1 helical ring during fission. We established that mitochondrial membranes can be distinguished with the available photoactivatable fluorescent protein mEos2. However, we were not able to use any of the published photoactivatable and photoswitchable green fluorescent proteins, predominantly because of an inability to identify individual fluorescent events due to rapidity of the photoswitiching. Based on published crystal structures, we created novel Dronpa variants with increasing steric hindrance around the chromophore, likely partially inhibiting the isomerization. We replaced Val157 with isoleucine, leucine, or phenyalanine. DronpaV157F showed no fluorescence and was discarded. DronpaV157I and DronpaV157L showed photoswitchable green fluorescence, with individual fluorescent events that were more easily discerned. DronpaV157L in particular had bright fluorescent events that were well separated when imaged in mammalian cells at 20 Hz. We named this new variant rsKame. Using PALM we successfully imaged rsKame expressed and localized to the mammalian mitochondrial inner membrane. With the novel photoswitchable fluorescent protein, rsKame, available, we returned to the development of a novel two color PALM method. We chose PAmCherry1 as the partner for rsKame since PAmCherry1 has distinct and well separated excitation/emission spectra from rsKame and is not activated by low 405 nm laser power density. We first imaged rsKame with 405 nm activation at (0.61 mW/mm2) and 488 nm activation/excitation (5.87 W/mm 2) to completion. We then imaged PAmCherry1 with increasing 405 nm activation (0.6-6.0 W/mm2) and 561 nm excitation (22 W/mm 2). With the novel PALM imaging method, we labeled the inner and outer mitochondrial

  3. Terahertz Emission Dependence on the Fundamental Optical Intensity in Generating Terahertz Waves from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hou-Mei; LIU Jin-Song

    2011-01-01

    A transient photocurrent model is used to explain terahertz ermission from gas plasma irritated by two-color laser pulses,with one the second harmonic of the other.Taking multiple degrees of ionization into account,the gas ionization process at different laser intensities from 1014 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2 is discussed.The results show that when Iω ≥ 6 × 1014 W/cm2,double ionization plays an important role in producing electrons.The corresponding terahertz spectra and waveforms are calculated,showing that increasing laser intensity can broaden the spectra to high frequencies and enhance the terahertz field.A promising method for generating terahertz (THz) waves involves emission from laser induced gas plasmas,which was first introduced hy Hamster et al.[1,2] By focusing laser femtosecond pulses with intensity greater than the thresholl for ionization of the gas molecules,one can obtain significant plasma formation.The ionized electrons will then accelerate by the lapser ponderomotive force,thus an electromagnetic pulse at THz frcqucncies can be produced.Since then,other plasma-based THz generation scheines have been proposed.L(o)ffler et al.,[3,4] applied an external dc bias to the plasma region,leading to an approximately one order of magnitude increase in the THz field strength.%A transient photocurrent model is used to explain terahertz emission from gas plasma irritated by two-color laser pulses, with one the second harmonic of the other. Taking multiple degrees of iom'xntion into account, the gas ionizntion process at different laser intensities from 1014 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2 is discussed. The results show that when /w > 6 X 1014 W/cin2, double ionization plays an important role in producing electrons. The corresponding terahertz spectra and waveforms are calculated, showing that increasing laser intensity can broaden the spectra to high frequencies and enhance the terahertz Geld.

  4. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  5. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  6. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Trudy M. Mooren; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD.Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses:...

  7. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees : a debate piece

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD.Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses:...

  8. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lavender oil (LO is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  9. Element Selective Probe of the Ultra-Fast Magnetic Response to an Element Selective Excitation in Fe-Ni Compounds Using a Two-Color FEL Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Ferrari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the two-color mode implemented at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL source for pumping and probing selectively different atomic species has been demonstrated by time-resolved scattering experiments with permalloy (FeNi alloy and NiFe2O4 samples. We monitored the ultra-fast demagnetization of Ni induced by the pump FEL pulse, by tuning the linearly-polarized FEL probe pulse to the Ni-3p resonance and measuring the scattered intensity in the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect geometry. The measurements were performed by varying the intensity of the FEL pump pulse, tuning its wavelength to and off of the Fe-3p resonance, and by spanning the FEL probe pulse delays across the 300–900 fs range. The obtained results have evidenced that for the case of NiFe2O4, there is a sensible difference in the magnetic response at the Ni site when the pump pulse causes electronic excitations at the Fe site.

  10. Study and application of plasticity plaster-slurry for preventing coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai-hua(刘爱华); CAI Kang-xu(蔡康旭); GUO Da(郭达); ZHANG Fu-sheng(张复胜)

    2003-01-01

    Introduced the modulation scheme, function and mechanism of plasticity plaster-slurry preventing coal spontaneous combustion. The applications show that the plasticity plaster-slurry has good hygroscopicity and adsorptivity. To spray it on the coal wall of tunnel can shut off leakage wind fast and effectively. To press it into the coal body can absorb the heat and descend the temperature, surround the coal pieces, eliminate the possibility of the fiery district resuming combustion.

  11. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  12. COMPARISON OF ANTERIOR CHAMBER REACTION WITH SINGLE-PIECE AND THREE-PIECE INTRAOCULAR LENSES IN MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the anterior chamber reaction between single-piece and three-piece intraocular lenses in manual small incision cataract surgery. METHODS: Prospective study done at Mysore Race Club Charitable Eye Hospital. 140 Patients underwent suture less sclerocorneal tunnel cataract surgeries with single-piece or three-piece Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA intra ocular lenses (3-piece IOL. Accurate Keratometry was done with the help of Bausch and Lomb Keratometer. IOL power was calculated by using SRK (Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff II formula, with the help of non-immersion, contact type of A-Scan biometry. Single-piece IOLs were inserted in 70 patients. Three-piece IOL inserted in rest of 70 patients. Slit lamp examination for anterior chamber cells was graded according to Hogan system. Aqueous cells were measured by counting within the visible field under Slit lamp, keeping the beam at maximum intensity. Anterior chamber reaction (AC in 1stPostoperative week and at 8 weeks are compared and analyzed by ANOVA statistics. RESULTS: Single piece IOL group had anterior chamber reaction ranging from 1 to 2+ cells i.e., in 97%. In three-piece IOL group, 70%of eyes had 2+ cells and 12.8% had 3± cells. At 8 weeks, single- piece IOL showed either no cells or occasional cells in 98.6% of patients, compared to three –piece IOL group showing in 77%of cases. 23% had 1+ cells in later group. CONCLUSION: Single-piece implanted IOLs had significant less number of cells were seen in anterior chamber from 1 week to 8 weeks as compared to three-piece IOLs.

  13. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrian, Alexia, E-mail: alexia.aldrian@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Ledersteger, Alfred, E-mail: a.ledersteger@saubermacher.at [Saubermacher Dienstleistungs AG, Hans-Roth-Straße 1, 8073 Feldkirchen bei Graz (Austria); Pomberger, Roland, E-mail: roland.pomberger@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  14. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  15. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  16. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  17. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  18. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  19. The impact of mechanical properties of rock to the collision of rock piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Macuh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical solution of the rock piece motion considering influences of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass on the arbitrary slope. The main objective of the paper is to determine the motion of the rock piece considering possibility of rock piece failure due to collision. Brief description of the analytical solution of the rock piece motion on a steep slope is given. The laboratory tests were performed to determine uniaxial compressive strength and elastic properties of the considered rock mass. Further, velocities that cause rock piece failure were determined. These maximum velocities indirectly belong to certain mass of rock piece and can be lower than velocities calculated in rock-fall analysis for certain slope geometry. Consequently, the energy magnitude is limited, because at certain velocity and mass of rock piece bigger pieces crash at collision.

  20. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  1. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  2. 35. Detection of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm of workers exposed to benzene series by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the frequency of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm of workers exposed to benzene series, the aneuploidy frequencies of 9 and 18 chromosomes were detected in sperm of workers by two color fluorescence in situ hybridization with digoxingenin labeled 9 chromosome probe (D9zl) and biotin labeled 18 chromosome probe (D18zl). The timeweight average air concentration (TWA ) of benzene in the workplace was 86.49 mg/m3, it was two fold higher than the national maximum allowable concentration. The concentration of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) in exposed group was significantly higher than that of control group. The sperms counted in 14 exposed workers and 16 control workers were 136 401 and 156 955 respectively. The results showed that the disomy frequencies of sperm for chromosome 9, 18 in (0.168%±0.063% and 0.055%±0.031% respectively) and the frequency of diploidy sperm (0.073%±0.045%) were statistically increased over that of the control group(0.050%±0.030%; 0.033%±0.025% and 0.040%±0.036%, respectively). The nullisomic frequencies of 9,18 chromosome in the exposed group (0.206%±0.047%, 0.068%±0.044%) were statistically increased over that of the control group too (0.067%±0.037%, 0.048%±0.034%). The frequency of overall numerical chromosome aberrations in the exposed group was 0.570%±0.144%, when this value was compared with that of control (0.218%±0.071%), a statistically significance was presented. Our experiments showed that exposed to benzene at higher concentration may induce increase in aneuploidy frequency of sperm autosomal chromosome in exposed workers.

  3. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment.

  4. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  5. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  6. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  7. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  8. Service Registry: A Key Piece for Enhancing Reuse in SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo García-González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the promises of adopting a service-oriented approach in organizations is the potential cost savings that result from the reuse of existing services. A service registry is one of the fundamental pieces of service oriented architecture (SOA for achieving reuse. It refers to a place in which service providers can impart information about their offered services and potential clients can search for services. In this article, we provide advice for implementing an enterprise-wide service registry. We also discuss open issues in industry and academia that affect the management of service- repository information.

  9. Continuous Integration, essential piece in the software development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Integration is a practice proposed by eXtreme Programming, one of the most popular agile methodologies, which implementation involves automating one of the most heavy and complex task to predict the process of integration in software development. In this work it is described general aspects related to the practice of Continuous Integration in software development, so it is presented the feasibility of its application due the benefits it provides and the risks that can be mitigated with the use of it. It constitutes a theoretical basis for understanding and showing that this practice is an essential piece for software development.

  10. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  11. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  12. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of one-piece and two-piece small-diameter dental implants: In-vitro experimental and three-dimensional finite element analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chee, Winston; Lin, Yun-Te; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Heng-Li

    2016-09-01

    Small-diameter dental implants are associated with a higher risk of implant failure. This study used both three-dimensional finite-element (FE) simulations and in-vitro experimental tests to analyze the stresses and strains in both the implant and the surrounding bone when using one-piece (NobelDirect) and two-piece (NobelReplace) small-diameter implants, with the aim of understanding the underlying biomechanical mechanisms. Six experimental artificial jawbone models and two FE models were prepared for one-piece and two-piece 3.5-mm diameter implants. Rosette strain gauges were used for in-vitro tests, with peak values of the principal bone strain recorded with a data acquisition system. Implant stability as quantified by Periotest values (PTV) were also recorded for both types of implants. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. In FE simulations, the peak value and distribution of von-Mises stresses in the implant and bone were selected for evaluation. In in-vitro tests, the peak bone strain was 42% lower for two-piece implants than for one-piece implants. The PTV was slightly lower for one-piece implants (PTV = -6) than for two-piece implants (PTV = -5). In FE simulations, the stresses in the bone and implant were about 23% higher and 12% lower, respectively, for one-piece implants than those for two-piece implants. Due to the higher peri-implant bone stresses and strains, one-piece implants (NobelDirect) might be not suitable for use as small-diameter implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Feminist Erotica and Agency @ The Love Piece Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALES, Laura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Love Piece Club is a shop devoted to sex goods for women, located in Tokyo and online at www.lovepiececlub.com. As well as online shopping, the website offers regular columns, articles and photo-essays on subjects related to sexuality and women's lives. The site and shop are managed by Kitahara Minori, a writer, businesswoman and advocate for feminist erotica. This paper explores the Love Piece Club as a discursive site – its potential meanings and its significance as a feminist work in promoting 'active sexuality as a strategy' for enabling women (Wilkins 2004:332. Addressing the online and printed texts of the LPC, I examine the possibilities for feminist agency inherent in the creation of space(s for feminist erotica. Operating as a virtual site, the LPC can be interpreted as a cyberfeminist space, incorporating (and contributing to understandings of the ways that internet technology affects gender and identity (Chatterjee 2002:200. My aim here is also to tease out the concept of agency, insofar as it can be applied to the work of the LPC and advocates of feminist erotica like Kitahara.

  15. A new calculation method for profiled T pieces in the district heating; Neue Berechnungsmethode fuer ausgehalste T-Stuecke in der Fernwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besedin, Eugen; Schleyer, Andreas [GEF Ingenieur AG, Leimen (Germany); Lorch, Jochen; Hartmann, Roland [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Profiled T-pieces in the district heating are technically and economically an optimal solution. Their verification by calculation is conservative in the case of underground high-temperature pipes with extremely high axial forces due to friction. This mathematical proof requires a parallel branching or enables only a short branching lengths at T-junctions. In order to take advantage of profiled T-pieces in the planning of plastic casing pipe systems, parameterized analyzes based on the finite-element-method (FEM) were performed, evaluated and transmitted to the entire nominal size combinations. The resulting method of calculation enables a realistic use of the FEM results in the framework programs. Almost 50% lower material utilizations result in comparison to a conventional fatigue analysis.

