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Sample records for two-choice matching-to-sample mts

  1. Recombinative generalization of subword units using matching to sample.

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    Mahon, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a computerized matching-to-sample (MTS) protocol to facilitate recombinative generalization of subword units (onsets and rimes) and recognition of novel onset-rime and onset-rime-rime words. In addition, we sought to isolate the key training components necessary for recombinative generalization. Twenty-five literate adults participated. Conditional discrimination training emerged as a crucial training component. These findings support the effectiveness of MTS in facilitating recombinative generalization, particularly when conditional discrimination training with subword units is used.

  2. Cognitive abilities in Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.: matching-to-sample and image/mirror-image discriminations.

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    Stefanie Gierszewski

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize and distinguish between visual stimuli is fundamental for everyday survival of many species. While diverse aspects of cognition, including complex visual discrimination tasks were previously successfully assessed in fish, it remains unknown if fish can learn a matching-to-sample concept using geometrical shapes and discriminate between images and their mirror-image counterparts. For this purpose a total of nine Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp. were trained in two matching-to-sample (MTS and three two-choice discrimination tasks using geometrical, two-dimensional visual stimuli. Two out of the three discrimination experiments focused on the ability to discriminate between images and their mirror-images, the last was a general discrimination test. All fish showed quick associative learning but were unable to perform successfully in a simultaneous MTS procedure within a period of 40 sessions. Three out of eight fish learned to distinguish between an image and its mirror-image when reflected vertically; however none of the fish mastered the task when the stimulus was reflected horizontally. These results suggest a better discrimination ability of vertical compared to horizontal mirror-images, an observation that is widespread in literature on mirror-image discrimination in animals. All fish performed well in the general visual discrimination task, thereby supporting previous results obtained for this species.

  3. Assessing Generative Braille Responding Following Training in a Matching-to-Sample Format

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    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of teaching sighted college students to select printed text letters given a braille sample stimulus in a matching-to-sample (MTS) format on the emergence of untrained (a) construction of print characters given braille samples, (b) construction of braille characters given print samples, (c) transcription of print characters…

  4. Matching-to-sample abstract-concept learning by pigeons.

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    Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract concepts--rules that transcend training stimuli--have been argued to be unique to some species. Pigeons, a focus of much concept-learning research, were tested for learning a matching-to-sample abstract concept. Five pigeons were trained with three cartoon stimuli. Pigeons pecked a sample 10 times and then chose which of two simultaneously presented comparison stimuli matched the sample. After acquisition, abstract-concept learning was tested by presenting novel cartoons on 12 out of 96 trials for 4 consecutive sessions. A cycle of doubling the training set followed by retraining and novel-testing was repeated eight times, increasing the set size from 3 to 768 items. Transfer performance improved from chance (i.e., no abstract-concept learning) to a level equivalent to baseline performance (>80%) and was similar to an equivalent function for same/different abstract-concept learning. Analyses assessed the possibility that item-specific choice strategies accounted for acquisition and transfer performance. These analyses converged to rule out item-specific strategies at all but the smallest set-sizes (3-24 items). Ruling out these possibilities adds to the evidence that pigeons learned the relational abstract concept of matching-to-sample.

  5. Re-Emergence of Under-Selected Stimuli, after the Extinction of Over-Selected Stimuli in an Automated Match to Samples Procedure

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    Broomfield, Laura; McHugh, Louise; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity occurs when one of potentially many aspects of the environment comes to control behaviour. In two experiments, adults with no developmental disabilities, were trained and tested in an automated match to samples (MTS) paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants completed two conditions, in one of which the over-selected…

  6. Matching-to-sample performance is better analyzed in terms of a four-term contingency than in terms of a three-term contingency.

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    Jones, Brent M; Elliffe, Douglas M

    2013-07-01

    Four pigeons performed a simultaneous matching-to-sample (MTS) task involving two samples and two comparisons that differed in their pixel density and luminance. After a long history of reinforcers for correct responses after both samples, 15 conditions arranged either continuous reinforcement of correct responses after Sample 1 and extinction for all responses after Sample 2, or vice versa. The sample after which correct responses were reinforced alternated across successive conditions. The disparity between the samples and the disparity between the comparisons were varied independently across conditions in a quasifactorial design. Contrary to predictions of extant quantitative models, which assume that MTS tasks involve two 3-term contingencies of reinforcement, matching accuracies were not at chance levels in these conditions, comparison-selection ratios differed after the two samples, and effects on matching accuracies of both sample disparity and comparison disparity were observed. These results were, however, consistent with ordinal and sometimes quantitative predictions of Jones' (2003) theory of stimulus and reinforcement effects in MTS tasks. This theory asserts that MTS tasks involve four-term contingencies of reinforcement and that any tendency to select one comparison more often than the other over a set of trials reflects meaningful differences between comparison-discrimination accuracies after the two samples.

  7. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

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    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  8. A Theory of Attending, Remembering, and Reinforcement in Delayed Matching to Sample

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    Nevin, John A.; Davison, Michael; Odum, Amy L.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of attending and reinforcement in conditional discriminations (Nevin, Davison, & Shahan, 2005) is extended to working memory in delayed matching to sample by adding terms for disruption of attending during the retention interval. Like its predecessor, the theory assumes that reinforcers and disruptors affect the independent probabilities…

  9. Differential outcomes enhance accuracy of delayed matching to sample but not resistance to change.

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    Nevin, John A; Ward, Ryan D; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Odum, Amy L; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the relation between the differential outcomes effect and resistance to change of delayed matching-to-sample performance. Pigeons produced delayed matching-to-sample trials by responding on variable interval schedules in two components of a multiple schedule. In the same-outcome component, the probability of reinforcement was the same for both samples (.9 in Experiments 1 and 2, .5 in Experiment 3); in the different-outcomes component, the probability of reinforcement was .9 for one sample and .1 for the other. In all three experiments, the forgetting functions in the different-outcomes component were higher and shallower than in the same-outcomes component. When total reinforcement was greater in the same-outcomes component (Experiments 1 and 2), resistance to disruption by prefeeding, intercomponent food, extinction, or flashing lights typically was greater in that component. In Experiment 3, when total reinforcement was equated, resistance to disruption was similar across components. Thus, the level and slope of forgetting functions depended on differential reinforcement correlated with the samples, but the resistance to change of forgetting functions depended on total reinforcement in a component. Both aspects of the results can be explained by a model of delayed matching to sample performance. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

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    Sophie Marchal

    Full Text Available Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately.

  11. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

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    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  12. EFFECTS OF VARYING THE PROBABILITY OF REINFORCEMENT ON MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE TASKS IN PIGEONS

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    CLAUDIO CARPIO

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying the probability of reinforcement of responses to the identical (PSRi and different(PSRd comparison stimuli in matching to sample tasks were evaluated. PSRi was varied in descendentascendentway at the same time that PSRd was varied in an ascendent-descendent way. The values ofPSRi were 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0; while the values of PERd were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50,0.75,1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, 0.0.The results show that the distribution of responses to the identical anddifferent comparison stimuli was a positive function of PSRi and PSRd values.

  13. Cognitive efficiency on a match to sample task decreases at the onset of puberty in children.

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    McGivern, Robert F; Andersen, Julie; Byrd, Desiree; Mutter, Kandis L; Reilly, Judy

    2002-10-01

    Electrocortical evidence indicates that a wave of synaptic proliferation occurs in the frontal lobes around the age of puberty onset. To study its potential influence on cognition, we examined 246 children (10-17 years) and 49 young adults (18-22 years) using a match-to-sample type of task to measure reaction times to assess emotionally related information. Based upon the instruction set, subjects made a yes/no decision about the emotion expressed in a face, a word, or a face/word combination presented tachistoscopically for 100 ms. The faces were images of a single individual with a happy, angry, sad or neutral expression. The words were 'happy,' 'angry,' 'sad,' or 'neutral,' In the combined stimulus condition, subjects were asked to decide if the face and word matched for the same emotion. Results showed that compared to the previous year, reaction times were significantly slower for making a correct decision at 11 and 12 years of age in girls and boys, the approximate ages of puberty onset. The peripubertal rise in reaction time declined slowly over the following 2-3 years and stabilized by 15 years of age. Analyses of the performance of 15-17 year olds revealed significantly longer reaction times in females to process both faces and words compared to males. However, this sex difference in late puberty appeared to be transient since it was not present in 18-22 year olds. Given the match-to-sample nature of the task employed, the puberty related increases in reaction time may reflect a relative inefficiency in frontal circuitry prior to the pruning of excess synaptic contacts.

  14. Effects of differential reinforcement expectancies on successive matching-to-sample performance in pigeons.

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    DeLong, R E; Wasserman, E A

    1981-10-01

    A series of experiments employed a symbolic variant of Konorski's delayed successive matching-to-sample task in order to determine whether differential reinforcement expectancies affect discriminative responding. One of two sample stimuli (S1 or S2) was followed, after a delay (0, 5, or 10 sec), by one of two test stimuli (T1 or T2). Pigeons' key pecking during test periods could produce food only on S1-T1 and S2-T2 (positive) trials; nonreinforcement invariably occurred on S1-T2 and S2-T1 (negative) trials. Differential reinforcement was scheduled by following the two positive trial sequences with different probabilities of reinforcement (.2 and 1.0); nondifferential reinforcement was scheduled by following the two positive trial sequences with a single, intermediate probability of reinforcement. (.6). Subjects given differential reinforcement acquired the conditional discriminaton more rapidly and reached higher terminal levels of performance than nondifferential controls (Experiment 1). Moreover, the magnitude of these differences increased as the delay between sample and test stimuli was lengthened. Reversing the probabilities of reinforcement in the differential problem produced a substantial and durable disruption of conditional discrimination performance (Experiment 2). The same general pattern of results was obtained when differential sample key pecking was eliminated (Experiment 3). These results can be parsimoniously interpreted by postulating the existence of learned reinforcement expectancies, and they detract from the merits of trace theory as a complete account of animal memory.

  15. Memory and assimilation to context in delayed matching-to-sample

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    ACHIM ELFERING

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports effects of short-term memory and context stimuli on recognition of visual stimuli. After presentation of a square as the target stimulus, participants had to store the target during a variable delay, until they had to identify the target within a sample of seven squares that differed systematically in size (context variation. Marked context effects (“shifts” that occurred as responses to the test series were obtained when sets of comparison stimuli were arranged asymmetrically with respect to targets. Participants overestimated the size of the target in a set of larger comparison stimuli by choosing a larger stimulus to match the target, and vice versa (Experiment 1. This assimilation effect increased with longer delays between target offset and the onset of comparison stimuli (Experiment 2. Briefer target exposure also induced stronger assimilation (Experiment 3. The results indicated that visual short-term memory modulates (contextual stimulus integration in delayed matching to sample. A working model of memory and contextual effects in matching is discussed.

  16. Delayed matching to sample: reinforcement has opposite effects on resistance to change in two related procedures.

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    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A; Odum, Amy L; Ward, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of reinforcement on delayed matching to sample (DMTS) have been studied in two within-subjects procedures. In one, reinforcer magnitudes or probabilities vary from trial to trial and are signaled within trials (designated signaled DMTS trials). In the other, reinforcer probabilities are consistent for a series of trials produced by responding on variable-interval (VI) schedules within multiple-schedule components (designated multiple VI DMTS). In both procedures, forgetting functions in rich trials or components are higher than and roughly parallel to those in lean trials or components. However, during disruption, accuracy has been found to decrease more in rich than in lean signaled DMTS trials and, conversely, to decrease more in lean than in rich multiple VI DMTS components. In the present study, we compared these procedures in two groups of pigeons. In baseline, forgetting functions in rich trials or components were higher than and roughly parallel to those in lean trials or components, and were similar between the procedures. During disruption by prefeeding or extinction, accuracy decreased more in rich signaled DMTS trials, whereas accuracy decreased more in lean multiple VI DMTS components. These results replicate earlier studies and are predicted by a model of DMTS from Nevin, Davison, Odum, and Shahan (2007).

  17. Animal memory: A review of delayed matching-to-sample data.

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    Lind, Johan; Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of over 90 data sets from delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) studies with 25 species (birds, mammals, and bees). In DMTS, a sample stimulus is first presented and then removed. After a delay, two (or more) comparison stimuli are presented, and the subject is rewarded for choosing the one matching the sample. We used data on performance vs. delay length to estimate two parameters informative of working memory abilities: the maximum performance possible with no delay (comparison stimuli presented as soon as the sample is removed), and the rate of performance decay as the delay is lengthened (related to memory span). We conclude that there is little evidence that zero-delay performance varies between these species. There is evidence that pigeons do not perform as well as mammals at longer delay intervals. Pigeons, however, are the only extensively studied bird, and we cannot exclude that other birds may be able to bridge as long a delay as mammals. Extensive training may improve memory, although the data are open to other interpretations. Overall, DMTS studies suggest memory spans ranging from a few seconds to several minutes. We suggest that observations of animals exhibiting much longer memory spans (days to months) can be explained in terms of specialized memory systems that deal with specific, biologically significant information, such as food caches. Events that do not trigger these systems, on the other hand, appear to be remembered for only a short time. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  18. Comparison of delayed matching-to-sample performance in monkeys and children.

