WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-color ir-vuv-pfi-pe study

  1. High-Resolution Infrared-Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoion and Pulsed Field Ionization-Photoelectron Methods for Spectroscopic Studies of Neutrals and Cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Xing; Beth Reed; Mi Kyung Bahng; Peng Wang; Hin Koo Woo; Sun Jong Baek; Chee Shine Lam; Cheuk Yiu Ng

    2008-01-01

    We show that by scanning the frequency of a single mode infrared (IR) optical parametric oscillator (IR- OPO) laser to excite the molecular species of interest and fixing the frequency of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser to photoionize the IR excited species, high-resolution IR spectra of polyatomic neutrals can be obtained with high sensitivity. The fact that this IR-VUV-photoion (IR-VUV-PI) method is based on VUV photoionization probe, and thus, allows the identification of the neutral IR absorber, makes it applicable for IR spectroscopy measurements of isotopemers, radicals, and clusters, which usually exist as impure samples. The highly resolved IR-VUV-PI measurements achieved using the single mode IR-OPO laser have made possible the selection of single rovibrational states of CH3X (X=Br and I), C2H4, and C3H4 for VUV-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (VUV-PFI-PE) measurements, resulting in rovibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra for these polyatomic molecules. These experiments show that the signal- to-noise ratios of the IR-VUV-PI and IR-VUV-PFI-PE spectra obtained by employing the high-resolution IR-OPO laser are significantly higher than those observed in previous IR-VUV-PI and IR-VUV-PFI-PE studies using a low-resolution IR-OPO laser. Further improvement in sensitivity of IR-VUV-PI and IR- VUV-PFI-PE measurements by using the collinear arrangement of IR-VUV lasers and molecular beam is discussed.

  2. Semiconductor cluster beams: One and two color ionization studies of Six and Gex

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, J R; Liu, Yuan; O'Brien, S. C.; Zhang, Qing-ling; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F.K.; Smalley, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Supersonic beams of clusters of Si and Ge atoms have been produced by laser vaporization followed by supersonic expansion in a helium carrier. The cluster beams were characterized by F2(7.9 eV) and ArF(6.4 eV) excimer laser ionization accompanied by time-of-flight mass analysis. In addition, the feasibility of a resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopic study was explored by two-color experiments involving initial excitation with the second (2.36 eV) and third (3.54 eV) harmonics of...

  3. Study of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD within lattice simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Molochkov, A V; Nikolaev, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we carry out a low-temperature scan of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD with $N_f=2$ quarks. The study is conducted using lattice simulation with rooted staggered quarks. At small chemical potential we observe the hadronic phase, where the theory is in a confining state, chiral symmetry is broken, the baryon density is zero and there is no diquark condensate. At the critical point $\\mu = m_{\\pi}/2$ we observe the expected second order transition to Bose-Einstein condensation of scalar diquarks. In this phase the system is still in confinement in conjunction with nonzero baryon density, but the chiral symmetry is restored in the chiral limit. We have also found that in the first two phases the system is well described by chiral perturbation theory. For larger values of the chemical potential the system turns into another phase, where the relevant degrees of freedom are fermions residing inside the Fermi sphere, and the diquark condensation takes place on the Fermi surface. In this phase t...

  4. The study of two-color excitation upconversion of Pr(0.5)Yb(3):ZBLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xiaobo; SONG; Zengfu

    2006-01-01

    The excited state absorption upconversion of Pr(0.5)Yb(3):ZBLAN glass material, under two-color excitation of the 960 nm semiconductor laser and the Xe lamp light simultaneously, is reported in this article. It was found that the upconversion emission spectra of 480.1, 519.0, 601.9 and 631.8 nm coincide with the common emission spectra. Meanwhile, the upconversion-excitation spectrum has three obvious peaks under two-color excitation, and they respectively correspond to the 856.0 nm upconversion excitation transition [1G4(Pr3+)→1I6(Pr3+) and 1G4(Pr3+)→3P1(Pr3+)], the 789.0 nm upconversion excitation transition 1G4(Pr3+)→3P2(Pr3+), and the 803.7 nm upconversion excitation transition 3H6(Pr3+)→1D2(Pr3+). The upconversion excitation transition 1G4(Pr3+)→1I6(Pr3+) is strong because its oscillator strength f = 23.040(10-6 is large, which results in a large peak appearing in the upconversion excitation spectrum. That is just the new interesting two-color excitation upconversion luminescence phenomenon of Pr(0.5)Yb(3):ZBLAN induced by one laser and one continuous normal light simultaneously.

  5. Ultrafast energy redistribution in C(60) fullerenes: a real time study by two-color femtosecond spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchatsinin, Ihar; Laarmann, Tim; Zhavoronkov, Nick; Schulz, Claus Peter; Hertel, Ingolf V

    2008-11-28

    Strong-field excitation and energy redistribution dynamics of C(60) fullerenes are studied by means of time-resolved mass spectrometry in a two-color femtosecond pump-probe setup. Resonant pre-excitation of the electronic system via the first dipole-allowed HOMO-->LUMO+1(t(1g)) (HOMO denotes highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO denotes lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) transition with ultrashort 25 fs pulses at 399 nm of some 10(12) W cm(-2) results in a highly nonequilibrium distribution of excited electrons and vibrational modes in the neutral species. The subsequent coupling among the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is monitored by probing the system with time-delayed 27 fs pulses at 797 nm of some 10(13) W cm(-2). Direct information on the characteristic relaxation time is derived from the analysis of transient singly and multiply charged parent and fragment ion signals as a function of pump-probe delay and laser pulse intensity. The observed relaxation times tau(el) approximately 60-400 fs are attributed to different microcanonical ensembles prepared in the pre-excitation process and correspond to different total energy contents and energy sharing between electronic and vibrational degrees. The characteristic differences and trends allow one to extract a consistent picture for the formation dynamics of ions in different charge states and their fullerenelike fragments and give evidence to collective effects in multiple ionization such as plasmon-enhanced energy deposition.

  6. Two-color QCD at high density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boz, Tamer; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, Adelaide University, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Giudice, Pietro [Universität Münster, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Münster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom); Williams, Anthony G. [Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, Adelaide University, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2016-01-22

    QCD at high chemical potential has interesting properties such as deconfinement of quarks. Two-color QCD, which enables numerical simulations on the lattice, constitutes a laboratory to study QCD at high chemical potential. Among the interesting properties of two-color QCD at high density is the diquark condensation, for which we present recent results obtained on a finer lattice compared to previous studies. The quark propagator in two-color QCD at non-zero chemical potential is referred to as the Gor’kov propagator. We express the Gor’kov propagator in terms of form factors and present recent lattice simulation results.

  7. Development of a novel two color tracer perfusion technique for the hydrodynamic study of aqueous outflow in bovine eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-yin; YE Wen; GONG Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevation of intraocular pressure is usually associated with primary open angle glaucoma and caused by increased outflow resistance. A two-color fluorescent tracer technique was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics of aqueous humor outflow with changing intraocular pressure within the same eye, to better understand the relationship between outflow facility and effective filtration area. Methods Eighteen enucleated bovine eyes were first perfused at 30 mmHg with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose. After a stable baseline facility, red fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% v/v) were exchanged and perfused. Eyes in the one-color control group (n=6) were immediately perfused with fixative. In the experimental group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer after intraocular pressure reduced to 7 mmHg, while in the two-color control group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer with intraocular pressure remaining at 30 mmHg. All 12 eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Outflow facility was continuously recorded in all eyes. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall of the aqueous plexus and the percent of the effective filtration length (PEFL; length of inner wall exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of inner wall) was measured. The relationships between outflow facility and PEFL were analyzed statistically. Results No significant differences were found in baseline facilities (ulmin~(-1)·mmHg~(-1)) among the three groups (the experimental group: 0.93 0.12; the two-color control group: 0.90 0.19; the one-color control group: 0.98 0.13). In the experimental group, the outflow facility was significantly higher at 7 mmHg (4.29±1.01) than that at 30 mmHg (1.90±0.67, P <0.001), which corresponded to a significant increase in the PEFL at 7 mmHg (54.70±8.42) from that at 30 mmHg ((11.76±4.56)%, P<0.001). The PEFL labeled by red fluorescent microspheres in the experimental group ((11.76±4.56)%) showed no

  8. Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2017-09-15

    We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.

  9. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  10. The 2 1Ag state of isolated cis-trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene: two-color resonance enhanced two-photon ionization studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Kohler; T. Shaler; W.J. Buma

    1992-01-01

    Vibrationally resolved 1 1Ag2 1Ag excitation spectra and decay times for cis,trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene seeded in a supersonic He expansion have been measured by two-color resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The excitation energy of the 1 1Ag2 1Ag 0-0 band (29 035 cm-1 ) is ~6500

  11. Two Color QCD beyond the BEC regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hands, S; Skullerud, J I; Hands, Simon; Kim, Seyong; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2005-01-01

    We present results of simulations of Two Color QCD using two flavors of Wilson quark in the fundamental representation, at non-zero quark chemical potential mu, on an 8^3x16 lattice. Results for the quark number density, quark and gluon energy densities, and superfluid condensate are qualitatively distinct from the behaviour expected on the assumption that the dominant degrees of freedom are tightly bound scalar diquarks which Bose condense; rather the scaling with mu is more suggestive of a Fermi surface disrupted by a Cooper pair condensate. We also present evidence both for screening of the static potential, and color deconfinement, arising solely as a result of a non-zero quark density.

  12. Development of a two-color FQI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Flame Quality Indicator (FQI) concept was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a simple device which could be used to monitor oil burner flames and indicate when a problem was starting to occur. Fault situations which could be identified by the FQI include: fouled nozzle, increased or decreased excess air, blocked air inlet or flue, and use of low quality oil. The basic concept of the FQI is quite simple. A conventional cadmium sulfide photocell is used to measure the amount of light emitted from an oil burner flame when the appliance is fully warmed-up. The measured amount of light is compared to a set point, established during burner tune-up. If the two intensities differ by more than a set range, a {open_quotes}service required{close_quotes} signal is produced. The amount of light which is emitted from an oil burner flame depends upon the amount of {open_quotes}soot{close_quotes} or carbon in the flame, the size and shape of the flame, and the flame temperature. The quality of flame is practically judged by the amount of soot which it is producing and for this reason it is necessary to eliminate effects of other parameters. Temperature is expected to be the most important of these. The FQI eliminates effects due to the chamber environment by establishing a set point for each specific appliance. The transient temperature effects are accounted for by examining the flame brightness only at a single time during the firing cycle. BNL is currently involved with the development of a two-color approach to the monitoring of flame quality. The basic concept involved is the measurement of both flame temperature and total amount of light emitted to allow a more direct estimate to be made of the amount of soot being produced and so the flame quality. The objective is to develop a more sensitive measurement which may be more universally applicable. This paper provides a summary of our approach and results to date in this project.

  13. Maternal detection of neonatal jaundice during birth hospitalization using a novel two-color icterometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolajoko O Olusanya; Tina M Slusher; Donald O Imosemi; Abieyuwa A Emokpae

    2017-01-01

    .... This study therefore, set out to evaluate the performance of a -two-color icterometer (BilistripTM) as a possible screening tool for detecting significant jaundice by mothers or care-givers in the first week of life...

  14. 基于彩色CCD的双色与三色比色测温法比较研究%Comparative Study on Two-Color and Three-Color Colorimetric Temperature Measurement Based on Colored CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 彭小奇

    2015-01-01

    双色与三色比色测温是彩色CCD辐射测温常用方法。通过理论分析和实验研究,分别从测温动态范围和测温精度两方面对双色法和三色法进行了比较研究。研究发现,在光圈快门组合保持不变的条件下,选取红、绿双色进行比色测温具有较宽的测温动态范围;在对辐射体做灰体假设的情况下,三色测温方法具有更高的测温精度。提出了构建一种可切换测温方法的统一测温硬件平台,统一测温平台综合了双色法和三色法两者的优点,可同时满足更宽的测温动态范围和更高的测温精度的要求,应用灵活。%The two-color and three-color colorimetric temperature measurements are major methods of the colored CCD-based radiation thermometry. The dynamic range and temperature measurement accuracy of the two-color and three-color thermometry are analyzed and compared respectively. The theory analysis and experimental results show that the two-color thermometry using red-green colors has much wider dynamic range than the three-color thermome⁃try in the combination of an aperture and shutter. In the other hand,the three-color thermometry has higher accura⁃cy than the two-color method when the radiator is assumed as a gray-body. Finally,the general temperature measure⁃ment platform flexibly switching the two-color and the three-color thermometry is proposed. The measurement plat⁃form combines the advantages of the two-color and three-color thermometry,which meets the requirements of wide dynamic range and high measurement accuracy.

  15. Two-color beam generation based on wakefield excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoni, S.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S.

    2016-05-01

    Several beam manipulation methods have been studied and experimentally tested to generate two-color photon beams in free electron laser facilities to accommodate the user requests. We propose to use the interaction of the beam with an oscillating longitudinal wakefield source to obtain a suitable electron beam structure. The bunch generates two subpulses with different energies and delayed in time passing through a magnetic chicane after its longitudinal phase space has been modulated by the wakefield source. According to this approach the power of the emitted radiation is not degraded compared to the monochromatic beam, and the setup in the machine is quite simple because the bunch is manipulated only in the high energy section, where it is more rigid. We present the design applied to SwissFEL. We identified the parameters and the corresponding range of tunability of the time and energy separation among the two subbunches.

  16. Nonvolatile two-color holographic recording in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals gated by incoherent ultraviolet light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaolin Chen; Xiangming Liu; Bo Fu; Guoquan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Nonvolatile two-color holographic recording gated by incoherent ultraviolet (UV) light centered at 365 nm is investigated in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals. The influence of thermal treatment on the two-color recording is studied. The results show that thermal reduction tends to improve the two-color recording performance, whereas thermal oxidation degrades the two-color recording. With an incoherent 0.2-W/cm2 UV gating light and a 0.25-W/cm2 semiconductor recording laser at 780 nm, a two-color recording sensitivity of 4 x 10-3 cm/J and a recording dynamic range characterized by M/# of 0.12 are achieved in a 2.2-mm thermally reduced near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystal. We attribute the improvement to the prolonged lifetime of small polarons and the increased absorption at the gating wavelength due to thermal reduction.

  17. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  18. Towards the phase diagram of dense two-color matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cotter, Seamus; Hands, Simon; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We study two-color QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermion as a function of quark chemical potential mu and temperature T. We find evidence of a superfluid phase at intermediate mu and low T where the quark number density and diquark condensate are both very well described by a Fermi sphere of nearly-free quarks disrupted by a BCS condensate. Our results suggest that the quark contribution to the energy density is negative (and balanced by a positive gauge contribution), although this result is highly sensitive to details of the energy renormalisation. We also find evidence that the chiral condensate in this region vanishes in the massless limit. This region gives way to a region of deconfined quark matter at higher T and mu, with the deconfinement temperature, determined from the renormalised Polyakov loop, decreasing only very slowly with increasing chemical potential. The quark number susceptibility chi_q does not exhibit any qualitative change at the deconfinement transition. We argue that this is because ...

  19. Combining Digital Watermarks with Two-Color Bitmap Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technology for combining digital watermarks with two-color bitmap image based on the threshold watermarking method is presented. Our technology doesn't add any thing to the digital media, but combines the watermarks in two-color bitmap image by looking for some characteristic values in the bitmap and uses the relationship between the watermarks and the characteristic values to prove the copyright protection. The choice of the characteristic values depends on the choice of a cryptographic key known by the owner of the bitmap. The benefit of using a cryptographic key is to combine the watermarks with the bitmap in a high secure way.

  20. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.

  1. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of heteronuclear atom-pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Debashree

    2013-01-01

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of heteronuclear atom-pairs. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two heteronuclear atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty $\\it {et.}$ $\\it {al.}$, J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between heteronuclear atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between heteronuclear atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scatt...

  2. Dirac Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac Operator for QCD with Two Colors

    CERN Document Server

    Kieburg, Mario; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-01-01

    We study the lattice artefacts of the Wilson Dirac operator for QCD with two colors and fermions in the fundamental representation from the viewpoint of chiral perturbation theory. These effects are studied with the help of the following spectral observables: the level density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator, the distribution of chirality over the real eigenvalues, and the chiral condensate for the quenched as well as for the unquenched theory. We provide analytical expressions for all these quantities. Moreover we derive constraints for the level density of the real eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator and the number of additional real modes. The latter is a good measure for the strength of lattice artefacts. All computations are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations of the corresponding random matrix theory which agrees with chiral perturbation theory of two color QCD with Wilson fermions.

  3. Femtosecond Non-degenerate Four Wave Mixing Spectroscopy: The Two Color Photon Echo Peak Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Prall, B S

    2005-01-01

    The couplings between multiple electronic states and electronic and nuclear coordinates are examined for condensed phase systems by femtosecond degenerate and non-degenerate four wave mixing. The two-color photon echo peak shift experiment is developed which allows measurement of the correlation between transition frequencies in two different spectral regions. Two-color photon echo peak shift (2C3PEPS) experiments are used to study coupling between electronic states in the lutetium bisphthalocyanine anion, LuPc2−. Electronically induced mixing between exciton and charge resonance states leads to correlations in transition energies for the two observed transitions. This correlation generates non-zero 2C3PEPS which, when compared with 1C3PEPS, allows experimental determination of the degree of mixing, which was in good agreement with theoretical predictions. By exploiting a coherently excited nuclear wavepacket, the nuclear dependence on the electronic mixing between exciton and charge resonance state...

  4. Two-color infrared FEL facility employing a 250-MeV linac injector of Saga synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Tomimasu, T; Koga, N; Hashiguchi, Y; Ochiai, Y; Ishibashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A two-color infrared free electron laser (FEL) facility is proposed. This FEL facility will employ a new 250-MeV linac injector of the Saga synchrotron light source (SLS). The linac has two operation modes: short macropulse mode of 1 mu s at 250 MeV is for injection to a 1.4-GeV storage ring and long macropulse mode of 13 mu s at 40 MeV is for the two-color FEL facility. The two-color FEL uses a single electron beam and simultaneously provides both infrared (IR) and far-IR laser pulses for pump-probe studies of quantum-well structures and studying vibrational relaxation of molecules. The Saga SLS will be operated in 2004 to promote material science, bio-medical and industrial applications in Kyushu.

  5. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon upon polarization controlled two-color double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Herzlieb, Marcel; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-01-12

    Two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on silicon wafers to study the temporally distributed energy deposition in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated parallel or cross-polarized double-pulse sequences at 400 and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds between the sub-ablation 50-fs-pulses. Multiple two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample. The resulting LIPSS characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism is proposed to explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments extend previous single-color studies and prove the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition for LIPSS formation.

  6. Noise in two-color electronic distance meter measurements revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.

    2004-01-01

    Frequent, high-precision geodetic data have temporally correlated errors. Temporal correlations directly affect both the estimate of rate and its standard error; the rate of deformation is a key product from geodetic measurements made in tectonically active areas. Various models of temporally correlated errors are developed and these provide relations between the power spectral density and the data covariance matrix. These relations are applied to two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) measurements made frequently in California over the past 15-20 years. Previous analysis indicated that these data have significant random walk error. Analysis using the noise models developed here indicates that the random walk model is valid for about 30% of the data. A second 30% of the data can be better modeled with power law noise with a spectral index between 1 and 2, while another 30% of the data can be modeled with a combination of band-pass-filtered plus random walk noise. The remaining 10% of the data can be best modeled as a combination of band-pass-filtered plus power law noise. This band-pass-filtered noise is a product of an annual cycle that leaks into adjacent frequency bands. For time spans of more than 1 year these more complex noise models indicate that the precision in rate estimates is better than that inferred by just the simpler, random walk model of noise.

  7. Two-color, double-slit in vivo flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J; Puoris'haag, M

    2007-10-15

    The in vivo flow cytometer enables the real-time detection and quantification of fluorescent cells circulating within a live animal without the need for incisions or extraction of blood. It has been used in demonstrating flow velocity disparities in biological flows, and in the investigation of the circulation kinetics of various types of cells. However, a shortcoming of this in vivo flow cytometer is that it provides only one excitation slit at one wavelength, resulting in several performance limitations. Therefore, a second in vivo flow cytometer that provides two different laser wavelengths, 473 and 633 nm, and one or two excitation slits has been designed and built. Thus far, the two-color system has been used to acquire circulation kinetics data of two different cell populations each labeled with a different marker, one cell population labeled with two different markers, and one cell population expressing the green-fluorescent protein gene. In addition, accurate arterial red blood cell velocities within a mouse have been determined using the cytometer.

  8. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  9. Generation of strong terahertz field from two-color laser filamentation and optical rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Donghoon; Yoo, Yungjun; Oh, Taek Il; You, Yong Sing; Kim, Ki-Yong

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated strong-field (>8 MV/cm), high-peak-power (12 MW) THz generation with a bandwidth of >20 THz via two-color laser filamentation. Moderate average power (1.4 mW) is also achieved by using a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire amplifier capable of producing 30 fs, 15 mJ pulses at a 1 kHz repetition rate. For maximal THz generation and transmission, we have used a combination of a thin dichroic waveplate and a large Brewster-angled silicon filter. Here we have used a thin BBO crystal for frequency doubling (800 nm to 400 nm) and observed strong terahertz emission from the crystal itself. We also find that this type of terahertz emission can be optimized to yield more output power compared to two-color photoionization. In both cases, we have used a microbolometer camera for real-time THz beam profiling. This cost-effective THz camera along with our intense THz sources can be a useful tool for nonlinear THz studies including broadband THz spectroscopy and imaging. Work supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. 014216-001.

  10. On Two Color and CCD Methods for the Determination of Astronomic Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    INTRODUCTION .................................... 2 A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry .................. 2 B. Results...value for the astronomic longitude and latitude.-_ A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry The long term objectives consist...The interior of the box was divided into 4 bays containing the telescope, the refractometry optics, the power supplies and the refralctometry

  11. Magnetic catalysis (and inverse catalysis) at finite temperature in two-color lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgenfritz, E -M; Petersson, B; Schreiber, A

    2013-01-01

    Two-color lattice QCD with N_f=4 staggered fermion degrees of freedom (no rooting trick is applied) with equal electric charge q is studied in a homogeneous magnetic background field B and at non-zero temperature T. In order to circumvent renormalization as a function of the bare coupling we apply a fixed-scale approach. We study the influence of the magnetic field on the critical temperature. At rather small pseudo-scalar meson mass (m_pi \\approx 175 MeV \\approx T_c(B=0)) we confirm magnetic catalysis for sufficiently strong magnetic field strength, while at T=195 MeV and weak magnetic field (qB {\\lesssim} 0.8 GeV^2) we find a rise of the Polyakov loop with qB and thus, indications for an inverse magnetic catalysis.

  12. Biosynthetic labeling and two-color imaging of phospholipids in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Cindy Y; Roth, Mary; Welti, Ruth; Salic, Adrian

    2015-02-09

    Phospholipids with a choline head group are abundant components of all biological membranes, performing critical functions in cellular structure, metabolism, and signaling. In spite of their importance, our ability to visualize choline phospholipids in vivo remains very limited. We present a simple and robust chemical strategy to image choline phospholipids, based on the metabolic incorporation of azidocholine analogues, that accurately reflects the normal biosynthetic incorporation of choline into cellular phospholipids. Azidocholine-labeled phospholipids can be imaged in cells with high sensitivity and resolution, following derivatization with fluorophores, by bio-orthogonal chemical reactions compatible with live-cell imaging. We used this method to visualize the subcellular localization of choline phospholipids. We also demonstrate that double metabolic labeling with azidocholine and propargylcholine allows sensitive two-color imaging of choline phospholipids. Our method represents a powerful approach to directly image phospholipids, and to study their dynamics in cells and tissues.

  13. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  14. THz wave emission from argon in two-color laser field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玲玲; 赵松峰; 周效信; 赵增秀

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) wave emission from argon atom in a two-color laser pulses is studied numerically by solving the one-dimensional (1D) time-dependent Schr ¨odinger equation. The THz spectra we obtained include both discontinuous and continuum ones. By using the special basis functions that we previously proposed, our analysis points out that the discontinuous and continuum parts are contributed by bound–bound and continuum–continuum transition of atomic energy levels. Although the atomic wave function is strongly dressed during the interaction with laser fields, our identification for the discontinuous part of the THz wave shows that the transition between highly excited bound states can still be well described by the field-free basis function in the tunneling ionization regime.

  15. BEC-BCS crossover in a cold and magnetized two color NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Dyana C; Farias, R L S; Manso, Pedro H A; Ramos, Rudnei O; Scoccola, N N

    2016-01-01

    The BEC-BCS crossover for a NJL model with diquark interactions is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particular attention is paid to different regularization schemes used in the literature. A thorough comparison of results is performed for the case of a cold and magnetized two-color NJL model. According to our results, the critical chemical potential for the BEC transition exhibits a clear inverse magnetic catalysis effect for magnetic fields in the range $ 1 \\lesssim eB/m_\\pi^2 \\lesssim 20 $. As for the BEC-BCS crossover, the corresponding critical chemical potential is very weakly sensitive to magnetic fields up to $eB \\sim 9\\ m_\\pi^2$, showing a much smaller inverse magnetic catalysis as compared to the BEC transition, and displays a strong magnetic catalysis from this point on.

  16. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2010-10-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH(3)OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  17. In situ spatial mapping of Gouy phase slip with terahertz generation in two-color field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Lü, Zhihui; Huang, Yindong; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Wenbo; Zhang, Dongwen; Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin

    2016-05-30

    We establish a one-to-one mapping between the local phase slip and the spatial position near the focus by scanning a thin jet along the propagation direction of laser beams. The measurement shows that the optimal phase of terahertz can be utilized to characterize in situ the spatially dependent relative phase of the two-color field. We also investigate the role of the Gouy phase shift on terahertz generation from two-color laser-induced plasma. The result is of critical importance for phase-dependent applications of two-color laser-field, including high-order harmonic and terahertz generation.

  18. Improved treatment of the turning point in tunnel ionization of atoms in a low-frequency two color laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, V. M.; Miladinović, T. B.

    2016-12-01

    The tunneling photoionization rate for a two color (bichromatic) field consisting of coherent superposition of the fundamental laser field frequency ω and its second harmonic with frequency 2ω , was studied theoretically within the framework of the adiabatic Landau-Dykhne approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the case of fixed specified values of relative phase shift, \\varphi =0 between the harmonics of the incident bichromatic field.

  19. Ionization in Orthogonal Two-Color Laser Fields - Origin and Phase Dependence of Trajectory-Resolved Coulomb Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Martin; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Dörner, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    We report on electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar in strong orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields measured with the COLTRIMS technique. We study the effect of Coulomb focusing whose signature is a cusp like feature in the center of the electron momentum spectrum. While the direct electrons show the expected strong dependence on the phase between the two colors, surprisingly the Coulomb focused structure is almost not influenced by the weak second harmonic streaking field. This effect is explained by the use of a CTMC simulation which describes the tunneled electron wave packet in terms of classical trajectories under the influence of the combined Coulomb- and OTC laser field. We find a subtle interplay between the initial momentum of the electron upon tunneling, the ionization phase and the action of the Coulomb field that makes the Coulomb focused part of the momentum spectrum apparently insensitive to the weaker streaking field.

  20. Characteristic Study of Third Harmonic Generation Induced by Two-Color-Field Femtosecond Laser in Air as a Function of Temporal Delay%空气中双色场激光诱导三次谐波随时间延迟变化特性的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 刘伟伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically studies the spectral characteristics of the third harmonic generated (THG) in air by focusing a two-color-field laser, which is synthesized by a femtosecond laser pulse (ω0) and its second harmonic (2ω0). It is found that the third harmonic intensity varies as a function of the temporal delay between the fundamental and the second harmonic wave, showing a pronounced periodic modulation. This observation is explained by the interference taking place between two third harmonic sources. One is induced by the direct third harmonic generation of the fundamental wave, while the other is given rise by the four-wave mixing (FWM) of the fundamental and the second harmonic waves. In addition, the third harmonic spectra are investigated when the chirp and the self-phase modulation (SPM) of the fundamental pulse and the second harmonic are taken into account. Our results can provide some key informations for the coherent control of the third harmonic generation induced by twocolor-field femtosecond laser in air.%理论研究了当基频光(ω0)和倍频光(2ω0)之间的时间延迟改变时,所产生的三次谐波(THG)的光谱特性.研究结果表明,空气中双色场飞秒激光诱导三次谐波的强度随基频光与倍频光之间的时间延迟而变化,并呈现周期性的调制现象.理论分析指出这是由于基频光的三倍频过程和基频光与倍频光的四波混频(FWM)过程两种物理机制所产生的三次谐波发生了干涉现象.同时研究了基频脉冲与倍频脉冲的啁啾和自相位调制(SPM)对于所产生的三次谐波光谱分布的影响.该研究为双色场飞秒激光诱导三次谐波的相干控制提供了基本的理论依据.

  1. Two-Color Theory with Novel Infrared Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, T; Buchoff, M I; Cheng, M; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Witzel, O

    2013-01-01

    Using lattice simulations, we study the infrared behavior of a particularly interesting SU(2) gauge theory, with six massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. We compute the running gauge coupling derived non-perturbatively from the Schrodinger functional of the theory, finding no evidence for an infrared fixed point up through gauge couplings of order 20. This implies that the theory either is governed in the infrared by a fixed point of considerable strength, unseen so far in non-supersymmetric gauge theories, or breaks its global chiral symmetries producing a large number of composite Nambu-Goldstone bosons relative to the number of underlying degrees of freedom. Thus either of these phases exhibits novel behavior.

  2. Two-color gauge theory with novel infrared behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, T; Brower, R C; Buchoff, M I; Cheng, M; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Witzel, O

    2014-03-21

    Using lattice simulations, we study the infrared behavior of a particularly interesting SU(2) gauge theory, with six massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. We compute the running gauge coupling derived nonperturbatively from the Schrödinger functional of the theory, finding no evidence for an infrared fixed point up through gauge couplings g(2) of order 20. This implies that the theory either is governed in the infrared by a fixed point of considerable strength, unseen so far in nonsupersymmetric gauge theories, or breaks its global chiral symmetries producing a large number of composite Nambu-Goldstone bosons relative to the number of underlying degrees of freedom. Thus either of these phases exhibits novel behavior.

  3. Two-Color Magneto-Optical Trap with Small Magnetic Field for Ytterbium

    CERN Document Server

    Kawasaki, Akio; Yu, QinQin; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We report a two-color magneto-optical trap (MOT) for ytterbium atoms operating at a low magnetic field gradient down to 2 G/cm where a conventional MOT using the singlet transition (6s^2 1S0 -> 6s6p 1P1) is unable to trap atoms. By simultaneously applying laser light on both the broad-linewidth singlet transition and the narrow-linewidth triplet transition (6s^2 1S0 -> 6s6p 3P1), we load and trap 4.0 x 10^5 atoms directly from an atomic beam at 700 K. In the two-color MOT, the slowing and trapping functions are separately performed by the singlet transition light and the triplet transition light, respectively. The two-color MOT is highly robust against laser power imbalance even at very low magnetic field gradients.

  4. Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-11-14

    Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ∼243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ∼243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ∼243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

  5. Phase diagram of dense two-color QCD within lattice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguta, V. V.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Molochkov, A. V.; Nikolaev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of a low-temperature scan of the phase diagram of dense two-color QCD with Nf = 2 quarks. The study is conducted using lattice simulation with rooted staggered quarks. At small chemical potential we observe the hadronic phase, where the theory is in a confining state, chiral symmetry is broken, the baryon density is zero and there is no diquark condensate. At the critical point μ = mπ/2 we observe the expected second order transition to Bose-Einstein condensation of scalar diquarks. In this phase the system is still in confinement in conjunction with nonzero baryon density, but the chiral symmetry is restored in the chiral limit. We have also found that in the first two phases the system is well described by chiral perturbation theory. For larger values of the chemical potential the system turns into another phase, where the relevant degrees of freedom are fermions residing inside the Fermi sphere, and the diquark condensation takes place on the Fermi surface. In this phase the system is still in confinement, chiral symmetry is restored and the system is very similar to the quarkyonic state predicted by SU(Nc) theory at large Nc.

  6. Two-color detector: Mercury-cadmium-telluride as a terahertz and infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizov, F.; Zabudsky, V.; Petryakov, V.; Golenkov, A.; Andreyeva, K.; Tsybrii, Z. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Dvoretskii, S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, issues associated with the development of infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) radiation detectors based on HgCdTe are discussed. Two-color un-cooled and cooled to 78 K narrow-gap mercury-cadmium-telluride semiconductor thin layers with antennas were considered both as sub-THz (sub-THz) direct detection bolometers and 3–10 μm IR photoconductors. The noise equivalent power (NEP) for one of the detectors studied at ν ≈ 140 GHz reaches NEP{sub 300 K} ≈ 4.5 × 10{sup −10} W/Hz{sup 1/2} and NEP{sub 78 K} ≈ 5 × 10{sup −9} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. The same detector used as an IR photoconductor showed the responsivity at temperatures T = 78 K and 300 K with signal-to-noise ratio S/N ≈ 750 and 50, respectively, under illumination by using IR monochromator and globar as a thermal source.

  7. Inkjet printing the three organic functional layers of two-colored organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, Michiel J.J., E-mail: Michiel.Coenen@tmc.nl [Holst Centre, PO BOX 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Slaats, Thijs M.W.L.; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M. [Holst Centre, PO BOX 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Groen, Pim [Holst Centre, PO BOX 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-29

    Inkjet printing allows for the roll-2-roll fabrication of organic electronic devices at an industrial scale. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of two-colored organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which three adjacent organic device layers were inkjet printed from halogen free inks. The resulting devices demonstrate the possibilities offered by this technique for the fabrication of OLEDs for signage and personalized electronics. - Highlights: • Two-colored organic light emitting diodes with 3 inkjet printed device layers were fabricated. • All materials were printed from halogen free inks. • Inkjet printing of emissive materials is suitable for signage applications.