  16. Characterization of the 1 ^5Πu - 1 ^5Πg Band of C_2 by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing and Lif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The application of two-color resonant four-wave mixing (TC-RFWM) in combination with a discharge slit-source in a molecular beam environment is advantageous for the study of perturbations in C_2. Initial investigations have shown the potential of the method by a detailed deperturbation of the d3Π_g, v=4 state. The deperturbation of the d3Π_g, v=6 state unveiled the presence of the energetically lowest high-spin state of C_2. This dark state gains transition strength through the perturbation process with the d3Π_g, v=6 state yielding weak spectral features that are observable by the high sensitivity of the TC-RFWM technique. The successful deperturbation study of the d3Π_g, v=6 state resulted in the spectroscopic characterization of the quintet (15Πg) and an additional triplet state (d3Π_g, v=19). More recently, investigations have been performed by applying unfolded TC-RFWM to obtain further information on the quintet manifold. The first high-spin transition (15Πu) - 15Πg)) has been observed via an intermediate ``gateway'' state exhibiting both substantial triplet and quintet character owing to the perturbation between the 15Πg), v=0 and the d3Π_g, v=6 states. The high-lying quintet state is found to be predissociative and displays a shallow potential that accommodates three vibrational levels only. Further studies of the high-spin system will be presented in this contribution. By applying TC-RFWM and laser-induced fluorescence, data on the vibrational structure of the 15Πu - 15Πg system is obtained. The results are combined with high-level ab initio computations at the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level of theory and the largest possible basis currently implemented in the 2012 version of MOLPRO. P. Bornhauser, G. Knopp, T. Gerber, and P.P. Radi, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 262, 69 (2010) P. Bornhauser, Y. Sych, G. Knopp, T. Gerber, and P.P. Radi, Journal of Chemical Physics 134, 044302 (2011) Bornhauser, P., Marquardt, R

  17. [To accelerate pace of studying standard pieces of Chinese medicine as standard material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying

    2014-07-01

    To elucidate the necessary and research of accelerating basic research of Chinese standard pieces as standard materials. According to over 10 years accumulated experience and be keenly aware of the author, the evaluation method of standardized processing technology and Chinese pieces quality, aimed at consummated the standard material of the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal pieces at the current situation, and inaccordance with the need of improving quality standard system of Chinese herbal pieces, illustrate the necessity of accelerating basic research of Chinese standard pieces as standard materials; from the technical specification for collecting and processing of raw materials, and the technical specification, homogenized sample, packaging, storage and etc., for processing of candidate standard pieces, determine the methods and steps of technical specifications for standard pieces as the standard substance, determine the methods and steps of technical specifications for standard pieces as the standard substance. To speed up the basic research of standard of Chinese medicine pieces as of standard material is very necessary. The research objective is to specificate the processing technical for a number of standard pieces, to identify technical specifications and to ascertain the guiding principle and technical specification of decoction pieces as standard substance. This research will provide basic scientific data relevant national departments to apply for the accreditation of the standard substance.

  18. 基于彩色CCD的双色与三色比色测温法比较研究%Comparative Study on Two-Color and Three-Color Colorimetric Temperature Measurement Based on Colored CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 彭小奇

    2015-01-01

    双色与三色比色测温是彩色CCD辐射测温常用方法。通过理论分析和实验研究,分别从测温动态范围和测温精度两方面对双色法和三色法进行了比较研究。研究发现,在光圈快门组合保持不变的条件下,选取红、绿双色进行比色测温具有较宽的测温动态范围;在对辐射体做灰体假设的情况下,三色测温方法具有更高的测温精度。提出了构建一种可切换测温方法的统一测温硬件平台,统一测温平台综合了双色法和三色法两者的优点,可同时满足更宽的测温动态范围和更高的测温精度的要求,应用灵活。%The two-color and three-color colorimetric temperature measurements are major methods of the colored CCD-based radiation thermometry. The dynamic range and temperature measurement accuracy of the two-color and three-color thermometry are analyzed and compared respectively. The theory analysis and experimental results show that the two-color thermometry using red-green colors has much wider dynamic range than the three-color thermome⁃try in the combination of an aperture and shutter. In the other hand,the three-color thermometry has higher accura⁃cy than the two-color method when the radiator is assumed as a gray-body. Finally,the general temperature measure⁃ment platform flexibly switching the two-color and the three-color thermometry is proposed. The measurement plat⁃form combines the advantages of the two-color and three-color thermometry,which meets the requirements of wide dynamic range and high measurement accuracy.

  19. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hisashi; Takada, Hideshige; Ogata, Yuko; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Kwan, Charita; Moore, Charles; Gray, Holly; Laursen, Duane; Zettler, Erik R; Farrington, John W; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily E; Ward, Marc W

    2011-08-01

    To understand the spatial variation in concentrations and compositions of organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris and their sources, we analyzed plastic fragments (∼10 mm) from the open ocean and from remote and urban beaches. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols and bisphenol A were detected in the fragments at concentrations from 1 to 10,000 ng/g. Concentrations showed large piece-to-piece variability. Hydrophobic organic compounds such as PCBs and PAHs were sorbed from seawater to the plastic fragments. PCBs are most probably derived from legacy pollution. PAHs showed a petrogenic signature, suggesting the sorption of PAHs from oil slicks. Nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and PBDEs came mainly from additives and were detected at high concentrations in some fragments both from remote and urban beaches and the open ocean. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  1. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  2. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  3. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  4. The RNA silencing pathway: the bits and pieces that matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian A C Groenenboom

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular pathways are generally proposed on the basis of available experimental knowledge. The proposed pathways, however, may be inadequate to describe the phenomena they are supposed to explain. For instance, by means of concise mathematical models we are able to reveal shortcomings in the current description of the pathway of RNA silencing. The silencing pathway operates by cleaving siRNAs from dsRNA. siRNAs can associate with RISC, leading to the degradation of the target mRNA. We propose and analyze a few small extensions to the pathway: a siRNA degrading RNase, primed amplification of aberrant RNA pieces, and cooperation between aberrant RNA to trigger amplification. These extensions allow for a consistent explanation for various types of silencing phenomena, such as virus induced silencing, transgene and transposon induced silencing, and avoidance of self-reactivity, as well as for differences found between species groups.

  5. Prototype endplate piece of the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype piece of the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC), a large-volume tracking chamber. It is one of the endplates of a “Kind” sector, the smallest of the three types of sectors. The patterns etched into the copper form the cathode pads that measured particle track coordinates in the r-phi direction. The ALEPH TPC was the largest TPC at the time. It included a laser calibration system, a gating system to prevent space charge buildup, and a new radial pad geometry to improve resolution. the ALEPH TPC allowed for precise momentum measurements of the high-momentum particles from W and Z decays.The following institutes participated: CERN, Athens, Glasgow, Mainz, MPI Munich, INFN-Pisa, INFN-Trieste, Wisconsin.

  6. Corrosion mineralogy of an 1800 Spanish piece of eight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Callahan, J.E. [Appalachain State Univ., Dept. of Geology, Boone, North Carolina (United States); Kimbell, J.T. [Tavernier, Florida (United States); Solberg, T.N. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Spanish colonial eight real silver coins, commonly called Pieces of Eight, were used throughout the Spanish-speaking world for hundreds of years. We undertook a detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical investigation of an 1800 Carlos IIII eight real coin recovered from the wreck of the Spanish frigate Santa Leocadia, which sank on the rocky shore of Ecuador on November 16, 1800, with a loss of more than 140 lives and of 2,100,000 pesos of gold and silver coins. The coin is a typical eight real piece, composed of about 90% Ag and 10% Cu. It was buried in elastic sediments beneath the oxidized zone, such that it reacted with sulfur released by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Consequently, the coin has been totally encapsulated in a mixture of sand, gravel, and shell fragments cemented by metal sulfides. The residual coin consists of silver with small interspersed micrometric grains of copper. Reaction of the dissolved metal with the bacterially generated diagenetic sulfur in the intergranular fluids resulted in extensive cementation of the sediment particles by Ag and Cu sulfides. In the 1-mm zone immediately adjacent to the coin, Cu-bearing acanthite occurs as concentric layers with intervening zones of sand and clay. Beyond this zone, acanthite formed from Ag dissolved from the coin occurs as a more or less continuous interstitial cement with local small islands of covellite, CuS. Copper also occurs as films of Cu carbonate on quartz grains, as isolated grains of jalpaite Ag{sub 3}CuS{sub 2}, stromeyerite AgCuS, mckinstryite (Ag,Cu){sub 2}S, and as atacamite Cu{sub 2}C1(OH){sub 3}, which rim and replace detrital carbonate grains. (author)

  7. Comparison of shape recovery ratios of single-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, W; Kimura, T; Sawada, T; Kikuchi, T; Nagai, H; Yamada, Y

    1993-09-01

    We studied shape recovery ratios of several single- and three-piece intraocular lens (IOL) haptics after conducting compression tests for various lengths of time. Results of the comparison of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL haptics configured of a single piece and of three pieces showed a superior shape recovery ratio for single-piece haptics. Comparisons of the shape recovery ratios among single-piece PMMA haptics and conventional three-piece haptics made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), PMMA, and polypropylene (PP) revealed that the shape recovery ratio of single-piece PMMA haptics was higher than the ratios of the conventional three-piece PMMA and PP haptics. The ratios of two of three of the single-piece PMMA haptics, however, were lower than the ratios of three-piece PVDF haptics. The form and manufacturing procedures of haptics likely have a significant impact on the shape recovery ratio of haptics, even those made of the same material. Since decentration after IOL surgery could be caused by the condition of the patient's lenticular capsule and Zinn's zonule, it is difficult to conclude that the shape recovery ratio is the only factor in IOL stability. Nevertheless, this study indicates that IOL haptics that cause less decentration and have better mechanical properties should be developed.

  8. Two color morphs of the pelagic yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, from different locations of Costa Rica: snake venomics, toxicity, and neutralization by antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Solórzano, Alejandro; Ureña-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Montes, María Laura; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-05-30

    the treatment of envenomations by this species. Integrative analyses of animal venoms that combine the power of proteomics (venomics) with the characterization of their functional and immunological properties are significantly expanding knowledge on these remarkable bioweapons, both from a basic and a medical perspective. Costa Rica harbors a unique population of the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, that is restricted to a fjord-like gulf (Golfo Dulce). This population differs markedly from oceanic populations found elsewhere along the Pacific coast of this country, by presenting a patternless bright yellow coloration, instead of the typical bicolored or tricolored pattern of this species. It has been suggested that the dominance of this yellow-morph in Golfo Dulce might reflect gene flow restrictions, caused by the oceanographic conditions at this location. The present study demonstrates that the remarkable phenotypic variation between the two color morphs inhabiting Golfo Dulce and Golfo de Papagayo, respectively, is not associated with differences in the expression of venom components, as shown by their conserved RP-HPLC profiles. Proteomic analysis revealed the relatively simple toxin composition of P. platura venom, which contains three predominant types of proteins: three-finger toxins (protein abundance: 49.9%), phospholipases A2 (32.9%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (9.1%), together with few minor components. Further, the involvement of these most abundant proteins in the toxic effects of the venom, and their cross-recognition and neutralization by a sea snake antivenom produced against the venom of Enhydrina schistosa, were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lubricant for cold plastic metal working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postolov, Yu.M.; Larina, N.F.; Osadchuk, Ye.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Syroyezhko, A.M.; Vikhorev, A.A.; Yakovlev, V.I.

    1980-03-28

    A lubricant is proposed for cold plastic metal working based on fatty acids from the process of pyrolysis of castor oil (ZhKPM) with increased screening properties and which improve the quality of PV of finished parts. The lubricant contains (percent): cyclohexanol 0.5-60, levulinic and/or ketoenanthic acid 0.5-20, ZhKPM up to 100; the content of ketoenanthic acid in mixture with levulinic acid is 20-50 percent. Tests of the number of proposed lubricants were conducted for cold stampling of parts from a metal strip on a 10 ton mechanical press. Tool stability (number of pieces until adhesion) was 1200-1400, purity class Pv-7. In tests under a similar condition of vegetable oil, ZhKPM and a mixture of ZhKPM with esters (nonlubricant) tool stability was 1100, and the purity class Pv-6.

  10. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerino Paolantoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces; in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece. Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  11. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  12. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  13. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  14. REBUILDING AUTO PIECES BY WELDING IN ULTRASONIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHIVU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the trucks manufacturing industry, railway industry, metallurgy industry, petrochemical and chemical industries are used several reconditioning technologies, the most common being: restoring plastic using deformation, welding, soldering, metallization, cutting through micro-splintering and deposition of non-metallic materials.The problem of reconditioning of the auto parts is a particularly complex and so the probleme arises of finding technical solutions that meet current needs, and in this sense in the paper is approached a technology by reconditioning considering the welding in ultrasonic field.

  15. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

  16. Bone response from a dynamic stimulus on a one-piece and multi-piece implant abutment and crown by finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimiragha, Habib; Abolbashari, Mohammadreza; Nokar, Saeed; Abolbashari, AmirHossein; Abolbashari, Mehrdad

    2014-10-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the effects of different types of abutments on the rate and distribution of stress on the bone surrounding the implant by dynamic finite element analysis method. In this study two ITI abutment models-one-piece and multi-piece-along with fixture, bone, and superstructure have been simulated with the help of company-made models. The maximum Von Mises stress (MVMS) was observed in the distobuccal area of the cortical bone near the crest of implant in two implant models. In the multi-piece abutment, MVMS was higher than the one-piece model (27.9 MPa and 23.3 MPa, respectively). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that type of abutment influences the stress distribution in the area surrounding the implant during dynamic loading.

  17. ADDing a piece to the puzzle of cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Marta; Pigoni, Alessandro; Zagato, Laura; Merlino, Lino; Casamassima, Nunzia; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Smeraldi, Enrico; Manunta, Paolo; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The biological bases of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia are poorly understood and may lie in insults in neurodevelopment, leading to alterations in critical structures. Synapses proteins are claimed to have etiopathogenic roles and more direct effects on core cognitive functions. Adducins family proteins seem of great interest, as they are fundamental constituents of synapses, involved in actin cytoskeleton assembly-disassembly, responsible of synaptic plasticity. ADD2 is more prominently expressed in brain tissues and influences memory and learning, commonly impaired in schizophrenia. In the present study we tested 342 patients with schizophrenia for three common adducins genetic variants, ADD1 rs4961, ADD2 rs4984 and ADD3 rs3731566, reported to have significant effects on circulatory system in humans. Neuropsychological measures were evaluated with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), a broad battery evaluating core cognitive domains. The analysis showed significant effects of ADD2 genotype on almost every cognitive domain. Moreover, significant interactions between ADD1 and ADD3 were also observed on some BACS subtests, namely Symbol Coding and Verbal Memory. Our findings suggest that adducins are involved in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. This effect may result both from a direct mechanism affecting synaptic building and plasticity and indirectly as a consequence of vascular insults.

  18. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  19. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metals from Large Printed Circuit Board Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, U.; Hocheng, H.

    2015-09-01

    The recovery of precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is an effective recycling process. This paper presents a promising hydrometallurgical process to recover precious metals from waste PCBs. To simplify the metal leaching process, large pieces of PCBs were used instead of a pulverized sample. The chemical coating present on the PCBs was removed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment prior to the hydrometallurgical treatment. Among the leaching reagents examined, hydrochloric acid (HCl) showed great potential for the recovery of metals. The HCl-mediated leaching of waste PCBs was investigated over a range of conditions. Increasing the acid concentration decreased the time required for complete metal recovery. The shaking speed showed a pronounced positive effect on metal recovery, but the temperature showed an insignificant effect. The results showed that 1 M HCl recovered all of the metals from 4 cm × 4 cm PCBs at room temperature and 150 rpm shaking speed in 22 h.

  20. Another Piece of the Elephant: Chromospheric Vector Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, K. D.; Metcalf, T. R.; Mickey, D. L.