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    Chelonis, John J; Cox, Andrew R; Karr, Michael J; Prunty, Patricia K; Baldwin, Ronald L; Paule, Merle G

    2014-03-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that accuracy on a variety of memory tasks decreases as delay increases, relatively little research has been conducted to quantify this relationship across development in humans or directly compare rates of forgetting between humans and monkeys. This study utilized a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task to compare the relative contributions of proactive interference and attention on the rate of forgetting in monkeys and children. The performance of 1125 children from four to fourteen years of age and 10 adult rhesus monkeys was compared. For this DMTS task, a shape was displayed on the center one of three press-plates. After a delay, the subjects were required to match the original shape with one of three choice shapes to receive a banana-flavored food pellet for monkeys, or a nickel for children. A modified power function provided an excellent fit for the data for monkeys and children. The forgetting rates in children decreased with age, and the forgetting rates for monkeys were most comparable to those of younger children. The data also suggest that proactive interference did not significantly contribute to the forgetting rates for monkeys or younger children. Further, the monkeys appeared to attend to the task at a level similar to that of younger children as evidenced by the similarities in response latencies. The results from this study indicate that the rate of forgetting in monkeys, as well as the mechanisms underlying this rate, appears to share more similarities with that of younger children than of older children.

  19. Modeling the insect mushroom bodies: application to a delayed match-to-sample task.

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    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; Stornanti, Vincenzo; Termini, Pietro Savio; Zäpf, Bianca; Strauss, Roland

    2013-05-01

    Despite their small brains, insects show advanced capabilities in learning and task solving. Flies, honeybees and ants are becoming a reference point in neuroscience and a main source of inspiration for autonomous robot design issues and control algorithms. In particular, honeybees demonstrate to be able to autonomously abstract complex associations and apply them in tasks involving different sensory modalities within the insect brain. Mushroom Bodies (MBs) are worthy of primary attention for understanding memory and learning functions in insects. In fact, even if their main role regards olfactory conditioning, they are involved in many behavioral achievements and learning capabilities, as has been shown in honeybees and flies. Owing to the many neurogenetic tools, the fruit fly Drosophila became a source of information for the neuroarchitecture and biochemistry of the MBs, although the MBs of flies are by far simpler in organization than their honeybee orthologs. Electrophysiological studies, in turn, became available on the MBs of locusts and honeybees. In this paper a novel bio-inspired neural architecture is presented, which represents a generalized insect MB with the basic features taken from fruit fly neuroanatomy. By mimicking a number of different MB functions and architecture, we can replace and improve formerly used artificial neural networks. The model is a multi-layer spiking neural network where key elements of the insect brain, the antennal lobes, the lateral horn region, the MBs, and their mutual interactions are modeled. In particular, the model is based on the role of parts of the MBs named MB-lobes, where interesting processing mechanisms arise on the basis of spatio-temporal pattern formation. The introduced network is able to model learning mechanisms like olfactory conditioning seen in honeybees and flies and was found able also to perform more complex and abstract associations, like the delayed matching-to-sample tasks known only from

  20. A Pilot Investigation Comparing Instructional Packages for MTS Training: "Manual Alone" vs. "Manual-Plus-Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction"

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    Oliveira, Marileide; Goyos, Celso; Pear, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Matching-to-sample (MTS) training consists of presenting a stimulus as a sample followed by stimuli called comparisons from which a subject makes a choice. This study presents results of a pilot investigation comparing two packages for teaching university students to conduct MTS training. Two groups--control and experimental--with 2 participants…

  1. The COMT Val158 allele is associated with impaired delayed-match-to-sample performance in ADHD

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    Matthews Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored the association between three measures of working memory ability and genetic variation in a range of catecholamine genes in a sample of children with ADHD. Methods One hundred and eighteen children with ADHD performed three working memory measures taken from the CANTAB battery (Spatial Span, Delayed-match-to-sample, and Spatial Working Memory. Associations between performance on working memory measures and allelic variation in catecholamine genes (including those for the noradrenaline transporter [NET1], the dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes [DRD4; DRD2], the gene encoding dopamine beta hydroxylase [DBH] and catechol-O-methyl transferase [COMT] were investigated using regression models that controlled for age, IQ, gender and medication status on the day of test. Results Significant associations were found between performance on the delayed-match-to-sample task and COMT genotype. More specifically, val/val homozygotes produced significantly more errors than did children who carried a least one met allele. There were no further associations between allelic variants and performance across the other working memory tasks. Conclusions The working memory measures employed in the present study differed in the degree to which accurate task performance depended upon either the dynamic updating and/or manipulation of items in working memory, as in the spatial span and spatial working memory tasks, or upon the stable maintenance of representations, as in the delay-match–to-sample task. The results are interpreted as evidence of a relationship between tonic dopamine levels associated with the met COMT allele and the maintenance of stable working memory representations required to perform the delayed-match-to-sample-task.

  2. A novel delayed non-match to sample object recognition task that allows simultaneous in vivo microdialysis.

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    Ihalainen, Jouni; Sarajärvi, Timo; Kemppainen, Susanna; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lehtonen, Marko; Tanila, Heikki

    2010-06-15

    We present a modification of the widely used delayed non-match to sample (DNMS) paradigm for assessment of object recognition memory that can be combined with simultaneous in vivo microdialysis. The present study provides evidence that hippocampal ACh release increases from baseline during active exploration of the test environment and an empty test board, but a specific further increase is seen during the recognition memory task performance. This novel experimental model offers a good tool to study the impact of selective lesions or pharmacological manipulation simultaneously on neurotransmitter levels and memory task performance.

  3. Task-specific modulation of human auditory evoked responses in a delayed-match-to-sample task

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    Feng eRong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus our investigation on task-specific cognitive modulation of early cortical auditory processing in human cerebral cortex. During the experiments, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were performing an auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS task and associated control tasks. Using a spatial filtering beamformer technique to simultaneously estimate multiple source activities inside the human brain, we observed a significant DMS-specific suppression of the auditory evoked response to the second stimulus in a sound pair, with the center of the effect being located in the vicinity of the left auditory cortex. For the right auditory cortex, a non-invariant suppression effect was observed in both DMS and control tasks. Furthermore, analysis of coherence revealed a beta band (12 ~ 20 Hz DMS-specific enhanced functional interaction between the sources in left auditory cortex and those in left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been shown to involve in short-term memory processing during the delay period of DMS task. Our findings support the view that early evoked cortical responses to incoming acoustic stimuli can be modulated by task-specific cognitive functions by means of frontal-temporal functional interactions.

  4. EEG and autonomic responses during performance of matching and non-matching to sample working memory tasks with emotional content.

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    Ana eGarcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is a neural system responsible for the temporary storage of information and its utilization in problem solving. The central executive is theorized as the controller of storage functions that support WM. Neurophysiological data suggest that EEG theta and alpha oscillations in frontal and midline regions are involved in neural communication between the central executive and storage functions during WM performance. Emotion is known to modulate several memory systems, including WM, through central and peripheral pathways. However, the physiological correlations (electroencephalographic – EEG; autonomic nervous activity of the effect of emotion over WM are not well described. In this study we aimed to identify physiological responses related to emotional WM performance. EEG (21 channels, heart rate (HR and galvanic skin response (GSR recordings were obtained from 54 volunteers while performing delayed matching and non-matching to sample tasks (DMTS/DNMTS. Emotional and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System and geometric figures were used as stimuli. As expected, WM performance was accompanied by presence of theta (frontal and midline electrodes and Alpha power (parietal electrodes. Beta and gamma oscillations were concentrated in frontopolar and left temporal regions. DNMTS task was accompanied by increases in Beta power, HR and GSR compared to DMTS task. Correlation analysis showed a positive tendency for gamma in Fp2 site, ratio of LF/HF (HR low and high frequency and skin conductance in both tasks. The HR results indicate an inverse reaction related to parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system during the performance of the tasks. Taken together, our results contribute to elucidate the complex interactions between central and autonomic nervous systems in the modulation of emotional WM tasks.

  5. Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus-Pairing-Observation Procedures in Stimulus Equivalence: The Effects of Number of Trials and Stimulus Arrangement

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    Kinloch, Jennifer May; McEwan, James Stewart Anderson; Foster, T. Mary

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing the effectiveness of the stimulus-pairing-observation and matching-to-sample procedures in facilitating equivalence relations have reported conflicting findings. This study compared the effectiveness of these procedures and examined the effect of stimulus arrangement and the number of training trials completed prior to each…

  6. Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus-Pairing-Observation Procedures in Stimulus Equivalence: The Effects of Number of Trials and Stimulus Arrangement

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    Kinloch, Jennifer May; McEwan, James Stewart Anderson; Foster, T. Mary

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing the effectiveness of the stimulus-pairing-observation and matching-to-sample procedures in facilitating equivalence relations have reported conflicting findings. This study compared the effectiveness of these procedures and examined the effect of stimulus arrangement and the number of training trials completed prior to each…

  7. Within-subject decline in delayed-non-match-to-sample radial arm maze performance in aging Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Chrobak, J J; Hanin, I; Lorens, S A; Napier, T C

    1995-04-01

    A within-subject design was used to examine delayed-non-match-to-sample radial arm maze performance in aging (6-18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats. A decrease in correct choices and an increase in retroactive errors were observed at all retention intervals at 18 months of age compared with performance at 6 or 12 months. No age by retention interval interaction was observed. Neither age nor increasing retention interval influenced proactive errors during the retention test. The observation of an age- and delay-dependent increase in retroactive errors, but not proactive errors, suggests that the deficit relates to a memory dysfunction as opposed to a generalized performance deficit.

  8. Functional connectivity between Layer 2/3 and Layer 5 neurons in prefrontal cortex of nonhuman primates during a delayed match-to-sample task.

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    Song, Dong; Opris, Ioan; Chan, Rosa H M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been postulated to play critical roles in cognitive control and the formation of long-term memories. To gain insights into the neurobiological mechanism of such high-order cognitive functions, it is important to understand the input-output transformational properties of the PFC micro-circuitry. In this study, we identify the functional connectivity between the Layer 2/3 (input) neurons and the Layer 5 (output) neurons using a previously developed generalized Volterra model (GVM). Input-output spike trains are recorded from the PFCs of nonhuman primates performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task with a customized conformal ceramic multi-electrode array. The GVM describes how the input spike trains are transformed into the output spike trains by the PFC micro-circuitry and represents the transformation in the form of Volterra kernels. Results show that Layer 2/3 neurons have strong and transient facilitatory effects on the firings of Layer 5 neurons. The magnitude and temporal range of the input-output nonlinear dynamics are strikingly different from those of the hippocampal CA3-CA1. This form of functional connectivity may have important implications to understanding the computational principle of the PFC.

  9. Information in small neuronal ensemble activity in the hippocampal CA1 during delayed non-matching to sample performance in rats

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    Takahashi Susumu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The matrix-like organization of the hippocampus, with its several inputs and outputs, has given rise to several theories related to hippocampal information processing. Single-cell electrophysiological studies and studies of lesions or genetically altered animals using recognition memory tasks such as delayed non-matching-to-sample (DNMS tasks support the theories. However, a complete understanding of hippocampal function necessitates knowledge of the encoding of information by multiple neurons in a single trial. The role of neuronal ensembles in the hippocampal CA1 for a DNMS task was assessed quantitatively in this study using multi-neuronal recordings and an artificial neural network classifier as a decoder. Results The activity of small neuronal ensembles (6-18 cells over brief time intervals (2-50 ms contains accurate information specifically related to the matching/non-matching of continuously presented stimuli (stimulus comparison. The accuracy of the combination of neurons pooled over all the ensembles was markedly lower than those of the ensembles over all examined time intervals. Conclusion The results show that the spatiotemporal patterns of spiking activity among cells in the small neuronal ensemble contain much information that is specifically useful for the stimulus comparison. Small neuronal networks in the hippocampal CA1 might therefore act as a comparator during recognition memory tasks.