  8. Electron Correlation in Nonsequential Double Ionization of Helium by Two-Color Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue-Ming; LIAO Qing; HUANG Cheng; TONG Ai-Hong; LU Pei-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ We investigate the momentum and energy correlations between the two electrons from nonsequential double ionization(NSDI)of helium by strong two-color pulses with the classical three-dimensional ensemble model.The correlated momentum distribution in the direction parallel to the laser field exhibits an arc-like structure and the sum-energy spectrum shows a sharp peak for the NSDI of helium in the two-color fields.Back analysis reveals that the narrow time interval during which recollisions occur,the low returning energy and the short time delay between recollision and double ionization lead to the novel momentum and energy correlations.

  9. Long-range predissociation in two-color photoassociation of ultracold Na atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    We report two-color photo-associative ionization of sodium in a Magneto-Optical Trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v > 20) of the singly-excited 0^- g state predissociate into the 3²P3/2

  10. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium upon single- and two-color femtosecond double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-10-05

    Single- and two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on titanium to study the dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences in two configurations - either at 800 nm only, or at 400 and 800 nm wavelengths. The inter-pulse delays of the individual 50-fs pulses ranged up to some tens of picoseconds. Multiple of these single- or two-color double-fs-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surface. In both experimental configurations, the peak fluence of each individual pulse was kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and the periods were quantified by Fourier analyses. The LIPSS periods along with the orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. A plasmonic model successfully explains the delay-dependence of the LIPSS on titanium and confirms the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  11. Streaking temporal double slit interference by an orthogonal two-color laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Martin; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar P H; Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We investigate electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar by two orthogonally polarized laser pulses of different color. The two-color scheme is used to experimentally control the interference between electron wave packets released at different times within one laser cycle. This intracycle interference pattern is typically hard to resolve in an experiment. With the two-color control scheme these features become the dominant contribution to the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore the second color can be used for streaking of the otherwise interfering wave packets establishing a which-way marker. Our investigation shows that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the degree of the which-way information determined by the controllable phase between the two pulses.

  12. APPLICATION OF TWO-COLOR INTERPHASE FISH USING SEX PROBE IN ALLOGENEIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧兰; 李建勇; 朱康儿; 薛永权; 李杨秋; 刘晓力; 过宇

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using X and Y centromere probe in the engraftment estimation and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Methods: Samples from 12 cases patients in different periods after alloSCT were detected by interphase FISH. Results: All of the 12 patients were proved to obtain engraftment 22(35 days after alloSCT. While traditional karyotype showed as 100%XX or 100%XY invariably, FISH showed different percentages of donor original sex chromosome. Conclusion: Two-color interphase FISH is a more sensitive and simple test for engraftment evaluation and MRD monitoring post SCT, though, it can not entirely replace traditional karyotype analysis and gene detection by RT-PCR.

  13. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L; Soltz, B A

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-mum-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance.

  14. Low-temperature characteristics of two-color InAs/InP quantum dots laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguo Li; Qian Gong; Xinzhong Wang; Li Yue; Oingbo Liu; Hailong Wang

    2012-01-01

    We report on the lasing characteristics of a two-color InAs/InP quantum dots (QDs) laser at a low temperature.Two lasing peaks with a tunable gap are simultaneously observed.At a low temperature of 80 K,a tunable range greater than a 20-nm wavelength is demonstrated by varying the injection current from 30 to 500 mA.Under a special condition,we even observe three lasing peaks,which are in contrast to those observed at room temperature.The temperature coefficient of the lasing wavelength was obtained for the two colors in the 80-280 K temperature range,which is lower than that of the reference quantum well (QW) laser working in the same wavelength region.

  15. Autler-Townes splitting in two-color photoassociation of 6Li

    CERN Document Server

    Schloeder, U; Silber, C; Zimmermann, C; Schloeder, Ulrike; Deuschle, Thomas; Silber, Christian; Zimmermann, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We report on high-resolution two-color photoassociation spectroscopy in the triplet system of magneto-optically trapped 6Li. The absolute transition frequencies have been measured. Strong optical coupling of the bound molecular states has been observed as Autler-Townes splitting in the photoassociation signal. The spontaneous bound-bound transition rate is determined and the molecule formation rate is estimated. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with the theoretical model.

  16. Lowest eigenvalues of the Dirac operator for two color QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, E; Markum, H; Pullirsch, R; Bittner, Elmar; Lombardo, Maria-Paola; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in full QCD with two colors and finite chemical potential. Along the strong-coupling axis up to the temperature phase transition, the low-lying Dirac spectrum is well described by random matrix theory (RMT) and exhibits universal behavior. The situation is discussed in the chirally symmetric phase and no universality is seen for the microscopic spectral density.

  17. Polyakov-Quark-Meson-Diquark Model for two-color QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Strodthoff, Nils

    2013-01-01

    We present an update on the phase diagram of two-color QCD from a chiral effective model approach based on a quark-meson-diquark model using the Functional Renormalization Group (FRG). We discuss the impact of perturbative UV contributions, the inclusion of gauge field dynamics via a phenomenological Polyakov loop potential, and the impact of matter backcoupling on the gauge sector. The corresponding phase diagram including these effects is found to be in qualitative agreement with recent lattice investigations.

  18. Two-color light-emitting diodes with polarization-sensitive high extraction efficiency based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Sattarian; S, Shojaei; E, Darabi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, graphene photonic crystals are employed to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of two-color, red and blue, light-emitting diode (LED). The transmission characteristics of one-dimensional (1D) Fibonacci graphene photonic crystal LED (FGPC-LED) are investigated by using the transfer matrix method and the scaling study is presented. We analyzed the influence of period, thickness, and permittivity in the structure to enhance the LEE. The transmission spectrum of 1D FGPC has been optimized in detail. In addition, the effects of the angle of incidence and the state of polarization are investigated. As the main result, we found the optimum values of relevant parameters to enhance the extraction of red and blue light from an LED as well as provide perfect omnidirectional and high peak transmission filters for the TE and TM modes.

  19. Assessing probe-specific dye and slide biases in two-color microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Zelanna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary reason for using two-color microarrays is that the use of two samples labeled with different dyes on the same slide, that bind to probes on the same spot, is supposed to adjust for many factors that introduce noise and errors into the analysis. Most users assume that any differences between the dyes can be adjusted out by standard methods of normalization, so that measures such as log ratios on the same slide are reliable measures of comparative expression. However, even after the normalization, there are still probe specific dye and slide variation among the data. We define a method to quantify the amount of the dye-by-probe and slide-by-probe interaction. This serves as a diagnostic, both visual and numeric, of the existence of probe-specific dye bias. We show how this improved the performance of two-color array analysis for arrays for genomic analysis of biological samples ranging from rice to human tissue. Results We develop a procedure for quantifying the extent of probe-specific dye and slide bias in two-color microarrays. The primary output is a graphical diagnostic of the extent of the bias which called ECDF (Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function, though numerical results are also obtained. Conclusion We show that the dye and slide biases were high for human and rice genomic arrays in two gene expression facilities, even after the standard intensity-based normalization, and describe how this diagnostic allowed the problems causing the probe-specific bias to be addressed, and resulted in important improvements in performance. The R package LMGene which contains the method described in this paper has been available to download from Bioconductor.

  20. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between -10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  1. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-16

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between −10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  2. Ultrafast molecular photoionization by two-color orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses: Effects of relative pulse phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2017-09-01

    We present molecular photoionization by two-color 2ω1 =ω2 orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H+ by numerically solving time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Two ionization processes with one ω2 photon interfering with two ω1 photon absorption are studied at different molecular alignments. Molecular frame photoelectron momentum and angular distributions exhibit asymmetries which are functions of the relative pulse phase. For resonant excitation processes by the ω1 pulse, symmetric distributions are obtained. An attosecond ionization model is adopted to describe the ultrafast ionization dynamics. The dependence of the ionization asymmetry on the molecular alignment allows to further monitor interference effects on orbital symmetry.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity of air flow over 1000°C using two color phosphor thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masatoshi; Someya, Satoshi; Munakata, Tetsuo; LCS Team

    2016-11-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were applied to the gas turbines and the internal combustion engines for the high thermal efficiency. The evaluation and the improvement of coatings require to measure transient gaseous flow near the wall with coatings. An aim of this study is to combine a two color phosphor thermometry with the PIV to measure simultaneously temperature and velocity of the gas over 1000°C. The temperature and velocity distribution of an impinging jet of high temperature air was simultaneously visualized in experiments. The temperature was estimated from an intensity ratio of luminescent in different ranges of wavelength, 500 600 nm and 400 480 nm. Uncertainty of measured temperature was less than 10°C. Temperatures measured by the developed method and by thermocouples were agreed well. The measured velocity by the PIV with phosphor particles were also agreed well with the velocity measured by a Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

  4. Two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornostaeva, O.; Deng, B. H.; Garate, E.; Gota, H.; Kinley, J.; Schroeder, J.; Tuszewski, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO{sub 2} laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than {+-}5 deg., corresponding to a line integral density of 3x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}. The time resolution for routine operation is 2 {mu}s.

  5. Control of the polarization of attosecond pulses using a two-color field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Camilo; Hoffmann, David J; Torres, Ricardo; Chipperfield, Luke E; Marangos, Jonathan P [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: camilo@usal.es

    2009-11-15

    Control over the polarization of an attosecond pulse train (APT) is demonstrated theoretically using orthogonally polarized two-color fields. The carrier envelope phase of the two pulses is used as a control parameter to generate both an APT with linear polarization in two nearly perpendicular planes or a train of elliptically polarized pulses of alternating helicity. By using few-cycle driving laser fields an isolated attosecond pulse with elliptical polarization is shown to be generated after selecting the cut-off region of the harmonic spectrum. The control mechanism is explained in terms of classical trajectories.

  6. Tomographic imaging of asymmetric molecular orbitals with a two-color multicycle laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Meiyan; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate a scheme for tomographic reconstruction of asymmetric molecular orbitals based on high-order harmonic generation with a two-color multicycle laser field. It is shown that by adjusting the relative phase of the two fields, the returning electrons can be forced to recollide from one direction for all the orientations of molecules. Thus the reconstruction of the asymmetric orbitals can be carried out with multicycle laser field. This releases the stringent requirement of a single-cycle pulse with a stabilized and controllable carrier-envelop phase for the tomographic imaging of asymmetric molecular orbitals.

  7. Two-Color Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with THz Primary Mode Spacing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, S; Buckley, K; Fehse, R; Amann, A; O'Reilly, E P; Barry, L P; Anandarajah, P; Patchell, J; O'Gorman, J

    2006-01-01

    A class of multiwavelength Fabry-Perot lasers is introduced where the spectrum is tailored through a non-periodic patterning of the cavity effective index. The cavity geometry is obtained using an inverse scattering approach and can be designed such that the spacing of discrete Fabry-Perot lasing modes is limited only by the bandwidth of the inverted gain medium. A specific two-color semiconductor laser with a mode spacing in the THz regime is designed, and measurements are presented demonstrating the simultaneous oscillation of the two wavelengths. The extension of the Fabry-Perot laser concept described presents significant new possibilities in laser cavity design.

  8. Flank transparency: transparent filters seen in dynamic two-color displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, D; Rodriguez, A M; Hoffman, D D

    2001-01-01

    Flank transparency is the perception of a colored transparent filter evoked by apparent-motion displays containing as few as two colors. Displays of flank transparency contain a random array of line segments placed on a uniform background. Small flanks are added to the line segments if the segments fall in the interior of a moving virtual shape, such as a virtual disk. This leads to the perception of a colored transparent disk with well-defined boundaries moving over the array of lines. Current qualitative and quantitative models of luminance and color conditions for perceptual transparency do not account for flank transparency as they require displays containing at least three different colors.

  9. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses......, and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  10. Two-color CO2/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostaeva, O; Deng, B H; Garate, E; Gota, H; Kinley, J; Schroeder, J; Tuszewski, M

    2010-10-01

    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO(2) laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than ±5°, corresponding to a line integral density of 3×10(18) m(-2). The time resolution for routine operation is 2 μs.

  11. Controlling Nonsequential Double Ionization in Two-Color Circularly Polarized Femtosecond Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Chaloupka, Jan L.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dollar, Franklin J.; Knut, Ronny; Grychtol, Patrik; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2016-09-01

    Atoms undergoing strong-field ionization in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields exhibit unique two-dimensional photoelectron trajectories and can emit bright circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet and soft-x-ray beams. In this Letter, we present the first experimental observation of nonsequential double ionization in these tailored laser fields. Moreover, we can enhance or suppress nonsequential double ionization by changing the intensity ratio and helicity of the two driving laser fields to maximize or minimize high-energy electron-ion rescattering. Our experimental results are explained through classical simulations, which also provide insight into how to optimize the generation of circularly polarized high harmonic beams.

  12. Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Daniel A

    2011-07-18

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.

  13. Two-color HgCdTe infrared staring focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward P.; Pham, Le T.; Venzor, Gregory M.; Norton, Elyse; Newton, Michael; Goetz, Paul; Randall, Valerie; Pierce, Gregory; Patten, Elizabeth A.; Coussa, Raymond A.; Kosai, Ken; Radford, William A.; Edwards, John; Johnson, Scott M.; Baur, Stefan T.; Roth, John A.; Nosho, Brett; Jensen, John E.; Longshore, Randolph E.

    2003-12-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) in collaboration with HRL Laboratories is contributing to the maturation and manufacturing readiness of third-generation two-color HgCdTe infrared staring focal plane arrays (FPAs). This paper will highlight data from the routine growth and fabrication of 256x256 30μm unit-cell staring FPAs that provide dual-color detection in the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectral regions. FPAs configured for MWIR/MWIR, MWIR/LWIR and LWIR/LWIR detection are used for target identification, signature recognition and clutter rejection in a wide variety of space and ground-based applications. Optimized triple-layer-heterojunction (TLHJ) device designs and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth using in-situ controls has contributed to individual bands in all two-color FPA configurations exhibiting high operability (>99%) and both performance and FPA functionality comparable to state-of-the-art single-color technology. The measured spectral cross talk from out-of-band radiation for either band is also typically less than 10%. An FPA architecture based on a single mesa, single indium bump, and sequential mode operation leverages current single-color processes in production while also providing compatibility with existing second-generation technologies.

  14. Spectral dynamics of THz pulses generated by two-color laser filaments in air: The role of Kerr nonlinearities and pump wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, A; Dechard, J; Thiele, I; Babushkin, I; Skupin, S; Berge, L

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the influence of both instantaneous and Raman-delayed Kerr nonlinearities as well as a long-wavelength pump in the terahertz (THz) emissions produced by two-color femtosecond filaments in air. Although the Raman-delayed nonlinearity induced by air molecules weakens THz generation, four-wave mixing is found to impact the THz spectra accumulated upon propagation via self-, cross-phase modulations and self-steepening. Besides, using the local current theory, we show that the scaling of laser-to-THz conversion efficiency with the fundamental laser wavelength strongly depends on the relative phase between the two colors, the pulse duration and shape, rendering a universal scaling law impossible. Scaling laws in powers of the pump wavelength may only provide a rough estimate of the increase in the THz yield. We confront these results with comprehensive numerical simulations of strongly focused pulses and of filaments propagating over meter-range distances.

  15. Identification of the origin of marker chromosomes by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in azoospermic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C L; Cheng, J L; Yang, W C; Li, L Y; Cheng, H C; Fu, J J

    2015-11-19

    Y chromosomal microdeletions at the azoospermia factor locus and chromosome abnormalities have been implicated as the major causes of idiopathic male infertility. A marker chromosome is a structurally abnormal chromosome in which no part can be identified by cytogenetics. In this study, to identify the origin of the marker chromosomes and to perform a genetic diagnosis of patients with azoospermia, two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were carried out. The marker chromosomes for the two patients with azoospermia originated in the Y chromosome; it was ascertained that the karyotype of both patients was 46,X, ish del(Y)(q11)(DYZ3+, DXZ1-). The combination of two-color FISH and PCR techniques is an important method for the identification of the origin of marker chromosomes. Thus, genetic counseling and a clear genetic diagnosis of patients with azoospermia before intracytoplasmic sperm injection or other clinical managements are important.

  16. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S., E-mail: hoehm@mbi-berlin.de.de [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on fused silica is studied upon cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS periods are determined by the wavelength of the first pulse. • LIPSS area is increased for temporally overlapping pulses due to nonlinear absorption. - Abstract: The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation)

  17. Evolution of the THz Beam Profile from a Two-Color Air Plasma Through a Beam Waist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam.......We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam....

  18. Two dye combinations suitable for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography for ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Andreas; Stephan, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents two dye combinations suitable for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography for ethanol. Besides the temperature dependency of the fluorescence, the influences of laser fluence, dye concentration, pressure, dissolved air, and photobleaching are also discussed. The experimental data are compared with models and data available in literature. Based on this, parameter ranges for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography applications can be determined.

  19. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on Fused Silica, Silicon, and Titanium is studied upon parallel and cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation on Fused Silica follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS formation on Silicon and Titanium can be explained by a plasmonic model. - Abstract: In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach–Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  20. How do we select multiple features? Transient costs for selecting two colors rather than one, persistent costs for color-location conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu; Holcombe, Alex O

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study Lo, Howard, & Holcombe (Vision Research 63:20-33, 2012), selecting two colors did not induce a performance cost, relative to selecting one color. For example, requiring possible report of both a green and a red target did not yield a worse performance than when both targets were green. Yet a cost of selecting multiple colors was observed when selection needed be contingent on both color and location. When selecting a red target to the left and a green target to the right, superimposing a green distractor to the left and a red distractor to the right impeded performance. Possibly, participants cannot confine attention to a color at a particular location. As a result, distractors that share the target colors disrupt attentional selection of the targets. The attempt to select the targets must then be repeated, which increases the likelihood that the trial terminates when selection is not effective, even for long trials. Consistent with this, here we find a persistent cost of selecting two colors when the conjunction of color and location is needed, but the cost is confined to short exposure durations when the observer just has to monitor red and green stimuli without the need to use the location information. These results suggest that selecting two colors is time-consuming but effective, whereas selection of simultaneous conjunctions is never entirely successful.

  1. The Three-Color and Two-Color Tantrix(TM) Rotation Puzzle Problems are NP-Complete via Parsimonious Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Dorothea

    2007-01-01

    Holzer and Holzer (Discrete Applied Mathematics 144(3):345--358, 2004) proved the Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem with four colors NP-complete. Baumeister and Rothe (MCU 2007) modified their construction to achieve a parsimonious reduction from satisfiability to this problem. Since parsimonious reductions preserve the number of solutions, it follows that the unique version of the four-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is DP-complete under randomized reductions. In this paper, we study the three-color and the two-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem. Restricting the number of allowed colors to three (respectively, to two) reduces the set of available Tantrix(TM) tiles from 56 to 14 (respectively, to 8). We prove that both the three-color and the two-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is NP-complete, which answers a question raised by Holzer and Holzer in the affirmative. Since both these reductions are parsimonious, it follows that both the unique three-color and the unique two-color Ta...

  2. Multiscale Monte Carlo equilibration: Two-color QCD with two fermion flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the applicability of a recently proposed multi-scale thermalization algorithm to two-color quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two mass-degenerate fermion flavors. The algorithm involves refining an ensemble of gauge configurations that had been generated using a renormalization group (RG) matched coarse action, thereby producing a fine ensemble that is close to the thermalized distribution of a target fine action; the refined ensemble is subsequently rethermalized using conventional algorithms. Although the generalization of this algorithm from pure Yang-Mills theory to QCD with dynamical fermions is straight-forward, we find that in the latter case, the method is susceptible to numerical instabilities during the initial stages of rethermalization when using the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that these instabilities arise from large fermion forces in the evolution, which are attributed to an accumulation of spurious near-zero modes of the Dirac operator. We propose a simple strategy for ...

  3. Two-color Photodetectors%双波段光电探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁权; 但伟

    2000-01-01

    Photodetectors are the critical parts for implementation of optoelectoronic detection and various optoelectronic technology. The paper introduces two-color photodetectors made of silicon integrated with InGaAs. These photodetectors can detect and respond incident light with the range of 400~1 100 nm and 1 100~1 650 nm simultaneously.%光电探测器是实现光电检测及各种光电技术的核心部件。文章介绍采用Si和In-GaAs两种材料集成制作的双波段光电探测器,它能同时探测并区分400~1100nm和1100~1 650 nm波段的入射光。

  4. Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jinping; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Li, Helong; Xu, Huailiang; Chin, See Leang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate generation of strong narrow-bandwidth emissions with excellent coherent properties at ~391 nm and ~428 nm from molecular ions of nitrogen inside a femtosecond filament in air by an orthogonally polarized two-color driver field (i. e., 800 nm laser pulse and its second harmonic). The durations of the coherent emissions at 391 nm and 428 nm are measured to be ~2.4 ps and ~7.8 ps respectively, both of which are much longer than the duration of the pump and its second harmonic pulses. Furthermore, the measured temporal decay characteristics of the excited molecular systems suggest an "instantaneous" population inversion mechanism that may be achieved in molecular nitrogen ions at an ultrafast time scale comparable to the 800 nm pump pulse.

  5. Statistical analysis of efficient unbalanced factorial designs for two-color microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs that efficiently embed a fixed effects treatment structure within a random effects design structure typically require a mixed-model approach to data analyses. Although mixed model software tailored for the analysis of two-color microarray data is increasingly available, much of this software is generally not capable of correctly analyzing the elaborate incomplete block designs that are being increasingly proposed and used for factorial treatment structures. That is, optimized designs are generally unbalanced as it pertains to various treatment comparisons, with different specifications of experimental variability often required for different treatment factors. This paper uses a publicly available microarray dataset, as based upon an efficient experimental design, to demonstrate a proper mixed model analysis of a typical unbalanced factorial design characterized by incomplete blocks and hierarchical levels of variability.

  6. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  7. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  8. Synthesis of Two-Color Laser Pulses for the Harmonic Cutoff Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Li; Zhou, Li-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2016-05-01

    Increasing simultaneously both the cutoff energy and efficiency is a big challenge to all applications of high-order harmonic generation (HHG). For this purpose, the shaping of the waveform of driving pulse is an alternative approach. Here, we show that the harmonic cutoff can be extended by about two times without reducing harmonic yield after considering macroscopic propagation effects, by adopting a practical way to synthesize two-color fields with fixed energy. Our results, combined with the experimental techniques, show the great potential of HHG as a tabletop light source. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11264036, 11164025, 11364038, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20116203120001, and the Basic Scientific Research Foundation for Institution of Higher Learning of Gansu Province

  9. Mechanisms of two-color laser-induced field-free molecular orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanner, Michael; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul

    2012-09-14

    Two mechanisms of two-color (ω+2ω) laser-induced field-free molecular orientation, based on the hyperpolarizability and ionization depletion, are explored and compared. The CO molecule is used as a computational example. While the hyperpolarizability mechanism generates small amounts of orientation at intensities below the ionization threshold, ionization depletion quickly becomes the dominant mechanism as soon as ionizing intensities are reached. Only the ionization mechanism leads to substantial orientation (e.g., on the order of ≳0.1). For intensities typical of laser-induced molecular alignment and orientation experiments, the two mechanisms lead to robust, characteristic timings of the field-free orientation wave-packet revivals relative to the alignment revivals and the revival time. The revival timings can be used to detect the active orientation mechanism experimentally.

  10. Two-color resonance photoionization spectrum of nickelocene in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketkov, S. Yu.; Selzle, H. L.; Schlag, E. W.; Titova, S. N.; Kalakutskaya, L. V.

    2004-10-01

    Two-color photoionization of nickelocene molecules cooled in a supersonic jet is performed using a tunable nanosecond pulsed laser. The first stage of the multiphoton excitation is the transition from the highest occupied molecular orbital of nickelocene to the lowest Rydberg level. Conditions are found under which molecular ions (η 5-C5H5)2Ni+ are the only product of the multiphoton ionization in the one-color experiment. Irradiation of an excited molecule by an intense pulse of another laser increases significantly the yield of molecular ions. The dependence of the yield of (η5-C5H5)2Ni+ ions on the frequency of the second laser makes it possible to determine the adiabatic ionization potential of nickelocene as 6.138±0.012eV.

  11. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXRDF) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXRDF measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXRDF discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXRDF analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  12. Two-color in vivo imaging of photoreceptor apoptosis and development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambis, Alexis; Dourlen, Pierre; Steller, Hermann; Mollereau, Bertrand

    2011-03-01

    We report a new two-color fluorescent imaging system to visualize the mosaic adult photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in real-time. Using this method, we examined a collection of 434 mutants and identified genes required for PR survival, planar cell polarity (PCP), patterning and differentiation. We could track the progression of PR degeneration in living flies. By introducing the expression of p35, a caspase inhibitor, we found mutations that specifically activate caspase-dependent death. Moreover, we showed that grh is required in R3 for correct PCP establishment. The "Tomato/GFP-FLP/FRT" method allows high-throughput, rapid and precise identification of survival and developmental pathways in living adult PRs at single-cell resolution.

  13. Frequency doubler and two-color mode of operation at free electron laser FLASH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, M.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the results of the first operation of a frequency doubler at FLASH2. The scheme uses the feature of the variable gap of the undulator. Undulator is divided in two parts. The second part of the undulator is tuned to the double frequency of the first part. Modulated electron beam enters the second part of the undulator and generates radiation at the 2nd harmonic. Depending on a balance between the gain of undulator sections, frequency doubler allows operation in a two-color mode and operation at shorter wavelengths with respect to standard SASE scheme. The shortest wavelength of 3.1 nm (photon energy 400 eV) has been achieved at FLASH2 with frequency doubler scheme, which is significantly below the design value for the standard SASE option.

  14. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  15. Two-color temporal focusing multiphoton excitation imaging with tunable-wavelength excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Abrigo, Gerald; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Chien, Fan-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Wavelength tunable temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) is conducted to visualize optical sectioning images of multiple fluorophore-labeled specimens through the optimal two-photon excitation (TPE) of each type of fluorophore. The tunable range of excitation wavelength was determined by the groove density of the grating, the diffraction angle, the focal length of lenses, and the shifting distance of the first lens in the beam expander. Based on a consideration of the trade-off between the tunable-wavelength range and axial resolution of temporal focusing multiphoton excitation imaging, the presented system demonstrated a tunable-wavelength range from 770 to 920 nm using a diffraction grating with groove density of 830 lines/mm. TPE fluorescence imaging examination of a fluorescent thin film indicated that the width of the axial confined excitation was 3.0±0.7 μm and the shifting distance of the temporal focal plane was less than 0.95 μm within the presented wavelength tunable range. Fast different wavelength excitation and three-dimensionally rendered imaging of Hela cell mitochondria and cytoskeletons and mouse muscle fibers were demonstrated. Significantly, the proposed system can improve the quality of two-color TFMPEM images through different excitation wavelengths to obtain higher-quality fluorescent signals in multiple-fluorophore measurements.

  16. Opportunities for two-color experiments at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Mazza, Tommaso; Meyer, Michael; Serkez, Svitozar [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have been proven to generate short and powerful radiation pulses allowing for a wide class of novel experiments. If an XFEL facility supports the generation of two X-ray pulses with different wavelengths and controllable delay, the range of possible experiments is broadened even further to include X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe applications. In this work we discuss the possibility of applying a simple and cost-effective method for producing two-color pulses at the SASE3 soft X-ray beamline of the European XFEL. The technique is based on the installation of a magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator and can be accomplished in several steps. We discuss the scientific interest of this upgrade for the Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument, in connection with the high-repetition rate of the European XFEL, and we provide start-to-end simulations up to the radiation focus on the sample, proving the feasibility of our concept.

  17. Goulphar: rapid access and expertise for standard two-color microarray normalization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servant Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raw data normalization is a critical step in microarray data analysis because it directly affects data interpretation. Most of the normalization methods currently used are included in the R/BioConductor packages but it is often difficult to identify the most appropriate method. Furthermore, the use of R commands for functions and graphics can introduce mistakes that are difficult to trace. We present here a script written in R that provides a flexible means of access to and monitoring of data normalization for two-color microarrays. This script combines the power of BioConductor and R analysis functions and reduces the amount of R programming required. Results Goulphar was developed in and runs using the R language and environment. It combines and extends functions found in BioConductor packages (limma and marray to correct for dye biases and spatial artifacts. Goulphar provides a wide range of optional and customizable filters for excluding incorrect signals during the pre-processing step. It displays informative output plots, enabling the user to monitor the normalization process, and helps adapt the normalization method appropriately to the data. All these analyses and graphical outputs are presented in a single PDF report. Conclusion Goulphar provides simple, rapid access to the power of the R/BioConductor statistical analysis packages, with precise control and visualization of the results obtained. Complete documentation, examples and online forms for setting script parameters are available from http://transcriptome.ens.fr/goulphar/.

  18. Trajectory selection in high harmonic generation by controlling the phase between orthogonal two-color fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Leonardo; Hoffmann, David J; Siegel, Thomas; Frank, Felix; Zaïr, Amelle; Tisch, John W G; Marangos, Jonathan P

    2011-10-07

    We demonstrate control of short and long quantum trajectories in high harmonic emission through the use of an orthogonally polarized two-color field. By controlling the relative phase ϕ between the two fields we show via classical and quantum calculations that we can steer the two-dimensional trajectories to return, or not, to the core and so control the relative strength of the short or long quantum trajectory contribution. In experiments, we demonstrate that this leads to robust control over the trajectory contributions using a drive field from a femtosecond laser composed of the fundamental ω at 800 nm (intensity ∼1.2×10(14)  W cm(-2)) and its weaker orthogonally polarized second harmonic 2ω (intensity ∼0.3×10(14)  W cm(-2)) with the relative phase between the ω and 2ω fields varied simply by tilting a fused silica plate. This is the first demonstration of short and long quantum trajectory control at the single-atom level.

  19. Radiation damage free two-color X-ray ghost diffraction with atomic resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Chapman, Henry; Shih, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) can enable diffractive structural determination of protein crystals or single molecules that are too small and radiation-sensitive for conventional X-ray analysis. However the electronic form factor could have been modified during the ultrashort X-ray pulse due to photoionization and electron cascade caused by the intense X-ray pulse. For general X-ray imaging techniques, to minimize radiation damage effect is of major concern to ensure faithful reconstruction of the structure. Here we show that a radiation damage free diffraction can be achieved with an atomic spatial resolution, by using X-ray parametric down-conversion (PDC), and two-color biphoton ghost imaging. We illustrate that formation of the diffractive patterns satisfies a condition analogous to the Bragg equation, with a resolution that could be as fine as the lattice length scale of several Angstrom. Because the samples are illuminated by the optical photons of low energy, they can be free of radiation damage...

  20. Intramolecular triplet energy transfer via higher triplet excited state during stepwise two-color two-laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseki, Yosuke; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Masanori; Majima, Tetsuro

    2007-10-01

    We studied the energy transfer processes in the molecular array consisting of pyrene (Py), biphenyl (Ph2), and bisphthalimidethiophene (ImT), (Py-Ph2)2-ImT, during two-color two-laser flash photolysis (2-LFP). The first laser irradiation predominantly generates ImT in the lowest triplet excited state (ImT(T1)) because of the efficient singlet energy transfer from Py in the lowest singlet excited state to ImT and, then, intersystem crossing of ImT. ImT(T1) was excited to the higher triplet excited state (Tn) with the second laser irradiation. Then, the triplet energy was rapidly transferred to Py via a two-step triplet energy transfer (TET) process through Ph2. The efficient generation of Py(T1) was suggested from the nanosecond-picosecond 2-LFP. The back-TET from Py(T1) to ImT was observed for several tens of microseconds after the second laser irradiation. The estimated intramolecular TET rate from Py(T1) to ImT was as slow as 3.1 x 104 s-1. Hence, long-lived Py(T1) was selectively and efficiently produced during the 2-LFP.

  1. Phase diagram of two-color QCD in a Dyson-Schwinger approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Pascal Joachim

    2014-04-28

    We investigate two-color QCD with N{sub f}=2 at finite temperatures and chemical potentials using a Dyson-Schwinger approach. We employ two different truncations for the quark loop in the gluon DSE: one based on the Hard-Dense/Hard-Thermal Loop (HDTL) approximation of the quark loop and one based on the back-coupling of the full, self-consistent quark propagator (SCQL). We compare results for the different truncations with each other as well as with other approaches. As expected, we find a phase dominated by the condensation of quark-quark pairs. This diquark condensation phase overshadows the critical end point and first-order phase transition which one finds if diquark condensation is neglected. The phase transition from the phase without diquark condensation to the diquark-condensation phase is of second order. We observe that the dressing with massless quarks in the HDTL approximation leads to a significant violation of the Silver Blaze property and to a too small diquark condensate. The SCQL truncation, on the other hand, is found to reproduce all expected features of the μ-dependent quark condensates. Moreover, with parameters adapted to the situation in other approaches, we also find good to very good agreement with model and lattice calculations in all quark quantities. We find indictions that the physics in recent lattice calculations is likely to be driven solely by the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Discrepancies w.r.t. the lattice are, however, observed in two quantities that are very sensitive to the screening of the gluon propagator, the dressed gluon propagator itself and the phase-transition line at high temperatures.

  2. Two-color Three-pulse Photon Echo Studies on the Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Center

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hohjai

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis begins with absorbing the sun light by the light harvesting complexes. The solar energy is then funneled into the reaction center (RC) via the energy transfer between the light harvesting complexes at ultrafast rates (~1/100fs ) with extremely high quantum efficiency (~100 %). Most of the complexes are composed of pigments and protein matrices that tightly bind them. The pigments are responsible for absorbing and transferring the energy. The roles of the protein environment of ...

  3. Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air

    CERN Document Server

    Point, Guillaume; Arantchouk, Leonid; Carbonnel, Jérôme; Prade, Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André; Houard, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    We present a space and time resolved interferometric plasma diagnostic for use on plasmas where neutral-bound electron contribution to the refractive index cannot be neglected. By recording simultaneously the plasma optical index at 532 and 1064 nm, we are able to extract independently the neutral and free electron density profiles. We report a phase resolution of 30 mrad, corresponding to a maximum resolution on the order of $4\\times10^{23}~\\mathrm{m}^{-3}$ for the electron density, and of $10^{24} ~ \\mathrm{m}^{-3}$ for the neutral density. The interferometer is demonstrated on centimeter-scale sparks triggered by laser filamentation in air with typical currents of a few tens of A.