    2005-05-01

    As with most solar observational questions, investigating the structure and role of the chromosphere is one of remote sensing: many investigations describing their "piece of the elephant". The goal is, of course, to form a coherent picture of the state of the magnetized plasma which resides there (or passes through). In this presentation, recent efforts to understand the chromospheric magnetic field structure via direct observation, i.e. chromospheric vector magnetograms, will be presented. Since late 2003, the U. Hawai`i/Mees Solar Observatory's Imaging Vector Magnetograph has routinely acquired spectropolarimetry measurements of active regions across the Na-I 589.6nm line; from the polarization at the line's near-wings approximately 0.007nm from line center we deduce the vector magnetic field. The data are specific to active regions, with the focus being the structure, free energy storage and evolution at that low-chromospheric layer. I will present salient aspects of the observed chromospheric magnetic field structure, to compare and contrast with the picture formed by the other methods in this session.

  1. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metals from Large Printed Circuit Board Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, U; Hocheng, H

    2015-09-29

    The recovery of precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is an effective recycling process. This paper presents a promising hydrometallurgical process to recover precious metals from waste PCBs. To simplify the metal leaching process, large pieces of PCBs were used instead of a pulverized sample. The chemical coating present on the PCBs was removed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment prior to the hydrometallurgical treatment. Among the leaching reagents examined, hydrochloric acid (HCl) showed great potential for the recovery of metals. The HCl-mediated leaching of waste PCBs was investigated over a range of conditions. Increasing the acid concentration decreased the time required for complete metal recovery. The shaking speed showed a pronounced positive effect on metal recovery, but the temperature showed an insignificant effect. The results showed that 1 M HCl recovered all of the metals from 4 cm × 4 cm PCBs at room temperature and 150 rpm shaking speed in 22 h.

  2. Interaction of color glazes with Japanese ceramic pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kazuhide; Kato, Takafumi

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of penetration activation energies of the traditional glazes, such as 'Te stu-Aka (Iron-Red)' and 'Wara-Jiro (Straw-White)', into the ceramic body were made on certain Japanese brand clay samples at the glaze-firing process. The observed values ranged from 35 kj/mol of 'Imari-Straw White' combination to 240 k/mol of 'Karatsu White-Iron Red' combination. Next, the manifestation of copper green color of an experimental glaze, mounted on the 'Imari White' test pieces, was examined after firing at 1300 degree C under various atmospheres. Air produced green, while N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmospheres made the same glaze rather colorless and a CO atmosphere produced a faintly pink color. On the basis of the 1976 CIE L*a*b* color three-dimensional system, it has been discovered that an addition of 2 wt % CuCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O to the 'Wara-Jiro' glaze produced an optimal greenness in air. Also, by comparing a series of pottery works glazed with 'Oribe' green glaze, it has been revealed that there are many types of greenness derived from the difference in Value (L*) as well as in Chroma (C*). A commercially available 'Kutani' sake cup possessed an almost pure green color. (author)

  3. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  4. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Reisser

    Full Text Available Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items. Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  5. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km−2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km−2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  6. The Arctic Ocean as a dead end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the Thermohaline Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozar, Andres; Marti, Elisa; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    The subtropical ocean gyres are recognized as greatmarine accummulation zones of floating plastic debris; however, the possibility of plastic accumulation at polar latitudes has been overlooked because of the lack of nearby pollution sources. In the present study, the Arctic Oceanwas extensively...... sampled for floating plastic debris fromthe TaraOceans circumpolar expedition. Although plastic debris was scarce or absent in most of the Arctic waters, it reached high concentrations (hundreds of thousands of pieces per square kilometer) in the northernmost and easternmost areas of the Greenland...... and Barents seas. The fragmentation and typology of the plastic suggested an abundant presence of aged debris that originated from distant sources. This hypothesis was corroborated by the relatively high ratios of marine surface plastic to local pollution sources. Surface circulation models and field data...

  7. The treatment of a polyurethane rigid foam floor piece by Ger van Elk: a study in the conservation of plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, E.; Weerdenbrug, S.; Timmermans, R.; Bridgland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Plint serie [Baseboard Series] (1967) by the Dutch artist Ger van Elk is a floor sculpture of painted polyurethane foam in the collection of the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. By 2007, the artwork was in a bad state: a point had broken off and there were dents and holes in the polyurethane foam and lac

  8. Measuring the Tilt of the Earth's Axis with the Help of a Plastic Pipe and a Piece of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isildak, R. Suat

    2016-01-01

    In this project, a method that had been developed using a single setup was employed to correctly measure the tilt of the Earth's axis on 21 June 2015. The method is an easily comprehensible and applicable technique that can be used in elementary science and astronomy courses and understood by students of every age group.

  9. Light transport in long, plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierlik, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland)], E-mail: m.gierlik@ipj.gov.pl; Batsch, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Sworobowicz, T. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2008-08-11

    As a form of the input into the collaboration the group from the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies undertook a task of investigating the validity of the design of a compact detector for Gamma Ray Bursts photon polarization measurements, known as POLAR. The authors focused at the scintillation and light transport properties of (200x6x6)mm{sup 3} BC400 plastic bars as well as of other samples of BC408 plastic in the attempt to determine whether the assembled instrument is going to achieve the performance criteria bestowed upon it by the project. The investigation revealed a strong dependence between the amplitude of a signal and distance between the precursor interaction in a scintillator and the photodetector. Accordingly to this finding an attempt has been made to determine the influence of the surface polishing quality on the overall scintillator performance. The authors consider that proper machining of scintillator pieces, adequate choice of their packaging, and proper software analysis may overcome the revealed disadvantages.

  10. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  11. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  13. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  14. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  15. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  16. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  17. Short- and Long-Term Musical Preferences: What Makes a Favourite Piece of Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Webb, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Within the growing field of music preferences, little is currently known about the concept of a favourite piece of music. The current study explores listeners' nominated favourite pieces of music over short and longer time-spans, combining diary and interview methods to uncover what a favourite means, how stable it is, and what factors influence…

  18. Performance-Based Design Optimization of a Transition Piece for Bucket Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with optimization of the shape of the transition piece connecting turbine column with a suction bucket used as a monopod foundation for an offshore wind turbine. The structural behaviour of a transition piece made of compact reinforced composite (CRC) is analysed. Several...

  19. Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelwahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Materials and Methods: Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Results: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Conclusion: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.

  20. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  1. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1) that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2) that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET) and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT), have consistently been found to be high. Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  2. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (p<0.05). Also, there were fewer unplanned changes (p<0.0005) seen with SenSura than with the reference appliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (p<0.0005), and they had greater resistance to erosion (p<0.05). In conclusion, SenSura performed better than the reference appliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  3. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackie June ter Heide

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  4. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  5. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  7. Crystal plasticity and grain crushing in high-porosity rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, H.; Tjioe, M.; Borja, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies show the significance of considering microstructure of individual crystals in modeling the inelastic behavior of high-porosity rocks. Plastic deformation of high-porosity crystalline rocks, exemplified by limestone, is mainly attributed to crystal plasticity and cataclastic flow. Crystal plasticity is defined as the plastic deformation along potential slip systems within the crystal lattice. In the context of continuum mechanics this micro-mechanism is modeled by a nonlinear relationship between stresses and strains. Two types of nonlinearity characterize the inelastic behavior of the crystal grains: material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity. Material nonlinearity defines the changes in stiffness matrix due to plastic slip along slip systems. Geometric nonlinearity contributes to the changes in stiffness matrix due to changes in the geometry of the crystal grains. Geometric nonlinearity is modeled using theory of finite deformation, which assumes the geometry of slip systems to be a function of crystal deformation. This type of nonlinearity is very important in modeling crystal deformation mainly because of plastic spin induced by anisotropy in the crystal structure. However, considering the geometry of slip systems as a function of crystal slip makes the equations highly nonlinear. As a result, many studies either ignore geometric nonlinearity or make other assumptions to simplify the equations. Cataclastic flow, on the other hand, is characterized by pervasive grain crushing in which larger grains are converted into smaller ones. We model cataclastic flow as strong discontinuity in the grain scale via an assumed enhanced strain method formulated within the context of nonlinear finite elements. The method allows the individual finite elements, identified to be in critical condition, to break into two pieces along a plane identified by theory of bifurcation. We show that modeling cataclastic flow combined with finite deformation crystal

  8. Plastic ingestion by Masked booby, Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, on Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich de Freitas Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastic particles are one of the most common pollutants in the marine environment and it is reaching regions with low human population density. These particles are frequently ingested by many marine organisms, causing digestive problems, which may lead to the weakening and death of the animal. In a research on the feeding of 631-masked boobies, Sula dactylatra from the Biological Reserve of Atol das Rocas, plastic particles were found in stomach contents of four adults. The artifacts found were made of transperant plastic, a piece of label of a mineral water bottle, two pieces of black plastic and a small hard and red piece. The flow of fishing and tourism boats on the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve may be the source of origin of the plastic parts in both the stomach contents and those found on the islands of the reserve, which suggests that anthropogenic behaviour has already reached isolated areas which should have a high degree of biodiversity protection. Several measures can be taken to avoid deleterious events in the marine biota, but there is great difficulty in avoiding waste dumping from fishing and tourism ships/boats, in addition to that, there are many materials from the mainland, which requires an increase in awareness and supervision.

  9. Occurrence of coring in insulin vials and possibility of rubber piece contamination by self-injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, T; Seino, H; Nozaki, S; Abe, R

    2001-06-01

    Coring is reported to occur because rubber pieces are shaved off from a rubber stopper when a needle is inserted into the rubber stopper of transfusion liquid formulation. We verified whether coring really occurs in insulin vials of self-injecting patients. We collected insulin cartridges from 30 hospitalized patients and used the primary injection (trial injection), the secondary injection and the cartridge remaining preparation as samples. We observed the rubber pieces using a microscope and measured the shape, number of pieces. The occurrence rate of coring was 73% for the primary injection, 47% for the secondary injection and 97% for the cartridge remaining preparation. The rubber pieces in the primary injection and the secondary injection which went through the needle are mostly in aggregate shape and the rubber pieces in the cartridge remaining preparation which did not go through the needle are mostly in needle-like shape. A number of small rubber pieces are found in both the primary injection and the secondary injection, indicating a high possibility that rubber pieces may be injected under subcutaneous tissue. The coring is considered to occur because needles are repeatedly inserted and rotated at the same spot. It is required to improve the structure to mount a needle to the pen-type injector in future. Coring is a very serious problem from the medical and pharmaceutical points of view. Further study should be made on the implication to latex allergy and lipodystrophy.

  10. Biological Width around One- and Two-Piece Implants Retrieved from Human Jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Judgar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several histologic studies regarding peri-implant soft tissues and biological width around dental implants have been done in animals. However, these findings in human peri-implant soft tissues are very scarce. Therefore, the aim of this case series was to compare the biological width around unloaded one- and two-piece implants retrieved from human jaws. Eight partially edentulous patients received 2 test implants in the posterior mandible: one-piece (solid implants that comprise implant and abutment in one piece and two-piece (external hexagon with a healing abutment implants. After 4 months of healing, the implants and surrounding tissue were removed for histologic analysis. The retrieved implants showed healthy peri-implant bone and exhibited early stages of maturation. Marginal bone loss, gaps, and fibrous tissue were not present around retrieved specimens. The biologic width dimension ranged between 2.55 ± 0.16 and 3.26 ± 0.15 to one- and two-piece implants, respectively (P0.05. Within the limits of this study, it could be shown that two-piece implants resulted in the thickening of the connective tissue attachment, resulting in the increase of the biological width, when compared to one-piece implants.

  11. The Use of Waste Plastic as a Partial Substitution Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Aschuri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, Indonesia faces serious problems managing solid waste such as plastic. Annually, Indonesia produces approximately 5.4 million tons of waste plastic, accounting for 14% of the country’s total solid waste production. Using waste plastic as a partial substitution aggregate in asphalt concrete pavement would be one of solutions for reducing environmental problems from the high volume of waste plastic. Previous studies show that it may be possible to use waste plastic in road pavement to improve the engineering performance of road pavement and increase its service life. This study investigates the performance of asphalt concrete mixtures containing varying amounts of waste plastic as a partial aggregate substitution as compared to that of conventional mixtures. The waste plastic used in this study was chopped into small pieces of approximately passing sieve number 30 and retained sieve number 40, which would replace (by weight a portion of the mineral aggregates. All mixtures were prepared using 5.82% optimum bitumen content. The performance of asphalt concrete characteristics was studied using the Marshall test, The Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test, The Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM test, and the Cantabro Loss (CL test in terms of strength, stiffness modulus, and durability characteristics. In general, laboratory results showed that asphalt concrete mixtures containing waste plastic have higher performance than conventional asphalt concrete mixtures.

  12. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  13. Collide@CERN: exclusive open rehearsal of Gilles Jobin's last piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Collide@CERN and Gilles Jobin, artist in residency at CERN, present an exclusive open rehearsal of his last piece SPIDER GALAXIES Tuesday 31 July 2012 - A new piece created to open new territories of the mind - Join us in Restaurant 1 from 4 p.m. (next to the Glass Box Restaurant) With this piece, the body turns into matter, which is complete, spatial and sensual. Come and see Gilles Jobin and his dancers. With a score by Cristian Vogel and Carla Scaletti invoking sound particles, while Daniel Demont disperses the spectrum. Protean, infinitely large or infinitesimal, such are the Spider Galaxies.    

  14. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  15. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  16. John Cage's Number Pieces as Stochastic Processes: a Large-Scale Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Popoff, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The Number Pieces are a corpus of works by composer John Cage, which rely on a particular time-structure used for determining the temporal location of sounds, named the "time-bracket". The time-bracket system is an inherently stochastic process, which complicates the analysis of the Number Pieces as it leads to a large number of possibilities in terms of sonic content instead of one particular fixed performance. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical approach of the Number Pieces by assimilating them to stochastic processes. Two Number Pieces, "Four" and "Five", are studied here in terms of pitch-class set content: the stochastic processes at hand lead to a collection of random variables indexed over time giving the distribution of the possible pitch-class sets. This approach allows for a static and dynamic analysis of the score encompassing all the possible outcomes during the performance of these works.

  17. Product management of making large pieces through Rapid Prototyping PolyJet® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiu, G.; Cărăuşu, C.; Şerban, D.; Turc, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid prototyping process has already become a classic manufacturing process for parts and assemblies, either polymeric or metal parts. Besides the well-known advantages and disadvantages of the process, the use of 3D printers has a great inconvenience: the overall dimensions of the parts are limited. Obviously, there is a possibility to purchase a larger (and more expensive) 3D printer, but there are always larger pieces to be manufactured. One solution to this problem is the splitting of parts into several components that can be manufactured. The component parts can then be assembled in a single piece by known methods such as welding, gluing, screwing, etc. This paper shows our experience in making large pieces on the Strarasys® Objet24 printer, pieces larger than the tray sizes. The results obtained are valid for any 3D printer using the PolyJet® process.