  10. Sub-millisecond firing synchrony of closely neighboring pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 of rats during delayed non-matching to sample task

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    Susumu Takahashi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Firing synchrony among neurons is thought to play functional roles in several brain regions. In theoretical analyses, firing synchrony among neurons within sub-millisecond precision is feasible to convey information. However, little is known about the occurrence and the functional significance of the sub-millisecond synchrony among closely neighboring neurons in the brain of behaving animals because of a technical issue: spikes simultaneously generated from closely neighboring neurons are overlapped in the extracellular space and are not easily separated. As described herein, using a unique spike sorting technique based on independent component analysis together with extracellular 12-channel multi-electrodes (dodecatrodes, we separated such overlapping spikes and investigated the firing synchrony among closely neighboring pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 of rats during a delayed non-matching to sample task. Results showed that closely neighboring pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 can co-fire with sub-millisecond precision. The synchrony generally co-occurred with the firing rate modulation in relation to both internal (retention and comparison and external (stimulus input and motor output events during the task. However, the synchrony occasionally occurred in relation to stimulus inputs even when rate modulation was clearly absent, suggesting that the synchrony is not simply accompanied with firing rate modulation and that the synchrony and the rate modulation might code similar information independently. We therefore conclude that the sub-millisecond firing synchrony in the hippocampus is an effective carrier for propagating information—as represented by the firing rate modulations—to downstream neurons.

  11. The power of two choices with simple tabulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The power of two choices is a classic paradigm for load balancing when assigning m balls to n bins. When placing a ball, we pick two bins according to two hash functions ho and h1, and place the ball in the least loaded bin. Assuming fully random hash functions, when m = O(n), Azar et al. [STOC'9...

  12. Using Model, Cover, Copy, Compare, a Token Economy Program, and Discrete Trail Match to Sample Training for Teaching Functional Life Skills for a 13-Year-Old Middle School Student with Moderate Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERINE J. HOOT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of model, cover, copy, compare (MCCC, token system, and match to sample for teaching basic functional life skills with a middle age single student with disabilities. MCCC is a student-managed strategy that teaches discrete skills through errorless correction. Match to sample is another strategy that teaches how to identify and discriminate based on a visual representation of the identical information. The effectiveness of MCCC and match to sample was evaluated using a multiple baseline design. The results indicated that MCCC and match to sample was effective in teaching a single middle age school student with disabilities his name, phone number, home address, and emergency contact name and phone number. Maintenance of the basic functional life skills was also found; except for the emergency contact name. However, even if maintenance was not conducted on the final set, emergency phone number was maintained; this is attributed to the length of teaching sessions on the final set. The MCCC and match to sample interventions were both easy to implement and employ in the special education middle school classroom.

  13. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    BUILDING STRONG® US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System Dr. Mike...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the... Conceptual Framework c CURRENT MTS CURRENT INTERMODAL SYSTEM c MTS INVESTMENTS INTERMODAL INVESTMENTS FUTURE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION DEMAND c

  14. Errorless Establishment of a Match-to-Sample Form Discrimination in Preschool Children. I. A Modification of Animal Laboratory Procedures for Children, II. A Comparison of Errorless and Trial-and-Error Discrimination. Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Judith M.

    A sequence of studies compared two types of discrimination formation: errorless learning and trial-and-error procedures. The subjects were three boys and five girls from a university preschool. The children performed the experimental tasks at a typical match-to-sample apparatus with one sample window above and four match (response) windows below.…

  15. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

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    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  16. Metrological analysis of type MTs-3 cesium frequency reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, Y.G.; Baryshev, V.N.; Elkin, G.A.; Polyakova, L.I.; Pushkin, S.B.; TimoFeev, Y.V.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes the type MTs-3 atomic-beam system whichhas a bipolar sorting magnet and a transverse, uniform magnetic field that is created by a system of four rods. A multichannel collimator with a cross section of 0.5 x 9 mm is used in the source for the beam of cesium atoms. In order to determine the frequency shift due to phase differences in the resonator provision was made for changing the direction of the atomic beam to the opposite. The MTs-3 was compared with the state frequency standard; results are presented. A comparison of the frequency reproduced by the MTs-3 with the frequencies reproduced by types MTs-1 and MTs-2 references whows that their differences do not exceed 1.10/sup -13/ and the nonexcluded systematic frequency error of the MTs-3 is apparently close to 0.7.10/sup -13/.

  17. Occult precipitation: sampling, chemical analysis and process modelling in the Sumava Mts., (Czech Republic) and in the Taunus Mts. (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, V.; Tesar, M.; Buchtele, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper deals with occult precipitation as a process affecting the water balance and chemistry. The methods used in assessing the fog-water amount are discussed. A micrometeorological mathematical resistance model predicted annual gross deposition of cloud-water of 81 mm year -1 in the Sumava Mts. (South Bohemia); the net deposition was 47 mm year -1. Chemical analyses of occult precipitation (fog- and cloud-water, rime-water) both in the Sumava Mts. (Czech Republic) and in the Taunus Mts. (Germany) were made. Cloud- and fog-water samples were collected using active cloud-water collectors installed on the tops of the Sumava and the Taunus Mts. Altogether, 54 samples of cloud- and fog-water and 45 samples of rime-water were collected and analysed. Concentrations of the major ions were significantly higher in occult precipitation than in rain-water. Enrichment factors for cloud vs. rain varied from two to 32. In the Sumava Mts. the estimated wet deposition for NH 4+, NO 3+ and SO 42- via cloud droplet impaction and sedimentation represents 1410 kg km -2 year -1, 2650 kg km -2 year -1 and 2508 kg km -2 year -1, respectively.

  18. Desain Model Manajemen Pemasaran Berbasis Layanan Jasa Pendidikan pada MTs Swasta Se-Kota Semarang

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    Fatkuroji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a management model based marketing services proper education to increase the services of Private MTs in Semarang. The results showed the implementation of the model design management development based marketing services consist of three functions: (1 planning consists of (a analysis of consumer needs, b education outreach programs MTs, c a SWOT analysis of MTs, d Vision-Mission & destination MTs, e service policy MTs; (2 The implementation consists of: a the implementation of MTs service program, b a policy strategy 7P + 1, c Target & MTs market segment, d consumer satisfaction, e the relevance of the needs and services; (3 The evaluation consists of: a customer loyalty, b the interest of student enrollment to MTs.

  19. Expression of the metastasis-associated mts1 gene during mouse development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Ambartsumian, N S; Lukanidin, E M

    1997-01-01

    The mts1 gene, a member of the S100 family, is specifically expressed in different metastatic tumor cell lines. After transfection in some nonmetastatic cell lines Mtsl can induce a metastatic phenotype. Mts1 protein can interact with non-muscle myosin, indicating that Mts1 plays a role in cell...

  20. A Forest Refuge pinpointed to the Ground: Mts. Birougou, Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Tanga, Jean-Jaques; Ngok-Banak, Ludovic

    2010-05-01

    The distribution of forest and savannahs in the Congo basin altered with changing climate throughout the Holocene. In order to understand the dynamics of the forest/savannah replacement process, reference patches of stable savannah or stable rainforest are required. Vegetation dynamics of an area of rainforest located at the Birougou Mountains in Gabon were analysed using the signature of stable Carbon isotope discrimination of photosynthesis, which differs between savannahs and rainforests. These differences in Carbon isotope discrimination enabled the investigation of the vegetative history of the Mts. Birougou region throughout the Holocene. The results of the research indicate that the Mts. Birougou region was continuously covered by rainforest since the Holocene climate optimum (~6-7,000 yrs. BP) and hence did not suffer from the catastrophic decline of rainforest vegetation in the Congo basin between 3,000 yrs. B.P. and 2,000 yrs. B.P. The Mts. Birougou region of the Congolian rainforest can therefore be regarded as a reference ecosystem according to rainforest Carbon storage and species diversity.

  1. Sensitivity to Measurement Errors in Studies on Prosocial Choice using a Two-Choice Paradigm

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    Sikorska Julia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on prosocial behaviors in primates often relies on the two-choice paradigm. Motoric lateralization is a surprisingly big problem in this field of research research, as it may influence which lever will ultimately be chosen by the actor. The results of lateralization studies on primates do not form a clear picture of that phenomenon, which makes it difficult to address the problem during research. The authors discuss possible ways of managing this confounding variable.

  2. Neogene volcanism in Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathains: a review

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    Marinel Kovacs

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of volcanism developed in Gutâi Mts. (inner volcanic chain of Eastern Carpathians: a felsic, extensional/“back-arc” type and an intermediate, arc type. The felsic volcanism of explosive origin, consisting of caldera-related rhyolitic ignimbrites and resedimented volcaniclastics, had taken place during Early-Middle Badenian and Early Sarmatian. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The intermediate volcanism, consisting of extrusive (effusive and explosive and intrusive activity, had developed during Sarmatian and Pannonian (13.4-7.0 Ma. It is represented by typical calc-alkaline series, from basalts to rhyolites. Lava flows of basaltic andesites and andesites are predominant, often emplaced in subaqueous environment. Extrusive domes, mainly composed of dacites, are associated to the andesitic volcanic structures. The geochemical study on the volcanic rocks shows the calc-alkaline character of both felsic and intermediate volcanism and typical subduction zones geochemical signatures for the intermediate one. The felsic volcanism shows affinities with subduction-related rocks as well. The main petrogenetic process in Gutâi Mts. was crustal assimilation, strongly constrained by trace element and isotope geochemistry.

  3. Up-regulation of metastasis-promoting S100A4 (Mts-1) in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Senolt, Ladislav; Baslund, Bo

    2007-01-01

    To examine the involvement of the metastasis-inducing protein S100A4 (Mts-1) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To examine the involvement of the metastasis-inducing protein S100A4 (Mts-1) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  4. Contemporary habitat and floristic changes in the Sudeten Mts

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    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the view that in the Sudeten for fourty years paralelly eutrophication and acidification processes are taking place, as a result of industrial emissions. This view is based on results of bioindication studies on pollution and accumulation of sulphur, nitrogen and heavy metals. At the same time, after 30 years, vegetation and floristic changes were investigated on permanent plots on the Śnieżnik and in the Karkonosze Mts. In most habitats a decrease of pH over 1.0 has been recorded, even in areas with calcium bedrock. Acid rains containing a lot of nitrates contribute to the fertilization of most of the ecosystems. The yearly fall of total nitrogen in the Sudeten ranges from 38 kg in the Karkonosze, to 59 kg/ha on the Śnieżnik, of nitrates - from 380 to 900 ppm/year, and sulphur, on the average, 1300 ppm/year in the whole Sudeten. The acidification of soil causes the inaccessibility of alcaline elements (magnesium, calcium and mobilization of harmful for plants aluminium. Overfertilization of habitats, the lack of calcium and magnesium and the excess of aluminium cause unfavourable alterations in all phytocenoses in the Sudeten. The high mountain forests are particularly suffering, but also the high mountain vegetation and above all the subalpine swards exposed to acid rains. Examples of plant species which adapt themselves to the new ecological conditions, and mountain plants which reduce their range are given. In general, the typical mountain flora and vegetation of the Sudeten is endangered in the existing ecological conditions.

  5. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Field

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat. Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10 were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive

  6. PEMILIHAN CERITA ANAK SEBAGAI BAHAN AJAR MEMBACA DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH (MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosihan Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kriteria-kriteria yang digunakan dalam pemilihan cerita anak yang layak sebagai bahan ajar membaca di MTs. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk menganalisis cerita anak yang layak sebagai bahan ajar membaca di MTs berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria itu.Penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah cerita anak yang ada di Buku Sekolah Elektronik, buku bacaan, dan internet. Objek penelitiannya adalah isi cerita. Ada dua puluh cerita anak yang yang dijadikan sampel penelitian. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan membaca dan mencatat. Analisis data dilakukan dengan cara reduksi, penyajian, dan penyimpulan data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 ada tiga kriteria yang digunakan dalam pemilihan cerita anak yang layak sebagai bahan ajar membaca di MTs. Kriteria-kriteria itu adalah kriteria nilai/moral, motivasi, dan kesesuaian jenis sekolah. (2 Dari dua puluh cerita yang dianalisis, sebelas cerita dinyatakan layak dan sembilan cerita dinyatakan tidak layak dijadikan bahan ajar membaca di MTs. Kata kunci: cerita anak, bahan ajar, membaca   THE SELECTION OF CHILDREN STORIES AS READING TEACHING MATERIAL IN MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH (MTS Abstract The study aims to describe criteria used in the selection proper children stories as reading teaching material in Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs. In addition, the study also aims to describe proper children stories as reading teaching material in Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs based on the criteria.The study is descriptive qualitative research. The subjects of the study are children stories in Buku Sekolah Elektronik (BSE, reading book, and internet. The object of the study is the contents of the stories. There are twenty children stories that the research sample. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. The collection of data is done by reading and writing. Data

  7. PENGEMBANGAN VIDEO BIMBINGAN NUANSA KALINDAQDAQ UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KONSEP DIRI SISWA MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfianah Sunusi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is analyzing the video development of counseling using Kalindaqdaq nuance to improve the self concept of the students in MTs DDI Kec. Campalagian Kab. Polman. The research problem consists of (1 What is the descriptions of the self concept of the students in MTs DDI Kec. Campalagian Kab. Polman? (2 How to produce video of counseling with Kalindaqdaq nuance that is acceptable (utility, feasibility, and accuracy? (3 Does the video of counseling using Kalindaqdaq nuance give effect/influrnce t o increase the self concept of  the students in MTs DDI Kec. Campalagian Kab. Polman? The objectives of the research are  (1 to know the description of the self conceptthe students in MTs DDI Kec. Campalagian Kab. Polman. (2 To create  a video of counseling with Kalindaqdaq nuance which is acceptable  (utuluty,  feasibiliy, AND accuratiom. (3 to know the effect of the video of Kalindaqdaq nuance to enhance the self-concept of the students in MTs DDI Kec. Campalagian Kab. Polman.