  4. Fabrication of two-color annular hybrid wave plate for three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Iketaki, Yoshinori; Jahn, Kornel; Bokor, Nador

    2016-03-01

    In super-resolution microscopy, we use fluorescence depletion, where an erase beam quenches a molecule in the S1 state generated by a pump beam, and then prevents fluorescence from the S1 state. When a tight doughnut shaped erase beam with is focused on the dyed sample together with a Gaussian pump beam, the remaining fluorescence spot in the focal plane becomes smaller than the diffraction-limited size. Applying destructive interference to the erase beam, erase beam has a minute three-dimensional dark spot surrounded by the light near the focal region. Since this spot introduces fluorescence depletion along the optical axis as in the focal plane, we can achieve three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy. However, to overcome the diffraction limit, an extremely precise optical alignment is required for projecting the focused pump beam into the dark spot of the erase beam. To resolve this technical issue, we fabricated a two-color annular hybrid wave plate (TAHWP) by combining two multi-order wave quartz plates. Although the pump and erase beams co-axially pass through the plate; the pump beam retains its original Gaussian shape, while the erase beam undergoes destructive interference. Inserting the TAHWP into a commercial scanning laser microscope, a three-dimensional spherical fluorescence spot with a volume of (~100 nm)3 can be created. Beside eliminating alignment problems and yielding a compact setup, the TAHWP makes our proposed method very suitable for commercial microscope systems. In this study, we report about detailed fabrication procedure and three-dimensional image properties given by the TAHWP.

  5. Two-color two-photon excited fluorescence of indole: Determination of wavelength-dependent molecular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrich, Sebastian; Al-Hadhuri, Tawfik; Gericke, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: k.Gericke@tu-bs.de [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Straße 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Shternin, Peter S., E-mail: pshternin@gmail.com; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S., E-mail: osv@pms.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Politekhnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Smolin, Andrey G. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-14

    We present a detailed study of two-color two-photon excited fluorescence in indole dissolved in propylene glycol. Femtosecond excitation pulses at effective wavelengths from 268 to 293.33 nm were used to populate the two lowest indole excited states {sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}L{sub b} and polarized fluorescence was then detected. All seven molecular parameters and the two-photon polarization ratio Ω containing information on two-photon absorption dynamics, molecular lifetime τ{sub f}, and rotation correlation time τ{sub rot} have been determined from experiment and analyzed as a function of the excitation wavelength. The analysis of the experimental data has shown that {sup 1}L{sub b}–{sup 1}L{sub a} inversion occurred under the conditions of our experiment. The two-photon absorption predominantly populated the {sup 1}L{sub a} state at all excitation wavelengths but in the 287–289 nm area which contained an absorption hump of the {sup 1}L{sub b} state 0-0 origin. The components of the two-photon excitation tensor S were analyzed giving important information on the principal tensor axes and absorption symmetry. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the results reported by other groups. The lifetime τ{sub f} and the rotation correlation time τ{sub rot} showed no explicit dependence on the effective excitation wavelength. Their calculated weighted average values were found to be τ{sub f} = 3.83 ± 0.14 ns and τ{sub rot} = 0.74 ± 0.06 ns.

  6. P1-9: Relationship between Color Shifts in Land's Two-Color Method and Higher- and Lower-Level Visual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Iwaida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land's two-color method gives rise to apparent full-color perception, even though only two colors (e.g., red and gray are used. Previous studies indicate that chromatic adaptation, color memory, and inductive effects contribute to the shifts of color perception from real to illusory colors (e.g., Kuriki, 2006 Vision Research 46 3055–3066. This paper investigates the relationship between the color shifts induced by Land images and the skewness of the luminance histogram. In Experiment 1, several Land images are created based on a yellow ball, and the magnitude of the color shifts of the images are measured. The results of Experiment 1 show a significant correlation between the magnitude of the color shifts and skewness, suggesting that skewness is critical for the color shifts. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that color shifts depends on just skewness; the color shifts should be invariant even if the Land images are scrambled. However, the results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that scrambled Land images exhibit less intense color shifts, suggesting that color shifts are determined by the object's overall shape or surface gloss, not just skewness. Taken together, we conclude that both low-level visual processes, such as those associated with luminance histogram skew, and high-level cognitive functions, such as object interpretation or understanding of surface gloss, are involved in the color shift of Land images.

  7. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation).

  8. Matching-based fresh-slice method for generating two-color x-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-color high intensity x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs provide powerful tools for probing ultrafast dynamic systems. A novel concept of realizing fresh-slice two-color lasing through slice-dependent transverse mismatch has been proposed by one of the authors [Y. Chao, SLAC Report No. SLAC-PUB-16935, 2016]. In this paper we present a feasible example following this concept based on the Linac Coherent Light Source parameters. Time-dependent mismatch along the bunch is generated by a passive dechirper module and controlled by downstream matching sections, enabling FEL lasing at different wavelength with a split undulator configuration. Simulations for soft x-ray FELs show that tens of gigawatts pulses with femtosecond duration can be generated.

  9. Channel-resolved subcycle interferences of electron wave packets emitted from H$_2$ in two-color laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xinhua; Kartashov, Daniil; Zhang, Li; Baltuška, Andrius; Kitzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We report on the observation of subcycle interferences of electron wave packets released during the strong field ionization of H$_2$ with cycle-shaped two-color laser fields. With a reaction microscope, channel-resolved photoelectron momentum distribution are obtained for different final products originating from single ionization of H$_2$. Our results show that the subcycle interference structures of electron wave packet are very sensitive to the cycle-shape of the two-color laser field. The reason is that the ionization time within an optical cycle is determined by the cycle-shape of the laser field. The subcycle interference structures can be further used to get the subcycle dynamics of molecules during strong field interaction.

  10. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akemann, Gernot [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/SPhT Saclay, Unite associee CNRS/SPM/URA 2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Bittner, Elmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Augustplatz 10/11, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Lombardo, Maria-Paola [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Markum, Harald [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pullirsch, Rainer [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-03-15

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis.

  11. Generation of an isolated sub-30 attosecond pulse in a two-color laser field and a static electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Bai Ting-Ting; Zhang Mei-Guang

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation(HHG)from a helium ion model in a two-color laser field,which is synthesized by a fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse.It is shown that a supercontinuum spectrum can be generated in the two-color field.However,the spectral intensity is very low,limiting the application of the generated attosecond(as)pulse.By adding a static electric field to the synthesized two-color field,not only is the ionization yield of electrons contributing to the harmonic emission remarkably increased,but also the quantum paths of the HHG can be significantly modulated.As a result,the extension and enhancement of the supercontinuum spectrum are achieved,producing an intense isolated 26-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.5 eV.In particular,we also analyse the influence of the laser parameters on the ultrabroad supercontinuum spectrum and isolated sub-30-as pulse generation.

  12. Two-color above threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and combined with intense laser light

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

    2016-01-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultra-violet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target (atoms) with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analogue to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of t...

  13. Stimulated emission pumping of NH in flames by using two-color resonant four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Frey, H.M.; Mischler, B.; Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In this work we examine the analytical potential of two-color resonant four-wave mixing for the determination and characterization of trace elements in a combustion environment. Experimental results for NH in flames at atmospheric pressure are presented. The selectivity of the technique is used to simplify the Q-branch region of the (0-0)A{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{Sigma} vibronic transition of NH. In addition, we demonstrate that the technique is sensitive to state changing collisions. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Enhanced harmonic generation and wave-mixing via two-color multiphoton excitation of atoms/molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, H K; Mkrtchian, G F

    2016-01-01

    We consider harmonics generation and wave-mixing by two-color multi photon resonant excitation of three-level atoms/molecules in strong laser fields. The coherent part of the spectra corresponding to multicolor harmonics generation is investigated. The obtained analytical results on the basis of generalized rotating wave approximation are in a good agreement with numerical calculations. The results applied to the hydrogen atom and homonuclear diatomic molecular ion show that one can achieve efficient generation of moderately high multicolor harmonics via multiphoton resonant excitation by appropriate laser pulses.

  15. Efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses with high beam-quality by two-color Bessel-Gauss beams

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Qingbin; Wang, Shaoyi; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-01-01

    The generation of isolated attosecond pulses with high efficiency and high beam quality is essential for attosec- ond spectroscopy. We numerically investigate the supercontinuum generation in a neutral rare-gas medium driven by a two-color Bessel-Gauss beam. The results show that an efficient smooth supercontinuum in the plateau is obtained after propagation, and the spatial profile of the generated attosecond pulse is Gaussian-like with the divergence angle of 0.1 degree in the far field. This bright source with high beam quality is beneficial for detecting and controlling the microscopic processes on attosecond time scale.

  16. Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Alaiza Martínez, P; Davoine, X; Debayle, A; Gremillet, L; Bergé, L

    2016-06-03

    We numerically investigate terahertz (THz) pulse generation by linearly-polarized, two-color femtosecond laser pulses in highly-ionized argon. Major processes consist of tunneling photoionization and ponderomotive forces associated with transverse and longitudinal field excitations. By means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we reveal the importance of photocurrent mechanisms besides transverse and longitudinal plasma waves for laser intensities >10(15) W/cm(2). We demonstrate the following. (i) With two-color pulses, photoionization prevails in the generation of GV/m THz fields up to 10(17) W/cm(2) laser intensities and suddenly loses efficiency near the relativistic threshold, as the outermost electron shell of ionized Ar atoms has been fully depleted. (ii) PIC results can be explained by a one-dimensional Maxwell-fluid model and its semi-analytical solutions, offering the first unified description of the main THz sources created in plasmas. (iii) The THz power emitted outside the plasma channel mostly originates from the transverse currents.

  17. Simulation of Far-Field Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging with Two-Color One-Photon Excitation of Reversible Photoactivatable Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen; QIAO Ling-Ling; MAO Zheng-Le

    2011-01-01

    We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon (2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins. Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins, such as dronpa, the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam. The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is "engineered" by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them. Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy.%@@ We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon(2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins.Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins,such as dronpa,the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam.The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is "engineered" by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them.Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy.

  18. Two-Color Schrodinger Functional with Six-Flavors of Stout-Smeared Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    We study the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with six-flavors of massless fermions. The aim is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point (IRFP). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and the stout-smeared Wilson fermion action. Here we present a determination of the critical mass as a function of the bare coupling and a preliminary study of the phase diagram of this lattice action. We also find preliminary indication that this theory has no IRFP. While this conclusion is not yet definite, we also show that with this approach we will be able to take a proper continuum limit and clearly determine the status of this theory with a reasonable amount of computer time.

  19. The research on two-color photon sources in infrared and X-ray ranges by compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Zhao

    2001-01-01

    The generation of a two-color source of FEL light in both the infrared and soft X-ray ranges by intracavity Compton backscattering is demonstrated by the Beijing FEL facility. 1.20-1.35 keV soft X-rays are successfully extracted from the optical cavity of the FEL through a porous metallic mirror, while a 9-10 mu m FEL laser is output in the other dielectric mirror simultaneously. The average output flux of X-ray is 10 sup 2 -10 sup 3 photons/s when the average output FEL laser power is 6-20 mW. The experimental result allows us to envision a convenient way to expand the application areas of IR FEL facilities into X-ray or gamma-ray ranges.

  20. Flow cytometric quantification of all phases of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a two-color fluorescence plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vignon

    Full Text Available An optimal technology for cell cycle analysis would allow the concomitant measurement of apoptosis, G0, G1, S, G2 and M phases in combination with cell surface phenotyping. We have developed an easy method in flow cytometry allowing this discrimination in an only two-color fluorescent plot. It is based on the concomitant use of 7-amino-actinomycin D and the antibodies anti-Ki67 and anti-phospho(Ser10-histone H3, both conjugated to Alexa Fluor®488 to discriminate G0 and M phases, respectively. The method is particularly valuable in a clinical setting as verified in our laboratory by analyzing human leukemic cells from marrow samples or after exposure to cell cycle modifiers.

  1. Highly Sensitive On-Chip Magnetometer with Saturable Absorbers in Two-Color Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzano, O

    2016-01-01

    Interacting resonators can lead to strong non-linearities but the details can be complicated to predict. In this work, we study the non-linearities introduced by two nested microcavities that interact with nitrogen vacancy centers in a diamond waveguide. Each cavity has differently designed resonance; one in the green and one in the infrared. The magnetic-field dependence of the nitrogen vacancy center absorption rates on the green and the recently observed infrared transitions allows us to propose a scalable on-chip magnetometer that combines high magnetic-field sensitivity and micrometer spatial resolution. By investigating the system behaviors over several intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, we explain the main non-linearities induced by the NV centers and enhanced by the cavities. We finally show that the cavities can improve the magnetic-field sensitivity by up to two orders of magnitudes.

  2. Two Color Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Samblowski, Aiko; Grosse, Nicolai; Lam, Ping Koy; Schnabel, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We report on the generation of entangled states of light between the wavelengths 810 and 1550 nm in the continuous variable regime. The fields were produced by type I optical parametric oscillation in a standing-wave cavity build around a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, operated above threshold. Balanced homodyne detection was used to detect the non-classical noise properties, while filter cavities provided the local oscillators by separating carrier fields from the entangled sidebands. We were able to obtain an inseparability of I=0.82, corresponding to about -0.86 dB of non-classical quadrature correlation.

  3. Use of a Novel Two Color PALM Method to Examine Structural Properties of Drp1 Helical Rings during Mammalian Mitochondrial Fission In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Alyssa Blair

    membranes with large populations of membrane bound rsKame and PAmCherry1 in HeLa and EpH4 cells. We were able to observe and clearly differentiate the two mitochondrial membrane structures and their various morphologies in situ. With the functional two-color PALM method, we returned to our original investigation of the Drp1 fission ring in situ. In fixed HeLa cells, we continued to label the outer membrane with PAmCherry1 and fused rsKame to the N-terminus of Drp1, separated by a linker. The resultant PALM images allowed for the observation of two previously observed and one hitherto unseen distinct Drp1 morphologies: Constrict, Terminal, and Split. The Constrict morphology was defined as the Drp1 structures that clearly encircle the mitochondrial tubule at various stages of membrane constriction. The Terminal morphology was defined as the Drp1 structures found at the termini of mitochondria, presumably post membrane scission. The Split morphology is a novel morphology and was defined as two Drp1 foci flanking the mitochondrial tubule but not completely encircling it. Quantification of the diameter and length of the Drp1 helical ring structures showed that the mean length of the Drp1 helical rings was consistent between all three morphologies, though a slight decrease was observed for the Terminal morphology, likely due to degradation. We observed a decrease of approximately 40 nm between the Constrict and Terminal mean diameters, consistent with a dynamic change in the Drp1 ring size due to membrane constriction towards membrane scission during mitochondrial fission. The Split morphology had a wide distribution of diameters and warrants further study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Tunable Two-color Luminescence and Host–guest Energy Transfer of Fluorescent Chromophores Encapsulated in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng; Tang, Yanqun; Lin, Heyang; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Co-assembly of chromophore guests with host matrices can afford materials which have photofunctionalities different from those of individual components. Compared with clay and zeolite materials, the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as a host structure for fabricating luminescent host–guest materials is still at an early stage. Herein, we report the incorporation of a laser dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), into stilbene-based and naphthalene-based MOF systems. The resulting materials exhibit blue/red two-color emission, and the intensity ratio of blue to red fluorescence varies in different planes within the MOF crystal as detected by 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy. The observed changes in ratiometric fluorescence suggest the occurrence of energy transfer from MOF host to DCM molecules, which can be further confirmed by periodic density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. Moreover, selective changes in luminescence behavior are observed on treating the guest@MOF samples with volatile organic compounds (methanol, acetone and toluene), indicating that these host–guest systems have potential applications as fluorescence sensors. It can be expected that by rational selection of MOF hosts and guest chromophores with suitable emissive colors and energy levels, a wide variety of multi-color luminescent and energy-transfer systems can readily be prepared in a similar manner. PMID:24614015

  5. Stimulated Emission Pumping by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing: Rotational Characterization of Vibrationally Excited HCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Tulej, M.; Knopp, G.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T.

    2004-03-01

    Stimulated emission pumping by applying two-color resonant four-wave mixing is used to measure rotationally resolved spectra of the HCO (0,0,0) B {sup 2}A' - (0,3,1) X {sup 2}A' transition. The formyl radical is produced by photodissociation of formaldehyde at 31710.8 cm{sup -1} under thermalized conditions in a low pressure cell. In contrast to the highly congested one-color spectrum of HCO at room temperature, the doubleresonance method yields well isolated transitions which are assigned unambiguously due to intermediate level labeling. 89 rotational transitions have been assigned and yield accurate rotational constants for the vibrationally excited (0,3,1) band of the electronic ground state X {sup 2}A' of HCO. The determined rotational constant A = 25.84{+-}0.01 cm-1 is considerably higher than that for the vibrationless ground state and reflects the structural change due to excitation of the bending mode of the formyl radical. (author)

  6. Two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy enables multiplexed molecular imaging in the alveolar space of human lung tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Akram, Ahsan R.; Choudhary, Tushar R.; McDonald, Neil; Tanner, Michael G.; Pedretti, Ettore; Dalgarno, Paul A.; Scholefield, Emma; Girkin, John M.; Moore, Anne; Bradley, Mark; Dhaliwal, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a fast two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy system capable of simultaneously detecting several disease targets in intact human ex vivo lung tissue. We characterize the system for light throughput from the excitation light emitting diodes, fluorescence collection efficiency, and chromatic focal shifts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the instrument by imaging bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in ex vivo human lung tissue. We describe a mechanism of bacterial detection through the fiber bundle that uses blinking effects of bacteria as they move in front of the fiber core providing detection of objects smaller than the fiber core and cladding (˜3 μm). This effectively increases the measured spatial resolution of 4 μm. We show simultaneous imaging of neutrophils, monocytes, and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) in ex vivo human lung tissue. The instrument has 10 nM and 50 nM sensitivity for fluorescein and Cy5 solutions, respectively. Lung tissue autofluorescence remains visible at up to 200 fps camera acquisition rate. The optical system lends itself to clinical translation due to high-fluorescence sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to multiplex several pathological molecular imaging targets simultaneously.

  7. Generation of attosecond x-ray pulses with a multi-cycle two-color ESASE scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Bucksbaum, P.; /SLAC; Merdji, H.; /Saclay /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Generation of attosecond x-ray pulses is attracting much attention within the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user community. Several schemes using extremely short laser pulses to manipulate the electron bunches have been proposed. In this paper, we extend the attosecond two-color ESASE scheme proposed by Zholents et al. to the long optical cycle regime using a second detuned laser and a tapered undulator. Both lasers can be about ten-optical-cycles long, with the second laser frequency detuned from the first to optimize the contrast between the central and side current spikes. A tapered undulator mitigates the degradation effect of the longitudinal space charge (LSC) force in the undulator and suppresses the FEL gain of all side current peaks. Simulations using the LCLS parameters show a single attosecond x-ray spike of {approx} 110 attoseconds can be produced. The second laser can also be detuned to coherently control the number of the side x-ray spikes and the length of the radiation pulse.

  8. Two-color vibrational, femtosecond, fully resonant electronically enhanced CARS (FREE-CARS) of gas-phase nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Schmidt, Jacob B.; Wrzesinski, Paul J.; Gord, James R.

    2016-09-01

    A resonantly enhanced, two-color, femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) approach is demonstrated and used to explore the nature of the frequency- and time-dependent signals produced by gas-phase nitric oxide (NO). Through careful selection of the input pulse wavelengths, this fully resonant electronically enhanced CARS (FREE-CARS) scheme allows rovibronic-state-resolved observation of time-dependent rovibrational wavepackets propagating on the vibrationally excited ground-state potential energy surface of this diatomic species. Despite the use of broadband, ultrafast time-resolved input pulses, high spectral resolution of gas-phase rovibronic transitions is observed in the FREE-CARS signal, dictated by the electronic dephasing timescales of these states. Analysis and computational simulation of the time-dependent spectra observed as a function of pump-Stokes and Stokes-probe delays provide insight into the rotationally resolved wavepacket motion observed on the excited-state and vibrationally excited ground-state potential energy surfaces of NO, respectively.

  9. Two-color femtosecond experiments by use of two independently tunable Ti:sapphire lasers with a sample-and-hold switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, J Y; Ahn, Y H; Yee, K J; Kim, D S

    1999-09-20

    We performed femtosecond two-color experiments (four-wave mixing and pump probe) using two independently tunable, partially synchronized femtosecond lasers. Despite the fact that the jitter is of the order of 5-10 ps, the time resolution is limited only by the pulse width when a homemade sample-and-hold switch is used.

  10. The effect of frequency chirping on electron-positron pair production in the one- and two-color laser pulse fields

    CERN Document Server

    Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the frequency chirping on momentum spectrum and pair production rate in one- and two-color laser pulse fields is investigated by solving the quantum Vlasov equation. A small frequency chirp shifts the momentum spectrum along the momentum axis. The positive and negative frequency chirp parameters play the same role in increasing the pair number density. The sign change of frequency chirp parameter at the moment $t=0$ leads pulse shape and momentum spectrum to be symmetric, and the number density to be increased. The number density of produced pairs in the two-color pulse field is much higher than that in the one-color pulse field and the larger frequency chirp pulse field dominates more strongly. In the two-color pulse fields, the relation between the frequency ratio of two colors and the number density is not sensitive to the parameters of small frequency chirp added in either low frequency strong field or high frequency weak field but sensitive to the parameters of large frequency chirp added i...

  11. Lattice Study of the Extent of the Conformal Window in Two-Color Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, Gennady

    2013-01-01

    We perform a lattice calculation of the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with six massless Wilson fermions in the fundamental representation. The aim of this work is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point. Due to sensitivity of the $SF$ renormalized coupling to the tuning of the fermion bare mass we were unable to reliably extract the running coupling for stronger bare couplings.

  12. EDGE3: A web-based solution for management and analysis of Agilent two color microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craven Mark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to generate transcriptional data on the scale of entire genomes has been a boon both in the improvement of biological understanding and in the amount of data generated. The latter, the amount of data generated, has implications when it comes to effective storage, analysis and sharing of these data. A number of software tools have been developed to store, analyze, and share microarray data. However, a majority of these tools do not offer all of these features nor do they specifically target the commonly used two color Agilent DNA microarray platform. Thus, the motivating factor for the development of EDGE3 was to incorporate the storage, analysis and sharing of microarray data in a manner that would provide a means for research groups to collaborate on Agilent-based microarray experiments without a large investment in software-related expenditures or extensive training of end-users. Results EDGE3 has been developed with two major functions in mind. The first function is to provide a workflow process for the generation of microarray data by a research laboratory or a microarray facility. The second is to store, analyze, and share microarray data in a manner that doesn't require complicated software. To satisfy the first function, EDGE3 has been developed as a means to establish a well defined experimental workflow and information system for microarray generation. To satisfy the second function, the software application utilized as the user interface of EDGE3 is a web browser. Within the web browser, a user is able to access the entire functionality, including, but not limited to, the ability to perform a number of bioinformatics based analyses, collaborate between research groups through a user-based security model, and access to the raw data files and quality control files generated by the software used to extract the signals from an array image. Conclusion Here, we present EDGE3, an open-source, web

  13. 35. Detection of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm of workers exposed to benzene series by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the frequency of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm of workers exposed to benzene series, the aneuploidy frequencies of 9 and 18 chromosomes were detected in sperm of workers by two color fluorescence in situ hybridization with digoxingenin labeled 9 chromosome probe (D9zl) and biotin labeled 18 chromosome probe (D18zl). The timeweight average air concentration (TWA ) of benzene in the workplace was 86.49 mg/m3, it was two fold higher than the national maximum allowable concentration. The concentration of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) in exposed group was significantly higher than that of control group. The sperms counted in 14 exposed workers and 16 control workers were 136 401 and 156 955 respectively. The results showed that the disomy frequencies of sperm for chromosome 9, 18 in (0.168%±0.063% and 0.055%±0.031% respectively) and the frequency of diploidy sperm (0.073%±0.045%) were statistically increased over that of the control group(0.050%±0.030%; 0.033%±0.025% and 0.040%±0.036%, respectively). The nullisomic frequencies of 9,18 chromosome in the exposed group (0.206%±0.047%, 0.068%±0.044%) were statistically increased over that of the control group too (0.067%±0.037%, 0.048%±0.034%). The frequency of overall numerical chromosome aberrations in the exposed group was 0.570%±0.144%, when this value was compared with that of control (0.218%±0.071%), a statistically significance was presented. Our experiments showed that exposed to benzene at higher concentration may induce increase in aneuploidy frequency of sperm autosomal chromosome in exposed workers.

  14. High harmonic generation in a two-color field composed of a pump field and a weak subsidiary high frequency field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    “Coherent control of high-harmonic generation in a two-color field” has been widely concerned. Using split-operator algorithm, we have calculated the high-harmonic generation for helium ion He+ in a two-color field which is composed of a driving field and a weak subsidiary high frequency field (Is=I0/100, (ω,13ω), …(ω, 120ω)) and found that such a field can produce much higher harmonic intensity, typically increasing the harmonics corresponding to the incident frequency of the subsidiary field. The different effects coming from the different subsidiary fields are calculated and analyzed. It is indicated that one of the important underlying mechanisms is high frequency photon induced radiation.

  15. Silicon isotope separation utilizing infrared multiphoton dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Hashimoto, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishii, Takeshi; Ohya, Akio [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arai, Shigeyoshi [Hill Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Silicon isotope separation has been done by utilizing the Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser lights. The two-color excitation method improved the separation efficiency keeping the high enrichment factors. For example, 99.74% of {sup 28}Si was obtained at 49.63% dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} after the simultaneous irradiation of 200 pulses with 966.23 cm{sup -1} photons (0.084 J/cm{sup 2}) and 954.55 cm{sup -1} photons (0.658 J/cm{sup 2}), while 2000 pulses were needed to obtain 99.35% of {sup 28}Si at 35.6% dissociation in the case of only one-color irradiation at 954.55 cm{sup -1} (0.97 J/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  16. Two-color injection mould for the handle of egg mixer%鸡蛋搅拌机手柄双色注射模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡; 陈乐平; 毛金明

    2012-01-01

    The structure layout, design points and working process of a two-color injection mould for the handle of an egg mixer were analyzed; and the design of gating system was presented in detail. The application of composite half-mechanism and mechanism of core-pulling by inclined ejector pin achieves sequential parting of the two-color mould.%分析了鸡蛋搅拌机手柄双色注射模的结构、设计要点和工作过程,详细介绍了模具浇注系统设计,采用复合哈夫机构和斜推杆内抽芯机构,实现了双色模具顺序分型动作.实践表明,模具结构可靠,运动平稳顺畅,制品精度和外观质量均符合要求.

  17. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  18. Characterization of the 1 ^5Πu - 1 ^5Πg Band of C_2 by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing and Lif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The application of two-color resonant four-wave mixing (TC-RFWM) in combination with a discharge slit-source in a molecular beam environment is advantageous for the study of perturbations in C_2. Initial investigations have shown the potential of the method by a detailed deperturbation of the d3Π_g, v=4 state. The deperturbation of the d3Π_g, v=6 state unveiled the presence of the energetically lowest high-spin state of C_2. This dark state gains transition strength through the perturbation process with the d3Π_g, v=6 state yielding weak spectral features that are observable by the high sensitivity of the TC-RFWM technique. The successful deperturbation study of the d3Π_g, v=6 state resulted in the spectroscopic characterization of the quintet (15Πg) and an additional triplet state (d3Π_g, v=19). More recently, investigations have been performed by applying unfolded TC-RFWM to obtain further information on the quintet manifold. The first high-spin transition (15Πu) - 15Πg)) has been observed via an intermediate ``gateway'' state exhibiting both substantial triplet and quintet character owing to the perturbation between the 15Πg), v=0 and the d3Π_g, v=6 states. The high-lying quintet state is found to be predissociative and displays a shallow potential that accommodates three vibrational levels only. Further studies of the high-spin system will be presented in this contribution. By applying TC-RFWM and laser-induced fluorescence, data on the vibrational structure of the 15Πu - 15Πg system is obtained. The results are combined with high-level ab initio computations at the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level of theory and the largest possible basis currently implemented in the 2012 version of MOLPRO. P. Bornhauser, G. Knopp, T. Gerber, and P.P. Radi, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 262, 69 (2010) P. Bornhauser, Y. Sych, G. Knopp, T. Gerber, and P.P. Radi, Journal of Chemical Physics 134, 044302 (2011) Bornhauser, P., Marquardt, R

  19. A folded-sandwich polarization-entangled two-color photon pair source with large tuning capability for applications in hybrid quantum architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Dietz, Otto; Kreißl, Thomas; Herzog, Ulrike; Kroh, Tim; Ahlrichs, Andreas; Benson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-color entangled pho ton pair source which can be adapted easily to a wide range of wavelengths combinations. A Fresnel rhomb as a geometrical quarter-wave plate and a versatile combination of compensation crystals are key components of the source. Entanglement of two photons at the Cs D1 line (894.3 nm) and at the telecom O-band (1313.1 nm) with a fidelity of $F = 0.753 \\pm 0.021$ is demonstrated and improvements of the setup are discussed.

  20. The spatial distribution in high-order harmonic generation of H2+ with different time delays of the two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xue-Fei; Du, Hui; Xu, Tong-Tong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and the spatial distribution in HHG of the H2+ molecule by introducing a time-delayed two-color laser field which consists of the mid-infrared and near-infrared laser field. For the different time delays of the two-color laser fields, the pulse shapes are changed which result in the variation of the electron recombined with the nuclei along the positive- or negative-z direction. When the time delay is 0 fs (1.34 fs), a smooth harmonic plateau from the electron recombined with the nuclei along the negative (positive)-z direction can be achieved. An isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 99 as is generated when the time delay is 1.34 fs. We perform the classical analysis which is consistent with the numerical results from the one-dimensional non-Born-Oppenheimer time dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to further understand the underlying physical mechanism.

  1. Two color morphs of the pelagic yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, from different locations of Costa Rica: snake venomics, toxicity, and neutralization by antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Solórzano, Alejandro; Ureña-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Montes, María Laura; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-05-30

    the treatment of envenomations by this species. Integrative analyses of animal venoms that combine the power of proteomics (venomics) with the characterization of their functional and immunological properties are significantly expanding knowledge on these remarkable bioweapons, both from a basic and a medical perspective. Costa Rica harbors a unique population of the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, that is restricted to a fjord-like gulf (Golfo Dulce). This population differs markedly from oceanic populations found elsewhere along the Pacific coast of this country, by presenting a patternless bright yellow coloration, instead of the typical bicolored or tricolored pattern of this species. It has been suggested that the dominance of this yellow-morph in Golfo Dulce might reflect gene flow restrictions, caused by the oceanographic conditions at this location. The present study demonstrates that the remarkable phenotypic variation between the two color morphs inhabiting Golfo Dulce and Golfo de Papagayo, respectively, is not associated with differences in the expression of venom components, as shown by their conserved RP-HPLC profiles. Proteomic analysis revealed the relatively simple toxin composition of P. platura venom, which contains three predominant types of proteins: three-finger toxins (protein abundance: 49.9%), phospholipases A2 (32.9%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (9.1%), together with few minor components. Further, the involvement of these most abundant proteins in the toxic effects of the venom, and their cross-recognition and neutralization by a sea snake antivenom produced against the venom of Enhydrina schistosa, were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atom waveguide and 1D optical lattice using a two-color evanescent light field around an optical micro/nano-fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Fu; Xiang Yin; Ningyuan Li; Limin Tong

    2008-01-01

    We propose a two-color scheme of atom waveguides and one-dimensional(1D)optical lattices using evanescent wave fields of different transverse modes around an optical micro/nano-fiber.The atom guide potential can be produced when the optical fiber carries a red-detuned light with TE01 mode and a blue-detuned light with HE11 mode,and the 1D optical lattice potential can be produced when the red-detuned light is transformed to the superposition of the TE01 mode and HE11 mode.The two trapping potentials can be transformed to each other for accurately controlling mode transformation for the red-detuned light.This might provide a new approach to realize flexible transition between the guiding and trapping states of atoms.

  3. Pseudo-rephasing and pseudo-free-induction-decay mechanism in two-color three-pulse photon echo of a binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Ryu, Ian Seungwan; Fleming, Graham R

    2013-12-27

    We investigate the two-color three-pulse photon echo peak shift in a (left-right) binary system, where each component consists of a heterodimer. On the basis of the model, we find that the effect of the excitonic asymmetry between two components leads to an additional factor in the peak shift. A pseudo-rephasing and pseudo-free-induction-decay mechanism is proposed to explain the resultant negative peak shift, when the differences between the two left/right components have the opposite sign. In such a case, estimates of the electronic coupling strength via two- and one-color peak shift experiments lead to an underestimate of the coupling magnitude.