  18. [Optimization of processing technology for pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; Ma, Xiao-Li; Hao, Li-Jing; Zhao, Qing; Cao, Song-Yun

    2012-06-01

    To optimize the best gradient drying technology of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam, and provide technique parameter for processing of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam. Determined the content of polysaccharide by UV and the content of allantoin by HPLC. The optimum gradient drying technology of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam was investigated by orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment and the contents of polysaccharide and allantoin were regarded as the investigated indexes. The optimum processing technology of first gradient drying stage was A2B2, that was drying for 60 min at 115 degrees C; The optimum drying temperature of second drying stage was 65 degrees C. The optimum technology is stable and feasible for the processing of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam.

  19. [Development of Fuzi precision decoction pieces (PDP) (I): Specification and quality uniformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yong-feng; Tan, Peng; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-09-01

    The specification of decoction pieces and quality uniformity are the important factors to influence the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the deficiency of diversity, poor quality uniformity and confusion of decoction pieces specifications, we first propose a new idea of precision decoction pieces (PDP) based on clinical demands and fresh-processed technology. In order to explain the idea, a study case of aconite SUP is provided, including the optimized specification design, processing technology, extraction effects, quality uniformity, and toxic and efficacy variation and so on. The results showed that preparing 5 mm PDP by fresh-cutting is rather simple and practicable, with high efficiency and large yield; then, this technology could significantly decrease the ingredients loss and increase the efficacy components; moreover, it was helpful for achieving the quality uniformity and best extraction effects. This work revealed the quality superiority of PDP, and provided a good strategy and example for the standard of decoction pieces specification and modernization of processing technology.

  20. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  1. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  2. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  3. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  4. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  5. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  6. Piece rates and their effects on health and safety - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Rask, Kjell; Stenberg, Magnus

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a broad survey and analysis of relevant research articles about piece rate wages and their effects on health and safety that were published internationally until the fall of 2008. The aim was to summarize and describe the state of the art of the research in this field and if possible draw conclusions from the accumulated research results. A total of 75 research articles were examined extensively and 31 of these were found relevant and had sufficient quality to serve the purpose of this study. The findings of these relevant articles are summarized and analyzed in the survey. Since the late 1980s, there has been a change of research focus regarding piece rates and their effects on health and safety. More recent research shows a clear interest for health, musculoskeletal injuries, physical workload, pains and occupational injuries. The previous interest in risk behavior, security and accidents is still there, but no longer dominates the research scene. Although research is still sparse and fragmented, much of the accumulated knowledge about the effects of piece rate work tells us that piece rates in many situations have a negative effect on health and safety. The fact that 27 of the 31 studied articles found negative effects of piece rates on different aspects of health and safety does not prove causality, but together they give very strong support for the hypothesis that in most situations piece rates have negative effects on health and safety. In order to achieve better knowledge about the effects of piece rates in branches where piece rates are regarded problematic, further research is needed and such research has to be designed to meet the specific questions that are to be answered. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nzikitanza – A piece on the resistance against the MUOS in Niscemi , Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Messina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nzikitanza for accordion, violin, cello and tape was written in 2012 as a reflection on the deployment of Sicilian territory for NATO and US military operations. In particular, the piece was inspired by the then newly formed resistance committee against the MUOS in Niscemi. This brief commentary will illustrate a priori and a posteriori reflections on the status of the piece as a contribution to forms of antagonistic culture.

  8. A new method for the accuracy evaluation of a manufactured piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, E. V.; Cardei, M.

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a manufactured piece, it must be measured and compared with a reference model, namely the designed 3D model, based on geometrical elements. In this paper a new method for the precision evaluation of a manufactured piece is proposed, which implies the creation of the piece digital 3D model based on digital images and its transformation into a 3D mesh surface. The differences between the two models, the designed model and the new created one, are calculated using the Hausdorff distance. The aim of this research is to determine the differences between two 3D models, especially CAD models, with high precision, in a completely automated way. To obtain the results, a small piece has been photographed with a digital camera, that was calibrated using a 3D calibration object, a target consisting of a number of 42 points, 36 placed in the corners of 9 wood cubes with different heights and 6 of them placed at the middle of the distance between the cubes, on a board. This target was previously tested, the tests showing that using this calibration target instead of a 2D calibration grid, the precision of the final 3D model is improved with approximatly 50%. The 3D model of the manufactured piece was created using two methods. First, based on digital images, a point cloud was automatically generated and after the filtering process, the remaining points were interpolated, obtaining the piece 3D model as a mesh surface. Second, the piece 3D model was created using also the digital images, based on its characteristic points, resulting a CAD model, that was transformed into a mesh surface. Finally, the two 3D models were compared with the designed model, using the CloudCompare software, thus resulting the imperfections of the manufactured piece. The proposed method highlights the differences between the two models using a color palette, offering at the same time a global comparison.

  9. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  10. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  11. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  12. The Arctic Ocean as a dead end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the Thermohaline Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Martí, Elisa; Duarte, Carlos M; García-de-Lomas, Juan; van Sebille, Erik; Ballatore, Thomas J; Eguíluz, Victor M; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Pedrotti, Maria L; Echevarría, Fidel; Troublè, Romain; Irigoien, Xabier

    2017-04-01

    The subtropical ocean gyres are recognized as great marine accummulation zones of floating plastic debris; however, the possibility of plastic accumulation at polar latitudes has been overlooked because of the lack of nearby pollution sources. In the present study, the Arctic Ocean was extensively sampled for floating plastic debris from the Tara Oceans circumpolar expedition. Although plastic debris was scarce or absent in most of the Arctic waters, it reached high concentrations (hundreds of thousands of pieces per square kilometer) in the northernmost and easternmost areas of the Greenland and Barents seas. The fragmentation and typology of the plastic suggested an abundant presence of aged debris that originated from distant sources. This hypothesis was corroborated by the relatively high ratios of marine surface plastic to local pollution sources. Surface circulation models and field data showed that the poleward branch of the Thermohaline Circulation transfers floating debris from the North Atlantic to the Greenland and Barents seas, which would be a dead end for this plastic conveyor belt. Given the limited surface transport of the plastic that accumulated here and the mechanisms acting for the downward transport, the seafloor beneath this Arctic sector is hypothesized as an important sink of plastic debris.

  13. The Arctic Ocean as a dead end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the Thermohaline Circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2017-04-20

    The subtropical ocean gyres are recognized as great marine accummulation zones of floating plastic debris; however, the possibility of plastic accumulation at polar latitudes has been overlooked because of the lack of nearby pollution sources. In the present study, the Arctic Ocean was extensively sampled for floating plastic debris from the Tara Oceans circumpolar expedition. Although plastic debris was scarce or absent in most of the Arctic waters, it reached high concentrations (hundreds of thousands of pieces per square kilometer) in the northernmost and easternmost areas of the Greenland and Barents seas. The fragmentation and typology of the plastic suggested an abundant presence of aged debris that originated from distant sources. This hypothesis was corroborated by the relatively high ratios of marine surface plastic to local pollution sources. Surface circulation models and field data showed that the poleward branch of the Thermohaline Circulation transfers floating debris from the North Atlantic to the Greenland and Barents seas, which would be a dead end for this plastic conveyor belt. Given the limited surface transport of the plastic that accumulated here and the mechanisms acting for the downward transport, the seafloor beneath this Arctic sector is hypothesized as an important sink of plastic debris.

  14. Ingestion of plastic marine debris by Common and Thick-billed Murres in the northwestern Atlantic from 1985 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Elliot, Richard D; Ryan, Pierre C; Rowe, Sherrylynn; Jones, Ian L; Robertson, Gregory J; Wilhelm, Sabina I

    2013-12-15

    Plastic ingestion by seabirds is a growing conservation issue, but there are few time series of plastic ingestion with large sample sizes for which one can assess temporal trends. Common and Thick-billed Murres (Uria aalge and U. lomvia) are pursuit-diving auks that are legally harvested in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Here, we combined previously unpublished data on plastic ingestion (from the 1980s to the 1990s) with contemporary samples (2011-2012) to evaluate changes in murres' plastic ingestion. Approximately 7% of murres had ingested plastic, with no significant change in the frequency of ingestion among species or periods. The number of pieces of plastic/bird, and mass of plastic/bird were highest in the 1980s, lowest in the late 1990s, and intermediate in contemporary samples. Studying plastic ingestion in harvested seabird populations links harvesters to conservation and health-related issues and is a useful source of large samples for diet and plastic ingestion studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low temperature creep plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kassner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of crystalline materials at low temperatures (T < 0.3Tm is discussed. In particular, the phenomenological relationships that describe primary creep are reviewed and analyzed. A discussion of the activation energy for creep at T < 0.3Tm is discussed in terms of the context of higher temperature activation energy. The basic mechanism(s of low temperature creep plasticity are discussed, as well.

  16. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  18. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-05-01

    Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste Framework Directive and the Directive on the Landfill of Waste. The main gaps identified relate to lack of clear definitions of categories of polymers, unambitious recycling rates and lack of consideration of macro- and microplastics in key pieces of legislation. We recommend that polymers are categorized according to whether they are polymers with the same monomer constituents (homopolymers) or with different monomer constituents (copolymers) and that polymers are no longer exempt from registration and evaluation under REACH. Plastics should furthermore have the same high level of monitoring and reporting requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should also apply to heavyweight plastic carrier bags. Last, the Marine and Water Framework Directives should specifically address plastic waste affecting water quality

  19. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  20. Review of Agricultural Plastic Mulching and Its Residual Pollution and Prevention Measures In China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Chang-rong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural plastic film mulching is one of important technologies, but the plastic film pollution has been a serious issue for agri-cultural sustainable development in China. System analysis of this technique and its residue pollution and control ways have vital practicalsignificance for rational application of agricultural plastil film. In this paper, on the basis of our previous work,agricultural plastic filmmulching, its residue pollution and control technologies were concluded. Some important conclusions were found that, the amount of plasticfilm and mulching area had kept increasing with annual increasing rate about 8% since the 80s of the 20th century. From 1991 to 2011, thedensity of plastic film utilized increased 3-10 times, but it has very sharply different spatial pattern in different province. In general, the northand west China has high value, and the increase rate is also huge in the past 20 years. The crops of utilized mulching plastic film have extendedfrom cash crops to grain crops, and the order of crop area is followed by maize, vegetable, cotton, tobacco and peanut. The main functions ofmulching plastic film are keeping soil moisture and increasing soil temperature, against weeds and insect. At the same time, its side effectsappear with continuous utilization. The main problems are residues left in soil to destroy soil structure, impress soil permeability, impede seedgermination as well as water and nutrients uptaking, and block crop root system development. It has very serious pollution for the field utilizedplastic mulching film for long term. The residual amount in soil is about 71.9-259.1 kg·hm-2, and has sharply spatial difference. The residualamount in soil. In Northwest China, is more serious than that in North China and Southwest China. Because of difference of tillage and appli-canon ways, there are great differences on the area and shape of the plastic film piece left in soil. The main types of shapes are flaky

  1. Numerical Simulation of Water Flow through the Bottom End Piece of a Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moysés A.; Santos, André A. C. Dos

    An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the pressure loss of flows through the bottom end piece of a nuclear fuel assembly. To determine an optimized numerical methodology using the commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0, a series of preliminary simulations of water flows through perforated plates in a square ducts were performed. A perforated plate is a predominant geometry of the bottom end piece, responsible for the majority of the flow's pressure drop. The numerical pressure loss applying an optimized mesh and the k-ɛ turbulence model showed good agreement when compared with a conventional methodology (Idelchik). Numerical results for the standard bottom end piece were obtained applying the previously determined mesh criteria and the k-ɛ turbulence model with some geometric simplifications. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results can be considered satisfactory but suggests further numerical investigations with the bottom piece under real conditions of the experiment, without the geometric simplifications and with a gap between the piece and the wall of the flow channel. Additionally, other turbulence models should be appraised for this complex geometry.

  2. Small DNA pieces in C. elegans are intermediates of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Joseph Aruscavage

    Full Text Available While studying small noncoding RNA in C. elegans, we discovered that protocols used for isolation of RNA are contaminated with small DNA pieces. After electrophoresis on a denaturing gel, the DNA fragments appear as a ladder of bands, approximately 10 nucleotides apart, mimicking the pattern of nuclease digestion of DNA wrapped around a nucleosome. Here we show that the small DNA pieces are products of the DNA fragmentation that occurs during apoptosis, and correspondingly, are absent in mutant strains incapable of apoptosis. In contrast, the small DNA pieces are present in strains defective for the engulfment process of apoptosis, suggesting they are produced in the dying cell prior to engulfment. While the small DNA pieces are also present in a number of strains with mutations in predicted nucleases, they are undetectable in strains containing mutations in nuc-1, which encodes a DNase II endonuclease. We find that the small DNA pieces can be labeled with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase only after phosphatase treatment, as expected if they are products of DNase II cleavage, which generates a 3' phosphate. Our studies reveal a previously unknown intermediate in the process of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and thus bring us closer to defining this important pathway.

  3. [Uniformity of Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces dispensing based on effective constituent equivalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qin; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ding-kun; Feng, Wu-wen; Zhang, Cong-en; Niu, Ming; Dong, Xiao-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) dispensing is the final step of TCM used for clinical treatment, the stability of TCM dispensing is the guarantee of good clinical effect. Establishment of effect-constituent equivalence for Chinese herbal pieces based on clinical efficacy, can not only guarantee the stability of TCM dispensing, but also relate to the precision of clinical effect. This study chose Coptidis Rhizoma as the model, established effect-constituent equivalence of Coptidis Rhizoma, based on the effect-constituent index already established by our research group, and taking into consideration of homogeneity of clinical dosage and compliance of decoction, the uniformity of dispensing for different specification of Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces was studied. This research model was then applied to guide the specification-optimization of Coptidis Rhizoma and its clinical dispensing. The result indicated, effective constituent equivalence could reflect the fluctuation of specification, dosage and decoction to the fluctuation of efficacy; Optimized Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces had the characteristic of high homogeneity as for clinical dispensing, good compliance as for decoction, and high effective constituent equivalence. In conclusion, effective constituent equivalence could improve relevance of methods of TCM dispensing control to clinical effect. Preparated Superior-standard Decoction Pieces based on effective constituent equivalence was featured by good quality and a good practice of adjustable dosage, which could promote the development of TCM decoction pieces toward precision medicine.