  8. Scientific Literature on the Reliability and Validity of the Manchester Triage System (MTS Protocol: A Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Chaves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific production about the validity and reliability of the Manchester Triage System (MTS protocol. METHOD A descriptive study of an integrative literature review. Articles on the validity and reliability of the MTS developed with children and adults published between 1999 and 2013 were included. RESULTS 14 articles were selected from a total of 8438, nine of validity and five of reliability. The reliability of the MTS ranged from moderate to almost perfect, with higher intra-evaluation. Regarding validity, the results seem to point to equivalent and satisfactory sensibility and specificity levels of the MTS. The instrument proved to be a good predictor of the need for hospitalization and of hospital mortality. CONCLUSION The reliability and validity of the MTS obtained in the studies is varied. It is recommended that new studies indicate necessary modifications to the MTS so that it is more safely used by nurses.

  9. FREQUENT DELETION OF MTS1/p16 GENE AND CORRELATION WITH CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Chunxiao; Sun Jianheng; Lu Shixin; Jin Shunqian; Liu Hailing; Sheng Xiugui

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible relationship between deletion of MTS/p16 gene and progression of endometrial carcinoma. Methods: Forty-six primary endometrial carcinoma, 7 tumor-adjacent endometrial tissue, 10 normal endometrial tissue specimen and 5 xenografts from patients with endometrial carcinoma were examined for homozygous deletion of MTS/p16 gene by polymerase chain reaction-based analysis. Results: Of 46 endometrial cancer specimens, 9 showed homozygous deletion, no deletion was detected in the tumor-adjacent and normal endometial tissues. Nor was it detected in well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma and all xenografts. Conclusions: Deletion of MTS1/p16 gene might contribute to the progression of endometrial carcinoma and could be served as indicator for predicting prognosis.

  10. Manajemen Madrasah Berbasis Nilai Pesantren Di MTs al-Islam Joresan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uswatun Ni’mah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Modernization with various impacts should be anticipated the educator by mastering two competences, science and technology competency and spiritual competency. A weakness in one of those competences makes the students’ development is not balanced which finally lead to their split personality. Therefore, the human potential includes both of competences  must be internalized and developed in students simultaneously. In that context, this research conducted to discuss the implementation of school management based on the pesantren value which is developed at MTs Al – Islam Joresan Mlarak Ponorogo. The approach of this research is qualitative on case study. The results of this research conclude that: (1 Pesantren value developed at MTs Al – Islam Joresan Mlarak Ponorogo is the essential value defined in Five Spirits of Madrasah, (2 The Teachers’ Management at MTs Al – Islam Joresan Mlarak Ponorogo includes: Planning, Recruitment, Selection, Training, Teachers Development, Evaluation of Work Performance, and Compensation, (3 The curriculum management at MTs Al – Islam Joresan covered: the subject planning, curriculum organizing, curriculum implementation, and evaluation of Madrasah programs. Abstrak: Modernisasi dengan berbagai macam dampaknya perlu dipersiapkan pendidik yang memiliki dua  kompetensi sekaligus; yakni Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi (IPTEK dan nilai-nilai spiritual keagamaan (IMTAQ. Kelemahan di salah satu kompetensi tersebut menjadikan perkembangan anak tidak seimbang, yang akhirnya akan menciptakan pribadi yang pincang (split personality, sebab itu potensi-potensi insani yang meliputi kedua hal tersebut secara bersamaan harus diinternalisasikan dan dikembangkan pada diri anak didik. Dalam konteks itulah penelitian ini berupaya mengupas implementasi manajamen madrasah berbasis nilai-nilai pesantren yang dikembangkan MTs al-Islam Joresan Mlarak Ponorogo. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif studi

  11. Verrucaria species and other rare amphibious lichens in the Beskid Sądecki Mts

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    Natalia Matura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten freshwater lichen species from the Beskid Sądecki Mts are presented. Seven of them: Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, Thelidium aquaticum, T. minutulum, T. zwackhii, Verrucaria dolosa, V. elaeomelaena and V. submersella, are new to the region. Three species: Verrucaria elaeina, V. hydrophila and V. latebrosa, were previously known from single localities.

  12. Student’s Misconception of Digestive System Materials in MTs Eight Grade of Malang City and the Role of Teacher’s Pedadogic Competency in MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuswa Istikomayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconception research has important value in the development of students' thinking processes especially in science field. As the identification of important concepts that must be mastered by the students can be done, the teacher will easily able to emphasis the important or main concepts. This study aims to identify the students’ misconception in digestive system materials in eight grade of MTs and teacher pedagogic competence role. The survey was conducted in 8A (16 students and 8B (17 students MTs Muhammadiyah 1 and 8E (19 students Surya Buana Malang. The stages of research survey were: preparation of research goals (formulation, sample determination, preparation and instruments validation, data collection, and data analysis. The instruments used were: misconception test, student response questionnaire, learning observation guide, and teacher pedagogic competency form. The findings of the learning outcomes were discussed with the observer team, which then were assessed by using the assessment rubric and classified into the categories of student misconceptions. The results showed that the three teachers, neither certified nor uncertified were proved to be limited in overcoming misconceptions in the learning process; meanwhile, the results of students’ misconception test were mostly reach only level 3 (medium. Thus, the study of misconceptions of the digestive system material or other physiological material matter needs to get the attention of the teachers and educational practitioners.

  13. Recent and subrecent diatom flora of the Sudeten mountains: The Jeseníky Mts and The Jizerské hory Mts

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    Aloisie Poulíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the summary of recent and subrecent diatom flora within Sudeten mountain wetlands - the Jizerské Mts and the Jeseníky Mts Recent samples were taken during the years 2003 and 2006 - 2010. Herbarized bryophytes and fixed samples deposited in museums from the period 1898 - 1995 were used as a source of subrecent diatom flora. A total of 163 diatom species occurred at 70 microsites within 26 mires along the Czech-Polish-German border areas. Recent diatom flora of both areas seems to be comparable in terms of species richness and dominant species. Subrecent samples (herbarized bryophytes contain some less frequent species (representation < 1%, which do not belong to mire flora and can represent a contamination (e.g. planktic genera. Frustulia saxonica and Eunotia paludosa were the most frequent species. E. exigua related in Western Europe to acidification caused by acid rains, was less frequent in both historic and modern samples. Unfortunately, we have few historical herbarium specimens from the 70-ies and 80- ies to trace changes associated with air pollution.

  14. The metastasis-associated Mts1(S100A4) protein could act as an angiogenic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, M

    2001-01-01

    The involvement of Mts1(S100A4), a small Ca(2+)-binding protein in tumor progression and metastasis had been demonstrated. However, the mechanism by which mts1(S100A4) promoted metastasis had not been identified. Here we demonstrated that Mts1(S100A4) had significant stimulatory effect...... on the angiogenesis. We detected high incidence of hemangiomas--benign tumors of vascular origin in aged transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing the mts1(S100A4) gene. Furthermore, the serum level of the Mts1(S100A4) protein increased with ageing. Tumors developed in Mts1-transgenic mice revealed an enhanced vascular...... density. We showed that an oligomeric, but not a dimeric form of the Mts1(S100A4) protein was capable of enhancing the endothelial cell motility in vitro and stimulate the corneal neovascularization in vivo. An oligomeric fraction of the protein was detected in the conditioned media as well as in human...

  15. Improving Listening Skill of The Seventh Grade Students Using Games at MTsN Mojokerto

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    Hanna Andyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study conducted on research at MTsN Mojokerto, the researcher found that there are some problems with teaching English especially for listening of seventh grade students at MTsN Mojokerto, those are: 1 most of the students’ scores on listening test are still under the minimum of standard score (KKM of 79; 2 most students are not attracted to follow the listening activities; 3 students are difficult to understand the native speech in a tape recorder.The main purpose of the study is to improve listening skill of seventh grade students using games. Research design for this study was Classroom Action Research and the researcher used listening tests and observation checklists as instruments.The criteria of success was successfully achieved in Cycle 2 with the percentage of 74%.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of endemic and endangered plants from the Tatra Mts

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    Szymon Zubek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of 24 plant species considered as endemic, endangered in Poland and included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants is reported. Selected plants and rhizosphere soil samples were collected in the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians. Individuals of seriously threatened taxa were obtained from seeds and inoculated with available AM fungal strains under laboratory conditions. AM colonisation was found in 16 plants; 9 species were of the Arum-type, 4 - Paris and 3 taxa revealed intermediate morphology. The mycelium of the fine endophyte (Glomus tenue and dark septate fungi (DSE were observed in the material collected in the field. 20 AMF species (Glomeromycota found in the rhizosphere of the investigated plants were reported for the first time from the Tatra Mts. The results provide information that might be useful for conservation and restoration programmes of these species. Application of AMF in active plant protection projects is discussed.

  17. New lichen records from Bukovské vrchy Mts (NE Slovakia

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    Ivan Pišút

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesting findings of 100 lichens from the Bukovské vrchy Mts (Biosphere Reserve Poloniny, Slovak part are reported as the result of recent survey work. Two species are new for Slovakia: Fellhanera gyrophorica and Rinodina efflorescens, and 34 species are reported for the first time from the studied area. The new records for the country are shortly commented as well as ecological aspects of Agonimia repleta, Strigula stigmatella, Gyalecta ulmi and Belonia herculina.

  18. Validitas Soal-Soal Ujian Nasional Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia Untuk SMP/ MTs

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Jamilatul Muyasaroh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out the level of the content validity and con struct validity of the questions of the national assessment of Indonesian language subject for junior high school / MTs. The Research method applied in this research was qualitative research method. This research employed the qualitative analysis. To support this qualita tive research, the writer used some tools in the data analysis. They are 1) to figure out the content validity, the writer had matched the ...

  19. Transdermal therapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with the methylphenidate patch (MTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L; Dinh, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Transdermal technology is currently approved in the US for the administration of more than 20 medications. This current review describes the clinical research pertaining to the use of a methylphenidate patch in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. PubMed searches were conducted using the search term 'methylphenidate transdermal system', and were limited to clinical trials. No limits were set for dates of publication. A total of 21 citations were identified. Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in children and adolescents were included in this review. Additional studies were identified from bibliographies and the 'Related Citations' section of PubMed searches. The MTS delivers a range of methylphenidate doses using a drug-in-adhesive matrix patch. According to current labeling, the patch should be applied to the hip once daily for a maximum of 9 h. Serum methylphenidate levels increase over wear time, with mean time to maximum concentration (t max) reached between 8 and 10 h for a 9-h wear time, and the elimination half-life for methylphenidate is 3-4 h after patch removal. In clinical trials, ADHD symptoms were measured using the ADHD Rating Scale, Version IV, and several parent-, teacher-, and patient-rated scales. Treatment effects show statistically significant differences from baseline symptom scores starting at the first evaluation, 2 h after the patch is applied, with significant benefit lasting up to 12 h with a 9-h wear time. Adverse events with the MTS are similar to those seen with other formulations of methylphenidate, with the exception of skin-related reactions at the site of application, which were generally mild to moderate in severity. The incidence of contact allergic dermatitis with MTS is methylphenidate. Transdermal drug delivery is an effective and safe means of administering methylphenidate for patients with ADHD.

  20. Desempenho de pessoas com autismo em tarefas de emparelhamento com o modelo por identidade: efeitos da organização dos estímulos Effects of stimuli organization on identity matching-to-sample performances of persons with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Graciella Santos Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou o desempenho de 20 pessoas com autismo em uma tarefa de emparelhamento por identidade sob dois procedimentos que diferiram quanto à forma de apresentação dos estímulos e à resposta de escolha. No procedimento de matching típico cada tentativa apresentava um estímulo modelo e três de comparação; no matching adaptado três modelos e três estímulos de comparação eram apresentados simultaneamente. O procedimento foi conduzido em três blocos: 10 tentativas de matching adaptado, 10 de matching típico e 20 tentativas com os dois arranjos misturados. A média de acertos foi significativamente maior no matching adaptado, mas ocorreu acentuada variabilidade inter-individual e esse arranjo favoreceu principalmente o desempenho de participantes com escores menores. A história prévia de aprendizagem dos participantes, entre outros fatores, pode ter influenciado nesses resultados, o que requer melhor avaliação, com outros controles experimentais.This study assessed the performance of 20 persons with autism in an identity matching-to-sample task, using two procedures with different stimuli arrangements and different response requirements. The typical matching procedure presented one sample stimulus and three comparison stimuli; the adapted matching displayed three sample stimuli and three comparison stimuli simultaneously. Three consecutive sets of trials were conducted: a 10-trial set of adapted matching, a 10-trial set of typical matching, and a 20-trial set intermixing both trial types in an unsystematic order. The average score of correct performance was significantly higher under the adapted matching than under the typical matching, but the inter-individual variability was large and the adapted arrangement favored mainly the performance of participants with lower scores. The participants' previous history in learning may have played a role in the way they solved the present task, but further investigation, with

  1. Tissue-specific posttranscriptional downregulation of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene in transgenic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, M

    1998-01-01

    The S100A4(mts1) is a gene associated with generation of metastatic disease. In order to analyze the consequences of alteration of the pattern of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene we obtained strains of transgenic mice bearing the S100A4(mts1) gene under the control of a ubiquitous...... and constitutive 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene promoter. In transgenic animals the expression of the transgene RNA was detected in all organs, but only some of the organs showed elevated levels of the protein. Expression of the S100A4(Mts1) protein was downregulated in the organs...... that normally do not express the gene in the wild-type animal. The transgene RNA is detected in the polysomes indicating that it could be translated into the S100A4(Mts1) protein. The specificity of the S100A4(Mts1) protein expression is determined by a complex mechanism including regulation of translation and...