  4. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen concentration conditions. The ambient conditions were set as follows: four oxygen cases including 10%, 15%, 18% and 21% at 1000 K ambient temperature. KL factor and soot temperature were determined based on the two-color pyrometry technique using two band-pass filters with wavelengths of 650 nm and 550 nm. The results show that low soot temperature is observed in the upstream inner flame along the centerline, which is surrounded by high soot temperature regions, and a high KL factor is found in the same region with a low soot temperature. The results under different times suggest that soot temperature is higher for high O2 conditions during the entire flame development; meanwhile, both integrated KL factor and soot area decrease with the increase of O2 concentration. The two fuels share a similar trend of soot temperature and KL factor, however, diesel flame has a higher soot temperature and a larger high soot temperature area compared to jet-A flame. On the other hand, diesel flame shows a lower soot level during the quasi-steady state with a higher total soot level at the end of the combustion under low O2 conditions. A lower O2 concentration range from 10% to 15% is expected to have the possibility to achieve a simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx in sooting flames under the 1000 K ambient temperature condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  5. Terahertz Emission Dependence on the Fundamental Optical Intensity in Generating Terahertz Waves from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hou-Mei; LIU Jin-Song

    2011-01-01

    A transient photocurrent model is used to explain terahertz ermission from gas plasma irritated by two-color laser pulses,with one the second harmonic of the other.Taking multiple degrees of ionization into account,the gas ionization process at different laser intensities from 1014 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2 is discussed.The results show that when Iω ≥ 6 × 1014 W/cm2,double ionization plays an important role in producing electrons.The corresponding terahertz spectra and waveforms are calculated,showing that increasing laser intensity can broaden the spectra to high frequencies and enhance the terahertz field.A promising method for generating terahertz (THz) waves involves emission from laser induced gas plasmas,which was first introduced hy Hamster et al.[1,2] By focusing laser femtosecond pulses with intensity greater than the thresholl for ionization of the gas molecules,one can obtain significant plasma formation.The ionized electrons will then accelerate by the lapser ponderomotive force,thus an electromagnetic pulse at THz frcqucncies can be produced.Since then,other plasma-based THz generation scheines have been proposed.L(o)ffler et al.,[3,4] applied an external dc bias to the plasma region,leading to an approximately one order of magnitude increase in the THz field strength.%A transient photocurrent model is used to explain terahertz emission from gas plasma irritated by two-color laser pulses, with one the second harmonic of the other. Taking multiple degrees of iom'xntion into account, the gas ionizntion process at different laser intensities from 1014 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2 is discussed. The results show that when /w > 6 X 1014 W/cin2, double ionization plays an important role in producing electrons. The corresponding terahertz spectra and waveforms are calculated, showing that increasing laser intensity can broaden the spectra to high frequencies and enhance the terahertz Geld.

  6. 双色场诱导气体产生相干可控的四次谐波∗%Coherently controlled fourth harmonic generation in gases induced by a two-color field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Induced by the harmonically related two-color pulse, the fourth harmonic wave in the vacuum ultraviolet range has been observed in gases. The process of the fourth harmonic generation is studied. In the case of non-ionized gas, the intensity dependence on the pump pulse reveals that the fourth harmonic generation is a third-order parametric process of 2ω+ω+ω → 4ω. In the case of ionized gas, the intensity of the fourth harmonic wave can be coherently controlled by the relative phase of the pump. Employing synchronous measurements of the fourth-order harmonic and terahertz emissions, the optimized relative phases of the two emissions have been studied and compared with each other experimentally. Results agree well with those of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). According to the reported optimized phase for the terahertz generation, the fourth harmonic generation involves two parametric processes:2ω+2ω±ΩTHz →4ω and 2ω+ω+ω →4ω. The modulation of the fourth harmonic wave can be understood as the interference of the two channels.

  7. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lavender oil (LO is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  8. Element Selective Probe of the Ultra-Fast Magnetic Response to an Element Selective Excitation in Fe-Ni Compounds Using a Two-Color FEL Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Ferrari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the two-color mode implemented at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL source for pumping and probing selectively different atomic species has been demonstrated by time-resolved scattering experiments with permalloy (FeNi alloy and NiFe2O4 samples. We monitored the ultra-fast demagnetization of Ni induced by the pump FEL pulse, by tuning the linearly-polarized FEL probe pulse to the Ni-3p resonance and measuring the scattered intensity in the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect geometry. The measurements were performed by varying the intensity of the FEL pump pulse, tuning its wavelength to and off of the Fe-3p resonance, and by spanning the FEL probe pulse delays across the 300–900 fs range. The obtained results have evidenced that for the case of NiFe2O4, there is a sensible difference in the magnetic response at the Ni site when the pump pulse causes electronic excitations at the Fe site.

  9. Metabolic cytometry: capillary electrophoresis with two-color fluorescence detection for the simultaneous study of two glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways in single primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaka, David C; Prendergast, Jillian; Keithley, Richard B; Palcic, Monica M; Hindsgaul, Ole; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dovichi, Norman J

    2012-03-20

    Metabolic cytometry is a form of chemical cytometry wherein metabolic cascades are monitored in single cells. We report the first example of metabolic cytometry where two different metabolic pathways are simultaneously monitored. Glycolipid catabolism in primary rat cerebella neurons was probed by incubation with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled GM1 (GM1-TMR). Simultaneously, both catabolism and anabolism were probed by coincubation with BODIPY-FL labeled LacCer (LacCer-BODIPY-FL). In a metabolic cytometry experiment, single cells were incubated with substrate, washed, aspirated into a capillary, and lysed. The components were separated by capillary electrophoresis equipped with a two-spectral channel laser-induced fluorescence detector. One channel monitored fluorescence generated by the metabolic products produced from GM1-TMR and the other monitored the metabolic products produced from LacCer-BODIPY-FL. The metabolic products were identified by comparison with the mobility of a set of standards. The detection system produced at least 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range in each spectral channel with negligible spectral crosstalk. Detection limits were 1 zmol for BODIPY-FL and 500 ymol for tetramethylrhodamine standard solutions.

  10. Evaluation of reference-based two-color methods for measurement of gene expression ratios using spotted cDNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjovski-Almeida Sergio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spotted cDNA microarrays generally employ co-hybridization of fluorescently-labeled RNA targets to produce gene expression ratios for subsequent analysis. Direct comparison of two RNA samples in the same microarray provides the highest level of accuracy; however, due to the number of combinatorial pair-wise comparisons, the direct method is impractical for studies including large number of individual samples (e.g., tumor classification studies. For such studies, indirect comparisons using a common reference standard have been the preferred method. Here we evaluated the precision and accuracy of reconstructed ratios from three indirect methods relative to ratios obtained from direct hybridizations, herein considered as the gold-standard. Results We performed hybridizations using a fixed amount of Cy3-labeled reference oligonucleotide (RefOligo against distinct Cy5-labeled targets from prostate, breast and kidney tumor samples. Reconstructed ratios between all tissue pairs were derived from ratios between each tissue sample and RefOligo. Reconstructed ratios were compared to (i ratios obtained in parallel from direct pair-wise hybridizations of tissue samples, and to (ii reconstructed ratios derived from hybridization of each tissue against a reference RNA pool (RefPool. To evaluate the effect of the external references, reconstructed ratios were also calculated directly from intensity values of single-channel (One-Color measurements derived from tissue sample data collected in the RefOligo experiments. We show that the average coefficient of variation of ratios between intra- and inter-slide replicates derived from RefOligo, RefPool and One-Color were similar and 2 to 4-fold higher than ratios obtained in direct hybridizations. Correlation coefficients calculated for all three tissue comparisons were also similar. In addition, the performance of all indirect methods in terms of their robustness to identify genes deemed as

  11. Comparison of esterase isozymes in two color varieties of Tenebrio molitor L.%2种色型黄粉虫酯酶同工酶的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼; 胡杰; 苟琳

    2011-01-01

    采用不连续聚丙烯酰胺凝胶垂直板电泳并结合分光光度法,对黄、黑2种色型黄粉虫( Tenebrio molitor L.)各发育期的酯酶同工酶酶谱及酶活性进行比较研究.结果表明:在2种色型黄粉虫的各发育期,共发现迁移率不同的酯酶同工酶酶带15条,这些酶带分布于5个不同的泳动区;黑色型的幼虫和成虫分别比黄色型的幼虫和成虫各多1条特征性酶带;同一色型黄粉虫各发育期酯酶同工酶的酶带数、酶活性强弱及迁移率也变化较大,卵期的酶带数最少(4条)、最弱,其中2条为卵期的特有性酶带.酶活性检测进一步表明:从卵至成虫期,黑色型黄粉虫的羧酸酯酶(CarE)、乙酰胆碱酯酶(AchE)和磷酸酯酶(ACP和AKP)活性均比黄色型黄粉虫高;同一色型黄粉虫各发育阶段的CarE、AchE及ACP和AKP活性也呈现明显的规律性变化,即:卵期<成虫期<蛹期<幼虫期.上述结果为黄粉虫的抗药性研究及品种选育积累了一定的基础数据.%In order to provide some references for studying the genetic variation and selecting varieties of Tenebrio molitor, the esterase isozyme zymograms and activity at different developmental stages of the yellow- and black-color varieties of T. Molitor were compared using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. The results showed that 15 enzyme bands with different mobility were found at all, which were distributed in five zones. The larvae and adults of the black-color variety showed one more distinctive band compared with those of the yellow larvae and adults, respectively. Moreover, band numbers, migration rate of enzyme bands and strength of enzymatic activity at different developmental stages of both color varieties varied greatly. Compared with other developmental stage, band numbers of esterase isozyme were the least (only four bands) and enzymatic activity was the weakest at egg stage, and two of four bands were found

  12. 双波长飞秒激光抽运-探测法测量纳米薄膜及界面热物性%Two-Color Femto-second Laser Pump and Probe Thermoreflectance Method Measuring Nano-Film Thermal Conductivity and Interface Thermal Conductance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝捷; 唐大伟

    2012-01-01

    建立了用来研究时间空间微尺度传热现象的双波长飞秒激光抽运-探测热反射系统,与常规的单波长飞秒激光抽运探测系统相比,双波长的光路设计方案可以大幅提高信噪比,并使共线的聚焦光路更易实现,从而提高测量的准确度。建立了与实验测量过程相应的多层膜热传导模型,并实现了多参数拟合,可用于对体材料或薄膜材料的热导率以及界面热导的准确测量。本文采用这种先进的测量方法测量了SiO_2纳米薄膜的热导率及其与Si之间的界面热导。%A two-color femto-second laser pump and probe thermoreflectance system has been established for studying the micro-scale heat transfer.Compared with single-color system,this two-color scheme could highly increase the signal-to-noise ratio,and make it easier to realize the co-line focus design.As a result,the accuracy of the measurement would be increased.A model with regard to the heat transfer process has also been established and used to obtain the thermal conductivity of bulk or film samples,as well as interface thermal conductance.This system has been successfully used to measure the thermal conductivity of SiO_2 nano-film and the interface thermal conductance between SiO_2 and Si substrate.

  13. Investigation of two-color magneto-optical trap with cesium 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 ladder-type system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    A novel cesium (Cs) two-color magneto-optical trap (TC-MOT), which partially employs the optical radiation forces due to photon scattering of the 6P3/2 (F'=5) - 7S1/2 (F"=4) excited-state transition in the Cs 6S1/2 - 6P3/2 - 7S1/2 (852 + 1470 nm) ladder-type system, has been proposed and experimentally investigated. One of the three pairs of 852 nm cooling/trapping beams (CTBs) in a conventional Cs MOT is replaced with a pair of the 1470 nm CTBs (type-I) or with one 852 nm CTB plus another counter-propagating 1470 nm CTB (type-II). Both the type-I and type-II Cs TC-MOTs can cool and trap atoms on both the red- and blue-detuning sides of the two-photon resonance. The Cs TC-MOT demonstrated in this work may have applications in the background-free detection of cooled and trapped atoms, and the photon-pair sources compatible with the ensemble-based quantum memory and the long-distance quantum communication via optical fiber.

  14. Laser radiation frequency conversion in carbon- and cluster-containing plasma plumes under conditions of single and two-color pumping by pulses with a 10-Hz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    This work reviews a series of investigations of different plasma plumes using single- and two-color laser systems that emit femtosecond pulses with a 10-Hz repetition rate. Results of investigation of the resonant enhancement of harmonics in tin plasma with the use of two types of pumps are analyzed, and it is shown that the tuning of the wavelengths of harmonics to ion-resonance levels plays an important role in increasing the conversion efficiency to high-order harmonics of the radiation to be converted. Investigations of different carbon-containing plasma media (carbon nanotubes, graphite, carbon aerogel, etc.) exhibit attractive properties of the nonlinear medium of this type for efficient generation of high-order harmonics. The results of the first experiments on the use of nanoparticles produced directly in the course of laser ablation of metals for increasing the efficiency of harmonics generated in this cluster-containing medium are analyzed. It is shown that new approaches realized in these investigations give hope that the nonlinear optical response of plasma media in the far-ultraviolet range can be further increased.

  15. Analisis and study of control methods of two color injection molding machine turntable%双色注塑机转盘控制方法分析和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章锦雷; 何挺

    2015-01-01

    通过介绍运动控制卡的软硬件设计,并重点研究了在编码器液压转盘控制上的应用,对比其它控制方式,提升注塑机软件控制的智能化、精密化,同时操作简单化.另外通过探讨在注塑机其它方面的应用分析,目的是促进注塑机软件技术革新.

  16. RCEP Modulation on Evolution of Two-color Femtosecond Pulses and Spectrum in a Dense V-type Medium%稠密V型介质中双色飞秒脉冲 及频谱演化的RCEP调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁变; 贾克宁; 梁颖; 仝殿民; 樊锡君

    2011-01-01

    In one-photon resonance and detuning case*, effect of relative carrier-envelope phase ( RCEP) on evolution of two-color sech-type femtosecond pulses and spectrum in a dense V-type three-level atomic medium is investigated with full Maxwell-Bloch equations. Modulation of RCEP on pulse shape and spectral property of two-color pulses in detuning case is more evident than that in single-photon resonance case. And in detuning case we get spectrum broadening much greater than that in resonance case. Supercontinuum with the highest frequency of 18 times of incident frequency appears.%利用不含慢变振幅近似和旋波近似的全波Maxwell-Bloch方程组的数值解,研究单光子共振和失谐两种条件下,相对载波包络相位(RCEP)对在稠密V型三能级原子介质中传播的双色sech型飞秒超短脉冲及频谱演化的影响.结果表明,RCEP对双色脉冲的传播形式及频谱特性的调制在失谐情况比在单光子共振情况显著,在失谐条件下调节RCEP可获得比单光子共振条件下大得多的频谱展宽,出现了最高频率达到入射脉冲中心频率18倍的超连续谱.

  17. 通过双色场和静电场的合成来拓宽高次谐波谱%Expanding the high-order harmonic spectrum by using the combination of a two-color field and a static electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕婷婷; 都慧妮; 苗向阳

    2012-01-01

    An efficient method to extend the plateau of high-order harmonic spectrum by using the combination of a two-color laser field and a static electric field is presented. We numerically solve one-dimensional time-dependent Schrodinge equation of helium atom and the high-order harmonic spectrum in different synthesized field can be obtained, meanwhile, analyzing the influence of static electric field on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with classical returning kinetic-energy map and time-frequency distribution. The results show that, by adding a static electric field to a synthesized two-color laser field, the width of the plateau can be expanded efficiently, and a bandwidth of nearly 358eV can be received.%本篇文章提出了一种通过双色激光场和静电场合成来拓宽高次谐波谱平台区域的方案.我们针对氦原子数值求解了一维含时薛定谔方程,并且得到了不同合成激光场条件下的高次谐波谱,并结合了经典电离-回碰动能分布图和时频分布图分析了静电场对高次谐波谱产生过程的影响.计算结果表明,通过在双色激光场上叠加一个静电场,可以有效地拓宽高次谐波谱的平台区域,从而得到一个频带宽度为358 eV的超连续谱.

  18. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kubo

    Full Text Available The use of lavender oil (LO--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham, a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules, to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  19. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO)--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and liver

  20. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump probe atomic magnetometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-07-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of <5 fT/{radical}Hz is achieved. Evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer. Recordings were validated by comparison with those taken by a commercial magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  1. IPC two-color analysis of x ray galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1990-01-01

    The mass distributions were determined of several clusters of galaxies by using X ray surface brightness data from the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). Determining cluster mass distributions is important for constraining the nature of the dark matter which dominates the mass of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the Universe. Galaxy clusters are permeated with hot gas in hydrostatic equilibrium with the gravitational potentials of the clusters. Cluster mass distributions can be determined from x ray observations of cluster gas by using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and knowledge of the density and temperature structure of the gas. The x ray surface brightness at some distance from the cluster is the result of the volume x ray emissivity being integrated along the line of sight in the cluster.

  2. Two Color Populations of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2016-10-01

    We present new optical colors for 64 Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Centaur objects measured with the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). By combining these new colors with our previously published colors, we increase the sample size of our survey to 154 objects. Our survey is unique in that the uncertainties in our color measurements are less than half the uncertainties in the color measurements reported by other researchers in the literature. Small uncertainties are essential for discerning between a unimodal and a bimodal distribution of colors for these objects as well as detecting correlations between colors and orbital elements. From our survey, it appears red Centaurs have a broader color distribution than grey Centaurs. We find red Centaurs have a smaller orbital inclination angle distribution than grey Centaurs at the 99.3% confidence level. Furthermore, we find that our entire sample of KBOs and Centaurs exhibits bimodal colors at the 99.4% confidence level. KBOs and Centaurs with HV > 7.0 have bimodal colors at the 99.96% confidence level and KBOs with HV < 6.0 have bimodal colors at the 96.3% confidence level.We are grateful to the NASA Solar System Observations Program for support, NAU for joining the Discovery Channel Telescope Partnership, and the Vatican Observatory for the consistent allocation of telescope time over the last 12 years of this project.

  3. Metrology Camera System Using Two-Color Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Liebe, Carl Christian; Peters, Robert; Lay, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    A metrology system that contains no moving parts simultaneously measures the bearings and ranges of multiple reflective targets in its vicinity, enabling determination of the three-dimensional (3D) positions of the targets with submillimeter accuracy. The system combines a direction-measuring metrology camera and an interferometric range-finding subsystem. Because the system is based partly on a prior instrument denoted the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor and because of its 3D capability, the system is denoted the MSTAR3D. Developed for use in measuring the shape (for the purpose of compensating for distortion) of large structures like radar antennas, it can also be used to measure positions of multiple targets in the course of conventional terrestrial surveying. A diagram of the system is shown in the figure. One of the targets is a reference target having a known, constant distance with respect to the system. The system comprises a laser for generating local and target beams at a carrier frequency; a frequency shifting unit to introduce a frequency shift offset between the target and local beams; a pair of high-speed modulators that apply modulation to the carrier frequency in the local and target beams to produce a series of modulation sidebands, the highspeed modulators having modulation frequencies of FL and FM; a target beam launcher that illuminates the targets with the target beam; optics and a multipixel photodetector; a local beam launcher that launches the local beam towards the multi-pixel photodetector; a mirror for projecting to the optics a portion of the target beam reflected from the targets, the optics being configured to focus the portion of the target beam at the multi-pixel photodetector; and a signal-processing unit connected to the photodetector. The portion of the target beam reflected from the targets produces spots on the multi-pixel photodetector corresponding to the targets, respectively, and the signal-processing unit centroids the spots to determine bearings of the targets, respectively. As the spots oscillate in intensity because they are mixed with the local laser beam that is flood illuminating the focal plane, the phase of oscillation of each spot is measured, the phase of sidebands in the oscillation of each spot being proportional to a distance to the corresponding target relative to the reference target A.

  4. Modulation instability and solitons in two-color nematic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    The conditions under which stable evolution of two nonlinear interacting waves are derived within the context of nematic crystals. Two cases are considered: plane waves and solitons. In the first case, the modulation instability analysis reveals that while the nonlocal term suppresses the growth rates, substantially, the coupled system exhibits significantly higher growth rates than its scalar counterpart. In the soliton case, the necessary conditions are derived that lead the solitons to exhibit stable, undistorted evolution, suppressing any breathing behavior and radiation, leading to soliton mutual guiding.

  5. Two-Color Surface Photometry of Brightest Cluster Members

    CERN Document Server

    Garilli, B; Andreon, S; MacCagni, D; Carrasco, L; Recillas, E; Garilli, Bianca; Sangalli, Giorgio; Andreon, Stefano; Maccagni, Dario; Carrasco, Luis; Recillas, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The Gunn g, r and i CCD images of a representative sample of 17 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCM) have been analyzed in order to derive surface brightness and color profiles, together with geometrical parameters like eccentricity and position angle. The sample includes both X-ray and optically selected clusters, ranging in redshift from z=0.049 to z=0.191. We find that BCMs are substantially well described by de Vaucouleurs' law out to radii of cases we find a surface brightness excess with respect to the $r^{1/4}$ law, which for A150 is coupled with a change in the $g-r$ color. The rest frame colors of BCMs do not show any intrinsic dispersion. By parametrizing the environment with the local galaxy number density, we find that it is correlated with the BCM extension, i.e. BCMs with larger effective radii are found in denser environments.

  6. Photo-electron momentum distribution and electron localization studies from laser-induced atomic and molecular dissociations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dipanwita

    The broad objective of ultrafast strong-field studies is to be able to measure and control atomic and molecular dynamics on a femtosecond timescale. This thesis work has two major themes: (1) Study of high-energy photoelectron distributions from atomic targets. (2) Electron localization control in atomic and molecular reactions using shaped laser pulses. The first section focuses on the study of photoelectron diffraction patterns of simple atomic targets to understand the target structure. We measure the full vector momentum spectra of high energy photoelectrons from atomic targets (Xe, Ar and Kr) generated by intense laser pulses. The target dependence of the angular distribution of the highest energy photoelectrons as predicted by Quantitative Rescattering Theory (QRS) is explored. More recent developments show target structure information can be retrieved from photoelectrons over a range of energies, from 4Up up to 10Up, independent of the peak intensity at which the photoelectron spectra have been measured. Controlling the fragmentation pathways by manipulating the pulse shape is another major theme of ultrafast science today. In the second section we study the asymmetry of electron (and ion) emission from atoms (and molecules) by interaction with asymmetric pulses formed by the superposition of two colors (800 & 400 nm). Xe electron momentum spectra obtained as a function of the two-color phase exhibit a pronounced asymmetry. Using QRS theory we can analyze this asymmetric yield of the high energy photoelectrons to determine accurately the laser peak intensity and the absolute phase of the two-color electric field. This can be used as a standard pulse calibration method for all two-color studies. Experiments showing strong left-right asymmetry in D+ ion yield from D2 molecules using two-color pulses is also investigated. The asymmetry effect is found to be very ion-energy dependent.

  7. High-order harmonic generation with a two-color laser pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Lao-Yong; Du Hong-Chuan; Hu Bi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron dynamics of the high-order harmonics generation process by combining a near-infrared 800 nm driving pulse with a mid-infrared 2000 nm control field.We also investigate the emission time of harmonics using time-frequency analysis to illustrate the physical mechanisms of high-order harmonic generation.We calculate the ionization rate using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model and interpret the variations in harmonic intensity for different control field strengths and delays.We find that the width of the harmonic plateau can be extended when the control electric field is added,and a supercontinuum from 198 to 435 eV is generated,from which an isolated 61-as pulse can be directly obtained.

  8. Investigation of soot by two-color four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Stampanoni-Panariello, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A novel, non-intrusive technique has been used for the temporally resolved investigation of the interaction of laser radiation and soot in a flame. While there is a fairly good agreement between measurement and simulation remaining discrepancies indicate some shortcomings of the model employed. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  9. Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light

    CERN Document Server

    Schuck, C; Almendros, M; Hennrich, M; Eschner, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a photoionization method to load single 40Ca ions in a linear Paul trap from an atomic beam. Neutral Ca I atoms are resonantly excited from the ground state to the intermediate 4s4p 1P_1-level using coherent 423nm radiation produced by single-pass second harmonic generation in a periodically poled KTiOPO_4 crystal pumped with an 120mW extended cavity diode laser. Ionization is then attained with a high-power light emitting diode imaged to the trap center, using an appropriately designed optical system composed of standard achromatic doublet lenses. The setup simplifies previous implementations at similar efficiency, and it hardly requires any maintenance at all.

  10. Two-color fluorescent (near-infrared and visible) triphasic perfluorocarbon nanoemuslions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sravan Kumar; Patrick, Michael J; Pollock, John A; Janjic, Jelena M

    2013-10-01

    Design and development of a new formulation as a unique assembly of distinct fluorescent reporters with nonoverlapping fluorescence spectra and a F19 magnetic resonance imaging agent into colloidally and optically stable triphasic nanoemulsion are reported. Specifically, a cyanine dye-perfluorocarbon (PFC) conjugate was introduced into the PFC phase of the nanoemulsion and a near-infrared dye was introduced into the hydrocarbon (HC) layer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a triphasic nanoemulsion system where each oil phase, HC, and PFC are fluorescently labeled and formulated into an optically and colloidally stable nanosystem. Having, each oil phase separately labeled by a fluorescent dye allows for improved correlation between in vivo imaging and histological data. Further, dual fluorescent labeling can improve intracellular tracking of the nanodroplets and help assess the fate of the nanoemulsion in biologically relevant media. The nanoemulsions were produced by high shear processing (microfluidization) and stabilized with biocompatible nonionic surfactants resulting in mono-modal size distribution with average droplet size less than 200 nm. Nanoemulsions demonstrate excellent colloidal stability and only moderate changes in the fluorescence signal for both dyes. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of macrophages exposed to nanoemulsions shows the presence of both fluorescence agents in the cytoplasm.

  11. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  12. Spatially Resolved Two-Color Diffusion Measurements in Human Skin Applied to Transdermal Liposome Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained...... of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 6 December 2012...... is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes-containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid bilayer...

  13. Spatially resolved two-color diffusion measurements in human skin applied to transdermal liposome penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2013-05-01

    A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy imaging, the acquired diffusion information was processed to construct spatially resolved diffusion maps at different depths of the stratum corneum (SC). Experiments using amphiphilic and hydrophilic fluorescently labeled molecules show that their diffusion in SC is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes--containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid bilayer and a hydrophilic fluorophore encapsulated in the liposome lumen--was measured using cross-correlation RICS. This type of experiment allows discrimination between separate (uncorrelated) and joint (correlated) diffusion of the two different fluorescent probes, giving information about liposome integrity. Independent of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier.

  14. Luminescent two-color tracer particles for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massing, J.; Kaden, D.; Kähler, C. J.; Cierpka, C.

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous and non-intrusive measurement of temperature and velocity fields in flows is of great scientific and technological interest. To sample the velocity and temperature, tracer particle based approaches have been developed, where the velocity is measured using PIV or PTV and the temperature is obtained from the intensity (LIF, thermographic phosphors) or frequency (TLC) of the light emitted or reflected by the tracer particles. In this article, a measurement technique is introduced, that relates the luminescent intensity ratio of individual dual-color luminescent tracer particles to temperature. Different processing algorithms are tested on synthetic particle images and compared with respect to their accuracy in estimating the intensity ratio. Furthermore, polymer particles which are doped with the temperature sensitive dye europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) and the nearly temperature insensitive reference dye perylene are characterized as valid tracers. The results show a reduction of the temperature measurement uncertainty of almost 40% (95% confidence interval) compared to previously reported luminescent particle based measurement techniques for microfluidics.

  15. Power dependence of terahertz carrier frequency in a plasma-based two-color generation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Luo, Yi-Man; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a frequency spectrum experiment to investigate terahertz (THz) emissions from laser-induced air plasma under different laser incident powers. The frequency spectra are measured using both air-biased-coherent detection and a Michelson interferometer. The red-shift of the THz pulse carrier frequency is observed as a response to increased pump power. These phenomena are related to plasma collisions and can be explained by the plasma collision model. Based on these findings, it is apparent that the tuning of the THz carrier frequency can be achieved through regulation of the pump beam.

  16. Controlling stimulated Raman scattering by two-color light in inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Chen, Y. H.; Zheng, C. Y.; Cao, L. H.; Li, B.; Xiang, J.; Hao, L.; Lan, K.

    2017-08-01

    A method is proposed to control the stimulated Raman scattering in the inertial confinement fusion by using auxiliary 2ω light to suppress the stimulated Raman scattering of the 3ω light. In this scheme, inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and parametric instabilities in the 2ω light increase the electron temperature and the plasma-density fluctuation, thus preventing the development of Raman scattering of the 3ω light. This scheme is successfully demonstrated by both one-dimensional kinetic simulations and two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations. The one-dimensional Vlasov results show that the time-averaged transmissivity of the 3ω light increases from 0.75 to 0.95 under certain conditions. Results obtained using the particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions show that the electron temperature is greatly increased with the increasing intensity of the 2ω light. The two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulation results show that the electron temperature increases from 3.2 keV to 3.5 keV, and the time-averaged backscattering level decreases from 0.28 to 0.1 in the presence of the auxiliary 2ω light.

  17. Two-Color, Photon-Gated Spectral Hole-Burning in an Organic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-04

    Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie Neue Folge, Bd.109 (1978) 47. [19] M. Martin, E. Breheret, F. Tfibel, and B. Lacourbas, J. Phys. Chem. 84 (1980) 70...Trade Visiting Scientist on leave from The Institut fUr Physikalische Chemie der Universitit Milnchen, West Germany Acc e s ii For NTIS CRA&M OTIC

  18. Development of Two Color Fluorescent Imager and Integrated Fluidic System for Nanosatellite Biology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Diana Terri; Ricco, Antonio Joseph; Lera, Matthew P.; Timucin, Linda R.; Parra, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanosatellites offer frequent, low-cost space access as secondary payloads on launches of larger conventional satellites. We summarize the payload science and technology of the Microsatellite in-situ Space Technologies (MisST) nanosatellite for conducting automated biological experiments. The payload (two fused 10-cm cubes) includes 1) an integrated fluidics system that maintains organism viability and supports growth and 2) a fixed-focus imager with fluorescence and scattered-light imaging capabilities. The payload monitors temperature, pressure and relative humidity, and actively controls temperature. C. elegans (nematode, 50 m diameter x 1 mm long) was selected as a model organism due to previous space science experience, its completely sequenced genome, size, hardiness, and the variety of strains available. Three strains were chosen: two green GFP-tagged strains and one red tdTomato-tagged strain that label intestinal, nerve, and pharyngeal cells, respectively. The integrated fluidics system includes bioanalytical and reservoir modules. The former consists of four 150 L culture wells and a 4x5 mm imaging zone the latter includes two 8 mL fluid reservoirs for reagent and waste storage. The fluidic system is fabricated using multilayer polymer rapid prototyping: laser cutting, precision machining, die cutting, and pressure-sensitive adhesives it also includes eight solenoid-operated valves and one mini peristaltic pump. Young larval-state (L2) nematodes are loaded in C. elegans Maintenance Media (CeMM) in the bioanalytical module during pre-launch assembly. By the time orbit is established, the worms have grown to sufficient density to be imaged and are fed fresh CeMM. The strains are pumped sequentially into the imaging area, imaged, then pumped into waste. Reagent storage utilizes polymer bags under slight pressure to prevent bubble formation in wells or channels. The optical system images green and red fluorescence bands by excitation with blue (473 nm peak) and amber (587 nm peak) LEDs it achieves 8 m lateral resolution using a CMOS imaging chip (as configured for serial data speeds) or 4 m resolution using USB imaging chips. The imager consists of a modified commercial off-the-shelf CMOS chip camera, amber, blue and white LEDs, as well as a relay lens and dual-band filters to obviate moving parts while supporting both fluorescence wavelengths.

  19. Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Sedarsky, David; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Imaging with ultrashort exposure times is generally achieved with a crossed-beam geometry. In the usual arrangement, an off-axis gating pulse induces birefringence in a medium exhibiting a strong Kerr response (commonly carbon disulfide) which is followed by a polarizer aligned to fully attenuate the on-axis imaging beam. By properly timing the gate pulse, imaging light experiences a polarization change allowing time-dependent transmission through the polarizer to form an ultrashort image. The crossed-beam system is effective in generating short gate times, however, signal transmission through the system is complicated by the crossing angle of the gate and imaging beams. This work presents a robust ultrafast time-gated imaging scheme based on a combination of type-I frequency doubling and a collinear optical arrangement in carbon disulfide. We discuss spatial effects arising from crossed-beam Kerr gating, and examine the imaging spatial resolution and transmission timing affected by collinear activation of th...

  20. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump-probe, fiber-coupled atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cort; Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Weisend, Michael

    2010-12-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  1. Two color interferometric electron density measurement in an axially blown arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Patrick; Carstensen, Jan; Galletti, Bernardo; Doiron, Charles; Sokolov, Alexey; Salzmann, René; Simon, Sandor; Jabs, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    High voltage circuit breakers protect the power grid by interrupting the current in case of a short circuit. To do so an arc is ignited between two contacts as they separate; transonic gas flow is used to cool and ultimately extinguish the arc at a current-zero crossing of the alternating current. A detailed understanding of the arc interruption process is needed to improve circuit breaker design. The conductivity of the partially ionized gas remaining after the current-zero crossing, a key parameter in determining whether the arc will be interrupted or not, is a function of the electron density. The electron density, in turn, is a function of the detailed dynamics of the arc cooling process, which does not necessarily occur under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. In this work, we measure the spatially resolved line-integrated index of refraction in a near-current-zero arc stabilized in an axial flow of synthetic air with two nanosecond pulsed lasers at wavelengths of 532 nm and 671 nm. Generating a stable, cylindrically symmetric arc enables us to determine the three-dimensional index of refraction distribution using Abel inversion. Due to the wavelength dependence of the component of the index of refraction related to the free electrons, the information at two different wavelengths can be used to determine the electron density. This information allows us to determine how important it is to take into account non-equilibrium effects for accurate modeling of the physics of decaying arcs.

  2. Generation of elliptically polarized nitrogen-ion laser fields using two-color femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ziting; Chu, Wei; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Qiao, Lingling; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate generation of molecular nitrogen-ion lasers with two femtosecond laser pulses at different wavelengths. The first pulse serves as the pump which ionizes the nitrogen molecules and excites the molecular ions to excited electronic states. The second pulse serves as the probe which leads to stimulated emission from the excited molecular ions. We observe that changing the angle between the polarization directions of the two pulses gives rise to elliptically polarized molecular nitrogen-ion laser fields, which is interpreted as a result of strong birefringence of the gain medium near the wavelengths of the molecular nitrogen-ion laser.