  4. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  5. A MULTISET APPROACH FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN CHARACTERS USING PUZZLE PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlin Deepa R.N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image pattern matching is one of the most widely used techniques in character recognition. A pattern is the description of an object. Although a large number of papers have been reported on handwritten character recognition, it is still a very challenging problem. Recognition of characters is based on pattern classification. In this paper a hybrid approach is proposed using fuzzy technique and multiset comparison to recognize handwritten characters. Fuzzy technique is used to measure the variations in the features of handwritten numerals to form strings of character. Features are selected from the preprocessed image and the feature is labeled using fuzzy logic. Strings of a character are formed from these labeled primitives. Each string is divided into a multiset of puzzle pieces by repeatedly applying a mask which is comprised of all ones. The string is padded with anchors at the beginning and end. The mask is placed over the string, beginning at a certain character, and reading off all characters corresponding to 1 bit in the mask, thus producing one puzzle piece. To divide a string into multiset of puzzle pieces, the mask is applied at all shifts in the string starting at each character. Thus for each prototype character, we associate a multiset of puzzle pieces, which form the database. The multiset of puzzle pieces of an unknown character is constructed and compared with the same in the database, leading to the identification of the unknown character.

  6. Low-cost rapid prototyping of flexible plastic paper based microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This research presents a novel rapid prototyping method for paper-based flexible microfluidic devices. The microchannels were fabricated using laser ablation on a piece of plastic paper (permanent paper), the dimensions of the microchannels was carefully studied for various laser powers and scanning speeds. After laser ablation of the microchannels on the plastic paper, a transparent poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) film was thermally bonded to the plastic paper to enclose the channels. After connection of tubing, the device was ready to use. An example microfluidic device (droplet generator) was also fabricated using this technique. Due to the flexibility of the fabricated device, this technique can be used to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. The fabrication process was simple and rapid without any requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  8. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  9. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  10. Structural Optimization of an Offshore Wind Turbines Transition Pieces for Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    as an alternative to steel. CRC has an excellent durability and higher compressive strength compared to traditional concrete. This material has also an increased ductility owing to integration of large contents of short, strong and stiff steel fibres. At present, application of high-tension concrete is limited......Traditionally, offshore constructions are made of steel. The focus of this paper is optimization of a transition piece (TP) connecting the offshore wind turbine column with a suction bucket foundation. Suction caissons, typically used for shallow water depths, have been proved to be adequate...... offshore, mainly, to making a grouting connection of a transition piece to a monopile. Lack of standards and norms puts additional restriction on application of CRC. In the earlier work, the structural performance of transition pieces with a conical shape was compared for a 5 MW offshore wind turbine...

  11. Multi-Dimensional Piece-Wise Self-Affine Fractal Interpolation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong; ZHUANG Zhuo

    2007-01-01

    Iterated function system (IFS) models have been used to represent discrete sequences where the attractor of the IFS is piece-wise self-affine in R2 or R3 (R is the set of real numbers). In this paper, the piece-wise self-affine IFS model is extended from R3 to Rn (n is an integer greater than 3), which is called the multi-dimensional piece-wise self-affine fractal interpolation model. This model uses a "mapping partial derivative", and a constrained inverse algorithm to identify the model parameters. The model values depend continuously on all the model parameters, and represent most data which are not multi-dimensional self-affine in Rn. Therefore, the result is very general. The class of functions obtained is much more diverse because their values depend continuously on all of the variables, with all the coefficients of the possible multi-dimensional affine maps determining the functions.

  12. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    “Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  13. Fabrication of plastic biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaem, Ishtiaq; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Alam, S. Munir; Tian Jingdong [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A versatile surface functionalization procedure based on rf magnetron sputtering of silica was performed on poly(methylmethacrylate), polycarbonate, polypropylene, and cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 6015). The hybrid thermoplastic surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis and contact angle measurements. The authors then used these hybrid materials to perform a sandwich assay targeting an HIV-1 antibody using fluorescent detection and biotinylated peptides immobilized using the bioaffinity of biotin-neutravidin. They found a limit of detection similar to arrays on glass surfaces and believed that this plastic biochip platform may be used for the development of disposable immunosensing and diagnostic applications.

  14. Pieces of Other Worlds - Enhance YSS Education and Public Outreach Events with Extraterrestrial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Year of the Solar System spacecraft will encounter two comets; orbit the asteroid Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, is available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates NASA's extraterrestrial samples to support research, education, and public outreach. At the current time JSC curates five types of extraterrestrial samples: Moon rocks and soils collected by the Apollo astronauts Meteorites collected on US expeditions to Antarctica (including rocks from the Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta) “Cosmic dust” (asteroid and comet particles) collected by high-altitude aircraft Solar wind atoms collected by the Genesis spacecraft Comet and interstellar dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft These rocks, soils, dust particles, and atoms continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. He will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets

  15. Impact of additives on corrosion rate of cans filled with pieces of apricot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarization techniques are used for testing the impact of different compounds (additives on tinplate corrosion, using pieces of apricot dipped in syrup with and without nitrate addition as electrolyte solution, at the same time using filled cans as electrolytic cell and operating electrode. This procedure determined the intensity of inhibiting tin dissolving with some of the used additives like sodium-benzoate, potassium-sorbate sodium-lauril-sulphate and p-aminobenzoate acid. Adding these additives to canned pieces of apricot in syrup led to inhibiting of tin dissolving, which was experimentally proved.

  16. Sutureless, Glueless, Scleral Fixation of Single-Piece and Toric Intraocular Lens: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Aditya; Shah, Rachana; Kelkar, Jai; Kelkar, Shreekant; Arora, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Sutureless, glueless, scleral fixation of an intraocular lens is a known technique of fixing a lens in the scleral pockets. However, this technique is applied to single-piece and toric lenses instead of 3-piece lenses, allowing the advantage of the use of premium lenses in patients with poor capsular support. Favourable results without complications of pigment dispersion, iris transillumination defects, dysphotopsia, elevated intraocular pressure, intraocular hemorrhage and cystoid macular edema with a well-centered, stable intraocular lens have been observed in the 3-month postoperative period in both cases.

  17. Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals defined without using heaps of pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Feretić, Svjetlan

    2011-01-01

    Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals are two lattice models defined by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer in 2002. The original definitions of those models involve heaps of pieces, i.e., some geometric representation of partially commutative monoids. The object of this writing is to define stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals in such a way that heaps of pieces are not involved. Our alternative definitions are equivalent to Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer's origi...

  18. The features of the optical pumping active fibers with three-piece inner clad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Alexander V.; Slobozhanina, Mariya G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents simple model of distribution of the pump radiation in active three-piece inner clad fibers (GTWave3) and analytical solutions of the relevant differential equations. Based on these solutions has been produced the analysis of the dependence distribution of the pump radiation and value of the effective length GTWave3 from key parameters of this type of a fiber (the active-region absorption coefficient and the coupling coefficients). Also in work presents comparison of the pump distribution into the GTWave3 and GTWave2 (two-piece inner clad) fibers.

  19. Enumeration of pyramids of one-dimensional pieces of arbitrary fixed integer length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Eilers, Søren

    We consider pyramids made of one-dimensional pieces of fixed integer length a and which may have pairwise overlaps of integer length from 1 to a. We prove that the number of pyramids of size m, i.e. consisting of m pieces, equals (am-1,m-1) for each a >= 2. This generalises a well known result...... for a = 2. A bijective correspondence between so-called right (or left) pyramids and a-ary trees is pointed out, and it is shown that asymptotically the average width of pyramids is proportional to the square root of the size....

  20. 33. 6 T dc magnetic field produced in a hybrid magnet with Ho pole pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, L.G.; Brandt, B.L.; Weggel, R.J.; Foner, S.; McNiff E.J. Jr.

    1986-07-07

    A dc magnetic field of 33.6 +- 0.3 T was produced in a hybrid magnet whose central field was enhanced by a 3.5 T contribution from holmium pole pieces. The working (sample) volume was a 2-mm gap between the 19-mm-diam x 32-mm-long pole pieces tapered to 12-mm-diam faces. The magnetic field was measured with high-field/low-temperature Hall-effect sensors whose reproducibility and linearity made practical an extrapolation technique for fields above 30 T. Three superconducting samples with previously measured upper critical fields were used as calibration check points.

  1. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E

    2016-01-01

    ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative...... changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase – and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases – followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible...

  2. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  3. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  4. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-22

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km(2) and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat.

  5. Preliminary investigation of the transport of small plastic litter along a vegetated riverbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    Plastics are widely used in consumer products, due to its low cost, low weight and high durability compared to other types of materials. Contamination of marine ecosystems due to plastics (including microplastics) is a challenge that has received a lot of attention due to the significant risks it poses for the environment and human health. Plastics find their way to the ocean from land via the river system. Studying and obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the fate of plastic litter is therefore important in proactively devising methods to reduce their quantity or produce designs to trap plastic pollutants and prevent them from entering the ocean through estuaries. In this context, it is a common observation of hydraulic practitioners and field geomorphologists, that plastic litter can be trapped within riparian vegetation patches along streams or canals, which can be washed away in periods of high flows. To this goal this study aims to use a series of purpose specific physical experiments to examine the mechanisms of dispersion of plastic litter along the water surface of a channel with simulated riparian vegetation. The set of experiments are conducted in a recirculating flume with rigid riverbank and riparian vegetation modeled by a large number of acrylic rods, placed on the top of the riverbank section. Six different sizes of pieces of Styrofoam are used to simulate plastic litter. These are released from different locations upstream and in the vicinity of the riparian vegetation for various configurations (linear, staggered and random) of characteristic solid density. The trajectory of the plastic litter is recorded with a camera offering a top view of the arrangement. From the analysis of this a variety of results are obtained including transport metrics (including transport velocity and time to trapping) and litter-trapping location. The relation between the size of the litter, the vegetation configuration and the traveling

  6. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  7. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  8. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  9. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  10. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  11. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  12. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  13. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  14. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  15. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  16. Investigation of two-color magneto-optical trap with cesium 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 ladder-type system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    A novel cesium (Cs) two-color magneto-optical trap (TC-MOT), which partially employs the optical radiation forces due to photon scattering of the 6P3/2 (F'=5) - 7S1/2 (F"=4) excited-state transition in the Cs 6S1/2 - 6P3/2 - 7S1/2 (852 + 1470 nm) ladder-type system, has been proposed and experimentally investigated. One of the three pairs of 852 nm cooling/trapping beams (CTBs) in a conventional Cs MOT is replaced with a pair of the 1470 nm CTBs (type-I) or with one 852 nm CTB plus another counter-propagating 1470 nm CTB (type-II). Both the type-I and type-II Cs TC-MOTs can cool and trap atoms on both the red- and blue-detuning sides of the two-photon resonance. The Cs TC-MOT demonstrated in this work may have applications in the background-free detection of cooled and trapped atoms, and the photon-pair sources compatible with the ensemble-based quantum memory and the long-distance quantum communication via optical fiber.

  17. 双色场诱导气体产生相干可控的四次谐波∗%Coherently controlled fourth harmonic generation in gases induced by a two-color field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Induced by the harmonically related two-color pulse, the fourth harmonic wave in the vacuum ultraviolet range has been observed in gases. The process of the fourth harmonic generation is studied. In the case of non-ionized gas, the intensity dependence on the pump pulse reveals that the fourth harmonic generation is a third-order parametric process of 2ω+ω+ω → 4ω. In the case of ionized gas, the intensity of the fourth harmonic wave can be coherently controlled by the relative phase of the pump. Employing synchronous measurements of the fourth-order harmonic and terahertz emissions, the optimized relative phases of the two emissions have been studied and compared with each other experimentally. Results agree well with those of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). According to the reported optimized phase for the terahertz generation, the fourth harmonic generation involves two parametric processes:2ω+2ω±ΩTHz →4ω and 2ω+ω+ω →4ω. The modulation of the fourth harmonic wave can be understood as the interference of the two channels.

  18. Laser radiation frequency conversion in carbon- and cluster-containing plasma plumes under conditions of single and two-color pumping by pulses with a 10-Hz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    This work reviews a series of investigations of different plasma plumes using single- and two-color laser systems that emit femtosecond pulses with a 10-Hz repetition rate. Results of investigation of the resonant enhancement of harmonics in tin plasma with the use of two types of pumps are analyzed, and it is shown that the tuning of the wavelengths of harmonics to ion-resonance levels plays an important role in increasing the conversion efficiency to high-order harmonics of the radiation to be converted. Investigations of different carbon-containing plasma media (carbon nanotubes, graphite, carbon aerogel, etc.) exhibit attractive properties of the nonlinear medium of this type for efficient generation of high-order harmonics. The results of the first experiments on the use of nanoparticles produced directly in the course of laser ablation of metals for increasing the efficiency of harmonics generated in this cluster-containing medium are analyzed. It is shown that new approaches realized in these investigations give hope that the nonlinear optical response of plasma media in the far-ultraviolet range can be further increased.

  19. Fascia compared to one-piece composite cartilage-perichondrium grafting for tympanoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, Sarah A.; Su, Tanly; Vissers, Linda E T; Peters, Jeroen P M; Smit, Adriana L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of type 1 tympanoplasty with one-piece composite cartilage-perichondrium (CCP) grafts compared to temporalis fascia (TF) grafts for tympanic membrane (TM) closure and hearing improvement in adult patients with a subtotal TM perforation and chronic otitis medi

  20. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of pieces of complex geometry with a flexible phased array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon; Cattiaux; Serre; Roy

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components of complex geometry in the nuclear industry faces several difficulties: sensitivity variations due to unmatched contact, inaccurate localization of defects due to variations of transducer orientation, and uncovered area of the component. To improve the performances of such testing and defect characterization, we propose a new concept of ultrasonic contact phased array transducer. The phased array transducer has a flexible radiating surface able to fit the actual surface of the piece to optimize the contact and thus the sensitivity of the test. To control the transmitted field, and therefore to improve the defect characterization, a delay law optimizing algorithm is developed. To assess the capability of such a transducer, the Champ-Sons model, developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission for predicting field radiated by arbitrary transducers into pieces, has to be extended to sources directly in contact with pieces of complex geometry. The good behavior of this new type of probe predicted by computations is experimentally validated with a jointed transducer positioned on pieces of various profiles.

  1. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G".