  2. Presence and distribution of Suillus plorans in the Polish Tatra Mts (Western Carpatians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ronikier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suillus plorans is a very interesting mountain ectomycorrhizal fungus, attached to Pinus cembra. The paper reports its presence in the Polish Tatra Mts as a new species for Poland, discusses its previous situation among macromycetes of Poland, and its conservation status. It includes detailed descriptions of carpophores and mycorrhizae specimens collected in Poland. Basing on records of both carpophores and mycorrhizae, a map of species' occurrence in the Tatra National Park was prepared and compared with the distribution of Pinus cembra in this area. Identity of mycorrhizae was assessed by a morphological study and confirmed by PCR-RFLP patterns analysis of carpophore and mycorrhizal mycelium.

  3. Sedimentary evolution models of Lower Triassic deep-water carbonate rocks of west Qinling Mts.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋慧娟; 李育慈

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of Lower Triassic deep-water carbonate rock sequence of west Qinling Mts . deep-water carbonate rock sequence is divided into lower fine-grain euxinic deposits of a carbonate gentle slope type and upper bathyal and abyssal sediments of carbonate steep slope type. The upper member is emphatically analysed and synthesized into five fades associations. They comprise four fining- and thinning-upward megacycles, each of them representing a sedimentary column which accumulated after a tensional fault subsidence event, which recorded a whole rifting process of west Qinling ocean trough during Lower Triassic.

  4. Human traces in the bryophyte flora of the summit region of Karkonosze Mts (Polish side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on results of the bryofloristic investigations carried out in 2006 along tourist roads and around mountain chalets the problem of bryophyte response to the tourist utilization of the summit region of Karkonosze Mts is discussed here. The hypothesis that introduction of cement as building material might have caused the income and spread of subneutral or basiphilous ruderal species in that naturally acidic region was formulated and tested. In result 45 species were found, of which the majority do not occur in natural sites in the Karkonosze Mts. Among them 20 species are convinced to be highly hemerophilous. Most of the found species were eurytopic, only 14 prefered subneutral or basic substrata. Many of them produced sporogonia, what indicates high reproduction potential. It seems that the phenomenon of synanthropisation is limited mainly to places in which cement (as mortar or concrete has been used. The list of bryophytes found around all the anthropogenic sites and along the tourist roads in the summit region of Polish part of the massif with brief characteristics of their ecological preferences has been included.

  5. Multiple MTS Assay as the Alternative Method to Determine Survival Fraction of the Irradiated HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mahdi; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin

    2016-01-01

    A multiple colorimetric assay has been introduced to evaluate the proliferation and determination of survival fraction (SF) of irradiated cells. The estimation of SF based on the cell-growth curve information is the major advantage of this assay. In this study, the utility of multiple-MTS assay for the SF estimation of irradiated HT-29 colon cancer cells, which were plated before irradiation, was evaluated. The SF of HT-29 colon cancer cells under irradiation with 9 MV photon was estimated using multiple-MTS assay and colony assay. Finally, the correlation between two assays was evaluated. Results showed that there are no significant differences between the SF obtained by two assays at different radiation doses (P > 0.05), and the survival curves have quite similar trends. In conclusion, multiple MTS-assay can be a reliable method to determine the SF of irradiated colon cancer cells that plated before irradiation.

  6. The pyruvic acid analog 3-bromopyruvate interferes with the tetrazolium reagent MTS in the evaluation of cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Kunjithapatham, Rani; Buijs, Manon; Syed, Labiq H; Rao, Pramod P; Ota, Shinichi; Vali, Mustafa

    2010-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA) is a pyruvate analog known for its alkylating property. Recently, several reports have documented the antiglycolytic and anticancer effects of 3BrPA and its potential for therapeutic applications. 3BrPA-mediated cytotoxicity has been evaluated in vitro by various methods including tetrazolium salt (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide)-based assays such as MTT, MTS, and so on. However, growing body of evidences has shown that tetrazolium reagent may interfere with the test compounds. In this study, we investigated whether the tetrazolium reagent interferes with the assessment of 3BrPA cytotoxicity. The results of the tetrazolium-based MTS assay were compared with 3 distinct cell viability detection methods, that is, Trypan Blue staining, ATP depletion, and Annexin V staining in 2 different cell lines, Vx-2 and HepG2. The MTS assay data showed false positive results by indicating increased cell viability at 1 mM and 2 mM 3BrPA whereas the other cell viability assays demonstrated that both Vx-2 and HepG2 cells are not viable at the same treatment conditions. In order to validate the direct interaction of 3BrPA with MTS reagent, we tested cell-free media incubated with different concentrations of 3BrPA. The results of cell-free media showed an increase in absorbance in a dose-dependent manner confirming the interaction of MTS with 3BrPA. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that 3BrPA interferes with the accuracy of MTS-based cytotoxicity evaluation. Hence, we suggest that employing multiple methods of biochemical as well as morphological cytotoxicity assays is critical to evaluate 3BrPA-mediated cell death.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM BAHASA ARAB PADA KELAS MATA PELAJARAN DI MTsN SUMBER BUNGUR PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Muhlis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the Among the breakthroughs of MTs Sumber Bungur Pamekasan as a formal educational institution that is trusted as a pilot school in the area of East Java religious ministry is the realization of the program in the field of Arabic language curriculum development. The purpose of this study was about to describe how the concept and development of the classroom curriculum model in  Arabic subject at  MTs  Sumber Bungur Pamekasan, and what are the factors supporting and hindering the implementation of the curriculum. The research result shows that  the class curriculum of Arabic subjects is basically develop the 2006 curriculum which emphasis on the needs of the community and the islamic boarding school. MTs  Sumber Bungur Pamekasan develop classroom-based curriculum of the  Arabic subjects that later termed as classroom curriculum of Arabic subjects.  The Curriculum development model used is the central de-central, the curriculum development process that combines the two approaches, administrative and grass roots approach. Curriculum development is manifested in the additional hours of lessons and teaching materials, namely on subjects PAI and Arabic which was originally only 11 hours of lessons to 24 hours of lessons. The addition of the lesson period is used to examine the science nahwu, shorrof, hermeneutics (tafsir, and other classical holy books. The factors supporting the implementation of curriculum development are: 1 the Motivation by the Regional Office of the Religion Ministry of East Java, 2 the Principals Commitment, 3 Professional competence of the Arabic subjects classroom teachers, 4 The existence of Islamic boarding school sumber bungur  as an institution that strengthens the learning process and 5 the students Input who have an initial understanding of the material that will be presented. While the inhibiting factors are: 1 No allocation of special funds, 2 There is inequality in the ability of teachers in curriculum

  8. Morphological differences between Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. revealed by cone traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old cones were collected from 388 dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra plants of ten populations of this species from the Tatra Mts. - five of them from calcareous and five from calcium-free undersoil. Their 14 morphological traits are described. The data served for performing multivariate analysis of variance and testing of statistical hypotheses, for discriminate analysis. for calculating Mahalanobis distances between populations and plotting a dendrite based on the shortest Mahalanobis distances and for agglomerative clustering by the method of nearest neighbourhood. Wide differences in the populations were found as regards all the studied traits and the existence of two groups in the population, which, do not, however, correlate with the substrate type. The "calcareous and calcium-free" populations show statistically significant differences in six of the 14 studied traits.

  9. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN PENALARAN MATEMATIS SISWA MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nego Linuhung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to find out the influence of Group Investigation (GI of Cooperative Learning methods toward the student’s ability of mathematical reasoning. The research design was quasi-experimental the nonequivalent posttest-only control group design consisting of one experimental class (Group Investigation of Cooperative Learning and one control class. The research population was all the second-semester students of VIII grade of MTs Negeri 1 Lampung Timur in the academic year of 2015/2016. The research instruments used were mathematical reasoning ability test. Data Analyze mathematical reasoning ability was used independent sample t-test. The results showed that: (1 mathematical reasoning ability using Group Investigation of Cooperative Learning was higher than conventional learning.

  10. BLIND PEOPLE BEHAVIORS TO THE ARCHITECTURE OF SEKOLAH LUAR BIASA (SLB MTS YAKETUNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN Harry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People who are considered as users or even the inhabitants are the central issue in architecture; therefore it is essential to understand them before making the design. One of the users who have special character are blind people. This paper discusses the interaction between architecture and blind people by observing the blind students’ mobility at Sekolah Luar Biasa (SLB/extraordinary school MTs Yaketunis Yogyakarta. This research also conducted interviews to confirm the observation result. The purpose of the research is to identify the characteristics of blind people during their interaction with architecture and elements of architecture. The observation and interview done during the research has been recorded several interesting facts, such as how they walked through the corridor, the arrangement method of information about rooms, and the way to find each room. This information is expected to be useful information for creating better and more suitable environment for them.

  11. Temporal and spatial changes of radon concentration in borehole water (Little Carpathians Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smetanová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The 222Rn activity concentration in ground water from four boreholes was investigated from January 2006 to June 2008. The boreholes are situated in the region of the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory in Modra-Piesok (Little Carpathians Mts., 40 km NW from Bratislava, Slovakia. Three boreholes have been drilled in Lower Triassic quartzite. Another borehole has been drilled in granodiorite of the Modra massif in which the quartzite is folded. Temporal and spatial differences in radon concentration were observed. Significant short-term variations were noticed in all boreholes. Precipitation caused the changes of water level and strongly affected the values of 222Rn activity concentration in less deep boreholes. The measured activities in boreholes ranged approximately over 1–240 kBq/m3.

  12. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se están eliminando los motores de calar, de guía y mecánica asociada. Para ésto, se están diseñando dos electrónicas que gobernarán, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizarán las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento será programado y por lo tanto, más suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a través de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveerá los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y guía.

  13. Validitas Soal-Soal Ujian Nasional Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia Untuk SMP/ MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Jamilatul Muyasaroh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out the level of the content validity and con struct validity of the questions of the national assessment of Indonesian language subject for junior high school / MTs. The Research method applied in this research was qualitative research method. This research employed the qualitative analysis. To support this qualita tive research, the writer used some tools in the data analysis. They are 1 to figure out the content validity, the writer had matched the test items with the indicators listed in the SKL (Graduation Standard Competency of the Indonesian Language subject 20102011 aca demic years; 2 For the construct validity, the writer used the evaluation format of multiple choice test items by applying material aspect, construct aspect, and language and culture aspect. After the research was conducted, it can be concluded that the questions of the National Assessment of Indonesian Language Subject for Junior High School / MTs in the 20102012 academic years have high content validity and construct validity. The content validity, the entire indicators in the SKL (Graduation Standard Competency has been ap plied in the test items. However, the writer found that there are two indicators that are used in four test items. In fact, each indicator should be applied in one test item. The construct validity, by using analysis method of the evaluation format of multiplechoice test items, the writer figured out that 56% 100 % test items are appropriate with the aspects. Meanwhile, the test items which are not deal with the aspects are 16 – 44%.

  14. Recent rapid shortening of crust across the Tianshan Mts. and relative motion of tectonic blocks in the north and south

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the multiple-epoch Global Positioning System observations during a period from 1992 to 1999, we document directly a rapid crustal shortening of ~20 mm/a across the western Tianshan Mts. (76°E), in contrast to a 4 mm/a convergent rate across the eastern Tianshan Mts. (87°E)and the north-south convergence across the mountain belt descends laterally from west to east. The direction of current crustal movement inferred by GPS sites along the southern flank of the Tianshan Mts. is approximately perpendicular to the easterly-trending mountain belt, indicating that the Tarim Basin thrust almost rightly into the Tianshan Mts. The Tarim Basin accommodates nearly no or a minor, if any, crustal deformation and rotates clockwise, as a rigid body in a whole, at a rate of 0.64°/Ma around a Euler pole at 95.7°E, 40.3°N (Anxi, Gansu) with respect to the stable Siberia. The relative motion between the Kazakh platform and the Dzungarian Basin is quite apparent. The Dzungar should be regarded as an independent active block from the view of the Asia tectonic settings.