  3. Sonneberg plate photometry in two colors for KIC 8462852: No dimming between 1934 and 1995

    CERN Document Server

    Hippke, Michael; Matthei, Frank; Angerhausen, Daniel; Tuvikene, Taavi; Stassun, Keivan G; Roshchina, Elena; Vasileva, Tatyana; Izmailov, Igor; Lund, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The F3 main sequence star KIC 8462852 has raised interest because of its mysterious day-long brightness dips, and an unusual ~3% brightness decrease during the 4 years of the Kepler mission. Recently, a 0.164mag (~14%) dimming between 1890 and 1990 was claimed, based on the analysis of photographic plates, although this has been refuted. To resolve this controversy, we have gathered an independent set of historic data from Sonneberg Observatory, Germany. From these historic plates, we could extract 862 magnitudes in blue light, and 401 magnitudes in red light. The data cover the years 1934 to 1995 and are very evenly sampled between 1956 and 1995. In both colors, we find the star to be of constant brightness within 0.033mag/century (~3%). The previously claimed dimming is inconsistent with these data at the $\\sim5\\sigma$-level, however the recently reported modest dimming of ~3% in the Kepler data is not inconsistent with these data. We have also searched for periodicities and yearly trends in the data and fi...

  4. Monitoring membrane binding and insertion of peptides by two-color fluorescent label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postupalenko, V Y; Shvadchak, V V; Duportail, G; Pivovarenko, V G; Klymchenko, A S; Mély, Y

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we developed an approach for monitoring membrane binding and insertion of peptides using a fluorescent environment-sensitive label of the 3-hydroxyflavone family. For this purpose, we labeled the N-terminus of three synthetic peptides, melittin, magainin 2 and poly-l-lysine capable to interact with lipid membranes. Binding of these peptides to lipid vesicles induced a strong fluorescence increase, which enabled to quantify the peptide-membrane interaction. Moreover, the dual emission of the label in these peptides correlated well with the depth of its insertion measured by the parallax quenching method. Thus, in melittin and magainin 2, which show deep insertion of their N-terminus, the label presented a dual emission corresponding to a low polar environment, while the environment of the poly-l-lysine N-terminus was rather polar, consistent with its location close to the bilayer surface. Using spectral deconvolution to distinguish the non-hydrated label species from the hydrated ones and two photon fluorescence microscopy to determine the probe orientation in giant vesicles, we found that the non-hydrated species were vertically oriented in the bilayer and constituted the best indicators for evaluating the depth of the peptide N-terminus in membranes. Thus, this label constitutes an interesting new tool for monitoring membrane binding and insertion of peptides.

  5. Superluminal two-color light in a multiple Raman gain medium

    KAUST Repository

    Kudriašov, V.

    2014-09-17

    We investigate theoretically the formation of two-component light with superluminal group velocity in a medium controlled by four Raman pump fields. In such an optical scheme only a particular combination of the probe fields is coupled to the matter and exhibits superluminal propagation; the orthogonal combination is uncoupled. The individual probe fields do not have a definite group velocity in the medium. Calculations demonstrate that this superluminal component experiences an envelope advancement in the medium with respect to the propagation in vacuum.

  6. Optimizing Two-Color Semiconductor Nanocrystal Immunoassays in Single Well Microtiter Plate Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Russ Algar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous detection of two analytes, chicken IgY (IgG and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, in the single well of a 96-well plate is demonstrated using luminescent semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystal (NC tracers. The NC-labeled antibodies were prepared via sulfhydryl-reactive chemistry using a facile protocol that took

  7. Three-Dimensional Control of DNA Hybridization by Orthogonal Two-Color Two-Photon Uncaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichte, Manuela A H; Weyel, Xenia M M; Junek, Stephan; Schäfer, Florian; Herbivo, Cyril; Goeldner, Maurice; Specht, Alexandre; Wachtveitl, Josef; Heckel, Alexander

    2016-07-25

    We successfully introduced two-photon-sensitive photolabile groups ([7-(diethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl and p-dialkylaminonitrobiphenyl) into DNA strands and demonstrated their suitability for three-dimensional photorelease. To visualize the uncaging, we used a fluorescence readout based on double-strand displacement in a hydrogel and in neurons. Orthogonal two-photon uncaging of the two cages is possible, thus enabling complex scenarios of three-dimensional control of hybridization with light.

  8. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  9. High-Resolution Digital Two-Color PIV for Turbomachinery Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, W.; Gogineni, S.; Goss, L.

    1996-11-01

    Turbomachinery flows are inherently unsteady. However, steady design methods are currently used to develop turbomachinery, with the lack of basic understanding of unsteady effects being compensated by use of extensive empirical correlations. Conventional laser anemometry provides quantitative evidence of unsteady effects in turbomachinery but is limited in fully exploring this phenomenon. The PIV technique holds great promise for elucidating unsteady flow mechanisms in turbomachinery if obstacles to its application in a transonic turbomachine can be overcome. Implementation involves critical issues such as tracer seeding and optical access for transmitter and receiver. Initially, an 18-in.-dia. axial fan is used to explore these issues. One optical configuration considered is the fiber-optic fanning light sheet in conjunction with high-power pulsed lasers. Instantaneous velocity measurements are made between blades at different spanwise locations.

  10. Two-Color Coherent Control of Femtosecond Above-Threshold Photoemission from a Tungsten Nanotip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Paschen, Timo; Krüger, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Wachter, Georg; Libisch, Florian; Madlener, Thomas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton and above-threshold photoemission from a single solid-state nanoemitter driven by a fundamental and a weak second harmonic laser pulse. Depending on the relative phase of the two pulses, electron emission is modulated with a contrast of the oscillating current signal of up to 94%. Electron spectra reveal that all observed photon orders are affected simultaneously and similarly. We confirm that photoemission takes place within 10 fs. Accompanying simulations indicate that the current modulation with its large contrast results from two interfering quantum pathways leading to electron emission.

  11. Two-color coherent control of femtosecond above-threshold photoemission from a tungsten nanotip

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Michael; Krüger, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Wachter, Georg; Libisch, Florian; Madlener, Thomas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton and above-threshold photoemission from a single solid-state nanoemitter driven by a fundamental and a weak second harmonic laser pulse. Depending on the relative phase of the two pulses, electron emission is modulated with a visibility of up to 94%. Electron spectra reveal that all observed photon orders are affected simultaneously and similarly. We confirm that photoemission takes place within 10 fs. Accompanying simulations indicate that the current modulation with its large contrast results from two interfering quantum pathways leading to electron emission.

  12. Two-color ghost interference with photon pairs generated in hot atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Ding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental observation of a two-photon ghost interference experiment. A distinguishing feature of our experiment is that the photons are generated via a non-degenerated spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a hot atomic ensemble; therefore the photon has narrow bandwidth. Besides, there is a large difference in frequency between two photons in a pair. Our works may be important to achieve more secure, large transmission capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  13. An algorithm for automatic evaluation of the spot quality in two-color DNA microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barillot Emmanuel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although DNA microarray technologies are very powerful for the simultaneous quantitative characterization of thousands of genes, the quality of the obtained experimental data is often far from ideal. The measured microarrays images represent a regular collection of spots, and the intensity of light at each spot is proportional to the DNA copy number or to the expression level of the gene whose DNA clone is spotted. Spot quality control is an essential part of microarray image analysis, which must be carried out at the level of individual spot identification. The problem is difficult to formalize due to the diversity of instrumental and biological factors that can influence the result. Results For each spot we estimate the ratio of measured fluorescence intensities revealing differential gene expression or change in DNA copy numbers between the test and control samples. We also define a set of quality characteristics and a model for combining these characteristics into an overall spot quality value. We have developed a training procedure to evaluate the contribution of each individual characteristic in the overall quality. This procedure uses information available from replicated spots, located in the same array or over a set of replicated arrays. It is assumed that unspoiled replicated spots must have very close ratios, whereas poor spots yield greater diversity in the obtained ratio estimates. Conclusion The developed procedure provides an automatic tool to quantify spot quality and to identify different types of spot deficiency occurring in DNA microarray technology. Quality values assigned to each spot can be used either to eliminate spots or to weight contribution of each ratio estimate in follow-up analysis procedures.

  14. Two-out-of-two color matching based visual cryptography schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machizaud, Jacques; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-09-24

    Visual cryptography which consists in sharing a secret message between transparencies has been extended to color prints. In this paper, we propose a new visual cryptography scheme based on color matching. The stacked printed media reveal a uniformly colored message decoded by the human visual system. In contrast with the previous color visual cryptography schemes, the proposed one enables to share images without pixel expansion and to detect a forgery as the color of the message is kept secret. In order to correctly print the colors on the media and to increase the security of the scheme, we use spectral models developed for color reproduction describing printed colors from an optical point of view.

  15. Two-Color Laser High-Harmonic Generation in Cavitated Plasma Wakefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2016-10-03

    A method is proposed for producing coherent x-rays via high-harmonic generation using a laser interacting with highly-stripped ions in cavitated plasma wakefields. Two laser pulses of different colors are employed: a long-wavelength pulse for cavitation and a short-wavelength pulse for harmonic generation. This method enables efficient laser harmonic generation in the sub-nm wavelength regime.

  16. Non-Sequential Double Ionization by Counter Rotating Circularly Polarized Two-Color Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, S; Kunitski, M; Hartung, A; Rist, J; Henrichs, K; Schlott, N; Kang, H; Bauer, T; Sann, H; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schöffler, M; Jahnke, T; Dörner, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on non-sequential double ionization of Ar by a laser pulse consisting of two counter rotating circularly polarized fields (390 nm and 780 nm). The double ionization probability depends strongly on the relative intensity of the two fields and shows a "knee"-like structure as function of intensity. We conclude that double ionization is driven by a beam of nearly monoenergetic recolliding electrons, which can be controlled in intensity and energy by the field parameters. The electron momentum distributions show the recolliding electron as well as a second electron which escapes from an intermediate excited state of Ar$^+$.

  17. Demonstration of Single-Crystal Self-Seeded Two-Color X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutman, A. A.; Decker, F. -J; Arthur, J.; Chollet, M.; Feng, Y.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z.; Lemke, H.; Nuhn, H. -D.; Marinelli, A.; Turner, J. L.; Wakatsuki, S.; Welch, J.; Zhu, D.

    2014-12-18

    A scheme for generating two simultaneous hard-x-ray free-electron laser pulses with a controllable difference in photon energy is described and then demonstrated using the self-seeding setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The scheme takes advantage of the existing LCLS equipment, which allows two independent rotations of the self-seeding diamond crystal. The two degrees of freedom are used to select two nearby crystal reflections, causing two wavelengths to be present in the forward transmitted seeding x-ray pulse. The free-electron laser system must support amplification at both desired wavelengths.

  18. Simultaneous two-color, two-dimensional angular optical scattering patterns from airborne particulates: Scattering results and exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Stephen; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.; Skelsey, Charles R.

    2016-07-01

    Light scattering from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibits complex structure that is revealed only when observed in two angular dimensions (θ, ϕ). However, due to variations in shape, packing, and orientation of such aerosols, the structure of two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) patterns varies among particles. The spectral dependence of scattering contributes further to the observed complexity, but offers another facet to consider. By leveraging multispectral TAOS data from flowing aerosols, we have identified novel morphological descriptors that may be employed in multivariate statistical algorithms for "unknown" particle classification.

  19. Two-Color Multiplex Assay for the Identification of Orthopox Viruses with Real-Time LUX-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-14

    example, up to 106 pock-forming units or 200 pg of Variola DNA were obtained from skin lesions of the smallpox rash by day 2 of the rash [18,22]. The...vaccinee. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:5409–11. [6] Hawranek T, Tritscher M, Muss WH, Jecel J, Nowotny N, Kolodziejek J, et al. Feline orthopox virus

  20. Two-color, laser excitation improves temporal resolution for detecting the dynamic, plasmonic coupling between metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Diane M; Lionberger, Troy A

    2013-05-21

    The ability of two, scattering gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to plasmonically couple in a manner that is dependent on the interparticle separation has been exploited to measure nanometer-level displacements. However, despite broad applicability to monitoring biophysical dynamics, the long time scales (dynamic molecular processes, generally occurring over several milliseconds. Here, we introduce a new technique intended to overcome this technical limitation: ratiometric analysis using monochromatic, evanescent darkfield illumination (RAMEDI). As a proof-of-principle, we monitored dynamic, plasmonic coupling arising from the binding of single biotin- and neutravidin-GNPs with a temporal resolution of 38 ms. We also show that the observable bandwidth is extendable to faster time scales by demonstrating that RAMEDI is capable of achieving a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 20 from individual GNPs observed with 200 Hz bandwidth.

  1. Experimental three-dimensional beam profiling and modeling of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    in the focal region, and the transition from the donut profile to a central peak is consistent with propagation of a Bessel–Gauss beam, as shown by simulations based on a recent transient photocurrent model (You et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 183902). We combine our measurements to the first full 3D...

  2. Coherent control of optical four-wave mixing by two-color $\\omega$-$3\\omega$ ultrashort laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Serrat, C

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical investigation on the phase control of optical transient four-wave mixing interactions in two-level systems driven by two intense temporal coherent femtosecond laser pulses of central angular frequencies $\\omega$ and $3\\omega$ is reported. By solving the full Maxwell-Bloch equations beyond the slowly-varying envelope and rotating-wave approximations in the time domain, the parametric nonlinear coupling to the optical field at frequency $5\\omega$ is found to depend critically on the initial relative phase $\\phi$ of the two propagating pulses; the coupling is enhanced when the pulses interfere constructively in the center ($\\phi=0$), while it is nearly suppressed when they are out of phase ($\\phi=\\pi$).

  3. A triterpene oleanolic acid conjugate with 3-hydroxyflavone derivative as a new membrane probe with two-color ratiometric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Zeynep; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Oncul, Sule; Duportail, Guy; Topcu, Gulacti; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2005-07-29

    We report on the synthesis by coupling of a triterpenoid oleanolic acid with 4'-diethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone (FE) to produce an environment-sensitive biomembrane probe with two-band ratiometric response in fluorescence emission. The synthesized compound (probe FOT) was tested in a series of model solvents and demonstrated the response to solvent polarity and intermolecular hydrogen bonding very similar to that of parent probe FE. Meantime when incorporated into lipid bilayer membranes, it showed new features differing in response between lipids of different surface charges as well as between glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelin. We observed that in the conditions of coexistence of rafts and non-raft structures the probe is excluded from the rafts.

  4. Absolute phase control of spectra effects in a two-level medium driven by two-color ultrashort laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Keyu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Niu Yueping [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Li Chunfang [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200436 (China); Gong Shangqing [CCAST (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: sqgong@siom.ac.cn

    2007-01-22

    Using a {omega}-3{omega} combination scenario, we investigate the absolute phase control of the spectra effects for ultrashort laser pulses propagating in a two-level medium. It is found that the higher spectral components can be controlled by the absolute phases. In particular, different absolute phase combinations can lead to the buildup or split of the even harmonics.

  5. Intensity Correlation Function of a Single-Mode Laser Driven by Two Colored Noises with Colored Cross-Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANLi-Bo; CAOLi; WUDa-Jin; WANGJun

    2004-01-01

    By using the linear approximation method, the intensity correlation function and the intensity correlation time are calculated in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by colored cross-correlated pump noise and quantum noise, each of which is colored. We detect that, when the cross-correlation between both noises is negative, the behavior of the intensity correlation function C(t) versus time t, in addition to decreasing monotonously, also exhibits several other cases, such as one maximum, one minimum, and two extrema (one maximum and one minimum), i.e., some parameters of the noises can greatly change the dependence of the intensity correlation function upon time. Moreover, we find that there is a minimum Tmin in the curve of the intensity correlation time versus the pump noise intensity, and the depth and position of Train strongly depend on the quantum noise self-correlation time T2 and cross-correlation time T3.

  6. Determination of self generated magnetic field and the plasma density using Cotton Mouton polarimetry with two color probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi A.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self generated magnetic fields (SGMF in laser produced plasmas are conventionally determined by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of a linearly polarized laser probe beam passing through the plasma along with the interferogram for obtaining plasma density. In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the plasma density and the SGMF distribution from two simultaneous measurements of Cotton Mouton polarimetry of two linearly polarized probe beams of different colors that pass through plasma in a direction normal to the planar target. It is shown that this technique allows us to determine the distribution of SGMF and the plasma density without doing interferometry of laser produced plasmas.

  7. High energy femtosecond mid-infrared generation pumped by a two-color Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA JiangFan; SONG Jie; Donna T. Strickland

    2008-01-01

    Intense mid-infrared was generated by direct frequency mixing two pulses from a dual-wavelength Ti:sapphire system. From a multipass amplifier we generated two tunable wavelength femtosecond pulses with a total energy of 15 mJ. Pulse energy of 1.6 μJ and 7.4 μJ of mid-infrared light is achieved with and without its multipass amplifier at 9-11 μm, with pulse duration of 500 fs.

  8. A Multicolor Single-Molecule FRET Approach to Study Protein Dynamics and Interactions Simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, M; Wortmann, P; Schmid, S; Hugel, T

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a versatile tool for studying biomolecules in a quantitative manner. Multiple conformations within and interactions between biomolecules can be detected and their kinetics can be determined. Thus, smFRET has become an essential tool in enzymology. Ordinary two-color smFRET experiments can provide only limited insight into the function of biological systems, which commonly consist of more than two components. A complete understanding of complex multicomponent biological systems requires correlated information on conformational rearrangements on the one hand and transient interactions with binding partners on the other. Multicolor smFRET experiments enable the direct observation of such correlated dynamics and interactions. Here we demonstrate the power and limitations of multicolor smFRET experiments including the description of a multicolor smFRET setup and data analysis. A general analytical procedure for multicolor smFRET data is presented and applied to the multicomponent heat shock protein 90 system. This allows us to identify microscopic states in transient complexes. Conformational dynamics and nucleotide binding are simultaneously detected, which is impossible using two-color smFRET. Additionally, their correlation is quantified using 3D ensemble hidden Markov analysis, in and out of equilibrium. This method is perfectly suited for protein systems that are much more sophisticated than previously studied DNA-based systems. By extending the application to biologically relevant systems, multicolor smFRET comes of age and provides a unique mechanistic insight into protein machines.

  9. High-Speed Imaging Optical Pyrometry for Study of Boron Nitride Nanotube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    A high-speed imaging optical pyrometry system is designed for making in-situ measurements of boron temperature during the boron nitride nanotube synthesis process. Spectrometer measurements show molten boron emission to be essentially graybody in nature, lacking spectral emission fine structure over the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Camera calibration experiments are performed and compared with theoretical calculations to quantitatively establish the relationship between observed signal intensity and temperature. The one-color pyrometry technique described herein involves measuring temperature based upon the absolute signal intensity observed through a narrowband spectral filter, while the two-color technique uses the ratio of the signals through two spectrally separated filters. The present study calibrated both the one- and two-color techniques at temperatures between 1,173 K and 1,591 K using a pco.dimax HD CMOS-based camera along with three such filters having transmission peaks near 550 nm, 632.8 nm, and 800 nm.

  10. Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: an SU(2) study

    CERN Document Server

    Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.

  11. Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.

  12. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Grandy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported gaining weight (n=460, and 30% reported losing weight (n=895. More respondents who reported losing weight exercised regularly, limited calorie and fat intake, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P<0.01. For all nine aspects of daily life, a significantly greater proportion of respondents who reported losing weight reported improved well-being (12%–44% compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P<0.0001. Conclusions. Self-reported weight loss was associated with improved well-being, better exercise, and weight management behaviors among individuals with T2DM.

  13. Study of Flow-Field Interactions in a Transonic Compressor using DPIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi; Gogineni, Sivaram; Goss, Larry; Copenhaver, William; Gorrell, Steve; Koch, Peter

    1999-11-01

    The unsteadiness and spatial structures in a high-through-flow, axial-flow transonic compressor are captured using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The measurements are made using both single-color and two-color DPIV systems. A special optical probe was designed for laser delivery through the inlet guide vanes (IGVs). Viewing windows on the compressor housing allow optical access. Submicron sized smoke particles are used for seeding the compressor flow and the DPIV system is synchronized with the blade passage. The interactions between the coherent structures from the IGVs with the rotor blades and the bow shock are studied for various configurations. The coherent structures interactions with the potential field of the leading edge of the blades and the shock as a function of the blade position are analyzed for a full blade passage through the wake. Comparisons are made with unsteady numerical simulations.

  14. Time-resolved studies of the interactions between pulsed lasers and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Cindy L; Qian, Jun; Miller, Roger E

    2002-09-20

    Studies of the interaction between a pulsed CO2 laser and micrometer-sized aqueous and organic particles by use of light-scattering methods and step-scan Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are reported. Visible two-color extinction experiments indicate primary particle shattering, accompanied by a high fraction of vaporization, followed by secondary particle evaporation. The extent of the latter depends on the pulse intensity and particle composition. Angle-resolved light-scattering investigations provide insight into the aerosol size distribution and temperature following the pulsed heating event. The time dependence of the vapor plume, monitored with step-scan FTIR spectroscopy, confirms that a large fraction of the initial particle is quickly evaporated during the shattering event, followed by secondary fragment evaporation and thermal expansion.

  15. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Zahir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, boiling point, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV,and peroxide value (PV of Corn and Mustard oils were studied to evaluate the compositional quality of oils and also to investigate the effect on the use of same oil for repeated frying as it ultimately changes the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the oil. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the degree of oxidation after heating and frying processes. Results revealed that due to the temperature change in the oil there is a notable difference in the spectral band which showed that the proportions of the fatty acids were changed. The spectra of Corn oil at the boiling point and at multiple frying times with a piece of potato showed frequencies in range of 2852.7–2926.0 cm−1 while in Mustard oil an additional peak was observed at 3633.8 cm−1 which exhibits the secondary oxidized product formation.

  16. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Benedetti, Carlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Min [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Esarey, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vay, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, Lule [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Leemans, Wim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection.

  17. Screening for copy number alterations in loci associated with autism spectrum disorders by two-color multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer, Anna; Giacobini, Maibritt; Nordenskjöld, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogenous condition characterized by impaired socialization and communication in association with stereotypic behaviors. ASD is highly heritable and heterogeneous with a complex genetic etiology. Recurrent submicroscopic deletions or duplications have been...... of a continuously increasing number of CNAs associated with autism. Our result show that MLPA assay is an easy and cost-effective method for the identification of selected CNAs in diagnostic laboratories....

  18. A new case of neuropeptide coexpression (RGamide and LWamides) in Hydra, found by whole-mount, two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Georg N; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2002-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra has a primitive nervous system that expresses at least six different neuropeptide genes: (1) three genes, coding for the preprohormones-A, -B, and -C that each gives rise to a variety of peptides with the C-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH(2) (the Hydra-RFamides); (2) one g...

  19. Super-resolution imaging of ciliary microdomains in isolated olfactory sensory neurons using a custom two-color stimulated emission depletion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stephanie A.; Ozbay, Baris N.; Potcoava, Mariana; Salcedo, Ernesto; Restrepo, Diego; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    We performed stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging of isolated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) using a custom-built microscope. The STED microscope uses a single pulsed laser to excite two separate fluorophores, Atto 590 and Atto 647N. A gated timing circuit combined with temporal interleaving of the different color excitation/STED laser pulses filters the two channel detection and greatly minimizes crosstalk. We quantified the instrument resolution to be ˜81 and ˜44 nm, for the Atto 590 and Atto 647N channels. The spatial separation between the two channels was measured to be under 10 nm, well below the resolution limit. The custom-STED microscope is incorporated onto a commercial research microscope allowing brightfield, differential interference contrast, and epifluorescence imaging on the same field of view. We performed immunolabeling of OSNs in mice to image localization of ciliary membrane proteins involved in olfactory transduction. We imaged Ca2+-permeable cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel (Atto 594) and adenylyl cyclase type III (ACIII) (Atto 647N) in distinct cilia. STED imaging resolved well-separated subdiffraction limited clusters for each protein. We quantified the size of each cluster to have a mean value of 88±48 nm and 124±43 nm, for CNG and ACIII, respectively. STED imaging showed separated clusters that were not resolvable in confocal images.

  20. Two-color facility based on a broadly tunable infrared free-electron laser and a subpicosecond-synchronized 10-fs-Ti : Sapphire laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; van de Pol, M.J.; Pellemans, H. P. M.; Planken, P. C. M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1998-01-01

    Subpicosecond synchronization between a mirror-dispersion-controlled 10-fs Ti:sapphire laser and the Free-Electron Laser for Infrared Experiments has been achieved. The measured intensity cross correlation between the two lasers is consistent with a jitter of only 400 fs rms. The wide and continuous

  1. Scheme for femtosecond-resolution pump-probe experiments at XFELs with two-color ten GW-level X-ray pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for pump-probe experiments that can be performed at LCLS and at the European XFEL and determines what additional hardware development will be required to bring these experiments to fruition. It is proposed to derive both pump and probe pulses from the same electron bunch, but from different parts of the tunable-gap baseline undulator. This eliminates the need for synchronization and cancels jitter problems. The method has the further advantage to make a wide frequency range accessible at high peak-power and high repetition-rate. An important feature of the proposed scheme is that the hardware requirement is minimal. Our technique is based in essence on the "fresh" bunch technique. For its implementation it is sufficient to substitute a single undulator module with short magnetic delay line, i.e. a weak magnetic chicane, which delays the electron bunch with respect to the SASE pulse of half of the bunch length in the linear stage of amplification. This installation does not pertur...

  2. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting > 80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, killed many game fish species...

  3. High harmonic generation in a two-color field composed of a pump field and a weak subsidiary high frequency field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Jing

    2002-01-01

    [1]Hua Ben, Energy-using Process Analysis and Integration(in Chinese), Beijing: Sino-Pec Press, 1995.[2]Rant, Z., Exgergie-ein neues wort fur “Technische Arbeitsfahigkeit”, Forsch Ing Wes, 1956, 22(14): 36-37.[3]Brodgiansky, B. M., Exergy Methodology and Analysis(in Chinese)(trans. Wang Jiaxuan et al.), Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 1996.[4]Wang Songping, Hua Ben, The new trend of development of dead state thermodynamics, Ziran Zazhi(in Chinese), 1998, 20(2): 79-81.[5]Han, G. Z., Hua, B., Chen, Q. L. et al., The general energy expression and the energy state postulate, Journal of South China University of Technology(Natural Science)(in Chinese), 2001, 29(7): 48-50.[6]Guo Shuohong, Electrodynamics(in Chinese), Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1978.[7]Zhu Mingshan, Chen Hongfang, Thermodynamic Analysis(in Chinese), Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1992.[8]Moran, M. J., Available Energy Analysis, Shanghai: Science and Technology Document Press, 1986.

  4. Probing the structures of neutral boron clusters using infrared/vacuum ultraviolet two color ionization: B11, B16, and B17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanescu, Constantin; Harding, Dan J.; Fielicke, André; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-07-01

    The structures of neutral boron clusters, B11, B16, and B17, have been investigated using vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Infrared absorption spectra in the wavelength range of 650 to 1550 cm-1 are obtained for the three neutral boron clusters from the enhancement of their near-threshold ionization efficiency at a fixed UV wavelength of 157 nm (7.87 eV) after resonant absorption of the tunable infrared photons. All three clusters, B11, B16, and B17, are found to possess planar or quasi-planar structures, similar to their corresponding anionic counterparts (Bn-), whose global minima were found previously to be planar, using photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. Only minor structural changes are observed between the neutral and the anionic species for these three boron clusters.

  5. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S; Crawford, Erin L; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6) actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  6. Two-Color Flow Cytometric Analysis of Intraerythrocytic Malaria Parasite DNA and Surface Membrane-Associated Antigen in Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Infected erythrocytes were fixea with 0.025% glutaraidehyde, followed by treatment with 1%saponiu to gain acceiss to intramembranous components and...Antigen in Erythrocytes Infected With Plasmodium falciparum 1 Kovit Pattanapanyasat,2 Rachanee Udomsangpetch, and H. Kyle Webster The Thalassemia Center...glutaral- izonts. Simultaneous measurement of dehyde followed by treatment with 1% parasite DNA and antigen in the infected saponin to gain access to

  7. Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of Monolithic Two-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using an InGaN-Based Light Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, Benjamin; Kim-Chauveau, Hyonju; Frayssinet, Eric; Brault, Julien; Hussain, Sakhawat; Lekhal, Kaddour; Vennéguès, Philippe; De Mierry, Philippe; Massies, Jean

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using a light converter fully grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy are demonstrated. The light converter, consisting of 10-40 InGaN/GaN quantum wells, is grown first, followed by a violet pump LED. The structure and growth conditions of the pump LED are specifically adapted to avoid thermal degradation of the light converter. Electroluminescence analysis shows that part of the pump light is absorbed by the light converter and reemitted at longer wavelength. Depending on the emission wavelength of the light converter, different LED colors are achieved. In particular, for red-emitting light converters, a color temperature of 2100 K corresponding to a tint between warm white and candle light is demonstrated.

  8. Two-color laser-induced incandescence and cavity ring-down spectroscopy for sensitive and quantitative imaging of soot and PAHs in flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaecker Moreau, C.; Therssen, E.; Mercier, X.; Pauwels, J. F.; Desgroux, P.

    Laser-induced incandescence is a technique which enables the measurement of soot volume fractions. However, the laser-induced soot emission might be affected by a fluorescence background generally ascribed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) present at the soot location. In this paper, spatially resolved distributions of PAH absorbance and soot are obtained in sooting diffusion flames. The original method developed here consists in comparing the emission distributions induced by two different laser wavelengths: (1) at 1064 nm emission signals are exempt from PAH fluorescence and (2) at 532 nm both soot incandescence and PAH emission contribute to the total signal. In addition, the absolute absorption coefficient of the PAH mixture is determined by comparing absorption measurements obtained by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) at 1064 nm and 532 nm. The proposed method can provide highly sensitive 2D imaging of PAHs and soot using the fundamental and the second-harmonic frequencies of a single YAG laser. Finally, 2D distributions of PAH absorbance and soot volume fraction calibrated by CRDS are obtained in two diffusion flames, particularly in a very low-sooting flame exhibiting a maximum PAH absorbance of 6×10-4 cm-1 and a maximum soot volume fraction of 3 ppb only. The respective spatial distributions of PAHs and soot are shown to vary with the initial C/O ratio.

  9. A physical map of 15 loci on human chromosome 5q23-q33 by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltman, D.L.; Dolganov, G.M. (Genelabs Inc. Redwood City, CA (United States)); Warrington, J.A.; Wasmuth, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Lovett, M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The q23-q33 region of human chromosome 5 encodes a large number of growth factors, growth factor receptors, and hormone/neurotransmitter receptors. This is also the general region into which several disease genes have been mapped, including diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, hereditary startle disease, the myeloid disorders that are associated with the 5q-syndrome, autosomal-dominant forms of hereditary deafness, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The authors have developed a framework physical map of this region using cosmid clones isolated from the Los Alamos arrayed chromosome 5-specific library. Entry points into this library included 14 probes to genes within this interval and one anonymous polymorphic marker locus. A physical map has been constructed using fluorescence in situ hybridization of these cosmids on metaphase and interphase chromosomes, and this is in good agreement with the radiation hybrid map of the region. The derived order of loci across the region is cen-IL4-IL5-IRF1-IL3-IL9-EGR1-CD14-FGFA-GRL-D5S207-ADRB2-SPARC-RPS14-CSF1R-ADRA1, and the total distance spanned by these loci is approximately 15 Mb. The framework map, genomic clones, and contig expansion within 5q23-q33 should provide valuable resources for the eventual isolation of the clinically relevant loci that reside in this region. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Single-particle spectroscopy of I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals: spectral diffusion and suppression of blinking by two-color excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Hirata, Shuzo; Bujak, Lukasz; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Kishi, Marino; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Vacha, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Ternary I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals have been explored as non-toxic alternatives to II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronic and sensing applications, but large photoluminescence spectral width and moderate brightness restrict their practical use. Here, using single-particle photoluminescence spectroscopy on nanocrystals of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 we show that the photoluminescence band is inhomogeneously broadened and that size distribution is the dominant factor in the broadening. The residual homogeneous linewidth of individual nanocrystals reaches up to 75% of the ensemble spectral width. Single nanocrystals undergo spectral diffusion which also contributes to the inhomogeneous band. Excitation with two lasers with energies above and below the bandgap reveals coexistence of two emitting donor states within one particle. Spectral diffusion in such particles is due to temporal activation and deactivation of one such state. Filling of a trap state with a lower-energy laser enables optical modulation of photoluminescence intermittency (blinking) and leads to an almost two-fold increase in brightness.Ternary I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals have been explored as non-toxic alternatives to II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronic and sensing applications, but large photoluminescence spectral width and moderate brightness restrict their practical use. Here, using single-particle photoluminescence spectroscopy on nanocrystals of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 we show that the photoluminescence band is inhomogeneously broadened and that size distribution is the dominant factor in the broadening. The residual homogeneous linewidth of individual nanocrystals reaches up to 75% of the ensemble spectral width. Single nanocrystals undergo spectral diffusion which also contributes to the inhomogeneous band. Excitation with two lasers with energies above and below the bandgap reveals coexistence of two emitting donor states within one particle. Spectral diffusion in such particles is due to temporal activation and deactivation of one such state. Filling of a trap state with a lower-energy laser enables optical modulation of photoluminescence intermittency (blinking) and leads to an almost two-fold increase in brightness. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S7 and Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03950b

  11. Control of a four-color sensing photoreceptor by a two-color sensing photoreceptor reveals complex light regulation in cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bussell, Adam N.; Kehoe, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptors are biologically important for sensing changes in the color and intensity of ambient light and, for photosynthetic organisms, processing this light information to optimize food production through photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are an evolutionarily and ecologically important prokaryotic group of oxygenic photosynthesizers that contain cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) photoreceptors, whose family members sense nearly the entire visible spectrum of light colors. Some cyanobacteria conta...

  12. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, C B; Bulanov, S S; Chen, M; Esarey, E; Geddes, C G R; Vay, J -L; Yu, L -L; Leemans, W P

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2...