  2. My Child Needs a Piece of Adaptive Equipment: Now What? Well, It Depends!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jennifer McLaughlin

    2007-01-01

    As a pediatric physical therapist, the author usually hears this question, "Now What?," after months of frustration as parents attempt to figure out the procedure of getting an item for their child. Unfortunately, there is not a specific answer except "it depends," which can be just as frustrating as the question at hand. Typically, a piece of…

  3. Comparison of the T-piece resuscitator with other neonatal manual ventilation devices: A qualitative review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To review the literature surrounding various aspects of T-piece resuscitator use, with particular emphasis on the evidence comparing the device to other manual ventilation devices in neonatal resuscitation. DATA SOURCES: The Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane databases were searched in April 2011. Ongoing trials were identified using www.clinicaltrials.gov and www.controlled-trials.com. Additional studies from reference lists of eligible articles were considered. All studies including T-piece resuscitator use were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Thirty studies were included. There were two randomised controlled trials in newborn infants comparing the devices, one of which addressed short and intermediate term morbidity and mortality outcomes and found no difference between the T-piece resuscitator and self inflating bag. From manikin studies, advantages to the T-piece resuscitator include the delivery of inflating pressures closer to predetermined target pressures with least variation, the ability to provide prolonged inflation breaths and more consistent tidal volumes. Disadvantages include a technically more difficult setup, more time required to adjust pressures during resuscitation, a larger mask leak and less ability to detect changes in compliance. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for appropriately designed randomised controlled trials in neonates to highlight the efficacy of one device over another. Until these are performed, healthcare providers should be appropriately trained in the use of the device available in their departments, and be aware of its own limitations.

  4. The Numerical Range of the Luoshu Is a Piece of Cake--Almost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkler, Gotz; Trenkler, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    The numerical range, easy to understand but often tedious to compute, provides useful information about a matrix. Here we describe the numerical range of a 3 x 3 magic square. Applying our results to one of the most famous of those squares, the Luoshu, it turns out that its numerical range is a piece of cake--almost.

  5. Ways of Knowing and Types of Knowledge: How Do Students Approach a New Piece of Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Gerling, Cristina Capparelli

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory study lasting more than 16 weeks, 15 undergraduate and graduate piano students prepared a short piece by the Brazilian composer Guarnieri, "Ponteio" no. 22, without guidance from their piano teachers. The data that were collected included their performances, interviews pertaining to their practice and stimulated recall…

  6. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  7. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  8. The scope of plastic surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-03

    Aug 3, 2013 ... areas of surgery (especially general surgery), plastic surgeons are arguably the .... Who do you feel are experts in laparoscopic surgery? e (general surgeons) a. Maxillofacial .... of pressure sore. ORIF = open reduction internal fixation. ... Plastic versus cosmetic surgery: What's the difference? Plast Reconstr.

  9. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  10. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  11. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  12. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  13. Think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper notes that current discourses on ESD and ... This paper opens with a review of the emerging concept of ESD and its development, .... fundamental tensions between a 'behavior modeling' commitment to measuring impact as.

  14. Think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being attuned to the reverberations of the earth, to its materials flows, ... to think transversely if we are to comprehend the interactions between the ... human and machine, there is a growing sense that previous philosophies are incapable of.

  15. think piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... However, there are many Christian (and non-Christian) men and women who have .... based organisations, have lived up to the aforementioned New York Declaration. ... the Oikos Journey (inclusive economy and shared prosperity); genetically modified foods;.

  16. Think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warming and inequality, education needs a far more radical response to these issues. This paper ..... A good education might and should get you a better income, but it does not get you ..... Unpublished slides available at https://gabriel-.

  17. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaching and learning, but the concept of educational quality is not unproblematic ... quantifying skills demand and supply in the South African automotive ... Barnes (2009) noted that this industry is South Africa's leading manufacturing industry and ... for skills, with emphasis on 'high-skills' categories such as management, ...

  18. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  19. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with postmodernism or participatory research, despite purporting to empower, at times also disempower. Furthermore ..... meta-reflexivity and linking this to ethics when she writes: 'I believe that all ethical relating, within or ..... 1: Business and.

  20. Universal features of amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Castellanos, David Fernandez; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics. It captures the complex shear patterning observed for a wide variety of deformation modes, as well as the avalanche dynamics of plastic flow. Avalanches are described by universal size exponents and scaling functions, avalanche shapes, and local stability distributions, independent of system dimensionality, boundary and loading conditions, and stress state. Our predictions consistently differ from those of mean-field depinning models, providing evidence that plastic yielding is a distinct type of critical phenomenon.

  1. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  2. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  3. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  4. ORIGIN OF SURGERY: A HISTORY OF EXPLORATION OF PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sushruta Samhita, Charaka samhita and Astanga sangraha are the tri compendia of Ayurveda encompassing all the aspects of Ayurveda. Plastic surgery (Sandhana karma is a very old branch of surgery described since Vedic era. Almost all the Samhitas described about the methods of Sandhana Karma (Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Now a day the world recognizes the pioneering nature of Sushruta’s plastic and reconstructive surgery and Sushruta is regarded as Father of Plastic surgery. The plastic operations of ear (otoplasty and Rhinoplasty (Plastic Surgery of nose are described in the 16th Chapter of first book (Sutrasthan of the compendium. First methods are described for piercing the earlobes of an infant which still is a widespread practice in India. Sushruta has described 15 methods of joining these cup-up ear lobes. For this plastic operation called karna bedha, a piece of skin was taken from the cheek, turned back, and suitably stitches the lobules. Sushruta has also described Rhinoplasty (Nasa Sandhana. Portion of the nose to be covered should be first measured with a leaf. Then a piece of skin of the required size should be dissected from the living skin of the cheek and turned back to cover the nose, keeping a small pedicle attaches to the cheek. The part of nose to which the skin is to be attached should be made raw by cutting of the nasal stump with a knife. The surgeon then should place the skin on the nose and stitch the two parts swiftly, keeping the skin properly elevated by inserting two tubes of eranda (castor oil plant in each part of nostril so that the new nose gets proper shape. It should then be sprinkled with a powder composed of liquorices, red sandalwood, and barberry plant. Finally it should be covered with cotton and clean sesame oil should be constantly applied to it. Sushruta also mentioned the reconstruction of the broken lip and hare-lip (ostha Sandhana.These descriptions are brief in nature in comparison to

  5. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm) was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts. PMID:27556233

  6. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  7. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  8. The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.

    1986-01-01

    Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…

  9. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  10. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  11. Investigation of plastic debris ingestion by four species of sea turtles collected as bycatch in pelagic Pacific longline fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Katherine E.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris is an established threat to sea turtles. The amount, type, color and location of ingested plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of 55 sea turtles from Pacific longline fisheries from 2012 to 2016 were quantified, and compared across species, turtle length, body condition, sex, capture location, season and year. Six approaches for quantifying amounts of ingested plastic strongly correlated with one another and included: number of pieces, mass, volume and surface area of plastics, ratio of plastic mass to body mass, and percentage of the mass of gut contents consisting of plastic. All olive ridley (n = 37), 90% of green (n = 10), 80% of loggerhead (n = 5) and 0% of leatherback (n = 3) turtles had ingested plastic; green turtles ingested significantly more than olive ridleys. Most debris was in the large intestines. No adverse health impacts (intestinal lesions, blockage, or poor body condition) due directly to plastic ingestion were noted.

  12. Facilitated Leaching of Additive-Derived PBDEs from Plastic by Seabirds' Stomach Oil and Accumulation in Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2015-10-06

    Our previous study suggested the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants from ingested plastics to seabirds' tissues. To understand how the PBDEs are transferred, we studied leaching from plastics into digestive fluids. We hypothesized that stomach oil, which is present in the digestive tract of birds in the order Procellariiformes, acts as an organic solvent, facilitating the leaching of hydrophobic chemicals. Pieces of plastic compounded with deca-BDE were soaked in several leaching solutions. Trace amounts were leached into distilled water, seawater, and acidic pepsin solution. In contrast, over 20 times as much material was leached into stomach oil, and over 50 times as much into fish oil (a major component of stomach oil). Analysis of abdominal adipose, liver tissue, and ingested plastics from 18 wild seabirds collected from the North Pacific Ocean showed the occurrence of deca-BDE or hexa-BDEs in both the tissues and the ingested plastics in three of the birds, suggesting transfer from the plastic to the tissues. In birds with BDE209 in their tissues, the dominance of BDE207 over other nona-BDE isomers suggested biological debromination at the meta position. Model calculation of PBDE exposure to birds based on the results of the leaching experiments combined with field observations suggested the dominance of plastic-mediated internal exposure to BDE209 over exposure via prey.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  14. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  15. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  16. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Frank

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity.

  17. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  18. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  19. A study of wrecked Dovekies (Alle alle) in the western North Atlantic highlights the importance of using standardized methods to quantify plastic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Valliant, Michelle; Schacter, Carley R; Robbins, Katherine F; Liboiron, Max; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rios, Lorena M; Jones, Ian L

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of plastic ingestion across a range of seabirds is required to assess the prevalence of plastics in marine food webs. We quantified plastic ingestion in beached Dovekies (Alle alle), following a wreck in Newfoundland, Canada. Of 171 birds, 30.4% had ingested plastic (mean 0.81±0.30 SE pieces per bird, mass 0.005±0.002 SE g per bird). Most plastics were fragments of polyethylene and polypropylene. Surprisingly, 37% were burned or melted, indicating a previously unreported source of ingested plastics (incinerated waste). We found no relationship between plastic ingestion and age, sex or body condition. By comparing our results with a similar nearby study, we illustrate the need for researchers to adopt standardized methods for plastic ingestion studies. We underline the importance of using histological techniques to reliably identify gastric pathologies, and advise caution when inferring population level trends in plastic ingestion from studies of emaciated, wrecked birds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tableaux de famille : Conversation Piece de Luchino Visconti (1974)

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoso-Ruiz, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Conversation Piece, selon le titre anglais, réalisé en 1974 par Luchino Visconti présente une continuité avec Il Gattopardo, (Le Guépard, 1963) non seulement par la présence d’un même acteur, Burt Lancaster, qui interprète les rôles du prince Salina et celui du vieux professeur dans Conversation Piece, mais également en raison de l’inscription filmique, à des moments marqués de la diégèse, d’œuvres picturales. Le prince Salina dans la séquence 54 du Guépard contemplait en effet une copie du F...

  1. Study of ancient Islamic gilded pieces combining PIXE-RBS on external microprobe with sem images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ynsa, M.D.; Gutierrez, P.C.; Enguita, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain); Chamon, J.; Pardo, A.I.; Arroyo, M.; Barrio, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Morilla, I. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Dresden (Germany); Ferretti, M. [CNR - Istituto per le Tecnologie Aplicate ai Beni Culturali, Monterotondo St., Roma (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Numerous metallic objects with very aesthetic and technological qualities have been recovered by archaeological excavations. Adequate processes of restoration and conservation treatments require the accurate determination of the elemental composition and distribution within the objects, as well as the identification of the nature and distribution of the corrosion products. Ideally the identification method should cause no alteration in the sample. In this work, different archaeological pieces with a gilded look have been characterized using simultaneously PIXE and RBS at the CMAM external microprobe in order to study the gilding metalworking done in the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. The gold layer thickness and its elemental concentrations of Ag, Au and Hg were determined by both techniques and compared with the scanning electron microscopy images obtained for some fragments of pieces. (orig.)

  2. Game-Boards and Gaming-Pieces in Funerary Contexts in the Northern European Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helène Whittaker

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaming-pieces, dice, and game-boards are found in connection withburials at various times and places from an early date. For instance, inEgypt there was a clear association between the game known as Senetand burials from the time of the Old Kingdom (Pusch 1979; Piccione1984. Dice are not uncommonly found in Greek, Etruscan, and Romantombs (Vermeule 1979, 80; Pallottino 1955, fig. 95; Egidi 1983. It canreasonably be assumed that the playing of board games was seen as apleasurable pastime which one could hopefully continue to pursue inthe Afterlife. However, it can in some cases be argued that gamingequipment in burial contexts was related to the social status of the deceased or to religious beliefs and therefore had a more complex significance. In this article I will look at the occurrence of gaming-pieces,dice, and game-boards in burials in the northern European Iron Age.

  3. Heuristic algorithm for planning and scheduling of forged pieces heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a heuristic algorithm for planning and scheduling of forged pieces heat treatment which allows maximizing the capacity exploitation of the heat treatment process and the entire forging process. Five Focusing Steps continuous improvement process was selected as a methodological basis for the algorithm design. Its application was supported by simulation experiments performed on a dynamic computer model of the researched process. The experimental work has made it possible to elicit the general rules for planning and scheduling of the heat treatment process of forged pieces which reduce losses caused by equipment conversion and setup times, and which increase the throughput of this process. The HIPO diagram was used to design the algorithm.

  4. Piecewise oblique boundary treatment for the elastic-plastic wave equation on a cartesian grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Guido

    2009-11-01

    Numerical schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws in 2-D on a Cartesian grid usually have the advantage of being easy to implement and showing good computational performances, without allowing the simulation of “real-world” problems on arbitrarily shaped domains. In this paper a numerical treatment of boundary conditions for the elastic-plastic wave equation is developed, which allows the simulation of problems on an arbitrarily shaped physical domain surrounded by a piece-wise smooth boundary curve, but using a PDE solver on a rectangular Cartesian grid with the afore-mentioned advantages.

  5. Accuracy of Setting Work-pieces on Automatic Lines with Pallet-fixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of positioning surfaces to be processed on automatic lines with pallet-fixtures essentially depends on the setting error of the pallet-fixtures with work-pieces in ready-to-work position.The applied methods for calculating the setting error do not give a complete picture of the possible coordinates of the point when in the pallet is displaced in different directions.The aim of the work was to determine an accuracy of the setting work-pieces on automatic lines with pallets-fixtures, using a computational and analytical method, to improve a manufacturing precision of parts.The currently used methods to calculate the setting error do not give a complete picture of the possible coordinates of the point of the pallet displacement in different directions. The paper offers a method of equivalent mechanism to determine all the variety of options for displacements in the horizontal plane with a diverse combination of angular and plane-parallel displacements.Using a four-bar linkage, as an equivalent mechanism, allows us to define a zone of the possible positions of any point of the work-piece pallet platform, as the zone bounded by the coupler curve. In case the gaps in the nodes of the two fixtures are equal the zone of possible positions of the point in the parallel displacement of the platform is determined by the circumference and at an angular displacement by the ellipse.The obtained analytical dependences allow us to determine the error at the stage of design with the certain gaps in the fixture nodes.The above method of calculation makes it possible to define a zone of the appropriate placement of the work-piece on its platform for the specified parameters of the pallet to meet conditions for ensuring the coordinate accuracy of the processed axes of holes.

  6. Structural Optimization of an Offshore Wind Turbines Transition Pieces for Bucket Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, offshore constructions are made of steel. The focus of this paper is optimization of a transition piece (TP) connecting the offshore wind turbine column with a suction bucket foundation. Suction caissons, typically used for shallow water depths, have been proved to be adequate in residual soil conditions for depths up to approximately 40 m. The existing design practice is limited to the use of steel-flange-reinforced shear panels. Desirable outcome is proposal of an alternative...