  15. IMPLEMENTASI PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER DI SMP NEGERI 1 DAN MTs AL-QASIMIYAH KECAMATAN PANGKALAN KURAS KABUPATEN PELALAWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Ramli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan implementasi pendidikan karakter di SMP Negeri 1 dan MTs Al-Qasimiyah Pangkalan Kuras, Kabupaten Pelalawan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah kepala sekolah, guru, dan siswa. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi serta dianalisis secara kualitatif menggunakan teknik analisis data model interaktif Miles and Huberman. Hasil penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut. 1 Pendidikan karakter di SMP Negeri 1 dan MTs Al-Qasimiyah  Pangkalan Kuras dilaksana-kan melalui pengintegrasiannya ke dalam mata pelajaran, pengembangan diri, budaya sekolah, dan kegiatan ekstrakurikuler. Sedangkan perbedaannya, di MTs Al-Qasimiyah lebih menitikberatkan pendidikan keagamaan. 2 Faktor penghambat: a masih ada guru yang belum melaksanakan pendidikan karakter karena kurangnya sosialisasi dan pelatihan; b masih ada guru yang belum memberikan keteladanan sedangkan di MTs Al-Qasimiyah telah mencerminkan keteladanan yang baik.; c masih ada orang tua siswa yang kurang peduli terhadap pendidikan anaknya di sekolah terutama siswa yang melanggar tata tertib maupun aturan-aturan sosial.Kata kunci: implementasi, pendidikan karakter

  16. Aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan MTS as an indicator of NADH- and NADPH-dependent dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunigan, D D; Waters, S B; Owen, T C

    1995-10-01

    Recently a new tetrazolium was described for the use of monitoring cell viability in culture. This tetrazolium, commonly referred to as MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 5-(3-carboxymethonyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt], has the unusual property that it can be reduced to a water-soluble formazan. beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/reduced (NADH) and beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate/reduced (NADPH) are examples of physiologically important reducing agents. In cell-free studies, MTS was reduce to the soluble formazan in the presence of NADH and NADPH, and reaction were compared to those with dithiothreitol (DTT) or 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). The efficiency of these reactions was enhanced 1000-fold by the presence of phenazine methosulfate. Selectivity in the electron transfer from NADPH was slightly greater than NADH, and NADPH or NADH was much greater than the thiols DTT or 2-ME. Generation of either NADH or NADPH in solution by malate dehydrogenase or isocitrate dehydrogenase, respectively, was monitored by the MTS reduction reaction. The rate of formazan formation was comparable to the formation of NADH or NADPH. This system represents a useful tool for evaluating reaction kinetics in solutions of NAD- or NADP-dependent dehydrogenase enzymes, and these reactions can be performed in typical biological buffers containing reducing agents without significant interference to the MTS/formazan system.

  17. 化脓链球菌中铁结合蛋白MtsA二级结构的研究%The Secondery Structure Study of Iron-binding Protein MtsA from Streptococcus pyogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红翠; 张静; 徐倩; 许丽娜; 王南杰; 孙雪松

    2012-01-01

    化脓性链球菌是一种革兰氏阳性人类致病菌,其生长和感染离不开铁离子.MtsA是化脓链球菌中直接结合铁离子的一个脂蛋白.通过PCR扩增化脓性链球菌MGAS5005中的MtsA基因,构建高效表达质粒pGEX-MtsA,将其转化到大肠杆菌BL21中并用IPTG进行诱导表达.利用亲和层析方法纯化表达产物.通过多序列比对分析了MtsA铁结合中心的保守性,利用定点突变技术将MtsA的结合配体单位点及多位点进行突变,结合圆二色谱分析这些氨基酸突变后蛋白二级结构的变化.多序列比对结果表明MtsA结合铁离子的氨基酸位点是保守的,4个关键氨基酸位点处于蛋白空间的凹陷处.通过比较空载及饱和铁离子的野生型蛋白以及突变体蛋白的圆二色吸收光谱,发现野生型MtsA结合铁离子后结构更加紧密,H68A,E206A和D281A则比野生型的二级结构松散,而H140A的二级结构和野生型的几乎没有差别.对MtsA 4个结合配体突变后其二级结构变化的研究,为进一步研究细菌中的铁转运机理及开发疫苗候选药物和药靶奠定了一定的理论依据.%Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive human pathogen, and iron is essential for its survival and infection. MtsA is a lipoprotein of Streptococcus pyogenes, which is responsible for iron binding. MtsA was amplified by PCR from Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS5005 and constructed the recombinant plasmid pGEX-MtsA. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 to express the fusion protein after induction with IPTG. The protein was purified using affinity chromatography. The conservative of the MtsA iron binding center was analyzed using multiple alignment. The mutant proteins were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. Circular dichroism was used to collect the changes of mutants' secondery structure when compared to wild-type protein. The result of multiple alignment showed the four binding amino acids were

  18. How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2015-04-01

    How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic Lukáš Vlček, Jan Kocum, Bohumír Janský, Luděk Šefrna Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech Republic Runoff formation is a very important issue within a flood protection and drought prevention. To solve this topic a lot of parameters, which affect the outflow, need to be known. Especially it is necessary to find out which part of a catchment contributes mostly to discharge during flood events or during drought periods. Optimal conditions for such a research are provided by our study in Šumava Mts., where a number of former floods has been created. In near future this area can play role within the water storage enhancement in SW Czech Republic during drought periods. Central part of Šumava Mts. is covered with peat bogs and other peaty soil types which are mostly supplied by rain water. This study takes place in the small catchment (1 km²) in Šumava Mts. It is created by 2 main slopes with different vegetation and soil coverage. First slope is covered by well-developed peat bog where 3 springs were found, the second slope is covered by dead spruce forest and soil type of entic Podzol, where one spring was found. Each specific part of the catchment was mapped and equipped by devices such as water level probe or tensiometers. Spring discharges and outflow have been observed. For consecutive analyses water silica, stable isotopes and temperature observations have been carried out as well. Results of this research should help to better understand the runoff process taking place in the core zone of Šumava Mts. Moreover it should improve a flood forecasting and the knowledge about retention ability of Czech mountains.

  19. KEEFEKTIFAN EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA MTs MATERI BANGUN RUANG SISI DATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyahsih Alin Sholihah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan keefektifan penerapan model experiential learning dan menentukan mana yang lebih efektif antara model experiential learning dan pembelajaran konvensionalpada pembelajaran matematika materi bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari prestasi belajar dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika. Jenis penelitian ini adalah quasi-experiment dengan pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison-group design. Populasi dan sampelnya adalah siswa Kelas VIII MTs Negeri Sidoharjo dan siswa Kelas VIIIA dan VIIIB. Untuk menguji keefektifan pembelajaran metamatika dengan model experiential learning dan konvensional digunakan analisis dengan uji proporsi. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan keefektifan pembelajaran matematika dengan model experiential learning dan konvensional, data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji T2 Hotelling’s, dan uji t dengan kriteria Bonferroni untuk menentukan model pembelajaran manakah yang lebih efektif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan model experiential learning lebih efektif dari pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran matematika materi bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari prestasi belajar dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika. Kata Kunci: model experiential learning, konvensional, prestasi belajar, dan apresiasi matematika.   THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING  IN SUBJECT MATTER OF FLAT SIDE CONSTRUCT Abstract This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the experiential learning model and to determine which one is more effective between the experiential learning model and the conventional one in mathematics learning in subject matter of flat side construct viewed from the learning achieve-ment and students’ appreciationof mathematics. This study was a quasi-experimental study using the pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison-group design. The research population comprised all Year VIII students, consisting of 4 classes of MTs Negeri Sidoharjo

  20. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  2. Large-scale slope remodelling by landslides - Geomorphic diversity and geological controls, Kamienne Mts., Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoń, Piotr; Jancewicz, Kacper; Różycka, Milena; Duszyński, Filip; Kasprzak, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The Kamienne Mts. in the Sudetes, Central Europe, bear widespread evidence of landsliding which mainly occurred at the boundary between Carboniferous and Permian clastic sedimentary rocks and overlying Permian volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. 47 individual landslides have been delimited using a combination of LiDAR-derived DEM analysis and field mapping. They have been characterized through a range of geomorphometric parameters and cluster analysis reveals four major groups in terms of surface expression and consequently, likely origin and history. Spatial analysis confirms distinct association of landslides with the steepest terrain and north to east aspect of slopes, but distance from lithological contact emerges as the critical parameter. > 80% of the total landslide area is located within 200 m of a contact, on either side of it. Joint measurements within head scarps at selected landslides indicate that displacements took place along steeply dipping joints in the volcanic cap, but the existence of low angle detachment surfaces in the underlying sedimentary formations is inferred. The spatial distribution of slope deformations coupled with apparently different (although yet unspecified) ages of individual landslides suggests that remodelling of the mountain range by landslides is an ongoing process. Geomorphic history of the area excludes glacial or fluvial erosion and resultant slope de-buttressing as the cause of instability. Rather, landslides are considered as mechanisms by which slopes which have become too high and steep due to long-term differential erosion restore their strength equilibrium.

  3. Farmer decision making and its effect on subalpine grassland succession in the Giant Mts., Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hejcman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition is generally considered as a main reason for many recent plant expansions, but management changes are often not taken into account. Understanding the effects of agriculture management in the past can be decisive in the explanation of plant expansions at present. In order to understand the spread of Molinia caerulea and Calamagrostis villosa into Nardus stricta dominated subalpine grassland in the Giant Mts. (Krkonoše, Karkonosze, we undertook an experiment to explain farmer decision making and we discussed its effect on grassland succession. We measured mowing productivity, yields, biomass quality and nutrient removal in N. stricta, M. caerulea, and C. villosa dominated swards. With regard to defoliation management performed on the subalpine grasslands for at least 500 years and cancelled after the Second World War, we found the following results and conclusions. 1. Mowing productivity, yield and forage quality were lowest in the N. stricta sward, therefore farmers preferred to harvest C. villosa and M. caerulea stands if they had the possibility to select a sward for mowing. 2. Removal of all nutrients was the lowest in the N. stricta sward. With respect to these facts, the competitive advantage of N. stricta is obvious under long-term scything without fertilization. Consequently, the recent increase of defoliation sensitive species M. caerulea and C. villosa above the timber line must be evaluated with respect to both: termination of agricultural activities and recent nitrogen deposition.

  4. Transport and Emplacement of the 15.4 Ma Rhyolitic Ignimbrites from Gutai Mts., Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Fulop

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The 15.4 Ma rhyolitic ignimbrites are the first volcanic products from Gutâi Mts. The study of their sedimentary structures reflects the mechanisms involved in the transport and emplacement of the parental flows, essential to inffering the style of eruption and the source evolution and location. Primary sedimentary structures show massive deposits emplaced from mass flows, sequence of units showing the normal coarse-tail grading of the dense clasts and the reverse coarse-tail grading of the pumice clasts. They reflect concentrated laminar flows or dilute, subcritical flows emplaced by progressive aggradation. Secondary sedimentary structures are represented by the eutaxitic texture or welding, cooling textures (columnar jointings, spherulitic textures and gas-escape pipes. They assess the hot state deposition with low degree of fluidization, low cooling rates and gas-retention regime. Secondary sedimentary structures are represented by the eutaxitic texture or welding, cooling textures (columnar jointings, spherulitic textures and gas-escape pipes. They assess the hot state deposition with low degree of fluidization, low cooling rates and gas-retention regime.

  5. Transport and emplacement of ignimbrites and resedimented volcaniclastics from Gutai Mts., Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Fülöp

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Gutâi Mts. had started to be built up in Middle Miocene, ca. 15.4 Ma ago. A series of explosive events developed starting with a major magmatic explosion and caldera collapse responsible for large volumes of ignimbrites. Successive explosions followed caldera collapse triggering a series of pyroclastic currents that underwent subsequent reworking. Mass flow has been the main transport mechanism recorded by the sedimentary structures of either ignimbrites or post-ignimbrites volcaniclastics. Multiple ignimbrite units resulted from subaerial mass flows, successively emplaced by progressive aggradation from the basal layer of a density-stratified pyroclastic current. The overlying sequence is composed of different volcaniclastics of pyroclastic origin interlayered with mudstones. They preserve the original composition of ignimbrites, but lack the evidence of hot-state deposition, recording the emplacement from more or less dilute mass flows. A syn-eruptive stage of resedimentation is suggested prior to emplacement in submarine conditions, determined by the transformation of gas-supported pyroclastic currents into water-supported mass flows after transition from subaerial to submarine conditions. The syn-eruptive resedimented volcaniclastics may be correlated with the ignimbrite-type subaerial pyroclastic flows, but they show different degrees of fluidization due to the impact of submarine environment.