  13. Two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization of whole-mount Hydra using RNA probes for five different Hydra neuropeptide preprohormones: evidence for colocalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G N; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    -terminal sequence Lys-Val-NH2 (Hydra-KVamide). The various Hydra-RFamides are synthesized by three different preprohormones: preprohormone-A, -B, and -C. The various Hydra-LWamides are synthesized by a single preprohormone (prepro-Hydra-LWamide), as is Hydra-KVamide (prepro-Hydra-KVamide). Using a wholemount double-labeling...... exists that expresses both preprohormones-A and preproHydra-KVamide mRNAs. The functional significance of this coexpression is unclear. This is the first report on the coexpression of two well-characterized preprohormones (yielding two well-characterized neurohormone families) in cnidarians. This report...

  14. Control of a four-color sensing photoreceptor by a two-color sensing photoreceptor reveals complex light regulation in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, Adam N; Kehoe, David M

    2013-07-30

    Photoreceptors are biologically important for sensing changes in the color and intensity of ambient light and, for photosynthetic organisms, processing this light information to optimize food production through photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are an evolutionarily and ecologically important prokaryotic group of oxygenic photosynthesizers that contain cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) photoreceptors, whose family members sense nearly the entire visible spectrum of light colors. Some cyanobacteria contain 12 to 15 different CBCRs, and many family members contain multiple light-sensing domains. However, the complex interactions that must be occurring within and between these photoreceptors remain unexplored. Here we describe the regulation and photobiology of a unique CBCR called IflA (influenced by far-red light), demonstrating that a second CBCR called RcaE strongly regulates IflA abundance and that IflA uses two distinct photosensory domains to respond to four different light colors: blue, green, red, and far-red. The absorption of red or far-red light by one domain affects the conformation of the other domain, and the rate of relaxation of one of these domains is influenced by the conformation of the other. Deletion of iflA results in delayed growth at low cell density, suggesting that IflA accelerates growth under this condition, apparently by sensing the ratio of red to far-red light in the environment. The types of complex photobiological interactions described here, both between unrelated CBCR family members and within photosensory domains of a single CBCR, may be advantageous for species using these photoreceptors in aquatic environments, where light color ratios are influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors.

  15. Probing the structures of neutral boron clusters using infrared/vacuum ultraviolet two color ionization: B[sub 11], B[sub 16], and B[sub 17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanescu, C.; Harding, D. J.; Fielicke, A.; Wang, L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The structures of neutral boron clusters, B11, B16, and B17, have been investigated using vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Infrared absorption spectra in the wavelength range of 650 to 1550 cm−1 are obtained for the three neutral boron clusters from the enhancement of their

  16. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R Pierce

    Full Text Available Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02 and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2 = 0.99, ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  17. A study of SiC decomposition under laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B.; Hellmann, R.

    2017-06-01

    In this experimental study we investigate the laser induced thermal decomposition of 4H-Sic under ambient conditions using fiber laser. Using a unique two-color pyrometer setup, we measure the temporal evolution of the temperature in the irradiated zone and determine the decomposition rate for various laser power levels. We find that the temporal evolution of the temperature in the irradiated area exhibits an initial heating phase up to about 1300 K, being characterized by an unaffected SiC surface. Upon an expeditious temperature increase, a decomposition phase follows with temperatures above 1700 K, being accompanied by carbonization of the SiC surface. The decomposed volume depends linearly on the duration of the decomposition phase and increases linearly with laser power. The temperature evaluation of the decomposition speed reveals an Arrhenius-type behavior allowing the calculation of the activation energy for the decomposition under ambient conditions to 613 kJ/mol in the temperature range between 2140 and 2420 K.

  18. Resonant absorption induced fast melting studied with mid-IR QCLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Lv, Yankun; Ji, Youxin; Tang, Xiaoliang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a pump-probe setup based on two mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to investigate the melting and crystallization of materials through resonant absorption. A combination of pump and probe beams fulfills the two-color synchronous detection. Furthermore, narrow linewidth advances the accuracy of measurements and the character of broad tuning range of QCLs enables wide applications in various sample and multiple structures. 1-Eicosene was selected as a simple model system to verify the feasibility of this method. A pulsed QCL was tuned to the absorption peak of CH2 bending vibration at 1467 cm-1 to resonantly heat the sample. The other QCL in continuous mode was tuned to 1643 cm-1 corresponding the C=C stretching vibration to follow the fast melting dynamics. By monitoring the transmission intensity variation of pump and probe beams during pump-probe experiments, the resonant absorption induced fast melting and re-crystallization of 1-Eicosene can be studied. Results show that the thermal effect and melting behaviors strongly depend on the pump wavelength (resonant or non-resonant) and energy, as well as the pump time. The realization and detection of melting and recrystallization can be performed in tens of milliseconds, which improves the time resolution of melting process study based on general mid-infrared spectrum by orders of magnitude. The availability of resonant heating and detections based on mid-infrared QCLs is expected to enable new applications in melting study.

  19. Studying of Phototransformation of Light Signal by Photoreceptor Pigments - Rhodopsin, Iodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article views predominately the structure and function of animal and bacterial photoreceptor pigments (rhodopsin, iodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin and their aspects of nano- and biotechnological usage. On an example of bacteriorhodopsin is described the method of its isolation from purple membranes of photo-organotrophic halobacterium Halobacterium halobium by cellular autolysis by distilled water, processing of bacterial biomass by ultrasound at 22 KHz, alcohol extraction of low and high-weight molecular impurities, cellular RNA, carotenoids and lipids, the solubilization with 0,5 % (w/v SDS-Na and subsequent fractionation by methanol and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200 Column balanced with 0.09 M Tris-borate buffer (pH = 8,35 with 0,1 % (w/v SDS-Na and 2,5 mM EDTA. Within the framework of the research the mechanism of color perception by the visual analyzer having the ability to analyze certain ranges of the optical spectrum, as colors was studied along with an analysis of the additive mixing of two colors. It was shown that at the mixing of electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths, the visual analyzer perceive them as separate or average wave length corresponding to mix color.

  20. Evolution of properties for aging soot in premixed flat flames studied by laser-induced incandescence and elastic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Nils-Erik; Simonsson, Johan; Török, Sandra; Bladh, Henrik; Bengtsson, Per-Erik

    2015-03-01

    A detailed study has been made of soot growth in two premixed flat ethylene/air flames, at Φ = 2.1 and Φ = 2.3, where focus has been on following the change in optical properties from nascent to more mature soot, and the importance of these properties for laser-induced incandescence (LII). A combination of two-color LII (2C-LII) and elastic light scattering was utilized for studies of soot absorption and sublimation for a range of laser fluences in a pump-probe experiment, and the experimental results were compared with LII model predictions. Both flames show similar trends, indicating that the soot becomes less transparent during the growth process until some level of maturity is reached at higher flame heights, where the measured properties reach almost constant values. A sublimation fluence threshold of ~0.14 J/cm2 (at 1064 nm for a flame temperature around 1700 K) was evaluated for mature soot, corresponding to a sublimation temperature of ~3400 K. Soot peak temperatures from 2C-LII were evaluated both using a constant E(m) and a wavelength dependence for E(m) extracted from extinction measurements, leading to a discussion on how the sublimation temperature relates to the maturity of soot.

  1. Feasibility study of electron transfer quantum well infrared photodetectors for spectral tuning in the long-wave infrared band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Greg; Dehdashti Akhavan, Nima; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto; Antoszewski, Jarek; Faraone, Lorenzo [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2013-11-21

    An electron transfer quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) consisting of repeating units of two coupled quantum wells (QWs) is capable of exhibiting a two color voltage dependent spectral response. However, significant electron transfer between the coupled QWs is required for spectral tuning, which may require the application of relatively high electric fields. Also, the band structure of coupled quantum wells is more complicated in comparison to a regular quantum well and, therefore, it is not always obvious if an electron transfer QWIP can be designed such that it meets specific performance characteristics. This paper presents a feasibility study of the electron transfer QWIP and its suitability for spectral tuning. Self consistent calculations have been performed of the bandstructure and the electric field that results from electron population within the quantum wells, from which the optical characteristics have been obtained. The band structure, spectral response, and the resonant final state energy locations have been compared with standard QWIPs. It is shown that spectral tuning in the long-wave infrared band can be achieved over a wide wavelength range of several microns while maintaining a relatively narrow spectral response FWHM. However, the total absorption strength is more limited in comparison to a standard QWIP, since the higher QW doping densities require much higher electric fields for electron transfer.

  2. Comparative research of Symbiodinium diversity associated with two color morphs of reef-building coral Galaxea fascicularis%丛生盔形珊瑚的2种颜色群体共生藻组成比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国伟; 黄晖; 喻子牛; 尤丰; 李秀保

    2011-01-01

    造礁石珊瑚与共生藻 Symbiodinium spp.的互利共生对维护多样性极为丰富的珊瑚礁生态系统至关重要.在受到诸如水温异常等环境胁迫时,宿主珊瑚会排出体内共生藻而导致珊瑚白化直至死亡.造礁石珊瑚群体丰富的颜色对于珊瑚适应环境有着重要的作用,即使是同种造礁石珊瑚的不同群体,它们在颜色上也会有差异.丛生盔形珊瑚 Galaxea.fascicularis 作为印度-太平洋区系常见种广泛分布于海南三亚珊瑚礁海域,不同群体的颜色相异.对绿色和褐色2种颜色的丛生盔形珊瑚群体共生藻的28S rDNA进行限制性片段长度多态性(polymerase chainreaction-restrictionfragmentlength polymorphism,PCR-RFLP)分析,结果显示,该珊瑚可以与C和D系群共生藻分别或同时共生.此外,丛生盔形珊瑚2种颜色群体的共生藻组成并无显著差异,表明珊瑚群体的颜色差异与共生藻的组成并无直接联系.影响珊瑚表型颜色的因素复杂,包括珊瑚的绿色荧光蛋白(green fluorescent protein,GFP)、珊瑚和共生藻的各种色素等,具体机理需要进一步研究.%The symbiotic association between corals and Symbiodinium is a major contributing factor in the success of coral reef ecosystem with high biodiversity.Under stressful environmental conditions, such as abnormally high water temperatures, this symbiosis can break down and the zooxanthellae are lost in a process known as "bleaching", which can cause the death of corals if stresses are severe or persistent.Reef-building corals have diverse colors even in different colonies within the same species, and the color plays a key role in acclimation of coral to environment.Galaxea fascicularis is a common reef-building coral in the Indo-Pacific area, including the coral reef areas in Sanya, Hainan Island, and displays a variety colors even with different colonies.The authors used PCR-RFLP to investigate whether or not variation in color is associated with Symbiodinium differentiation.The results reveal that G fascicularis can be associated with Symbiodinium clade C and D either individually or simultaneously.In addition, there is no correlation between the composition of Symbiodinium and the color morphs of the coral G.fascicularis.These results highlight the complexity of coral color such as GFP-like protein of coral and symbiont pigments, and need further research.

  3. 2种色型黄粉虫的选育与繁殖特性研究%Selection and Reproduction of Two Color Varieties of Tenebrio molitor(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼; 胡杰; 周定刚

    2012-01-01

    为给黄粉虫优良品种培育提供基础的遗传材料和理论依据.以60日龄黄粉虫幼虫体壁颜色为基准,对2种典型色型黄粉虫进行了连续多代的定向选育,并对选育出的2种色型黄粉虫的繁殖特性进行了比较.历经4年多、连续12代的定向选育,成功获得遗传稳定的黄、黑2种色型黄粉虫.这2种色型黄粉虫同日龄幼虫和成虫的体色差异明显:黄色型的幼虫和成虫分别为金黄色和黄褐色;黑色型的幼虫和成虫分别为黑褐色和黑色.进一步对其成虫的繁殖特性进行研究表明:黄、黑2种色型黄粉虫成虫的性比、寿命及雌成虫产卵历期无显著差异,它们的雌雄性比约为1.0:1.0、雌、雄成虫平均寿命均在100天以上、雌成虫的平均产卵历期约为3~4个月.但不同试验条件下,2种色型黄粉虫雌成虫的产卵前期、产卵高峰及产卵量差异显著:它们的孤雌成虫产卵前期为10天、无明显产卵高峰、产卵量极低(黄色型:40粒/雌,黑色型:28粒/雌);配对后的雌成虫产卵前期缩短为4天、且有2个明显的产卵高峰、产卵量也较孤雌成虫明显提高(单配组1♀+1♂:黄色型为438粒/雌,黑色型为406粒雠;群配组50♀+50♂:黄色型为653粒/雌,黑色型为530粒/雌).由此可见,雌雄配对可以大大提高黄粉虫雌成虫的产卵量,并且群配雌成虫的产卵量远远高于单配雌成虫,因此黄粉虫的养殖宜采用群养群配方式.此外,群配条件下黄色型雌成虫的平均产卵量显著高于黑色型雌成虫,这提示,黄、黑2种色型黄粉虫成虫的繁殖能力可能存在一定差异.上述研究结果既为黄粉虫新品种培育积累了宝贵的遗传材料和基础数据,也为黄粉虫成虫的科学养殖提供了有益参考.%In order to provide the essential biomaterials and logical proofs for cultivating new good breeds, the directed selection of two representative color varieties of T. Molitor was done for several generations based on the color of the cuticular at 60-day-old of larvae and the reproductive traits of them were compared with each other. The yellow-and black-color varieties of T. Molitor, with good genetic stability, were obtained successfully through directed selection of 12 continual generations for more than 4 years. The cuticular color of the two varieties differed greatly, for both larvae and adults at same day age. Cuticular color of larvae and adults of the yellow-color variety was golden-yellow and dim-yellow, respectively, while that of the black ones was blackish-brown and black. Further research on reproductive traits of the adults showed that sex ratio, longevity and oviposition duration showed no significant difference between the two varieties. Sex ratio of the females to males of both varieties was about 1.0:1.0, and average longevity of both male and female adults was longer than 100 d, and average oviposition duration of the female of both varieties was about 3-4 months. But under different test conditions, pre-egg period, oviposition peak and fecundity of females of both varieties showed significant difference. The pre-egg period of partheno-adults of both varieties was 10 d, and they had no visible oviposition peak, and the average fecundity of them was very low (yellow variety: 40 eggs/female, black variety: 28 eggs/female). Pre-egg period of the females matched with males shorten to only 4 d, and they had two marked oviposition peaks, and the average fecundity of them was greatly enhanced compared with the partheno-adults. Average fecundity of females of the yellow- and black-color variety in the single-pair-mating groups which were made up of one male and one female was 438 eggs/female and 406 eggs/ female, while that of the yellow and black ones in the flock-mating groups which were made up of 50 males and 50 females was 653 eggs/female and 530 eggs/female. It was thus clear that mating could improve the fecundity of females of yellow mealworm greatly, and the flock-mating females had an average fecundity much higher than the single-pair-mating ones. So flock-breeding and flock-mating should be applied into the mealworm beetles' culture. In addition, the yellow variety females under the flock-mating conditions had an average fecundity significantly higher than that of the black ones. The above results not only built up the essential data and biomaterials of value for selecting new good varieties of T. Molitor, but also provide some useful reference for breeding of adults of the mealworm beetles.

  4. Ground and excited state proton transfer of the bioactive plant flavonol robinetin in a protein environment: spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Biswa Pathik; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Pradeep K

    2015-02-12

    We performed spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies to explore the interaction of the bioactive plant flavonol robinetin (3,7,3',4',5'-OH flavone), with the carrier protein human serum albumin (HSA). Multiparametric fluorescence sensing, exploiting the intrinsic "two color" fluorescence of robinetin (comprising excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and charge transfer (CT) emissions) reveals that binding to HSA significantly affects the emission and excitation profiles, with strongly blue-shifted (∼29 nm) normal fluorescence and remarkable increase in the ESIPT fluorescence anisotropy (r) and lifetime (τ). Flavonol-induced HSA (tryptophan) fluorescence quenching data yield the dynamic quenching constant (KD) as 5.42 × 10(3) M(-1) and the association constant (Ks) as 5.59 × 10(4) M(-1). Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay studies show dramatic (∼170 times) increase in the rotational correlation time (τ(rot)), reflecting greatly enhanced restrictions in motion of robinetin in the protein matrix. Furthermore, prominent induced circular dichroism (ICD) bands appear, indicating that the chiral environment of HSA strongly perturbs the electronic transitions of the intrinsically achiral robinetin molecule. Molecular docking calculations suggest that robinetin binds in subdomain IIA of HSA, where specific interactions with basic residues promote ground state proton abstraction and stabilize an anionic species, which is consistent with spectroscopic observations.

  5. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M. A.

    2011-11-07

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy

  6. Gene expression profiling of MPP+-treated MN9D cells: a mechanism of toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyong; Xu, Zengjun; Fang, Hong; Duhart, Helen M; Patterson, Tucker A; Ali, Syed F

    2007-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons with unknown etiology. MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) is the active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which induces Parkinson's-like syndromes in humans and animals. MPTP/MPP+ treatment produces selective dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, therefore, these agents are commonly used to study the pathogenesis of PD. However, the mechanisms of their toxicity have not been elucidated. In order to gain insights into MPP+-induced neurotoxicity, a gene expression microarray study was performed using a midbrain-derived dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D. Utilizing a two-color reference design, Agilent mouse oligonucleotide microarrays were used to examine relative gene expression changes in MN9D cells treated with 40microM MPP+ compared with controls. Bioinformatics tools were used for data evaluation. Briefly, raw data were imported into the NCTR ArrayTrack database, normalized using a Lowess method and data quality was assessed. The Student's t-test was used to determine significant changes in gene expression (set as p1.5). Gene Ontology for Function Analysis (GOFFA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were employed to analyze the functions and roles of significant genes in biological processes. Of the 51 significant genes identified, 44 were present in the GOFFA or Ingenuity database. These data indicate that multiple pathways are involved in the underlying mechanisms of MPP+-induced neurotoxicity, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, iron binding, cellular metabolism, and signal transduction. These data also indicate that MPP+-induced toxicity shares common molecular mechanisms with the pathogenesis of PD and further pathway analyses will be conducted to explore these mechanisms.

  7. Ion Imaging Studies of CH_2I_2 Photodissociation at 248 NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Julia H.; Li, Hongwei; Lester, Marsha I.

    2013-06-01

    CH_2I_2 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a significant natural source of organohalide compounds. The photodissociation dynamics of CH_2I_2 in the ultraviolet range of 277-305 nm via the two lowest B_1 excited states has been well studied using one-color velocity map ion imaging (VMI) and photofragment translational spectroscopy. In this two-color experimental study, CH_2I_2 is photodissociated by 248 nm via the B_2 or A_1 excited states to give rise to CH_2I and I (^2P_3_/_2) or I^* (^2P_1_/_2). The iodine atoms are then state selectively ionized using a (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process near 310 nm and detected by VMI. Preliminary results show about 85% of the available energy is being funneled into the internal energy of the CH_2I fragment, consistent with prior infrared emission results of Baughcum and Leone. The anisotropy parameter derived from the image indicates this is a fast dissociation process and reflects the character of the electronic transition. The internal energy distribution of the CH_2I fragment is of particular interest because of its subsequent reaction with O_2 in a near thermo-neutral reaction to produce the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH_2OO. We anticipate that the internal energy contained in CH_2I will likely be carried into CH_2OO. S. L. Baughcum and S. R. Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6531 (1980).

  8. An Experimental Study of Momentum and Thermal Transport in Flow through Smooth- and Rough-Wall Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Vinay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The impact of surface roughness on momentum and thermal transport in microscale flow passages of hydraulic diameter D[subscript h] = 600 micrometer is investigated in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes using microscopic PIV, two-color LIF thermometry and pressure-drop measurements. In addition to smooth-wall flow, two different…

  9. Rotationally resolved state-to-state photoelectron study of niobium carbide radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhihong; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Zheng; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C. Y.

    2014-07-01

    By employing the two-color visible (VIS)-ultraviolet (UV) laser photoexcitation scheme and the pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) detection, we have obtained rovibronically selected and resolved photoelectron spectra for niobium carbide cation (NbC+). The fully rotationally resolved state-to-state VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra thus obtained allow the unambiguous assignments of rotational photoionization transitions, indicating that the electronic configuration and term symmetry of NbC+(tilde X) ground state are …10σ2 5π4 11σ2 (tilde X1Σ+). Furthermore, the rotational analysis of these spectra yields the ionization energy of NbC [IE(NbC)] to be 56 369.2 ± 0.8 cm-1 (6.9889 ± 0.0001 eV) and the rotation constant B0+ = 0.5681 ± 0.0007 cm-1. The latter value allows the determination of the bond distance r0+ = 1.671 ± 0.001 Å for NbC+(tilde X1Σ+). Based on conservation of energy, the IE(NbC) determined in the present study along with the known IE(Nb) gives the difference of 0 K bond dissociation energies (D0's) for NbC+ and NbC, D0(NbC+) - D0(NbC) = -1855.4 ± 0.9 cm-1 (-0.2300 ± 0.0001 eV). The energetic values and the B0+ constant determined in this work are valuable for benchmarking state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations of 4d transition metal-containing molecules.

  10. Rotationally resolved state-to-state photoelectron study of niobium carbide radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhihong; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Zheng; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C. Y., E-mail: cyng@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    By employing the two-color visible (VIS)-ultraviolet (UV) laser photoexcitation scheme and the pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) detection, we have obtained rovibronically selected and resolved photoelectron spectra for niobium carbide cation (NbC{sup +}). The fully rotationally resolved state-to-state VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra thus obtained allow the unambiguous assignments of rotational photoionization transitions, indicating that the electronic configuration and term symmetry of NbC{sup +}(X{sup ~}) ground state are …10σ{sup 2} 5π{sup 4} 11σ{sup 2} (X{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}). Furthermore, the rotational analysis of these spectra yields the ionization energy of NbC [IE(NbC)] to be 56 369.2 ± 0.8 cm{sup −1} (6.9889 ± 0.0001 eV) and the rotation constant B{sub 0}{sup +} = 0.5681 ± 0.0007 cm{sup −1}. The latter value allows the determination of the bond distance r{sub 0}{sup +} = 1.671 ± 0.001 Å for NbC{sup +}(X{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}). Based on conservation of energy, the IE(NbC) determined in the present study along with the known IE(Nb) gives the difference of 0 K bond dissociation energies (D{sub 0}’s) for NbC{sup +} and NbC, D{sub 0}(NbC{sup +}) − D{sub 0}(NbC) = −1855.4 ± 0.9 cm{sup −1} (−0.2300 ± 0.0001 eV). The energetic values and the B{sub 0}{sup +} constant determined in this work are valuable for benchmarking state-of-the-art ab initio quantum calculations of 4d transition metal-containing molecules.

  11. A Neuroelectrical Brain Imaging Study on the Perception of Figurative Paintings against Only their Color or Shape Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton G. Maglione

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively. Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1 Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2 Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1 emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2 Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas.

  12. A Neuroelectrical Brain Imaging Study on the Perception of Figurative Paintings against Only their Color or Shape Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Anton G.; Brizi, Ambra; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Rossi, Dario; Trettel, Arianna; Modica, Enrica; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset) plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively). Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1) Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2) Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1) emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2) Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas. PMID:28790907

  13. Identification of novel GH-regulated pathway of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue: a gene expression study in hypopituitary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing Ting; Cowley, Mark J; Lee, Paul; Birzniece, Vita; Kaplan, Warren; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a major target of GH action. GH stimulates lipolysis and reduces fat mass. The molecular mechanism underlying cellular and metabolic effects of GH in adipose tissue is not well understood. The aim of this study is to identify GH-responsive genes that regulate lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Eight men with GH deficiency underwent measurement of plasma free fatty acid (FFA), whole-body lipid oxidation, and fat biopsies before and after 1 month of GH treatment (0.5 mg/d). Gene expression profiling was performed using Agilent 44K G4112F arrays using a two-color design. Differentially expressed genes were identified using an empirical Bayes, moderated t test, with a false discovery rate under 5%. Target genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. GH increased circulating IGF-I and FFA and stimulated fat oxidation. A total of 246 genes were differentially expressed, of which 135 were up-regulated and 111 down-regulated. GH enhanced adipose tissue expression of IGF-I and SOCS3. GH increased expression of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3), a novel triglyceride (TG) hydrolase, but not hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a classical TG hydrolase. GH repressed cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A (CIDEA), a novel lipid droplets-associated protein, promoting TG storage. GH differentially regulated genes promoting diacylglycerol synthesis. GH suppressed hydroxysteroid (11β) dehydrogenase 1, which activates local cortisol production and genes encoding components of extracellular matrix and TGF-β signaling pathway. GH stimulates the TG/FFA cycle by regulating the expression of novel genes that enhance TG hydrolysis, reduce TG storage, and promote diacylglycerol synthesis. GH represses adipocyte growth, differentiation and inflammation.

  14. Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, D.

    2007-12-28

    This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2p{sub z} confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data. The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 {mu}m and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements. Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. By varying the carrier

  15. Cytotoxicity of the Ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei Against Tumor Cells and Study of the Involvement of Associated Microbiota in the Production of Cytotoxic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Antón

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Many cytotoxic compounds of therapeutic interest have been isolated from marine invertebrates, and some of them have been reported to be of microbial origin. Pyridoacridine alkaloids are the main compounds extracted from the ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei. Here we describe the in vitro antiproliferative activity against different tumor cell lines of the ascidian extracts and provide some insights on the role of the microbial community associated with the tunicate in the production of these compounds. C. dellechiajei extracts showed remarkably high antiproliferative activity (IC50 ≤5 μg/mL in human lung carcinoma A-549, colon adenocarcinoma H-116, pancreatic adenocarcinoma PSN-1 and breast carcinoma SKBR3 cell lines. Moreover, we found that the maximum activity was located in the tunic tissue of the colony, which harbours a microbial community. In order to ascertain the involvement of this community in the synthesis of the bioactive compounds different approachs that included culture and culture independent methods were carried out. We undertook a screening for antiproliferative activities of the bacterial isolates from the ascidian, as well as a comprative analysis of the cytotoxic activities and the microbial communities from two color morphs of the ascidian, green and blue. In addition, the changes of the antiproliferative activities and the composition of the microbial communities were studied from ascidians kept in aquaria and treated with antibiotics for one month. Our data obtained from the different experiments did not point out to bacteria as the source of the cytotoxic compounds, suggesting thus an ascidian origin.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of the structures and binding energies of eugenol (H2O)n, n=0-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longarte, Asier; Unamuno, Iñigo; Fernández, José A.; Castaño, Fernando; Redondo, Carolina

    2004-07-01

    Eugenol (4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol), a phenol-derivative with an intramolecular -OH⋯OCH3 hydrogen bond (H bond), has been studied in a supersonic expansion using a number of complementary laser spectroscopic techniques. The mass-resolved excitation spectrum of eugenol and its water complexes are reported for the first time. The most intense set of bands on the resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectrum of eugenol originate in a conformer whose S1←S0 transition is at 35 202 cm-1 and the ionization threshold at (I0←S0) 62 544±150 cm-1 (7.755±0.019 eV). In addition, two low intensity features redshifted with respect to the 000 transition have been identified as due to a second, less stable conformer. Ab initio calculations show that the potential energy landscape depicts at least three minima associated with one folded and two extended conformers, one of which is the most stable. Clusters of eugenol/water were prepared in a supersonic expansion by seeding eugenol and water in noble gas He and examined by two-color REMPI (R2PI) and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopies. Only one single isomer was observed for both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, in contrast with the several stable conformers provided by the computations. The dissociation energies of the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes have been determined by the fragmentation threshold method and the results compared with those from ab initio calculations conducted at the B3LYP and MP2 levels with a variety of basis sets.

  17. Molecular Probes: A Tool for Studying Toxicity of VOCs to P.Putida F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are of great concern in ground water remediation, and are generally present in the form of NAPLs in subsurface environments. Among the various treatment technologies, in situ bioremediation is one of the most effective and low-cost treatment options. Many soil bacteria are reported to degrade these organic contaminants via metabolism (using them as a source of carbon to derive energy) or co- metabolism up to certain concentrations. However, larger concentrations of these contaminants are toxic to bacteria. Thus, in order to achieve successful bioremediation, it is important to determine the optimal concentrations of various contaminants that is beneficial for the activity and survival of degrading bacteria. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel method for toxicity analyses of VOC contaminants to the soil bacteria that degrade them. The present study is based on a two-color fluorescence assay of bacterial viability which facilitates actual counting of live and dead bacteria. Pseudomonas putida F1 cells were labeled with a LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen), which consists of a mixture of two dyes, SYTO 9 and propidium iodide, each with a different ability to penetrate healthy bacterial cells. Live cells stain green whereas propidium iodide (red dye) only penetrates cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying. Stained cells were exposed to different concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene in sealed vials. Change in the concentrations of green and red cells were monitored over the time using fluorescence microscopy. UTHSCSA ImageTool software was used to count the live and dead cells in the images. It was observed that live (green) cell concentrations decreased and dead/damaged (red) cell concentrations increased over time when cells were exposed to TCE. No significant changes were observed in control experiments. Death rate constants calculated based on live cell

  18. Studying the photometric and spectroscopic variability of the magnetic hot supergiant ζ Orionis Aa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, B.; Neiner, C.; Richardson, N. D.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; David-Uraz, A.; Pablo, H.; Oksala, M. E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Mennickent, R. E.; Legeza, S.; Aerts, C.; Kuschnig, R.; Whittaker, G. N.; Popowicz, A.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Weiss, W. W.

    2017-06-01

    Massive stars play a significant role in the chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies. However, much of their variability, particularly during their evolved supergiant stage, is poorly understood. To understand the variability of evolved massive stars in more detail, we present a study of the O9.2Ib supergiant ζ Ori Aa, the only currently confirmed supergiant to host a magnetic field. We have obtained two-color space-based BRIght Target Explorer photometry (BRITE) for ζ Ori Aa during two observing campaigns, as well as simultaneous ground-based, high-resolution optical CHIRON spectroscopy. We perform a detailed frequency analysis to detect and characterize the star's periodic variability. We detect two significant, independent frequencies, their higher harmonics, and combination frequencies: the stellar rotation period Prot = 6.82 ± 0.18 d, most likely related to the presence of the stable magnetic poles, and a variation with a period of 10.0 ± 0.3 d attributed to circumstellar environment, also detected in the Hα and several He I lines, yet absent in the purely photospheric lines. We confirm the variability with Prot/4, likely caused by surface inhomogeneities, being the possible photospheric drivers of the discrete absorption components. No stellar pulsations were detected in the data. The level of circumstellar activity clearlydiffers between the two BRITE observing campaigns. We demonstrate that ζ Ori Aa is a highly variable star with both periodic and non-periodic variations, as well as episodic events. The rotation period we determined agrees well with the spectropolarimetric value from the literature. The changing activity level observed with BRITE could explain why the rotational modulation of the magnetic measurements was not clearly detected at all epochs. Based on data collected by the BRITE Constellation satellite mission, designed, built, launched, operated and supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the University of

  19. 32. Study the aneugenic effect of benzene on germ cell of animal and workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the aneupoidy effect of benzene on germ cells of animal and humans. Method: The NIH adult female mice were treated with varies doses of benzene (942, 1881 and 3762mg/kg respectively) by single gavage and (706, 1922 and 4864mg/m3 respectively) by inhalation (2h/d, 15d), the ovulated oocytes were collected for conventional cytogenetic analyses, and the frequencies of aneuploidy were detected. The frequencies of aneuploidy in sperm of benzene exposed workers were detected by two color fluorescence in situ hybridization with digoxingenin labeled 9 chromosome probe(D9Z1) and biotin labeled 18 chromosome probe (D18Z1). Result: The frequencies of aneuploidy in MII oocytes were significantly increased over the control in three groups treated by inhalation (7.06%,7.50% and 7.76% respectively control 1.30%, P<0.05 ), a dose-dependent response was present, But in gavage groups only the high dose group was increased over that of control. P<0.05. The timeweight average air concentration (TWA) of benzene in the workplace was 86.49mg/m3, it was two fold higher than the national maximum allowable concentration. The concentration of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) in exposed group was significantly higher than that of control group. A total of 136 401 sperm nuclei in 14 exposed workers and 156 955 sperm nuclei in 16 control workers were counted. The results showed that the frequencies of disomic sperm for chromosome 9 and 18, and diploidy sperm in exposed-workers (0.168%, 0.055%, 0.073%, respectively) were statistically increased over that (0.050%、 0. 033% and 0.040%, respectively) of controls. P<0.05. The frequencies of nullisomic sperm for chromosome 9,18 in the exposed group (0.206%,0.068%) were statistically increased also over that (0.067%,0.048% respectively) of control. The frequency of overall numerical chromosome aberrations (0.570%) in tbe exposed group was increased over that of control(0.218%)P<0.05.Conclusion:An increased aneuploidy

  20. O-H...O versus O-H...S hydrogen bonding I: Experimental and computational studies on the p-cresol x H2O and p-cresol x H2S complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Himansu S; Shirhatti, Pranav R; Wategaonkar, Sanjay

    2009-05-14

    The weak hydrogen bonding ability of sulfur-containing hydrides makes it difficult to study their complexes and has not been characterized experimentally so far. In this work, the hydrogen-bonded complexes of H(2)S and H(2)O with p-cresol (p-CR) were studied using a variety of techniques such as two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2c-R2PI) spectroscopy, single vibronic level fluorescence (SVLF) spectroscopy, resonance ion dip infrared spectroscopy (RIDIRS), and fluorescence dip infrared spectroscopy (FDIRS), with an aim of comparing the nature and strength of their respective hydrogen bonding abilities. The intermolecular stretch (sigma) and the shift in the O-H stretching frequency of p-CR in the complex were taken as the measures of the O-H...O and O-H...S hydrogen bonding strength. The experiments were complemented by the ab initio calculations, atoms in molecules (AIM), natural bond orbital (NBO), and energy decomposition analyses carried out at different levels of theory. The experimental data indicates that in the p-CR x H(2)S complex, the phenolic OH group acts as a hydrogen bond donor, and sulfur as the acceptor. Further, it indicates that the p-CR x H(2)S complex was about half as strong as the p-CR x H(2)O complex. The AIM and NBO analyses corroborate the experimental findings. The energy decomposition analyses for the O-H...S hydrogen bond in the p-CR x H(2)S complex reveal that the dispersion interaction energy has the largest contribution to the total interaction energy, which is significantly higher than that in the case of the p-CR x H(2)O complex.