  7. Precision Metrology of Micro Work-pieces on Their Tribological Performance with Error Compensation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The frictional properties of micro bearings have strong influence on the performance of the whole system because of tiny scale of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). To develop micro bearings with low friction,it is important to evaluate the friction behaviors on the micro bearing. The testing system and the principle to evaluate the tribological performance of micromachining work-pieces under the load of mill Newton scale is introduced in paper "A new approach to measure the friction coefficient of mi...

  8. Missing Pieces of an Ancient Puzzle: Evolution of the Eukaryotic Membrane-Trafficking System

    OpenAIRE

    Schlacht, Alexander; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Field, Mark C.; Dacks, Joel B.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-trafficking system underpins cellular trafficking of material in eukaryotes and its evolution would have been a watershed in eukaryogenesis. Evolutionary cell biological studies have been unraveling the history of proteins responsible for vesicle transport and organelle identity revealing both highly conserved components and lineage-specific innovations. Recently, endomembrane components with a broad, but patchy, distribution have been observed as well, pieces that are missing fr...

  9. Elasto-plastic finite element analysis of squaring circular tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuung-ming

    2008-01-01

    The flow rule of Prandtl-Reuss was adopted and incremental elasto-plastic finite-element analysis formulation of Coulomb's friction law combining the finite deformation theory was established,and Lagrangian formulation for simulating the squaring process of circular tube was updated.Incremental Coulomb's friction law was used in the global stiffness matrix to solve the sliding-sticking state of friction at the boundary contact interface.During the squaring process,the linear factor γmin was adopted to solve the non-linear boundary problems of changing node contact and separation,elasto-plastic transient situation in an element and the non-linear constitutive behavior of material so as to make each reasonable increment of the punch meet the demand of calculation for linear increment.The squaring process of circular tube,load distribution and final shape of work piece after unloading were simulated by this mode and compared with research data.It is known that the circular tube with higller geometrical ratio (R/t) could be pressed into symmetric square tube without collapse.This result can provide reference for the analysis of this process and evaluation and improvement of product defects.

  10. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  11. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  12. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  13. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  14. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  15. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  16. My First Piece About Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Christensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is nothing quite like looking back at something you wrote 6 years ago, particularly when the piece was about “new” technology. Your solid points seem extra solid, and your weak points seem unbearably weak. Most importantly, however, you can see the extent to which your thinking was influenced by dominant understandings and frameworks of the time. So, when I was asked to contribute a short thought-piece on social media for this inaugural issue, it occurred to me that it might be of value to look back rather than forward: to re-read something I had written about Twitter and Facebook years ago, and to identify what I got right and what I got wrong. I decided to go all the way back and to look at the very first thing I wrote about social media. This was not an academic piece, but a popular article written for Le Monde Diplomatique on the use of Twitter and Facebook in the aftermath of the 2009 Iranian elections.

  17. Selected aspects of the piece production of iron alloy castings in terms of their environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Maniowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of environmental protection are nowadays one of the top priorities in a policy programme adopted by the European Community.Reducing the negative impact of the domestic foundry industry on environment should result from complex and long-lasting activities,targeted not only at modernisation of the dust collecting units, but also at searches and implementation of alternative, innovative and more pro-ecology oriented means and techniques of casting manufacture. Reducing to minimum the level of emissions escaping to the environment should be considered at all stages of the casting manufacturing process. In this study, the discussion was restricted to the process of the manufacture of moulds and cores for piece production of the heavy castings. The environmental impact of the technology of making moulds and cores in sands with chemical binders, used most often in piece production of large castings poured from iron alloys, was highlighted. As an alternative technology of mould preparation for the piece production of castings, the ecological and economic aspects of the full mould process were presented.

  18. ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF JAVANESE CULTURAL PIECES IN RONGGENG DHUKUH PARUK NOVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristianto Khristianto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating cultural pieces is always challenging since it usually involves a task of presenting something unknown to the target readers. This case is seen in the translation of Ronggeng Dhukuh Paruk novel which has been translated in many languages, one of them is English. It is full of Javanese cultural pieces but it was written in Bahasa Indonesia. Later, it was translated (or rewrite into Javanese—like coming back to its own language habitat. The objective of the paper is to identify the strategies applied to translate the cultural meaning. The data sources are the three-language versions of the novel, in Indonesia, Javanese and English. The analysis on the data revealed that there are many various cultural meanings in the text: ecological facts, social and cultural concept, the cultural products in things, religion, and linguistic features of the culture. The strategies used to translate the cultural meaning are descriptive (badhongan – leave garland, calque (bukak klambu, borrowing (dadap, seling, kathik, and borrowing with description (kamitua-respected leader. The procedure taken in translating cultural pieces considers some factor: the importance of the meaning for the narration, its foreign level, the importance of its exotics sense in the literary work, and the interest to present local nuances to the target readers.

  19. Leaching of metals from large pieces of printed circuit boards using citric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh; Su, C; Hocheng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the leaching of metals from large pieces of computer printed circuit boards (CPCBs) was studied. A combination of citric acid (0.5 M) and 1.76 M hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to leach the metals from CPCB piece. The influence of system variables such as H2O2 concentration, concentration of citric acid, shaking speed, and temperature on the metal leaching process was investigated. The complete metal leaching was achieved in 4 h from a 4 × 4 cm CPCB piece. The presence of citric acid and H2O2 together in the leaching solution is essential for complete metal leaching. The optimum addition amount of H2O2 was 5.83 %. The citric acid concentration and shaking speed had an insignificant effect on the leaching of metals. The increase in the temperature above 30 °C showed a drastic effect on metal leaching process.

  20. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  1. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  2. [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Seidel, S

    2010-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS.

  3. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  4. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  5. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-thomsen, Søren; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  6. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  7. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  8. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  9. The Story of the Plastics Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Don, Ed.

    This is an illustrated informative booklet, designed to serve members of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and the plastics industry as a whole. It provides basic information about the industry's history and growth, plastics raw materials, typical uses of plastics, properties, and methods of processing and fabricating. (Author/DS)

  10. Automating the Process of Work-Piece Recognition and Location for a Pick-and-Place Robot in a SFMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Sharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of a vision system to automatically classify work-pieces with respect to their shape and color together with determining their location for manipulation by an in-house developed pick-and-place robot from its work-plane. The vision-based pick-and-place robot has been developed as part of a smart flexible manufacturing system for unloading work-pieces for drilling operations at a drilling workstation from an automatic guided vehicle designed to transport the work-pieces in the manufacturing work-cell. Work-pieces with three different shapes and five different colors are scattered on the work-plane of the robot and manipulated based on the shape and color specification by the user through a graphical user interface. The number of corners and the hue, saturation, and value of the colors are used for shape and color recognition respectively in this work. Due to the distinct nature of the feature vectors for the fifteen work-piece classes, all work-pieces were successfully classified using minimum distance classification during repeated experimentations with work-pieces scattered randomly on the work-plane.

  11. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  12. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Plastic debris ingested by a rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis, stranded alive in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Maria Duarte do Rego Barros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An adult male rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis, stranded alive on Poço da Draga Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. The animal was unable to swim, was visibly emaciated, and died while being transported to the AQUASIS rehabilitation facilities. During the necropsy, two plastic bags and four pieces of sea sponges were found in the fore-stomach chamber, where the mucosa had several ulcers. The ingestion of plastic debris by dolphins is not well understood. They can eat it by mistake, since it resembles some of their prey species, or ingest it along with a prey. In Ceará State, the inappropriate disposal of solid wastes and urban effluents are major sources of pollution in the coastal zone. Urgent measures are required to minimize this threat to coastal marine mammals, such as legal mechanisms, enforcement and awareness campaigns.

  14. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  16. Mitochondria, synaptic plasticity, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Laifenfeld, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization of schizophrenia as a disorder of connectivity, i.e., of neuronal?synaptic plasticity, suggests abnormal synaptic modeling and neuronal signaling, possibly as a consequence of flawed interactions with the environment, as at least a secondary mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. Indeed, deficits in episodic memory and malfunction of hippocampal circuitry, as well as anomalies of axonal sprouting and synapse formation, are all suggestive of diminished neuronal plasticity in schizophrenia. Evidence supports a dysfunction of mitochondria in schizophrenia, including mitochondrial hypoplasia, and a dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system, as well as altered mitochondrial-related gene expression. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to alterations in ATP production and cytoplasmatic calcium concentrations, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. All of the latter processes have been well established as leading to altered synaptic strength or plasticity. Moreover, mitochondria have been shown to play a role in plasticity of neuronal polarity, and studies in the visual cortex show an association between mitochondria and synaptogenesis. Finally, mitochondrial gene upregulation has been observed following synaptic and neuronal activity. This review proposes that mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia could cause, or arise from, anomalies in processes of plasticity in this disorder.

  17. Isolation of native soil microorganisms with potential for breaking down biodegradable plastic mulch films used in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-05-10

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation, but bacteria also were isolated using these methods by substituting media appropriate for bacteria. Our methodology should prove useful for studies investigating breakdown of intact plastic films or products for which plastic feedstocks are either unknown or not available. However our approach does not provide a quantitative method for comparing rates of BDM degradation.

  18. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo'orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo'orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m(-2). Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  19. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Connors

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm and microplastic (plastic < 5 mm of the fringing reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo’orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo’orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  20. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  1. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  2. Plasticity in glutamatergic NTS neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David D

    2008-12-10

    Changes in the physiological state of an animal or human can result in alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory system in order to maintain homeostasis. Accordingly, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are not static but readily adapt under a variety of circumstances. The same can be said for the brainstem circuits that control these systems. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the central integration site of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor sensory afferent fibers. This central nucleus, and in particular the synapse between the sensory afferent and second-order NTS cell, possesses a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of stimuli, both acute and chronic. This brief review is intended to describe the plasticity observed in the NTS as well as the locus and mechanisms as they are currently understood. The functional consequence of NTS plasticity is also discussed.

  3. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2006-09-15

    This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on ~0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K West (KW) Basin that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW Basin in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW Basin. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW Basin indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford “New Production Reactor,” later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW Basin to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of uranium and ranged in Plutonium

  4. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2006-07-25

    This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on {approx}0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K West (KW) Basin that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW Basin in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW Basin. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW Basin indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford ''New Production Reactor'', later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW Basin to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of

  5. Telecommunications and internet broadband policy: sorting out the pieces for telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D

    2010-01-01

    Technological change is accelerating and with it regulatory upheaval. Most of us agree that providing universal telecommunication services to all our citizens is a worthy ideal. Nonetheless, many of us do not agree that regulation should be the means to make broadband Internet services widely available. This Viewpoint begins sorting out pieces of the emerging United States, regulatory and policy puzzle for broadband Internet with an eye to the interests of telerehabilitation providers and consumers. Just how might changes in legal authority, regulation and agency jurisdictions impact us?

  6. Patient’s satisfaction after 2-piece inflatable penile prosthesis implantation: An Italian multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Gentile

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile prosthesis implant represents a valuable solution for pts with severe erectile dysfunction (ED, non-responders to medical management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients (pts after 2-pieces inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP. Aim of the study: to evaluate safety, reliability and post-operative patient’s satisfaction after implantation of two-pieces IPP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective multicentric analysis concerns a group of 42 patients undergone 2-pieces IPP implantation from November 2005 to November 2013, in four Centers of proven experience. As a first step, a detailed review of all clinical reports was performed. Secondly, every patient was asked to fill the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS specifically modified, in order to assess their own satisfaction after surgery and, its impact on patient’s quality of sexual life. Results: 42 pts were evaluated (AMS-Ambicor: 28; Coloplast- Excell: 14; mean age, at time of operation: 60,7 years; mean follow up: 27,6 months; etiology of ED: vascular 23,8%, diabetes 19%, La Peyronie D. 7,1%, consequence of radical prostatectomy 31%, consequence of other pelvic surgery 11,9%, spinal trauma 7%. Mean operative time: 117 ± 58 min, mean postoperative hospital stay 3 ± 1,6 days. Post operative short-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%. Post operative long-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%. Long-term functional results (Questionnaire: 71% of pts (30 reported regular use of the prosthesis, at least 1 time/week, the satisfaction was good in 42% of pts (18, quite good in 33,3% (14, quite bad in 2,4% (1, very bad in 7,1% (3, 6 pts (14,4% didn’t answer. Conclusions: 2 pieces IPP appears to be associated with a low complication rate and good satisfaction of pts especially in the elderly. It also assures satisfactory rates of aesthetics and functional results.

  7. Missing pieces of an ancient puzzle: evolution of the eukaryotic membrane-trafficking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacht, Alexander; Herman, Emily K; Klute, Mary J; Field, Mark C; Dacks, Joel B

    2014-10-01

    The membrane-trafficking system underpins cellular trafficking of material in eukaryotes and its evolution would have been a watershed in eukaryogenesis. Evolutionary cell biological studies have been unraveling the history of proteins responsible for vesicle transport and organelle identity revealing both highly conserved components and lineage-specific innovations. Recently, endomembrane components with a broad, but patchy, distribution have been observed as well, pieces that are missing from our cell biological and evolutionary models of membrane trafficking. These data together allow for new insights into the history and forces that shape the evolution of this critical cell biological system. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, A; W. J. Duncan; R. K. De Silva; Zafar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-pi...