  6. Observations on the mycorrhizal status of Polygonum viviparum in the Polish Tatra Mts. (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ronikier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum viviparum is one of very few herbaceous plants known to form ectomycorrhiza; in the Tatra Mts. it is one of dominants in the alpine zone, but also descends down to the feet of the massif. Specimens of this plant were collected from 5 sites at the altitude range 900– 2150 m, from granite and limestone. It allowed an estimation of the ectomycorrhizal diversity as well as preliminary ecological observations. Roots were also stained in order to check potential presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Ectomycorrhizae were present in all specimens (with 2–5 morphotypes observed on single plants. In total, 17 morphotypes were observed and briefly described. The most widespread were the mycorrhiza of Cenococcum geophilum and a brightly coloured morphotype resembling the ectomycorrhizae of Russula sp. No important differences in ectomycorrhizal colonization between low and high localities were found. Observed general differences in abundance and diversity of mycorrhiza in P. viviparum between sites could most probably be connected with plant community composition (presence/absence of ectomycorrhizal shrubs maintaining ectomycorrhizal fungi, although mycorrhizae were present also in sites devoid of other ectomycorrhizal plants. Structures associated to arbuscular colonization (vesicles, hyphal coils were occassionally observed, but without formation of arbuscules.

  7. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  8. Limitations of MTT and MTS-based assays for measurement of antiproliferative activity of green tea polyphenols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemopreventive effect of green tea polyphenols, such as (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, has been well demonstrated in cell culture studies. However, a wide range of IC(50 concentrations has been observed in published studies of the anti-proliferative activity of EGCG from different laboratories. Although the susceptibility to EGCG treatment is largely dependent on cancer cell type, the particular cell viability and proliferation assays utilized may significantly influence quantitative results reported in the literature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared five widely used methods to measure cell proliferation and viability after EGCG treatment using LNCaP prostate cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both methods using dyes to quantify adenosine triphosphate (ATP and deoxynucleic acid (DNA showed accuracy in the measurement of viable cells when compared to trypan blue assay and results showed good linear correlation (r = 0.95. However, the use of MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium as indicators of metabolically active mitochondria overestimated the number of viable cells by comparison with the ATP, DNA, or trypan blue determinations. As a result, the observed IC(50 concentration of EGCG was 2-fold higher using MTT and MTS compared to dyes quantifying ATP and DNA. In contrast, when cells were treated with apigenin MTT and MTS assays showed consistent results with ATP, DNA, or trypan blue assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that MTT and MTS -based assays will provide an underestimation of the anti-proliferative effect of EGCG, and suggest the importance of careful evaluation of the method for in vitro assessment of cell viability and proliferation depending on the chemical nature of botanical supplements.

  9. Eph/ephrin-B-mediated cell-to-cell interactions govern MTS20(+) thymic epithelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Herradón, Sara; García-Ceca, Javier; Sánchez Del Collado, Beatriz; Alfaro, David; Zapata, Agustín G

    2016-08-01

    Thymus development is a complex process in which cell-to-cell interactions between thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are essential to allow a proper maturation of both thymic cell components. Although signals that control thymocyte development are well known, mechanisms governing TEC maturation are poorly understood, especially those that regulate the maturation of immature TEC populations during early fetal thymus development. In this study, we show that EphB2-deficient, EphB2LacZ and EphB3-deficient fetal thymuses present a lower number of cells and delayed maturation of DN cell subsets compared to WT values. Moreover, deficits in the production of chemokines, known to be involved in the lymphoid seeding into the thymus, contribute in decreased proportions of intrathymic T cell progenitors (PIRA/B(+)) in the mutant thymuses from early stages of development. These features correlate with increased proportions of MTS20(+) cells but fewer MTS20(-) cells from E13.5 onward in the deficient thymuses, suggesting a delayed development of the first epithelial cells. In addition, in vitro the lack of thymocytes or the blockade of Eph/ephrin-B-mediated cell-to-cell interactions between either thymocytes-TECs or TECs-TECs in E13.5 fetal thymic lobes coursed with increased proportions of MTS20(+) TECs. This confirms, for the first time, that the presence of CD45(+) cells, corresponding at these stages to DN1 and DN2 cells, and Eph/ephrin-B-mediated heterotypic or homotypic cell interactions between thymocytes and TECs, or between TECs and themselves, contribute to the early maturation of MTS20(+) TECs.

  10. Geomorphological inventory of rock landforms on Mt. Kamenec in the Novohradské hory Mts. (the Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Rypl, J.; Kirchner, K. (Karel); Dvořáčková, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the cryogenic granite landforms on Mt. Kamenec (1 072 m a.s.l.) located in the Novohradské hory Mts (southern Bohemia). Detailed geomorphological distribution and description of cryogenic landforms were obtained with using detailed geomorphological mapping. On the basis of field research the geomorphological map of the study locality was elaborated. Using of geomorphological inventory enabled the evaluation of landforms in study area and providing of proposal for nature ...

  11. Raman spectroscopic and microthermometric studies of authigenic quartz (the Pepper Mts., Central Poland) as an indicator of fluids circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglik, Beata; Toboła, Tomasz; Natkaniec-Nowak, Lucyna; Luptáková, Jarmila; Milovská, Stanislava

    2017-02-01

    Differently colored authigenic quartz crystals were found as the druses compound within mudstone heteroliths from the Pepper Mts. Shale Formation (Cambrian unit of the Holy Cross Mts., Central Poland). The genesis of this mineral was established on the basis of fluid inclusion study. Raman microspectroscopy was the key instrumental technique to identify the nature of the compounds trapped in the fluid inclusions. Methane (2917 cm- 1) or water vapor (broad band 2500-3000 cm- 1) occur within two-phased primary inclusion assemblages, while nitrogen (2329 cm- 1) associated with methane and trace amount of carbon dioxide (1285, 1388 cm- 1) occur within secondary fluid inclusion assemblage. Temperatures of homogenization of primary fluid inclusions was obtained on the basis of heating experiments and ranged from 171° to 266 °C. These values are much higher than expected for the diagenetic system without metamorphic changes what may imply hydrothermal origin of quartz crystals. The source of fluids is uncertain as in the Holy Cross Mts. there was no volcanic activity to the end of Late Devonian. However, fluids originated in metamorphic basin could use deep faults as the migration paths.

  12. THE REALIZATION OF E-BOOKS FOR TEACHING AS REFLECTED BY EFL TEACHERS OF ISLAMIC JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Priajana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at processing empirical data to know the realization e-book program in EFL teaching and learning process as reflected by English teachers of Islamic Junior High School (MTs in Indonesia. It is a descriptive research of which the approach is a cross sectional survey. The result of this study was expected to be the basis for the government to re-evaluate the implementation of the national project of School Electronic Books (BSE. Based on the result of data analysis, the program of e-books should be revised as considering several factors affecting its insufficient use by the EFL teachers of MTs. The use of E-book in teaching and learning in Indonesia EFL classroom had been beyond the teachers’ outlook. It revealed that e-book and its advantages were not well recognized by many teachers of MTs in Indonesia because of lack awareness of rapid growth of technology and information in this case the use of internet. Keywords: e-book, teaching and learning, program, implementation

  13. Ground surface thermal regime of rock glaciers in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Numerous lobate- or tongue-shaped debris accumulations, mostly interpreted as rock glaciers, have recently been recognized in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (49˚ 10' N, 20˚ 08' E). These prominent landforms arise due to creep of voluminous debris-ice mixtures, and as such they are excellent indicators of present or past permafrost existence. Hence rock glaciers are extensively utilized to model the distribution of permafrost in mountain areas. However, commonly applied rules of thumb may not be entirely indicative to discriminate particularly between the inactive (permafrost in disequilibrium with present climate) and relict (without permafrost) rock glaciers, which may substantially complicate permafrost modelling. Accordingly, the information about their thermal state is essential to calibrate and validate regional permafrost models. Limited ground temperature data have been, however, available from the High Tatra Mts. to date and therefore, we bring the updated and enhanced results from the thermal investigations of eleven rock glaciers located in the Slavkovská dolina and Veľká Studená dolina valleys at elevations between 1832 and 2090 m asl. Ground surface temperature (GST) has been continuously monitored at seven rock glaciers between October 2014 and September 2016 using nine Minikin Tie (EMS Brno Inc.) and iButton DS1922L (Maxim Integrated Inc.) loggers with an accuracy of ±0.2 and ±0.5 ˚ C, respectively. In addition, the bottom temperature of snow (BTS) was measured at 306 locations during spring of 2015 and 2016 to map potential permafrost occurrence within all the surveyed rock glaciers and in their immediate surroundings. Mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of the rock glaciers ranged between -1.3 ˚ C and +2.6 ˚ C and averaged +1.0 ˚ C and +0.8 ˚ C in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. Two sites continually showed negative MAGST and two other sites were below +0.5 ˚ C and +1.0 ˚ C, respectively. This strongly contrasts with

  14. Are there rocks from the Brezovské Karpaty Mts. suitable for construction and decoration purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Holzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research has focused on assessing the most important physical and mechanical properties of rocks quarried in the Brezovské Karpaty Mts. Carbonate sandstones and conglomerates of Upper Cretaceous and carbonate sandstone of Neogene sedimentary strata were considered. The sites Chtelnica – Trianova and Chtelnica – Malé Skalky were chosen as appropriate material for monuments and for restoration work. Samples for the assessment of rock properties were taken from abandoned and operated quarries. The tested specimens for laboratory tests in a form of cubes and cylinders were prepared from monoliths and drilled cores were taken from the depth up to 1 m within the rock mass. To broaden the scope of the investigations previous research results from quarries at St. Margarethen (Burgenland, Austria in similar lithological type were also included. Thin sections were made from one of the drill cores from each quarry. The rock quality and durability were assessed through laboratory testing of physical and mechanical properties, including measurements of real and apparent density, porosity, water absorption capacity, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS for both dry and water-saturated rock samples and for samples following repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the coefficient of softening and the coefficient of freezing. All investigated rock samples had different porosities and absorption capacities. They also differed in their UCS values, which varied greatly but mostly belonged to the weak rock category (UCS below 50 MPa. Based on physical and mechanical properties of rocks assessed on a number of tested samples from two investigated sites in Slovakia and one comparable site in Austria, quality assurance of the rock utilization as a decoration/restoration material is presented.

  15. Effect of Intermittent Reinforcement on Acquisition and Retention in Delayed Matching-to-Sample in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 involved independent groups that received primary reinforcement after a correct match with a probability of 1.0, 0.50 or 0.25. Correct matches that did not produce primary reinforcement produced a conditioned reinforcer. Both experiments revealed little evidence that acquisition or retention was adversely affected by use of…

  16. Emergence of Reading and Writing in Illiterate Adults After Matching-to-Sample Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Motta Bandini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading and writing are behaviors that provide an individual with the opportunity for inclusion in many social environments. Despite the importance of these behaviors, statistical indices show that, in Brazil, 8.6% of the people aged 15-24 are illiterate. The purpose of this manuscript, which is divided into two studies, was to assess the effects of a Portuguese language reading curriculum for simple (Study 1 and complex words (Study 2 in illiterate adults. Four participants took part in each study. In both studies, reading was taught mainly by training dictated words to printed words relations. Overall, there was an increase in the percentage of correct responses in reading and writing tasks when pre-tests and post-tests were compared; results were more consistent in reading tasks. Future studies should continue to investigate procedures with these goals for this population.

  17. Influence of identity versus oddity pretraining on symmetric matching to sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Boelens (Harrie); J.J. Schenk (Jacqueline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIdentity and oddity matching tasks were designed for different groups of 5-yr.-old children. The presentation of tasks continued until all children had shown evidence of appropriate generalization to new stimuli (i.e., generalized identity matching or generalized oddity from sample). All

  18. Tyrosine Ameliorates a Cold-Induced Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance Decrement in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    were controlled and creased firing rate of CNS neurons and the continued recorded by a computer system. release of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase ... hydroxylase . In: Lipton MA, DiMascio ducing a working memory deficit under field conditions A, Killam KF (eds) Psychopharmacology: a generation of pro...of rats after acute oral doses of aspar- References tame, phenylalanine , and tyrosine. Fundam Appi Toxicol 16:495-505 Ahlers ST, Thomas JR, Berkey DL

  19. INTERFERENCE IN LEARNING ENGLISH: GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN ENGLISH ESSAY WRITING AMONG SEVENTH GRADERS OF MTs DARUL ULUM, SUKOSEWU, BOJONEGORO, EAST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Ghufron, M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to present an analysis of interference effect, a factor that plays an important role in inhibiting the acquisition of English among seventh grade students of MTs Darul Ulum, Sukosewu, Bojonegoro, East Java. The data substantiating the discussion throughout this article came from an empirical study of errors in essays written by seventh grade students of MTs Darul Ulum in the academic year of 2015/2016. The participants were all students in 7A class consisting ...