  1. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  2. Biofeasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparian, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of bioremediation as a method for disposing of contaminants by exploiting natural biodegradation processes. The process of conducting a biofeasibility study and a case study are reviewed. (LZ)

  3. Studying Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area Other Fact Sheets What are genes? Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions ...

  4. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  5. Photoluminescence spectral study of single cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide colloidal nanocrystals in poly(methyl methacrylate) and quantum dots molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaoming

    Quantum dots (QDs)and Nano-crystals (NCs) have been studies for decades. Because of the nanoscale quantum confinement, delta shape like energy density states and narrowband emitters properties, they hold great promise for numerous optoelectronics and photonics applications. They could be used for tunable lasers, white LED, Nano-OLED, non-volatile memory and solar cells. They are also the most promising candidates for the quantum computing. The benefits for NCs over QDs is that NCs can be incorporated into a variety of polymers as well as thin films of bulk semiconductors. These exceptional flexibility and structural control distinguish NCs from the more traditional QD structures fabricated using epitaxial growth techniques. In my research of work, I studied the photoluminescence (PL) and absorption character of ensemble NCs incorporated in Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To understand the behavior of the NCs in PMMA, it is important to measure a singe NC to avoid the inhomogenous broading of many NCs. So I particularly studied the behavior of a single NC in PMMA matrix. A microphotoluminescence setup to optically isolate a single nanocrystal is used. Random spectral shift and blinking behavior (on and off) are found. Addition to that, two color spectral shifting, is a major phenomena found in the system. Other interesting results such as PL intensity changes (decreasing or increasing with time) and quenching effect are observed and explained too. From the correlation function, we can distinguish the phonon replicas. The energy of these phonons can be calculated very accurately from the experiment result. The Huang-Rhys factors can be estimated too. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), from highly strained-layer heteroepitaxy in the Stranski-Krastanow (S-K) growth mode, have been intensively studied because of the delta-function-like density of states, which is significant for optoelectronic applications. Spontaneous formation of semiconductor quantum

  6. Studying Zooarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Molly; Wolf, Deborah; Butler, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    Children often associate the study of bones with dinosaurs or crime scenes. This unit introduces students to "zooarchaeology," the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. Students in grades 3-5 engage in hands-on activities examining bones, shells, and other "hard parts" of animals. They use their observations as a starting point for…

  7. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  8. Floodplain Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a floodplain study is to establish the 100-year floodplain limits within or near a development in order to preserve the natural resources within the...

  9. Actuarial Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from time to time conducts studies on various aspects of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  10. Studying Sideways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    One strand of the qualitative interview literature has been concerned with the normative or otherwise problematic implications of studying down or studying up (i.e., interviewing “disadvantaged” people or elites). This interview literature is part of a tradition of taking up the problem of power ......, we must cultivate interview methods which cause confrontation and disagreement—not to acknowledge asymmetry but to enhance the quality of research....

  11. Influence of Light Quality and Continuous Lighting on Growth and Nutritional Quality of Two Two-color Lettuce Cultivars%弱光条件下光质与连续光照对水培生菜生长与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余意; 杨其长; 刘文科

    2016-01-01

    Purple lettuce and green lettuce were hydroponically cultivated in a culture room to investigate the influence of light quality and continuous lighting on their growth and nutritional quality.The results showed that the shoot fresh weight and root fresh weight of the two kinds of lettuce improved under treatment of continuous lighting.The shoot fresh weight of purple lettuce under RB 2∶1 treatment was significantly higher than that of RB 1∶2 when the photoperiod was the same, but that of green lettuce didn’ t showed significant difference.Phenol and flavonoid relative contents of purple lettuce and green lettuce responded to continuous lighting treatment differently with the variation of light quality.When under the same lighting period, phenol and flavonoid relative contents of purple lettuce and green lettuce reduced with the increasing of red light ratio.The ascorbic acid content of purple lettuce lessened greatly under continuous lighting.The soluble sugar and soluble protein contents of purple lettuce didn’ t change much with the variation of red and blue light ratio and lighting period.The influence of continuous lighting on soluble sugar content of green lettuce differed with the change of light quality.When under the same light quality, soluble protein contents of green lettuce dropped under treatment of continuous lighting.And soluble sugar and soluble protein contents of green lettuce responded differently to the change of light quality with the alteration of lighting period.%在密闭植物生长室中,采用LED光源研究了弱光条件下光质与连续光照对水培紫叶生菜和绿叶生菜产量和品质的影响。结果表明,绿叶生菜和紫叶生菜地上部鲜重及根系鲜重都在连续光照处理下显著提高。光周期条件相同时,紫叶生菜在红蓝光比例2∶1光质下地上部鲜重要显著大于红蓝光比例1∶2,绿叶生菜则无显著差异。连续光照处理对紫叶生菜和绿叶生菜总酚和类黄酮含量的影响因光质而异。光照时长相同时,紫叶生菜和绿叶生菜总酚和类黄酮相对含量都有随红光比例增加而显著降低的现象出现。紫叶生菜抗坏血酸含量都随光照时长增加而显著降低。紫叶生菜可溶性糖含量和可溶性蛋白含量受红蓝光比例和光照时长变化影响不显著。光照时长对绿叶生菜可溶性糖含量的影响因光质变化而异。光质相同条件下,绿叶生菜可溶性蛋白含量在连续光照处理下显著降低,且绿叶生菜可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量对光质变化的响应因光照时长差异而不同。

  12. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes...... and the close-up analysis of different learning situations in different contexts aim to expand empirical knowledge on the actual teaching practices and student´s learning processes and to provide important perspectives on student´s study-strategies and their possible consequences in relation to both `life...... module”. The projects differ in terms of both starting point and main focus of research (an alternative educational model and profession-orientated Game-based learning). However, in the on-going process of research, an empirical ´harmony´ on common recurrent themes related to students `study strategies...

  13. Writing Study and Grammar Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to describe,classify and analyze the problems in Chinese college students’ writing of CET-4 through contrastive analysis,statistical analysis and error analysis.The main problems appearing in CET-4 writing are the wrong usage of words,sentence structures and the lack of coherence.Meanwhile it proves grammar study plays an important and basic role in CET-4 writing.

  14. Studying CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullenger, B.; Verdel, A.; Paap, B.; Thorbecke, J.; Draganov, D.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to ambient-noise measurements allows the retrieval of the seismic response between pairs of receivers. We studied ambient-noise seismic interferometry (ANSI) to retrieve time-lapse reflection responses from a reservoir during CO2 geologic sequestration, usin

  15. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis

    2013-01-01

    (n = 120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation......Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness......, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark...

  16. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis;

    2013-01-01

    in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation...... to interaction with peers.Methods/design: The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n = 120). RESPECT....... Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational...

  17. Invisibility Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance of these de...... this conversation by bringing together scholars across the fields of architectural history and theory, art, film and literature, philosophy, cultural theory and contemporary anthropology as well as featuring work by a collective of artists.......Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance...

  18. Security Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Security Studies has firmly established itself as a leading journal on international security issues. The journal publishes theoretical, historical and policy-oriented articles on the causes and consequences of war, and the sources and conditions of peace. The journal has published articles on balancing vs. bandwagoning, deterrence in enduring rivalries, the Domino theory, nuclear weapons proliferation, civil-military relations, political reforms in China, strategic culture in Asia and the P...

  19. A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Abbasov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of novel surfactants based on corn oil on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in CO2 saturated solution at different temperatures was studied. The investigation involved weight loss, LPR corrosion rate and extrapolation of cathodic and anodic Tafel lines method. Results obtained show that the surfactants studied are efficient corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in CO2 saturated brine. The inhibition efficiency (IE% increases with an increase in the concentration of the studied surfactant. The inhibition process was attributed to the formation of the adsorbed film on the metal surface that protects the surface against the corrosive agent. The data exhibited that the inhibition efficiency slightly increases with increasing temperature. The surface activity of the synthesized surfactant solutions was determined using surface tension measurements at 25 °C. Adsorption of inhibitors was found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. The standard enthalpy, ΔHads.°, entropy, ΔSads.° and free energy changes of adsorption were evaluated; the calculated values of ΔHads.° and ΔGads° were negative while those for ΔSads.° were positive. Mainly, all the above results are suggestive of chemisorption of the surfactant molecules on the metal surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDRF observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of such an adsorbed film.

  20. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    and demographically matched control respondents will be contacted in a similar manner the subsequent winter season. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire rates seasonal variation within the six items: sleep, appetite, social activity, mood, energy and body weight. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire......INTRODUCTION: People with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) experience recurrent seasonal fluctuations in energy, mood and appetite. Retinal light exposure is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of SAD. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of SAD...

  1. Exaggerated color perception in a patient with visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Wu, Ming; Shen, Zheng

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies on visual form agnosic patients have shown that their color perception is relatively preserved when monochromatic figures are used. However, it is unclear whether their color perception remains normal when figures are composed of two parts in different colors. The results showed that patient X.F. had difficulty in naming both colors when the two colors were placed next to each other, and in discriminating the two-color figure from the figure presented in its larger color. In contrast, X.F. could name the two colors when they were physically separated. These data suggest that X.F. manifests exaggerated color perception, producing a color filling-in effect that may be mediated by her spared early visual area.

  2. Complementary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-01

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate "complementary" approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field & structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  3. Conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC.

  4. Clinical Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    and repair? Have new materials improved longevity? Are there still clinical and material problems to be solved? And what has the highest impact on longevity of posterior resin restorations – the material, the dentist, the patient or the tooth? These matters will be discussed on the basis of the literature......Within the last 25 years composite resin materials have in many countries successively replaced amalgam as a restorative for posterior teeth. Resin materials and bonding systems are continuously being improved by the manufactures, adhesive procedures are now included in the curriculum of most...... universities and practicing dentists restore millions of teeth throughout the World with composite resin materials. Do we know enough about the clinical performance of these restorations over time? Numerous in vitro studies are being published on resin materials and adhesion, some of them attempting to imitate...

  5. Nutritional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed metabolic studies were conducted of the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 flight crews, and the results are presented in tabular form. Intake and absorption data are also included. Apollo nutrient intakes were found to be characteristically hypocaloric. Estimates of body composition changes from metabolic balance data, from preflight and postflight weights and volumes, and from total body water and potassium provide no evidence for diminished caloric requirements during a flight. As observed during the Gemini Program and during periods of bed rest, measurements of bone density and metabolic balance confirm a tendency toward loss of skeletal tissue in weightlessness. No evidence exists that any inflight metabolic anomaly, including hypokalemia, was induced by marginal or deficient nutrient intakes. In general, the Apollo crewmen were well nourished and exhibited normal gastroenterological functions, although appetite was somewhat diminished and the organoleptic response to food was somewhat modified during flight.

  6. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    PAPER Post-Sociology: Exploration and Reflection Xie Lizhong Abstract: "Post-Sociology" refers to a new perspective which is different from tradi- tional perspectives of social studies. "Post-Social History" and "Pluralistic Discourse Analysis" could be seen as its two specific examples. "Discourse Constructivism" and "Pluralism" are the two core concepts of "Post-Sociology". That encouraging people to realize that all "social reality" including our experiences, thoughts and speech are just a "discoursive reality" constructed by social actors under the guidance and constraints of certain discourse system, is the major significance of "PostSociology". Some critics on "Post-Sociology" are misunderstandings, while others couldn't stand to strict analysis.

  7. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  8. Study on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Pourdarbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a machine vision based, online sorting system was developed, the aim being to sort Date fruits (Berhee CV. based at different stages of maturity, namely Khalal, Rotab and Tamar to meet consumers’ demands. The system comprises a conveying unit, illumination and capturing unit, and sorting unit. Physical and mechanical features were extracted from the samples provided, and the detection algorithm was designed accordingly. An index based on color features was defined to detect Date samples. Date fruits were fed on a conveyor belt in a row. When they were at the center of the camera’s field of view, a snapshot was taken, the image was processed immediately and the maturity stage of the Date was determined. When the Date passed the sensor, positioned at the end of the conveyor belt, a signal was sent to the interface circuit and an appropriate actuator, driven by a step motor, was actuated, leading the Date toward an appropriate port. For validation of proposed system performance, entire samples were again sorted by experts visually. Detection rate of the system for Tamar and Khalal was satisfactory. Although the detection rate was insufficient for the Rotab stage, there was no a significant difference between system accuracy and that obtained by the experts. The speed of image processing system was 0.34 s. System capacity was 15.45 kg/h.

  9. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  10. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  11. Mutual Mate Choice for Colorful Traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  12. Study on Preparing Process of Green Coating on Mg Alloy by Micro-arc Oxidation%镁合金微弧氧化绿色陶瓷膜的形成工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建民; 田新宇; 陈宏; 胡星

    2011-01-01

    An uniform and density green ceramic coating was prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy surface by micro-arc oxidation. The effects of electrolyte concentration, oxidation voltage, thickness and roughness on the quality of the coating were studied. Based on the electrolyte with basic component Na2SiO3, the green ceramic coating was obtained when adding two color salt by micro-arc oxidation on the substrate of AZ91D Mg alloy, and the corrosion times all were over 40 min in test of resistance titration. The electrolyte concentration is the most important factor which influences the color of the coating, while the color of the coating changes stably as oxidation voltage changes under the same electrolyte concentration. Through comparison, the coating prepared in the condition of low current density shows the best surface appearance.%用微弧氧化的方法,用碱性电解质体系在AZ91D镁合金基体上获得了颜色均匀、致密性好的绿色陶瓷层.研究了电解质浓度、氧化电压、膜厚和粗糙度对陶瓷膜层质量的影响.结果表明:试样在以NaSiO为主盐的电解质中分别加入两种不同着色盐皆能得到性能良好的绿色陶瓷膜,在点滴试验中陶瓷膜的耐腐蚀时间均超过40min.其中着色盐浓度对膜层颜色影响较大,氧化电压对膜层颜色影响则趋于平缓.通过比较发现,绿色膜在低着色盐浓度下膜层表面质量最好.

  13. Ultrafast Non-Thermal Electron Dynamics in Single Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselov K.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the ultrafast dynamics of non-thermal electron relaxation in graphene upon impulsive excitation. The 10-fs resolution two color pump-probe allows us to unveil the non-equilibrium electron gas decay at early times.

  14. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  15. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  16. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  17. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  18. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  19. Paraguayan Education Study: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia

    A qualitative pilot study, guided by an ecological framework, illustrates the complexities involved in studying the unique linguistic situation in Paraguay between Spanish and the indigenous language of Guarani, and its relationship with education. The pilot study interviewing eight kindergarten children. Seventy five children have been…

  20. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  1. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  2. Development of a fiber-optic laser velocimeter for the study of unsteady rotating flows in spinning rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Shorthill, R. W.; Flandro, G. A.

    1986-08-01

    The development of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) designed to measure two orthogonal velocity components in a complex rotating flow is described; this flow simulates the unsteady flows encountered in spinning rocket motor operations as well as such time-dependent phenomena as low frequency acoustic oscillations. The LDV is a three watt, two color, three beam system with a velocity measurement device that follows the flow continuously without any disturbance. The focusing optics, photo multipliers, amplifiers and test chamber are mounted on a precision Genisco C-181 rate-of-return table and spun to about 60 RPM. The silicon carbide particles used for seeding follow velocity fluctuations up to several hundred KHz. Two-dimensional unsteady velocity measurement systems for water flow rotating in the horizontal direction and tilting in the vertical direction are presented and discussed.

  3. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  4. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  5. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  6. Study of lip prints: A forensic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have been done on lip prints for human identification in forensic science, there is a doubt about their use in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed to study the lip groove patterns in all the quadrants of both male and female subjects to identify the sex, based on the patterns of the grooves of the lip prints. Study Design: 300 lip prints were collected from volunteers of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar (UP. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with lip stick and transferred on to a glass slide. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi-square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability value (P value was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. According to Suzuki′s classification, Type I, II, III and IV patterns were significant in gender determination.

  7. Application of structured illumination to gas phase thermometry using thermographic phosphor particles: a study for averaged imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, Florian; Stephan, Michael; Berrocal, Edouard; Albert, Barbara; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is combined with gas phase thermometry measurements using thermographic phosphor (TGP) particles. The technique is applied to a heated jet surrounded by a coflow which is operated at ambient temperature. The respective air flows are seeded with a powder of BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) which is used as temperature-sensitive gas phase tracer. Upon pulsed excitation in the ultraviolet spectral range, the temperature is extracted based on the two-color ratio method combined with SLIPI. The main advantage of applying the SLIPI approach to phosphor thermometry is the reduction of particle-to-particle multiple light scattering and diffuse wall reflections, yielding a more robust calibration procedure as well as improving the measurement accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. For demonstration, this paper focuses on sample-averaged measurements of temperature fields in a jet-in-coflow configuration. Using the conventional approach, which in contrast to SLIPI is based on imaging with an unmodulated laser light sheet, we show that for the present setup typically 40% of the recorded signal is affected by the contribution of multiply scattered photons. At locations close to walls even up to 75% of the apparent signal is due to diffuse reflection and wall luminescence of BAM sticking at the surface. Those contributions lead to erroneous temperature fields. Using SLIPI, an unbiased two-color ratio field is recovered allowing for two-dimensional mean temperature reconstructions which exhibit a more realistic physical behavior. This is in contrast to results deduced by the conventional approach. Furthermore, using the SLIPI approach it is shown that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by a factor of up to 2 at 270 °C. Finally, an outlook towards instantaneous SLIPI phosphorescence thermometry is provided.

  8. Rotationally resolved state-to-state photoionization and photoelectron study of titanium carbide and its cation (TiC/TiC⁺).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhihong; Huang, Huang; Chang, Yih-Chung; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Ng, C Y

    2014-10-14

    Titanium carbide and its cation (TiC/TiC(+)) have been investigated by the two-color visible (VIS)-ultraviolet (UV) resonance-enhanced photoionization and pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) methods. Two visible excitation bands for neutral TiC are observed at 16,446 and 16,930 cm(-1). Based on rotational analyses, these bands are assigned as the respective TiC((3)Π1) ← TiC(X(3)Σ(+)) and TiC((3)Σ(+)) ← TiC(X(3)Σ(+)) transition bands. This assignment supports that the electronic configuration and term symmetry for the neutral TiC ground state are …7σ(2)8σ(1)9σ(1)3π(4) (X(3)Σ(+)). The rotational constant and the corresponding bond distance of TiC(X(3)Σ(+); v″ = 0) are determined to be B0″ = 0.6112(10) cm(-1) and r0″ = 1.695(2) Å, respectively. The rotational analyses of the VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra for the TiC(+)(X; v(+) = 0 and 1) vibrational bands show that the electronic configuration and term symmetry for the ionic TiC(+) ground state are …7σ(2)8σ(1)3π(4) (X(2)Σ(+)) with the v(+) = 0 → 1 vibrational spacing of 870.0(8) cm(-1) and the rotational constants of B(e)(+) = 0.6322(28) cm(-1), and α(e)(+) = 0.0085(28) cm(-1). The latter rotational constants yield the equilibrium bond distance of r(e)(+) = 1.667(4) Å for TiC(+)(X(2)Σ(+)). The cleanly rotationally resolved VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra have also provided a highly precise value of 53 200.2(8) cm(-1) [6.5960(1) eV] for the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of TiC. This IE(TiC) value along with the known IE(Ti) has made possible the determination of the difference between the 0 K bond dissociation energy (D0) of TiC(+)(X(2)Σ(+)) and that of TiC(X(3)Σ(+)) to be D0(Ti(+)-C) - D0(Ti-C) = 0.2322(2) eV. Similar to previous experimental observations, the present state-to-state PFI-PE study of the photoionization transitions, TiC(+)(X(2)Σ(+); v(+) = 0 and 1, N(+)) ← TiC((3)Π1; v', J'), reveals a strong decreasing trend for the photoionization cross section as |ΔN(+)| = |N

  9. Rotationally resolved state-to-state photoionization and photoelectron study of titanium carbide and its cation (TiC/TiC+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhihong; Huang, Huang; Chang, Yih-Chung; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Ng, C. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Titanium carbide and its cation (TiC/TiC+) have been investigated by the two-color visible (VIS)-ultraviolet (UV) resonance-enhanced photoionization and pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) methods. Two visible excitation bands for neutral TiC are observed at 16 446 and 16 930 cm-1. Based on rotational analyses, these bands are assigned as the respective TiC(3Π1) ← TiC(X3Σ+) and TiC(3Σ+) ← TiC(X3Σ+) transition bands. This assignment supports that the electronic configuration and term symmetry for the neutral TiC ground state are …7σ28σ19σ13π4 (X3Σ+). The rotational constant and the corresponding bond distance of TiC(X3Σ+; v″ = 0) are determined to be B0″ = 0.6112(10) cm-1 and r0″ = 1.695(2) Å, respectively. The rotational analyses of the VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra for the TiC+(X; v+ = 0 and 1) vibrational bands show that the electronic configuration and term symmetry for the ionic TiC+ ground state are …7σ28σ13π4 (X2Σ+) with the v+ = 0 → 1 vibrational spacing of 870.0(8) cm-1 and the rotational constants of Be+ = 0.6322(28) cm-1, and αe+ = 0.0085(28) cm-1. The latter rotational constants yield the equilibrium bond distance of re+ = 1.667(4) Å for TiC+(X2Σ+). The cleanly rotationally resolved VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra have also provided a highly precise value of 53 200.2(8) cm-1 [6.5960(1) eV] for the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of TiC. This IE(TiC) value along with the known IE(Ti) has made possible the determination of the difference between the 0 K bond dissociation energy (D0) of TiC+(X2Σ+) and that of TiC(X3Σ+) to be D0(Ti+-C) - D0(Ti-C) = 0.2322(2) eV. Similar to previous experimental observations, the present state-to-state PFI-PE study of the photoionization transitions, TiC+(X2Σ+; v+ = 0 and 1, N+) ← TiC(3Π1; v', J'), reveals a strong decreasing trend for the photoionization cross section as |ΔN+| = |N+ - J'| is increased. The maximum |ΔN+| change of 7 observed here is also consistent with the previous

  10. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  11. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  12. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  13. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  16. FEMA DFIRM Study Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains details about the study such as the study name, datum, projection, etc. There is normally only one record in this table for each Flood Insurance...

  17. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  18. Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This presentation has been given during the 1st EuCARD-2 annual meeting. It contains: • Motivation & scope • Parameters & design challenges • Study organization, study time line • Preparing global FCC collaboration • Summary

  19. The People Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The authors of this study are participants in a National Science Foundation ( NSF) supported grant entitled "Mathematical Studies in Modeling at Mount St. Mary's...

  20. Post-Approval Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH Post-Approval Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated as a condition of approval of a...

  1. Modoc wetlands study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Study plan for Modoc Wetlands Study: An assessment of the probable responses of selected wildlife to wetlands management on the Modoc National Forest.

  2. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  3. Air Manganese Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    In November 2011 US EPA researchers conducted a health study of airborne manganese exposure in East Liverpool, Ohio. This Web site discusses preliminary results of the study and provides background and other related information.

  4. CISSP study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Eric; Feldman, Joshua; Riggins, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    "The Eleventh Hour CISSP Study Guide" is keyed to the latest CISSP exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered concisely with key concepts highlighted. This is the only guide you need for last-minute studying. This title answers the toughest questions and highlights core topics. This title can be paired with any other study guide so you are completely prepared.

  5. Pyridostigmine Synergistic Toxicity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-31

    AND DEET IN THE LABORATORY RAT 1. Executive Sum m ary .............................................................................................. 2 2...TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY 75-48-2665 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE. PERMETHRIN. AND DEET IN THE LABORATORY RAT 1. REFERENCES: See Appendix A... LABORATORY RAT 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxic interactions when pyridostigmine bromide. permethrin. and DEET are given

  6. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from this, the national case study begins to conceptualise a new approach to ... teacher education environments and a piloting of a 'Train the Trainers' or .... Study) and TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) ..... Objective 7: Publish the materials in an open learning system format and integrate the.

  7. STUDYING ON THE INTERNET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays the Internet is more and more popular.I think it is a good way of learning. First,the Intemet enables people to study whenever and wherever it is convenient. They can also choose to study whatever they are interested in.However,a traditional school doesn't provide such great freedom.Students have to study given sub-

  8. Social Psychoanalytic Disability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodley, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores connections and tensions between psychoanalysis and disability studies. The first part of the paper considers contemporaneous engagements with the psyche by a number of disability studies writers. These scholars have remained accountable to a politicised disability studies but have pushed for critical encounters with the…

  9. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  10. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  11. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  12. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  13. Advanced Clothing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T

  14. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  15. Safety Study in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Štumper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to provide a brief look at safety studies, which are a necessary part of every change of system or a new system in aviation. The main focus is put on the area of air traffic management, because it affects most of the aviation stakeholders. The article begins with a description of safety and safety assessment of changes in systems. Then it discusses analysis of processes, hazard identification and risk assessment. Main part focuses on Safety studies and briefly describes the elements of the study. At the end, possible ways of safety study evaluation are mentioned.

  16. Studies on seismic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海明; 陈晓非

    2003-01-01

    The development of seismic wave study in China in the past four years is reviewed. The discussion is divided into several aspects, including seismic wave propagation in laterally homogeneous media, laterally heterogeneous media, anisotropic and porous media, surface wave and seismic wave inversion, and seismic wave study in prospecting and logging problems. Important projects in the current studies on seismic wave is suggested as the development of high efficient numerical methods, and applying them to the studies of excitation and propagation of seismic waves in complex media and strong ground motion, which will form a foundation for refined earthquake hazard analysis and prediction.

  17. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  18. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  19. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  20. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  1. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  2. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  3. Prolactinomas : clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kars, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinoma are treated with dopamine agonists, which are effective in reducing prolactin and tumor size. Studies reporting clinical and radiological outcome are scarce. The study described in chapter 2, assesses long-term outcome in patients treated with dopamine agonists for macroprolactinoma. An

  4. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  5. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  6. Simulation in International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  7. Prolactinomas : clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kars, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinoma are treated with dopamine agonists, which are effective in reducing prolactin and tumor size. Studies reporting clinical and radiological outcome are scarce. The study described in chapter 2, assesses long-term outcome in patients treated with dopamine agonists for macroprolactinoma. An

  8. MY ENGLISH STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩; Roxanne; Lees

    2003-01-01

    I am a student of Yanshan University, majoring in English. I have studied English for a long time, which is full of (and have encountered some) special experiences (in my studies). After graduation from (a) junior (middle) school, I did not go to senior (middle) school for

  9. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  10. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  11. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  12. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...

  13. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    ) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant......This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  14. Entrepreneurship and Process Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin; Steyaert, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Process studies put movement, change and flow first; to study processually is to consider the world as restless, something underway, becoming and perishing, without end. To understand firms processually is to accept but also – and this is harder perhaps – to absorb this fluidity, to treat...... a variable as just that, a variable. The resonance with entrepreneurship studies is obvious. If any field is alive to, and fully resonant with, a processual understanding of, for example, the creation of firms, it is entrepreneurship studies. This special issue is an attempt to consider the promise...... and potential of processual approaches to studying, researching and practising entrepreneurship. The articles in the issue attest to an increasing sensitivity to processual thinking. We argue that appreciating entrepreneurial phenomena processually opens up the field to an understanding of entrepreneurship...

  15. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    ) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant......This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  16. Electromagnetic induction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermance, J. F.

    1983-04-01

    Recent developments in electromagnetic induction studies of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere are reviewed. Attention is given to geoelectrical studies of active tectonic areas in terms of the major zones of crustal extension, the basin and range province along western regions of North America, and the Rio Grande rift. Studies have also been performed of tectonic activity around Iceland, the Salton Trough and Cerro Prieto, and the subduction zones of the Cascade Mountains volcanic belt, where magnetotelluric and geomagnetic variation studies have been done. Geomagnetic variations experiments have been reported in the Central Appalachians, and submarine electromagnetic studies along the Juan de Fuca ridge. Controlled source electromagnetic and dc resistivity investigations have been carried out in Nevada, Hawaii, and in the Adirondacks Mountains. Laboratory examinations on the conductivity of representative materials over a broad range of temperature, pressure, and chemistry are described.

  17. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  18. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  19. [International cohort studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, W; Pigeot, I

    2012-06-01

    Among observational studies, cohort studies, i.e. longitudinal observations of selected population groups, provide the highest possible evidence of a causal association between specific risk factors (exposure) and the occurrence of disease in populations. Besides the fact that many exposures cannot be investigated in experimental designs, cohort studies have the advantage over randomized clinical trials that they are conducted in free living populations and not in restrictive, clinical settings. In this paper we describe the aims and features of international cohorts that have been selected because of their impact, their size or their endpoints. We do not only present the study designs and survey instruments used but we also highlight some of the most important results gained by these studies. Most of these prospective studies investigated common chronic diseases in the elderly, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis and ophthalmologic disorders. Newer cohorts and recent reassessments of existing cohorts almost always include the collection and storage of biological samples. In recent years technological developments allowed the implementation of cutting edge measurement procedures, such as imaging techniques for phenotyping. Finally, we discuss on the one hand whether these designs can be transferred to the German situation and on the other hand to what degree the results obtained from foreign cohorts can be generalized for the German population. We conclude with recommendations for future cohort studies.

  20. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  1. Femtosecond and hole-burning studies of B800`s excitation energy relaxation dynamics in the LH2 antenna complex of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (strain 10050)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.M.; Savikhin, S.; Reddy, N.R.S.; Jankowiak, R.; Struve, W.S.; Small, G.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Cogdell, R.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-18

    One- and two-color pump/probe femtosecond and hole-burning data are reported for the isolated B800-850 (LH2) antenna complex of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (strain 10050). The two-color profiles are interpretable in terms of essentially monophasic B800{yields}B850 energy transfer with kinetics ranging from 1.6 to 1.1 ps between 19 and 130 K for excitation at or to the red of the B800 absorption maximum. The B800 zero-phonon hole profiles obtained at 4.2 K with burn frequencies located near or to the red of this maximum yielded a transfer time of 1.8 ps. B800 hole-burning data (4.2 K) are also reported for chromatophores at ambient pressure and pressures of 270 and 375 MPa. At ambient pressure the B800-B850 energy gap is 950 cm{sup -1}, while at 270 and 375 MPa it is close to 1000 and 1050 cm{sup -1}, respectively. However, no dependence of the B800{yields}B850 transfer time on pressure was observed. The resilience of the transfer rate to pressure-induced changes in the energy gap and the weak temperature dependence of the rate are consistent with the model that has the spectral overlap (of Foerster theory) provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. However, both the time domain and hole-burning data establish that there is an additional relaxation channel for B800, which is observed when excitation is located to the blue of the B800 absorption maximum. 40 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  3. Lead Time Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    AD-A128 318 LEAD TIME STUDY (U) ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CDMMAND DOVER NJ SYSTEMS ANALYSIS DIV dI-T~~ CHU MAY 82 ARRAA 82- 3/ /l N...EhhEEE--E 1111.0 U 1 - I 1120 1.25I1,,-. 11.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHARI NATIONAL BUREAU 01 STANDARDt 19t,3 A co LEAD TIME STUDY c*A JULIE CHU MAY...188 D I.-f . . .... .. - r - .. " ’- -~ L - - _ _ __ ARRAA 82-3 LEAD TIME STUDY Prepared by:_ JL CHU Reviewed by:Li t’ ( LAWRENCE J. QWUNI Chief, Sys

  4. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  5. Studying Voltage Transformer Ferroresonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Radmanesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study studies the effect of Circuit Breaker Shunt Resistance (CBSR, Metal Oxide Vaistor (MOV and Neutral earth Resistance (NR on the control of ferroresonance in the voltage transformer. It is expected that NR can controlled ferroresonance better than MOV and CBSR. Study has been done on a one phase voltage transformer rated 100 VA, 275 kV. The simulation results reveal that considering the CBSR and MOV exhibits a great mitigating effect on ferroresonance overvoltages, but these resistances cannot control these phenomena for all range of parameters. By applying NR to the system structure, ferroresonance has been controlled and its amplitude has been damped for all parameters values.

  6. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  7. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  8. Upper Kenai Corridor Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai Corridor study describes and evaluates the Upper Kenai River and the land which embraces it. It also places the river corridor in its regional...

  9. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Performing Spirometry Test Pressure Volume Study Routine Test Spirometry Testing ... © 2017 National Jewish Health 1400 Jackson Street Denver, Colorado 80206 1.877.225.5654 Policies & Guidelines | ...

  10. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Performing Spirometry Test Pressure Volume Study Routine Test Spirometry Testing ... © 2017 National Jewish Health 1400 Jackson Street Denver, Colorado 80206 1.877.225.5654 Policies & Guidelines | ...

  11. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  12. PPB | Study Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study team is made up of researchers from the National Cancer Institute, Children¹s National Medical Center, the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Registry, and Washington University in St. Louis.

  13. Chamberino Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Dona Ana County Flood Commission requested the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service to conduct a study of the...

  14. Marketing study: sealskin products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    This is a draft report prepared for the Canadian Sealers Association incorporating findings of a three phase study conducted to determine the potential for the Newfoundland and Labrador sealskin craft industry...

  15. Learn about Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is to make sure that the study is ethical and that the rights and welfare of participants ... trials provide the basis for the development and marketing of new drugs, biological products, and medical devices. ...

  16. The Study of Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the booklet "The Study of Matter" produced by the Institute of Physics as part of their Shaping the Future series. This booklet is designed for teachers of chemistry, physics, design and technology, and biology. (Author/CCM)

  17. Dismal Swamp Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of Union Camp properties in Dismal Swamp to evaluate the effects of a proposed commercial farming project involving approximately 32,000 acres lying north of...

  18. Schoolground Soil Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Outlined are simple activities for studying soil, which can be conducted in the schoolyard. Concepts include soil profiles, topsoil, soil sizes, making soil, erosion, slope, and water absorption. (SJL)

  19. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Prick Skin Testing Cardiac Tests Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac MRI Cardiac Stress Test Using ... Test Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) Gas Exchange Tests Arterial Blood ... Washout Performing Pressure Volume Study Performing Routine ...