  9. Construction of five-piece segment using high-fluidity concrete; Koryudo togo bunkatsu segment no seko jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Y.; Fukuzawa, I.; Matsunaga, H. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-05

    After reviewing RC segment materials and the number of joints required, a segment of five equal pieces using high-fluidity concrete is employed in conduit construction work (for 500kV transmission lines) near Hommoku Wharf, Kanagawa Prefecture, which is for reduction in the shield tunnel construction cost (segment cost rate approximately 1/3). The use of high-fluidity concrete raises the materials cost a little but the factory overhead, expenditures for fabrication and formwork construction are lowered because some working processes may be dispensed with, such as the processes of compaction by vibration, surface finish, and formwork movement, and because the formwork main body may be simplified in structure. Although the standard tunnel specifications mention a segment consisting of 6 pieces, the 5-piece segment adopted in this construction work lowers the cost approximately 20% thanks to reduction in the numbers of joints between segment pieces and between rings. In the shield tunnelling process, assembly is easier and the construction work is executed without hitches deserving special mention. The new technique is comparable to the conventional ones in terms of quality and process management. Since the number of joints per piece between rings is reduced from the 3 in the conventional method to the 2 in this new method, two core-sensing pins are provided per piece between rings for assuring accuracy and shortening time in assembling. 2 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. [Establishment and biomechanical analysis of three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of three-pieces segment arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijun; Wang, Zhendong; Ni, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lin

    2013-02-01

    To reconstruct a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of mandibular teeth with three-pieces segment arch, and analyze the mechanical properties of intrusive arch and the biomechanical characteristics of three-pieces segment arch. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of mandible with three-pieces segment arch was reconstructed by multi-slice spiral CT scanning, Mimics, CATIA and Anasys software. Then, the mechanical properties of intrusive arch, the movement trend and stress distribution of three-pieces segment arch were calculated by Anasys software. In the range of 5 degrees-25 degrees, with the degree of intrusive arch increased, the force of intrusive arch also increased rapidly. The maximal force was 0.604 8 N in 30 degrees; the force was about 0.59 N in 30 degrees-65 degrees range. In condition of three-pieces segment arch mechanics, lateral incisor tipped labially and intruded; the first moral tipped distally and rotating; other teeth did not move clearly. The largest stress distribution in the whole arch was in the one-third labial cervical area of the lateral incisor root and the root bifurcations of first moral. Under an appropriate intrusive force, three-pieces segment arch can intrude incisors and control the extrusion of posterior teeth. It can be used to correct the deep overbite, especially with high mandibular planes, gummy smile or adult patients.

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Effect of alternate magnetic field on LY12 structure properties after thermal plastic forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革新; 付宇明; 尹京; 肖宏

    2008-01-01

    The powerful alternate magnetic field treatment is an effective not-heat treatment, which improves the coriaceous performance of the material. In order to reveal the effect rule of the powerful alternate magnetic field on the structure capability after thermal plastic forming, the experimental methods were adopted to compare the microcosmic structure of the LY12 aluminium alloy test pieces before and after the powerful alternate magnetic field treatment. The mechanism of the structure refining was analyzed theoretically. According to the effect rule of the alternate magnetic field on critical grain growth work and the magnetic vibration-constriction mechanism, the structure dynamics factors were analyzed. The results show that, after a certain powerful alternate magnetic field treatment, the mechanical capability of the LY12 aluminium alloy after thermal plastic forming can be reinforced, the structure intertwist deriving from the thermal plastic forming becomes even and the branch crystal is also smashed, consequently refines the structure. The powerful alternate magnetic field treatment can be regarded as an effective method to improve metal structure performance after heat plastic forming.

  14. Plastic pollution of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (NW pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viola; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Brenke, Nils; Schwabe, Enrico; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) to the northwest Pacific Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plain, we found several kinds and sizes of plastic debris ranging from fishing nets and packaging to microplastic in the sediment of the deep-sea floor. Microplastics were ubiquitous in the smaller fractions of the box corer samples from every station from depths between 4869 and 5766 m. They were found on the abyssal plain and in the sediments of the trench slope on both sides. The amount of microplastics differed between the stations, with lowest concentration of 60 pieces per m2 and highest concentrations of more than 2000 pieces per m2. Around 75% of the microplastics (defined here as particles marine fauna (Zenkevich, 1963). Yet we can only guess how these microplastics accumulated in the deep sea of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area and what consequences the microplastic itself and its adsorbed chemicals will have on this very special and rich deep-sea fauna. But we herewith present an evaluation of the different kinds of plastic debris we found, as a documentation of human impact into the deep sea of this region of the Northwest Pacific.

  15. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E; Lartillot, O; Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M

    2016-01-15

    Brain responses to discrete short sounds have been studied intensively using the event-related potential (ERP) method, in which the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is divided into epochs time-locked to stimuli of interest. Here we introduce and apply a novel technique which enables one to isolate ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase - and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases - followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible to utilize the tradition of ERP research with naturalistic paradigms.

  16. On Limitations of the Ultrasonic Characterization of Pieces Manufactured with Highly Attenuating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Moreno, E.; Rubio, B.; Calas, H.; Galarza, N.; Rubio, J.; Diez, L.; Castellanos, L.; Gómez, T.

    Some technical aspects of two Spanish cooperation projects, funded by DPI and Innpacto Programs of the R&D National Plan, are discussed. The objective is to analyze the common belief about than the ultrasonic testing in MHz range is not a tool utilizable to detect internal flaws in highly attenuating pieces made of coarse-grained steel. In fact high-strength steels, used in some safe industrial infrastructures of energy & transport sectors, are difficult to be inspected using the conventional "state of the art" in ultrasonic technology, due to their internal microstructures are very attenuating and coarse-grained. It is studied if this inspection difficulty could be overcome by finding intense interrogating pulses and advanced signal processing of the acquired echoes. A possible solution would depend on drastically improving signal-to-noise-ratios, by applying new advances on: ultrasonic transduction, HV electronics for intense pulsed driving of the testing probes, and an "ad-hoc" digital processing or focusing of the received noisy signals, in function of each material to be inspected. To attain this challenging aim on robust steel pieces would open the possibility of obtaining improvements in inspecting critical industrial components made of highly attenuating & dispersive materials, as new composites in aeronautic and motorway bridges, or new metallic alloys in nuclear area, where additional testing limitations often appear.

  17. Failure Mode Analysis Of Torsion Shaft In Garrett-5 Engine Using Two Test Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Melvin Aro. T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with “Failure Analysis of Internal splines in Torsion Shaft” of “TPE 331-5-252D - GARRET ENGINE” which is used in Dornier aircraft. Garret Engine is a type of air breathing engine. It comes under the category of Turboprop engines of Gas turbine engine. As separate shafts are used for propeller and turbine, this aids them to rotate at different RPM. A torsion shaft is used to transmit the torque from main shaft to propeller shaft. Torsion shaft is used to give a deflection which is also used to measure the torque of the engine. This torsion shaft is internally connected with the main power transmission shaft and its other end is coupled to a coupler shaft with engagement of its internal splines to the external splines of coupler shaft. Further this coupler connects to the gearing system and transmits power to the propeller shaft. Due to Continues variable load over internal splines, it is subjected to high rate of wear and tear. This problem can be rectified by Failure Mode Analysis Method, in which heat treatment process of torsion shaft is being carried out. Two test pieces are heat treated separately at different temperatures of 5800C and 5400C at variable time durations. Tuffriding which is a Liquid nitriding process is done with this two test pieces and results are analyzed. The hardness of the material is increased to desired values and its life time is also increased which overcomes the problem.

  18. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  19. Two New Pieces of Emergency Response Equipment for use in Confined Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing two new pieces of emergency response equipment that recognize and address the constraints of a confined space environment. One piece of equipment is a respirator designed for use in a post fire environment. Traditional first responders generally use supplied air respirators - they provide cool, dry, safe breathing air to the first responder, and because they are supplied at above ambient pressure, the system is tolerant to a loose-fitting mask. Supplied air respirators have a limited supply of air, but because the traditional first responder intends to address the emergency from outside and then retreat, this limited air supply does not pose a serious problem. NASA uses a supplied oxygen respirator for first response to an emergency affecting air quality on the International Space Station. The air supply is rated for 15 minutes - ISS program managers sponsored a hardware development activity to provide the astronauts up to 8 hours of breathing protection after the supplied air system is exhausted. Size and weight limitations prevent the use of a supplied air system for 8 hours for six crew members. A trade study resulted in the selection of a filtering respirator system over a re-breather system; due to design simplicity, operational simplicity, and likely threats to air quality on ISS. The respirator cartridge that filters smoke particles, adsorbs organics and acid gases, and catalytically converts carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been qualified for use on ISS, and was delivered on STS-135, the final mission of the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter. By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  1. Vascular plasticity in cerebrovascular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars I H; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries and micr...

  2. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the risks and trust a board-certified plastic surgeon to perform your cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. ASPS member surgeons have the training and experience that ... 1300 Chain Bridge Road McLean, VA 22101 (703) 790-5454 Timothy Germain ...

  3. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  4. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  5. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...

  6. For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

  7. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  8. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  9. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Health News on: Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  10. Lecture notes on Elasto-plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hededal, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling......Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling...

  11. Phenotypic plasticity with instantaneous but delayed switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, Margarete; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Loeschcke, Volker; Gabriel, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, allowing organisms to better adapt to changing environments. Most empirical and theoretical studies are restricted to irreversible plasticity where the expression of a specific phenotype is mostly determined during development. However, reversible pl

  12. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  13. Developmental plasticity and evolution--quo vadis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moczek, A P

    2015-01-01

    The role of developmental (phenotypic) plasticity in ecology and evolution is receiving a growing appreciation among the biologists, and many plasticity-specific concepts have become well established as part of the mainstream evolutionary...

  14. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  15. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior

    2014-09-01

    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  16. Innovation Promotes Development of Plastic Assistant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Driven by the rapid growth of China's plastic product sector, the development of the plastic sector has been accelerated and assistant products are now becoming more multi-function, high performance, high in molecular weight and environmentfriendly.

  17. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  18. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  19. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  20. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  1. The advent of the restorative plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Matthew J; Pribaz, Julian J; Talbot, Simon G; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery is presently typified by the existence of discrete clinical identities, namely that of the cosmetic plastic surgeon and the reconstructive plastic surgeon. The emergence of vascularized composite allotransplantation has been accompanied by the development of a third distinct clinical identity, that of the restorative plastic surgeon. The authors describe the core competencies that characterize this new identity, and discuss the implications of the advent of this new professional paradigm.

  2. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, Liu; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  3. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  4. Plastics. A Handbook for Workplace Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donna; Smith, Mikki

    This handbook was designed to help adult literacy education teachers to understand the plastics industry, develop a curriculum, and teach basic skills classes in a plastics company. The book contains four main sections. The first section, on the basics of plastics, contains a brief history of the industry, an elementary description of the…

  5. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S....

  6. Adult myelination:wrapping up neuronal plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan ORourke; Robert Gasperini; Kaylene M.Young

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline the major neural plasticity mechanisms that have been identiifed in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and offer a perspective on how they regulate CNS function. In particular we examine how myelin plasticity can operate alongside neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity to inlfuence information processing and transfer in the mature CNS.

  7. The evolution of age-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Barbara; van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When organisms encounter environments that are heterogeneous in time, phenotypic plasticity is often favored by selection. The degree of such plasticity can vary during an organism''s lifetime, but the factors promoting differential plastic responses at different ages or life stages remain poorly un

  8. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  9. Plastic deformation and contact area of an elastic-plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of the residual or plastic deformation and the plastic contact area of an elastic–plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading. There are three regime responses of the deformation and contact area: elastic, elastic–plastic and fully

  10. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  11. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  12. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  13. Thermoplastic Starch Prepared with Different Plasticizers:Relation between Degree of Plasticization and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, formamide, and urea were used as plasticizers for the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) from corn starch. The properties of TPS were tested by analysis method. The results showed that TPSs were more highly plasticized with amines than alcohols. For the same type of plasticizer, the degree of plasticization decreased as the molecular weight of plasticizer increased. The relationship between plasticization degree and TPS properties was characterized and described by mechanical properties and water absorption. The experimental results showed that when the degree of plasticization increased, the tensile strength decreased and the elongation at breakage and water absorption increased.

  14. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  15. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports have documented titanium (Ti hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control and one Zr (test implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9% (p=0.002. Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3% (p=0.087. High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions.

  16. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, R. K.; Zafar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control) and one Zr (test) implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr) was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9%) (p = 0.002). Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3%) (p = 0.087). High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions. PMID:28058261

  17. Non-piece-wise error compensation for grating displacement measurement system with absolute zero mark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Jiang; Huijie Huang; Xiangzhao Wang; Lihua Huang

    2009-01-01

    A method for compensating the measuring error of the grating displacement measurement system with absolute zero mark is presented.It divides the full scale range into piece-wise subsections and compares the maximum variation of the measuring errors of two adjacent subsections with the threshold.Whether the specified subsection is divided into smaller subsections is determined by the comparison result.After different compensation parameters and weighted average values of the random errors are obtained,the error compensation algorithm is implemented in the left and right subsections,and the whole measuring error of the grating displacement measurement system is reduced by about 73%.Experimental results show that the method may not only effectively compensate the spike error but also greatly improve the precision of the measuring system.

  18. Well-Defined Cyclic Triblock Terpolymers: A Missing Piece of the Morphology Puzzle

    KAUST Repository

    Polymeropoulos, George

    2016-10-27

    Two well-defined cyclic triblock terpolymers, missing pieces of the terpolymer morphology puzzle, consisting of poly(isoprene), polystyrene, and poly(2-vinylpyridine), were synthesized by combining the Glaser coupling reaction with anionic polymerization. An α,ω-dihydroxy linear triblock terpolymer (OH-PI1,4-b-PS-b-P2VP-OH) was first synthesized followed by transformation of the OH to alkyne groups by esterification with pentynoic acid and cyclization by Glaser coupling. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) trace of the linear terpolymer precursor was shifted to lower elution time after cyclization, indicating the successful synthesis of the cyclic terpolymer. Additionally, the SEC trace of the cyclic terpolymer produced, after cleavage of the ester groups, shifted again practically to the position corresponding to the linear precursor. The first exploratory results on morphology showed the tremendous influence of the cyclic structure on the morphology of terpolymers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Material Composition of Bucket Foundation Transition Piece for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, production of renewable energy is focused on offshore wind turbines, since they make little if any inconvenience for residents in inhabited areas. High requirements are placed on the installation of the foundations which can cost about 30% of the total cost of the wind turbine...... practice is limited to the use of steel-flange-reinforced shear panels for the transition piece—a production that requires extensive welding work—a desirable solution is to find a material that provides lower cost and easier manufacturing without compromising the strength and stiffness. The paper compares...... the structural behaviour of a transition piece made of steel (reference case), compact reinforced composite (CRC) and composite shell elements made of CRC glued to steel sheets. A finite-element model is developed in ABAQUS. Three material models are checked for buckling and material failure in the Ultimate...

  20. Haptic Breakage after Transscleral Fixation of a Single-Piece Acrylic Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of a patient with a damaged haptic of an acrylic intraocular lens (IOL after transscleral IOL fixation. Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive case report. Results: A 40-year-old man presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. He had undergone phacoemulsification/aspiration and IOL implantation 3 years previously and IOL repositioning with transscleral fixation 2 years before the initial visit. His visual acuity was 0.3 in the left eye due to corneal edema caused by a foreign body, i.e., the severed haptic tip of the single-piece acrylic IOL, which was surgically removed. The IOL itself was tilted and therefore explanted. The surface of the tip of the haptic suggested that the monofilament suture thread had exerted continuous force across the haptic. Conclusions: The haptics of acrylic IOLs can be damaged after transscleral fixation.