  20. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Prick Skin Testing Cardiac Tests Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac MRI Cardiac Stress Test Using ... Test Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) Gas Exchange Tests Arterial Blood ... Washout Performing Pressure Volume Study Performing Routine ...

  1. Willow ptarmigan study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus; see Appendix I for scientific names of birds observed during this study) are a species of management interest because they are...

  2. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  3. Nature Study Tips. Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaik, Stanley B.

    1990-01-01

    Different types of spiders, their ranges and habits are discussed. Activities associated with the study of spiders are suggested. Four references are listed which may be of interest to beginners. (CW)

  4. Exploratory studies, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics: accelerator physics for the ALS; SSC support; machine investigations; mathematical techniques in particle dynamics; APIARY: B-factory studies; and two-beam accelerators and bright electron sources.

  5. PET studies in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients...

  6. CHAROITE. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    MARCHUK MARINA V.; MEDVEDEV VLADIMIR YA.; IVANOVA LARISA A.; SOKOLOVA TATYANA S.; DANILOV BORIS S.; GLADKOCHUB DMITRY P.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides an overview of experimental studies of charoite and charoite-containing rock formation hypotheses. The authors conducted experiments to clarify charoite and host rocks interaction and study charoite transformation processes at high temperatures. A series of experiments was aimed at improving the substandard charoite samples. The experiments show the formation of polymineral reaction zones due to the contact interaction between charoite and microcline-arfvedsonite lamproph...

  7. Pregnancy: a demographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Laufer, Linda

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 126 pregnant females, presenting to a chiropractor’s office was made. The average age of the patient was 29.8 years. Their backgrounds were career oriented and for the majority, it was their first pregnancy. The most frequent complaint was lower back pain. The study outlines the necessity for further data on the role of the chiropractic management of the pregnant patient.

  8. Study on Military Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-30

    Education Study. Washington: July 1966. 88. United States vs Yamashita, Action of Confirming Authority. I 7 February 1946. 89. Vroom , Victor H . Work and...I’ H N. PART II -METHODOLOGY A. MISSION. The mission assigned for this study was to assess the existing climate of professionalism in today’s Army...factors to such a degree that they were truly consequential in this assessment of the H professional climate. One can draw this conclusion from three

  9. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  10. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  11. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  12. Future ATLAS Higgs Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will prove a challenging environment to work in, with for example $=200$ expected. It will however also provide great opportunities for advancing studies of the Higgs boson. The ATLAS detector will be upgraded, and Higgs prospects analyses have been performed to assess the reach of ATLAS Higgs studies in the HL-LHC era. These analyses are presented, as are Run-2 ATLAS di-Higgs analyses for comparison.

  13. Blast Overpressure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    USAARL Contract Report No. CR-98-Ö3 Blast Overpressure Studies By Daniel L. Johnson EG&G Management Systems, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico May...Both studies were done at the Blast Overpressure-Kirtland Test Site (BOP-KTS) in New Mexico . Under a contract conducted for the USAMRMC, EG&G was... TDH -4 9 elements mounted in a David Clark 9AN/2 ear muff for added noise isolation. The calibration of the earphones was accomplished using a Bruel

  14. Colombian cracker feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-06

    Colombia`s Promotora de Olefinas Aromaticos del Caribe will soon select a consulting group to develop a $500,000 feasibility study for an olefins plant at Mamonal, Cartagena. The project will involve investments of $1.2 billion and will be based on natural gas from the Cusiana field, being developed by Ecopetrol and BP. Several groups are competing for the study; SRI International, Japan Consulting Institute, Muse, Stancil, Chem Systems, and KBC Advanced Technologies.

  15. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Marine Resiliency Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-06

    1S. SUBJECT TERMS Stress, Post Trawna t ic Stress Disorder , Biomarker , Suicide , Combat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER...Project 2a ( Neuro -cognition Study) deploying Marines from 1/7 were assessed during the allotted 2012 timeframe. In total 570 Marines were available...Project 2 ( Neuro -cognition Study) remain current, as necessary for the data collection as noted above. Task 3: In coordination with HQMC, NIMH

  17. Definition Study PHARUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    definitie studie zijn gebruikt in het voorontwerp van het PHARUS systeem . TNO report STUDelft Page 6 ABSTRACT 3 SAMENVAlTING 4 CONTENTS 6 1 INTRODUCTION 9...University of Technology, Laboratory for Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Technology. FEL-TNO had tke lead and was responsible for the project management ...Aerospace Programs in Delft was responsible for the program management . The definition study PHARUS was started in the first half of 1988 and ended

  18. Representativity of TMA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The smaller the portion of a tumor sample that is analyzed becomes, the higher is the risk of missing important histological or molecular features that might be present only in a subset of tumor cells. Many researchers have, therefore, suggested using larger tissue cores or multiple cores from the same donor tissue to enhance the representativity of TMA studies. However, numerous studies comparing the results of TMA studies with the findings from conventional large sections have shown that all well-established associations between molecular markers and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis can be reproduced with TMAs even if only one single 0.6 mm tissue spot is analyzed. Moreover, the TMA technology has proven to be superior to large section analysis in finding new clinically relevant associations. The high number of samples that are typically included in TMA studies, and the unprecedented degree of standardization during TMA experiments and analysis often give TMA studies an edge over traditional large-section studies.

  19. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  20. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  1. Studying Organizations on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Russmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of social media platforms based on the sharing of pictures and videos, the question of how such platforms should be studied arises. Previous research on social media (content has mainly focused on text (written words and the rather text-based social media platforms Twitter and Facebook. Drawing on research in the fields of visual, political, and business communication, we introduce a methodological framework to study the fast-growing image-sharing service Instagram. This methodological framework was developed to study political parties’ Instagram accounts and tested by means of a study of Swedish political parties during the 2014 election campaign. In this article, we adapt the framework to also study other types of organizations active on Instagram by focusing on the following main questions: Do organizations only use Instagram to share one-way information, focusing on disseminating information and self-presentation? Or is Instagram used for two-way communication to establish and cultivate organization-public relationships? We introduce and discuss the coding of variables with respect to four clusters: the perception of the posting, image management, integration, and interactivity.

  2. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  3. Bosonic colored group field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Geloun, Joseph [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France); University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou (BJ). International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair); Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Dakar (Senegal); Magnen, Jacques [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Physique Theorique, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rivasseau, Vincent [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Bosonic colored group field theory is considered. Focusing first on dimension four, namely the colored Ooguri group field model, the main properties of Feynman graphs are studied. This leads to a theorem on optimal perturbative bounds of Feynman amplitudes in the ''ultraspin'' (large spin) limit. The results are generalized in any dimension. Finally, integrating out two colors we write a new representation, which could be useful for the constructive analysis of this type of models. (orig.)

  4. Writing on Pigments in Natural History and Art Technology in Sixteenth-Century Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltrogge, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting.

  5. Techniques for carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburger, E K

    1981-09-01

    Short-term tests to detect genetic, chromosomal, or DNA damage are now required by regulatory agencies for any new compound proposed for commercial production. Furthermore, full-scale carcinogenicity tests may be required for certain compounds. In this circumstance, the compound-related factors including stability, purity, physical properties, and chemical structure and reactivity must be considered. Animal factors include species and strain of test animal, route of administration, age, sex, diet, and spontaneous tumor incidence. A team of qualified investigators with experience in various disciplines is required to conduct the studies properly. Quality control measures and adherence to the code of good laboratory practice are also necessary during all phases of the study. The investment in a carcinogenicity study therefore becomes fairly substantial in terms of both time and money.

  6. Cosmos: 1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    The effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM were determined. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies performed on Cosmos 1887. Spleen and bone marrow cells were obtained from flown, vivarium control, synchronous control, and suspended rats. The cells were stained with a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against rat leukocyte cell surface antigens. Control cells were stained with a monoclonal antibody directed against an irrelevant species or were unstained. Cells were then analyzed for fluorescence using a FACSCAN flow cytometer. Bone marrow cells were placed in culture with GM-CSF in McCoy's 5a medium and incubated for 5 days. Cultures were then evaluated for the number of colonies of 50 cells or greater.

  7. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  8. The Hi Five study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anette; Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring

    2015-01-01

    intervention groups (n = 29) or to a control group with no intervention (n = 15). A total of 8,438 six to fifteen-year-old school children were enrolled in the study. The Hi Five intervention consisted of three components: 1) a curriculum component 2) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch 3) extra cleaning......BACKGROUND: Infectious illnesses such as influenza and diarrhea are leading causes of absenteeism among Danish school children. Interventions in school settings addressing hand hygiene have shown to reduce the number of infectious illnesses. However, most of these studies include small populations...... and almost none of them are conducted as randomized controlled trials. The overall aim of the Hi Five study was to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component school-based intervention to improve hand hygiene and well-being and to reduce the prevalence of infections among school children...

  9. [Lessons from Field Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2015-01-01

    During my academic career for more than 40 years, I was involved in 18 epidemiological field studies, partially or fully. Among these field studies, four (1. Medical services in remote rural areas in Okinawa, 2. Yusho episode, 3. JICA Onchocerciasis Control Project in Guatemala, and 4. Miyako cohort study in Fukuoka) are introduced in this paper, including the latest situation after the presentation. Through these field works experienced by the author, the following lessons were gained. 1. Strong human reliance between researchers and the targeted population is essential in carrying out epidemiological surveys successfully in the field. 2. Data obtained from the survey should be carefully examined and analyzed so that those data may reflect the real situation.

  10. Waarom Jesus-studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Why Jesus studies? Present-day historical Jesus studies are the epistemological product of what has become known as the New Historicism. The aim of the article is to emphasize two aspects of the New Historicism as epistemological approach. The one aspect focuses on the profitability of this endeavour and the other on the historical nature of the New Historicism. As far as profitability is concerned, the social standing and identity of the researcher are emphasized. Among otherthings, the social interests of the researcher are taken into account. Concerning the historical nature of this kind of research, a distinction is drawn between the Jesus of history and the Jesus of faith. The aim of the article is to gain clarity on the relationship between the Jesus of history (pre-Easter and the Jesus of faith (post-Easter. J D Crossan's exposition of the reasons for Jesus studies is followed. He distinguishes three reasons: historical, ethical and theological.

  11. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough...... in silico methods are here proposed for apoptosis studies and for AMG studies.   Methods   MR - heating of high concentration micrometer gold and low concentration nano gold.   CSLM of ethidum bromide stained cell lines, with and witout gold and automated image processing.   AMG gold uptake study...

  12. Australia: historical earthquake studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCue

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of earthquakes in Australia using information dating back to 1788 have been comprehensive, if not exhaustive. Newspapers have been the main source of historical earthquake studies. A brief review is given here with an introduction to the pre-European aboriginal dreamtime information. Some of the anecdotal information of the last two centuries has been compiled as isoseismal maps. Relationships between isoseismal radii and magnitude have been established using post-instrumental data allowing magnitudes to be assigned to the pre-instrumental data, which can then be incorporated into the national earthquake database. The studies have contributed to hazard analyses for the building codes and stimulated research into microzonation and paleo-seismology.

  13. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  14. NMR studies of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Sun, Hongzhe

    2012-01-01

    Metalloproteins represent a large share of the proteomes, with the intrinsic metal ions providing catalytic, regulatory, and structural roles critical to protein functions. Structural characterization of metalloproteins and identification of metal coordination features including numbers and types of ligands and metal-ligand geometry, and mapping the structural and dynamic changes upon metal binding are significant for understanding biological functions of metalloproteins. NMR spectroscopy has long been used as an invaluable tool for structure and dynamic studies of macromolecules. Here we focus on the application of NMR spectroscopy in characterization of metalloproteins, including structural studies and identification of metal coordination spheres by hetero-/homo-nuclear metal NMR spectroscopy. Paramagnetic NMR as well as (13)C directly detected protonless NMR spectroscopy will also be addressed for application to paramagnetic metalloproteins. Moreover, these techniques offer great potential for studies of other non-metal binding macromolecules.

  15. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  16. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  17. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  18. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  19. Study and Move Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chairman Mao once said: "Good good study, day day up", which can be roughly deciphered as 'study hard,keep improving'. Chinese people still remember his advice, even in the days of market-oriented reform. Today, one of the utmost urgent tasks for Chinese students is to master the English language. Chinese students start learning English from the kindergarten and English testing is normally a must for most universities. With the Olympic Games coming to Beijing in 2008, the central government has another reason to call its people to master the most popular tongue on our planet.

  20. Safety Study in Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a brief look at safety studies, which are a necessary part of every change of system or a new system in aviation. The main focus is put on the area of air traffic management, because it affects most of the aviation stakeholders. The article begins with a description of safety and safety assessment of changes in systems. Then it discusses analysis of processes, hazard identification and risk assessment. Main part focuses on Safety studies and briefly...

  1. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  2. SR study of scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailin, V V

    2000-01-01

    The technique and the models developed recently in Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Laboratory of Moscow University for the investigation of energy transfer processes in insulators can be applied for a detailed study of scintillator's properties. The experiments with SR in VUV and XUV regions allow to separate various processes and stages of energy transfer and help to indicate the dominating process on each stage. Thus, we can find the way to improve the properties, essential for the particular application of the scintillator: conversion efficiency, decay time, afterglow, radiation hardness, etc. The results of such a study can be used for the testing procedures in scintillator production.

  3. Studies in Rheoencephalography (REG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bodo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of rheoencephalography (REG – electrical impedance measurements of the brain – and summarizes past and ongoing research to develop medical applications of REG for neuro-critical care and for primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The availability of advanced electronics and computation has opened up the potential for use of REG technology as a noninvasive, continuous and inexpensive brain monitor for military and civilian applications. The clinical background information presented here introduces physiological and clinical environments where REG has potential for use in research and clinical settings. REG studies over the past three decades have involved in vitro and in vivo groups (animal and human, including more than 1500 measurements and related electronic and computational results and practical applications. In vitro studies helped researchers understand the flow/volume relationship between Doppler ultrasound and electrical impedance signals and supported development of REG data processing methods. In animal studies, REG was used to monitor the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF autoregulation (AR using a newly developed algorithm. These animal studies also confirmed correlations between REG and measurements of carotid flow (CF and intracranial pressure (ICP. Human studies confirmed the applicability of REG for detecting cerebrovascular alteration, demonstrating the usefulness of REG in the field of stroke/cardio-vascular disease prevention. In these studies, REG was compared to known stroke risk factors and to results obtained using carotid ultrasound measurements. An intelligent REG system (Cerberus has been developed for primary stroke prevention. In these studies, the biologically relevant variables of the REG signal were pulse amplitude (minimum – maximum distance and duration of the anacrotic (rising portion of the REG pulse wave. The principal limitation of REG for

  4. DWPF Welder Parametric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    After being filled with glass, DWPF canistered waste forms will be welded closed using an upset resistance welding process. This final closure weld must be leaktight, and must remain so during extended storage at SRS. As part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, a parametric study (DWPF-WP-24) has been performed to determine a range of welder operating parameters which will produce acceptable welds. The parametric window of acceptable welds defined by this study is 90,000 + 15,000 lb of force, 248,000 + 22,000 amps of current, and 95 + 15 cycles* for the time of application of the current.

  5. Critical cyberculture studies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, David; Jones, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Starting in the early 1990s, journalists and scholars began responding to and trying to take account of new technologies and their impact on our lives. By the end of the decade, the full-fledged study of cyberculture had arrived. Today, there exists a large body of critical work on the subject, with cutting-edge studies probing beyond the mere existence of virtual communities and online identities to examine the social, cultural, and economic relationships that take place online. Taking stock of the exciting work that is being done and positing what cyberculture's future might look like, Criti

  6. Reporting of teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory toxicology report is an unusual document that requires a particular skill to write. The report must be clear, accurate, concise, and focused. A clear and direct writing style is required. The end-users of the report will hope to find the information they seek with as little effort as possible. Few, or none, will read the entire document. The author should aim to appease the user by obliging him to read as little text and turn as few pages as possible. This chapter gives tips and guidance on how to present the experimental data and write the narrative text in the final study report for a teratology study.

  7. Photothermal degradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Key reaction intermediates of photooxidation identified and characterized by laser flash Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were discussed. Effects of temperature and ultraviolet intensity were studied in order to develop meaningful accelerated testing procedures for encapsulant evaluation. In a program to study the failure of Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/stainless steel modules, failure modes similar to those observed outdoors in real-time conditions were simulated in accelerated testing. An experimental technique was developed to quantitatively assess the extent of degradation.

  8. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  9. Morphing Terminology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Hart, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2010-06-28

    This study investigates methods of automatically identifying and characterizing significant transitions in term usage over time. Within scientific literature, the occurrence of terms reflects the use of technologies and techniques as well as the study of specific species and materials. Transitions in terminology usage may be a result of vocabulary standardization or specialization in which terms are replaced with their shorter form. They may also be a result of new applications, combinations, alternatives, or interests that result in the appearance of new or existing terminology in unexpected contexts.

  10. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  12. Transfer Readiness Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) has implemented a prototype model for determining student transfer readiness as a primary means of assessing community college transfer effectiveness. This report provides definitions of transfer readiness and guidelines for colleges participating in the CCC transfer readiness study. First, a memorandum from…

  13. Gasp. Contamination study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, E.F.

    1963-01-01

    A scale model study was conducted to show the radiological hazard to be expected with the GASP Space Vehicle Launching System. Exploding wires were used as propellants. Both solid particles and radiochemicals were used to trace debris dispersal. Scaling laws relating model and prototype were developed and the accuracy of scaling was checked by comparison of model and prototype accelerations.

  14. The Study of Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the study of language based on two aspects: structure and meaning.The paper first gives definition of language.Secondly,the paper summarizes the basic contents of phonology,morphology,syntax,semantics,and pragmatics.Then it focuses on the cooperative principle and the reasons why people violate the maxims and the functions of conversational implicature.

  15. Course Placement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, Marlene; Slark, Julie

    Following the implementation of a matriculation plan at Rancho Santiago College (RSC), a study was conducted to examine the appropriateness of student course placement as assessed by faculty and students and to investigate faculty's perceptions of changes in students' skill level preparation over the past few years. Questionnaires were completed…

  16. Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In newly HIV-diagnosed patients, the CD4+ lymphocyte count is measured to determine the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa have shown that patients who are ART ineligible at the first assessment have poor retention in care, but data from other low- or middle-income countries are scarce. In this study we describe the retention in pre-ART care of 1696 patients who were ineligible for ART after being diagnosed with HIV in a cohort study in India. More than one-third of ART ineligible patients had poor retention in care, and the attrition was higher in those with longer follow-up periods. Of those patients with poor retention, only 10% came back to the clinics, and their CD4 cell counts were lower than the ones of patients retained in care. After 4.5 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up was 50%. Factors associated with attrition were being homeless, being illiterate, belonging to a disadvantaged community, being symptomatic at the time of the HIV diagnosis, male gender, and not living near a town. Widows were given nutritional support and, therefore, had better retention in care. The results of this study highlight the need to improve the retention in care of ART ineligible patients in India.

  17. Diamex solvent regeneration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, C.; Cames, B.; Margot, L.; Ramain, L. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    The CEA has undertaken the development of the DIAMEX process as the first step in the strategy aiming at recovering minor actinides which could then be transmuted or separately conditioned. The scientific feasibility of this process was demonstrated during counter current hot tests operated in 1993. Then experimental works were conducted, on one hand to optimise the extractant formula, on the other hand to improve the flowsheet. Reference extractant and flowsheet were then chosen, respectively in 1995 and 1996. The next step, still in progress, is the demonstration of the DIAMEX technical feasibility (in 2002); this means that the flowsheet should include solvent regeneration treatments. In this aim, degradation studies were performed to quantify main degradation products, and identify those which could be disturbing in the process. This paper deals with experimental studies performed with intend to propose a regeneration treatment, included in the flowsheet, so that the solvent could be recycled. It comprises: - Quantification of the main degradation products issued from radiolysis or hydrolysis, which are methyl octyl amine (MOA) and carboxylic acids; - Effects of these products on extracting and hydrodynamics performances of the process; - Study of methods able to remove mainly disturbing degradation products. Acidic scrubbing, which are performed in the scrubbing and stripping sections of the DIAMEX process, should allow the quantitative removal of methyl octyl amine. Then basic scrubbings, which were more especially studied, should eliminate at least 80% of carboxylic acids, and part of the cations remaining in the solvent. (authors)

  18. Repository seals requirements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  19. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  20. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  1. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  2. IIASA Energy Study unveiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Meeting the energy needs of the world in 2030, when the projected population will be 8 billion, can be done, but not without international cooperation, a mix of energy technologies, and an understanding of the dependence of resources and use. That's the optimistic conclusion of the 7-year golbal energy study by the International Insitute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).

  3. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy

    2012-01-01

    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  4. Soil washing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  5. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy

    2012-01-01

    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  6. Belgrade metro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Arandjelović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The subway system is an indispensable part of every modern metropolis. Building a subway is no longer a matter of prestige but a necessity, a consequence of the traffic revolution worldwide. This paper shows four metro studies with specific reference to the Belgrade subway and problems that occurred. The first one was conducted in 1946 by the famous Serbian architect Nikola Dobrovic. This document is indeed the first written record discussing the subway issue in Belgrade. The next study dates back to 1968. This project was the first major study on the possibility of a subway. The third and biggest, this subway study was completed in 1982 and contained a major and comprehensive subway project. This project was officially accepted and enacted by the city government. The fourth project in circulation with regard to the subway is the light city railway project. It came out due to the consequences of the decision that a classical subway was not necessary in Belgrade, so that a replacement for the classical subway system was to be undertaken. The light city railway project was adopted as a part of the General Urban Plan for Belgrade by the year 2021.

  7. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  8. Study of Tools Interoperability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavičius, T.

    2007-01-01

    Interoperability of tools usually refers to a combination of methods and techniques that address the problem of making a collection of tools to work together. In this study we survey different notions that are used in this context: interoperability, interaction and integration. We point out relation

  9. The Faroese IBD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turid; Nielsen, Kari R.; Munkholm, Pia

    2016-01-01

    from 4 to 44, and for IBDU from 2 to 21 per 100 000 [ESP]. Conclusions: The high IBD incidence was found to be a relatively new phenomenon. The observed increase is unlikely to be an artefact resulting from, for instance, better registration. Our study indicated a real and increasing disease burden...

  10. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  11. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our ...

  12. INTRODUCTION/ BACKGROUND OF STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    such as frequency, tables, percentages and probit model analysis. ... varieties capable of adapting to a wider range of ecological conditions and ... X10 = Contact with Extension staff (in months) ... Mixed cropping is the major farming system in the study area. ... The result of probit model analysis (Table 2) shows an R. 2.

  13. Techno-economic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Point, J.C.; Million, P.

    A techno-economic model for analysing and comparing broadband deployment strategies has been established. The resulting simulation model can compare Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) of dominating broadband technologies in different types of demographic areas. The study reveals the competitiveness...... and applicability of different access technologies in the future broadband market as well as providing sensitivity analysis of the most influential factors controlling market development....

  14. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  15. MISAWA Snow Accumulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    snowfall along the west coast of Honshu has been attributed primarily to orographic lifting ( Estoque and Ninomiya, 1976), a precipitation mechanism that... Estoque , M.A., and K. Ninomiya, "Numerical Simulation of Japan Sea Effect Snowfall," Tellus, 28, pp. 243-253, 1976. lshihara, K., "Study of Statistical

  16. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PYODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: To isolate the bacteria associated with pyodermas and to characterize the major isolate Staphylococcus aureus and to identify the MRSA. MATERIAL & METHODS: Study was conducted on 100 patients of pyodermas of all age groups and sex. Specimens were processe d by performing microscopy, culture, biochemical reaction, antibiotic susceptibility, and the major isolate Staphylococcus aureas was further screened for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: In total 100 patients fulfilling the study cri teria were evaluated. Impetigo (30% was the most common clinical type followed by folliculitis (22%, showing male preponderance. The predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus which was further characterized for MRSA. Out of 69 cases 5 strains were identified as MRSA. CONCLUSION: Among the 100 samples processed bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, beta haemolytic streptococci and a mixture of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Predominant organism causing pyoderma was Staphylococcus aureus . Present study underline the need to take efforts to develop methods for rapid detection of MRSA to prevent Hospital Acquired Infections .

  17. Resummation and Shower Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Huston, J; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Thomé, E

    2004-01-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of the Z and Higgs bosons are studied, as probes of the consequences of multiple parton emissions in hadronic events. Emphasis is put on constraints, present in showers, that go beyond conventional leading log. It is shown that, if such constraints are relaxed, better agreement can be obtained with experimental data and with resummation descriptions.

  18. Resources for Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B.

    Over 120 bibliographies and other reference sources relevant to women's studies are identified in this annotated listing. Subjects include feminist scholarship, women in management, popular culture, autobiographies, other cultures and countries, history, lesbian women, women's education, the arts, politics, and rape. In addition to author, title,…

  19. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  20. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  1. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  2. China: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Appendix A). From the Plateau of Tibet other less elevated highlands, rugged east-west trending mountains and plateaus interrupted by deep depresions ...China: A Country Study Table 3. Continued Coavmtiomal Convmtioto y Pinyr to Form of Referenc Form of Ream to nn Turpan Pendi Turfan Depresion Sungari

  3. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  4. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  5. Studies in portal hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Buuren (Henk)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOur work focussed on one of the most frequent and serious complications of portal hypertension i.e. variceal bleeding. In particular, studies were initiated aimed at developing a more effective therapeutic strategy for the primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding. Aspects of

  6. Parametric localized modes in quadratic nonlinear photonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole;

    2001-01-01

    We analyze two-color spatially localized nonlinear modes formed by parametrically coupled fundamental and second-harmonic fields excited at quadratic (or chi2) nonlinear interfaces embedded in a linear layered structure-a quadratic nonlinear photonic crystal. For a periodic lattice of nonlinear...... interfaces, we derive an effective discrete model for the amplitudes of the fundamental and second-harmonic waves at the interfaces (the so-called discrete chi2 equations) and find, numerically and analytically, the spatially localized solutions-discrete gap solitons. For a single nonlinear interface...... in a linear superlattice, we study the properties of two-color localized modes, and describe both similarities to and differences from quadratic solitons in homogeneous media....

  7. Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-22

    This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.

  8. Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Yong [University of Maryland, College Park

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.

  9. Effect of Pulse Shaping on Observing Coherent Energy Transfer in Single Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2016-11-17

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have revealed that quantum coherence plays an important role in the excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting (LH) complexes. Inspired by the recent single-molecule two-color double-pump experiment, we theoretically investigate the effect of pulse shaping on observing coherent energy transfer in the single bacterial LH2 complex. It is found that quantum coherent energy transfer can be observed when the time delay and phase difference between the two laser pulses are controlled independently. However, when the two-color pulses are generated using the pulse-shaping method, how the laser pulses are prepared is crucial to the observation of quantum coherent energy transfer in single photosynthetic complexes.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  11. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  12. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  13. STUDY OF ENTEROCUTANEOUS FISTULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fistula is defined as abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces . 1 Enterocutaneous fistula is defined as abnormal communication between hollow organ and skin. They are classified as congenital or acquired. We have excluded congenital and internal fistulas. We have also excluded esophageal, urinary, p ancreatic and biliary fistulas as their management is complex and differs significantly from enterocutaneous fistulas. AIM: 1. Study of aetiology, pathophysiology and management of enterocutaneous fistula. To evaluate previously laid principles of management of enterocutaneous fistula. 2. To assess the feasibility of early intervention safety and outcome as the conservative long term treatment appears to be cost prohibitive. 3. To study morbidity and mortality related to enterocutaneous fistula. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In all, 50 cases of enterocutaneous fistula were studied during a period from June 2012 to N ovember 2014 at a Government tertiary care C entre. Both, patients referred from other centres with post - operative fistulas and fistulas developed in this institute after surgeries or spontaneously were included in the study after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULT S : The maximum numbers of cases were between 39 - 48 years of age group. Spontaneous closure was achieved in 72.7% and surgical closure in 76.7% of the patients Vacuum assisted closure was achieved in 66.66% of the patients in whom VAC was used. Of the patients in whom octreotide was used closure was achieved in 66.66% of the patients. The association between serum albumin levels and fistula healing and between fistula output and mortality were statistically significant. Overall mortality in this study was 26% with 44.44% among referred cases and 15.625% among institutional cases.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. PET studies in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. (18)Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced (11)C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and (18)F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased (11)C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and (11)C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. (11)C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that (11)C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous

  16. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...... of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause...

  17. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  18. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  20. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...

  1. Innovation and Entrepreneurship Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landström, Hans; Åström, Fredrik; Harirchi, Gouya

    2015-01-01

    As we have moved towards a more knowledge intensive society, innovation and industrial dynamics have grown in importance over the last 40-50 years. We are frequently using concepts such as innovation and entrepreneurship, and the way we perceive and define these concepts will to a high extent...... influence our way of thinking and acting. Depending on the way we define these concepts, we will tend to use different knowledge-bases when acting as policy-makers, or as researchers. Therefore, it becomes important to elaborate on the knowledge bases that we have within the fields of innovation...... and entrepreneurship. This study we elaborate on the question: Can innovation and entrepreneurship be seen as one or two fields of research? We will elaborate on this issue by comparing the core works in innovation and entrepreneurship studies respectively, as identified by Fagerberg et al. (Research Policy 41...

  2. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  3. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...... a company’s general attitude and approach to (1) international markets and (2) user studies. Lastly, we present the theoretical ideas and concepts about culture that has informed the research....... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...

  4. Heliostat cost optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  5. Studies on seismic source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世愚; 陈运泰

    2003-01-01

    During the period of 1999~2002, the Chinese seismologists made a serious of developments in the study on seismic sources including observations, experiments and theory. In the field of observation, the methods of the accuracy location of earthquake sources, the inversion of seismic moment tensor and the mechanism of earthquake source are improved and developed. A lot of important earthquake events are studied by using these methods. The rupture processes of these events are inverted and investigated combined with the local stress fields and the tectonic moment by using the measurements of surface deformation. In the fields of experiments and theory, many developments are obtained in cause of seismic formation, condition of stress and tectonics, dynamics of earthquake rupture, rock fracture and nucleation of strong earthquakes.

  6. E85 Dispenser Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-12-01

    This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed. This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

  7. Fullerton Virtual Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2006-12-01

    Virtual twins (VTs; same-age unrelated siblings reared together from early infancy) have been studied at California State University (CSU), Fullerton since 1991. The current sample includes over 130 pairs. Past and current research have research have focused on siblings' similarities and differences in general intelligence and body size. Future research in these areas will continue as new pairs continue to be identified. These studies will be supplemented by analyses of personality, social relations and adjustment using monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins, full siblings and friends, as well as new VTs, who have participated in Twins, Adoptees, Peers and Siblings (TAPS), a collaborative project conducted between CSU Fullerton and the University of San Francisco, from 2002 to 2006.

  8. First Destination Transportation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-03

    and acti- vities can be integrated into the budget development. b. Cost evaluation: (1) Direct shipment criteria: - Define present system distribution...resulting from our analysis and evaluacion of alternatives, will be defined for implementation and accomplish the following study objectives...manager considers incorrect a traffic management data integrity code has been provided. This (ode, placed into the file through action taken by the traffic

  9. Software breadboard study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckolls, C.; Frank, Mark

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to develop new concepts and technology for the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF), Cassini, and other future deep space missions which maximally conform to the Functional Specification for the NASA X-Band Transponder (NXT), FM513778 (preliminary, revised July 26, 1988). The study is composed of two tasks. The first task was to investigate a new digital signal processing technique which involves the processing of 1-bit samples and has the potential for significant size, mass, power, and electrical performance improvements over conventional analog approaches. The entire X-band receiver tracking loop was simulated on a digital computer using a high-level programming language. Simulations on this 'software breadboard' showed the technique to be well-behaved and a good approximation to its analog predecessor from threshold to strong signal levels in terms of tracking-loop performance, command signal-to-noise ratio and ranging signal-to-noise ratio. The successful completion of this task paves the way for building a hardware breadboard, the recommended next step in confirming this approach is ready for incorporation into flight hardware. The second task in this study was to investigate another technique which provides considerable simplification in the synthesis of the receiver first LO over conventional phase-locked multiplier schemes and in this approach, provides down-conversion for an S-band emergency receive mode without the need of an additional LO. The objective of this study was to develop methodology and models to predict the conversion loss, input RF bandwidth, and output RF bandwidth of a series GaAs FET sampling mixer and to breadboard and test a circuit design suitable for the X and S-band down-conversion applications.

  10. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  11. Ocean circulation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed signatures of ocean surface characteristics from active and passive satellite-borne radiometers in conjunction with in situ data were utilized to examine the large scale, low frequency circulation of the world's oceans. Studies of the California Current, the Gulf of California, and the Kuroshio Extension Current in the western North Pacific were reviewed briefly. The importance of satellite oceanographic tools was emphasized.

  12. Electrochemical corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockemus, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to gain familiarity with the Model 350 Corrosion Measurement Console, to determine if metal protection by grease coatings can be measured by the polarization-resistance method, and to compare corrosion rates of 4130 steel coated with various greases. Results show that grease protection of steel may be determined electrochemically. Studies were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain corrosion inhibitors on aluminum and steel.

  13. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  14. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  15. Master Study: Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In painting and drawing classes, it is typical to ask students to work directly from a master. It is one way to study composition techniques, and to become familiar with classical style firsthand. In museums, easels are set up as artists work, not in an attempt to copy or plagiarize, but in an attempt to be part of history by participating in it.…

  16. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory – Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to: • Perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams. • Conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing. • Conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for: 1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, 2) determining waste that will require treatment, and 3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  17. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  18. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  19. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the stability of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of two years. Findings will help to identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain stability and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality were monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.

  20. Phenomenological Studies in Micromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    determined. Surprisingly high localized strains have been identified between plies. (ii) Edge effect stresses have been isolated and quantified...studies of the edges of the specimen in Fig. 11 indicate the presence of high (corner) edge effect shear stresses. These are shown on an expanded...cube are shown in Fig. 22. S In addition to the significant edge effect of Fig. 22, the following residual deformations and co-efficients of thermal