  20. Peningkatan Aktivitas, Motivasi dan Hasil Belajar IPA Biologi Peserta Didik Kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN Watampone melalui Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiati Pujiati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan aktivitas belajar, motivasi belajar dan hasil belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone melalui model pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilaksanakan di MTsN  1 Watampone Kabupaten Bone. Subjek  penelitian ini adalah peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 dengan jumlah peserta didik 32 orang. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada semester genap tahun pelajaran 2015/2016, bulan Januari sampai bulan April 2016. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 aktivitas belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone meningkat dari  62,25% menjadi 87,5% melalui model pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing (2 motivasi  belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone meningkat dari 85,71% menjadi 87,06%  melalui model pembelajaran inkuri terbimbing (3 . Hasil   belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone meningkat dari 59,37% menjadi 87,5%  melalui model pembelajaran inkuri terbimbing.Kata kunci: pendekatan saintifik, keterampilan proses sains, hasil belajar kognitif biologi.ABSTRACTThis study aims to determine the increase activity, motivation and learning outcomes of science biology for VIIIA-1 Class of MTsN 1 Watampone through guided inquiry learning model. This study is classroom action research conducted in MTsN 1 Watampone, Bone. The subjects were students of Class of VIIIA-1 with the number of students is 32. This research was conducted in the second semester of 2015/2016 academic year, January to April 2016. Results showed that (1 the activity of students to learn science biology of VIIIA-1 Class of MTsN 1 Watampone increased from 62.25% to 87.5% through the inquiry guided learning model, (2 motivation to learn science biology of Students of VIIIA-1 Class of MTsN 1 Watampone increased from 85.71% to 87.06% through the inquiry guided learning model, (3 Biological science learning

  1. In-situ ground gamma spectrometry — an effective tool for geological mapping (the Male Karpaty Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojzeš Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of profile in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements that sought to determine the content of natural radionuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th in a near surface horizon of rocks, their weathering cover and soils in the area of the Malé Karpaty Mts. It is widely established that the exploration of radioactivity of bedrocks and cover rocks can be a very effective and useful tool for both geological mapping, for identifying deposits of mineral resources, and even addressing the issues of structural and tectonic geology. This assertion is equally confirmed by the ground gamma spectrometry measurements carried out as part of this case study on larger scales, seeking more detailed geological structure solutions. The results obtained provide a welcome addition to an already existing database, which monitors the content of naturally occurring radionuclides individually for every rock lithotype of the Western Carpathians, by elaborating on the data collected by previous research and by updating this database for any future needs. The presented results confirmed the low to medium radioactivity levels of rocks and soils in the studied area. The highest values were detected in granitoids and metamorfic phyllitic rocks of the Malé Karpaty Mts. core; the lowest values were detected in carbonates, arenaceous sediments and, above all, amphibolite bodies. In this way, the presented results of the interpreted profile (P5 confirm the model of local geological structure as represented on the most up-to-date edition of the geological map of the Male Karpaty Mts. (Polak et al. 2011.

  2. DEHUMANISASI KEGIATAN BELAJAR MENGAJAR MATA PELAJARAN IPS SEMESTER II PADA MTs. AL-AZHAR TUWEL KECAMATAN BOJONG KABUPATEN TEGAL

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    Dewi Amaliah Nafiati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to describe the factors which influence the dehumanization on the teaching learning process at 8th grade students in MTs. Al-Azhar Tuwel. The population of this study were 158 students which were all 8th graders in MTs. Al-Azhar Tuwel in the academic year of 2014/2015. It used proportional cluster random sampling for 25%, or there were 40 students as the samples. The data were collected by documentation, observation and questionnaire with Guttmant scale. Then, the data were classified by two techniques; quantitative and qualitative data which influence the learning of Social Science for getting the conclusion more easily.  Based on the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that dehumanization on the teaching and learning process in MTs. Al-Azhar Tuwel was high enough. The influence of dehumanization factors on the teaching and learning process were teaching method for 77.9%, curriculum factor for 85%, teacher-student relationship for 63.7%, student-teacher relationship for 67.5%, school discipline for 75.4%, homework for 65.4%, school time for 63.7%, learning equipment for 70.8%, over-standard lesson for 81% and building condition for 80%. The most dominant factor which influenced the dehumanization of teaching and learning process is curriculum for 85%. Therefore; teachers need to improve their competences and capabilities to create the more humanist teaching learning process which is appropriate to the goals of education. For achieving the goals, it is recommended for the schools administrators to improve the facilities and infrastructure for getting the more conducive teaching learning process with the representative space and facilities.

  3. Cretaceous—Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians: constraints from structural, sedimentary, geomorphological, and fission track data

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    Králiková Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tatra Mts area, located in the northernmost part of Central Western Carpathians on the border between Slovakia and Poland, underwent a complex Alpine tectonic evolution. This study integrates structural, sedimentary, and geomorphological data combined with fission track data from the Variscan granite rocks to discuss the Cretaceous to Quaternary tectonic and landscape evolution of the Tatra Mts. The presented data can be correlated with five principal tectonic stages (TS, including neotectonics. TS-1 (~95-80 Ma is related to mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking when the Tatric Unit was overlain by Mesozoic sequences of the Fatric and Hronic Nappes. After nappe stacking the Tatric crystalline basement was exhumed (and cooled in response to the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene orogenic collapse followed by orogen-parallel extension. This is supported by 70 to 60 Ma old zircon fission track ages. Extensional tectonics were replaced by transpression to transtension during the Late Paleocene to Eocene (TS-2; ~80-45 Ma. TS-3 (~45-20 Ma is documented by thick Oligocene-lowermost Miocene sediments of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin which kept the underlying Tatric crystalline basement at elevated temperatures (ca. > 120 °C and < 200 °C. The TS-4 (~20-7 Ma is linked to slow Miocene exhumation rate of the Tatric crystalline basement, as it is indicated by apatite fission track data of 9-12 Ma. The final shaping of the Tatra Mts has been linked to accelerated tectonic activity since the Pliocene (TS-5; ~7-0 Ma.

  4. A two-choice strategy through a medial tibial approach for the treatment of pilon fractures with posterior or anterior fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luigi Di Giorgio; Georgios Touloupakis; Emmanouil Theodorakis; Luca Sodano

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The anterolateral approach to the tibia has been popularized for the management of tibial pilon fractures.For complex fracture pattems a combined anterolateral/anteromedial approach is suitable but a high rate of complication has been reported.In our retrospective study a two-choice strategy adopting a medial tibial approach was proposed for the treatment ofpilon fractures with anterior or posterior fragmentation.Methods:Based on an anatomic study oftibial pilon fractures,we retrospectively analyzed the fractures with primary posterior,posterior-lateral or anterior,anterior-lateral (Tillaux-Chaput) involvement of the distal tibia.This retrospective study consisted of 18 patients with a closed tibial plafond fracture.The inclusion criteria were:(1) presence of an anterior/anterolateral type fragment or a posterior (Volkmann) type fragment involving >25% of the articular surface,(2) a minimum follow-up of 12 months,(3) a fibula fracture associated with a medial column fracture of the distal tibia,and (4) soft tissue conditions at the time of operation that did not compromise the choice of surgical access (Tscherne classification for closed fractures:grade 0 and grade 1).Tibial plafond fractures were classified into two groups:one presenting anterior and the other with posterior rim (Volkmann) fragments.Results:Most patients achieved a good clinical recovery in terms of range of motion and Olerud-Molander scale scores.Only three patients presented a grade 2 osteoarthritis at the 12 month follow-up.Conclusion:Our two-choice strategy highlights concepts which have been previously debated and described in the literature.But a new extended protocol for surgical approach to the distal tibia,including more fracture patterns and their association should be further investigated.

  5. A two-choice strategy through a medial tibial approach for the treatment of pilon fractures with posterior or anterior fragmentation

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    Di Giorgio Luigi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The anterolateral approach to the tibia has been popularized for the management of tibial pilon fractures. For complex fracture patterns a combined anterolateral/anteromedial approach is suitable buta high rate of complicat ion has been reported. In our retrospective study a two-choice strategy adopting a medial tibial approach was proposed for the treatment of pilon fractures with anterior or posterior fragmentation. Methods: Based on an anatomic study of tibial pilon fractures, we retrospectively analyzed the fractures with primary posterior, posterior-lateral or anterior, anterior-lateral (Tillaux-Chaput involvement of the distal tibia. This retrospective study consisted of 18 patients with a closed tibial plafond fracture. The inclusion criteria were: (1 presence of an anterior/anterolateral type fragment or a posterior (Volkmann type fragment involving >25% of the articular surface, (2 a minimum follow-upof 12 months, (3 a fibula f racture associated with a medial column fracture of the distaltibia, and (4 soft tissue conditions at the time of operation that did not compromise the choice of surgical access (Tscher ne classi fication for closed fr actures: grade 0 and grade 1. Tibial plafond fractures were classified into two groups: one presenting anterior and the other with posterior rim (Volkmann fragments. Resul ts: Most patients achieved a good clinical recovery in terms of range of motion and Olerud-Molander scale scores. Only three patient s presented a grade 2 osteoarthritis at the 12 month follow-up. Conclusion: Our two-choice strategy highlights concepts which have been previously debated and described in the literature. But a new extended protocol for surgical approach to the distal tibia, including more fracture patterns and their association should be further investigated. Key words: Tibial fractures; Fracture fixation; Surgical procedures, operative; Intraoperative complications

  6. Malakofauna pohoria Bachureň (východné Slovensko Malacofauna of the Bachureň Mts. (Eastern Slovakia

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    Jozef Šteffek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bachureň Mts. are the least known orographic unit of Slovakia from the malacological point of view, therefore it was important to fill this gap in the faunistic research of malacofauna in Slovakia. In order to achieve the maximum mollusc diversity of the Bachureň Mts., various habitat types were the subject of interest. Field work was conducted in the years 2009–2011 at 78 sites. Altogether 108 mollusc species were recorded. In total, nearly 20 000 specimens were collected and identified. Half of all recorded species were representatives of woodland species s. l. From zoogeographical point of view, species with cosmopolitan, Euro-Siberian and Central European distribution made up the highest proportion. Carpathian species were numerous as well. Across the whole mountain, West Carpathian species (Petasina unidentata, Plicuteria lubomirskii and Trochulus villosulus encountered the species with centre in eastern part of the Carpathians (Perforatella dibothrion, Pseudalinda stabilis, Oxychilus orientalis and Vestia gulo. On the basis of spatial distribution of sensitive species indicating undisturbance of habitats, the most valuable biotopes showed to be springs, wetlands and riparian vegetation along the upper parts of the streams with Acicula parcelineata, Bulgarica cana, Macrogastra latestriata, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, V. substriata, and Cochlicopa nitens. Valuable biotopes were dolomite rocks with the occurrence of relict steppe with Pupilla triplicata and well-preserved scree woodlands with V. substriata and B. cana as well.

  7. Evaluation of cell cycle arrest in estrogen responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells: pitfalls of the MTS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Eileen M; Alling, Nikki; Jackson, Elise A; Yagoub, Daniel; Haass, Nikolas K; Allen, John D; Martinello-Wilks, Rosetta

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine resistance is a major problem with anti-estrogen treatments and how to overcome resistance is a major concern in the clinic. Reliable measurement of cell viability, proliferation, growth inhibition and death is important in screening for drug treatment efficacy in vitro. This report describes and compares commonly used proliferation assays for induced estrogen-responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cell cycle arrest including: determination of cell number by direct counting of viable cells; or fluorescence SYBR®Green (SYBR) DNA labeling; determination of mitochondrial metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay; assessment of newly synthesized DNA using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) nucleoside analog binding and Alexa Fluor® azide visualization by fluorescence microscopy; cell-cycle phase measurement by flow cytometry. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with ICI 182780 (Faslodex), FTY720, serum deprivation or induction of the tumor suppressor p14ARF showed inhibition of cell proliferation determined by the Trypan Blue exclusion assay and SYBR DNA labeling assay. In contrast, the effects of treatment with ICI 182780 or p14ARF-induction were not confirmed using the MTS assay. Cell cycle inhibition by ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction was further confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and EdU-DNA incorporation. To explore this discrepancy further, we showed that ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction increased MCF-7 cell mitochondrial activity by MTS assay in individual cells compared to control cells thereby providing a misleading proliferation readout. Interrogation of p14ARF-induction on MCF-7 metabolic activity using TMRE assays and high content image analysis showed that increased mitochondrial activity was concomitant with increased mitochondrial biomass with no loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, or cell death. We conclude that, whilst p14ARF and ICI 182780 stop cell cycle progression, the

  8. Evaluation of cell cycle arrest in estrogen responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells: pitfalls of the MTS assay.

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    Eileen M McGowan

    Full Text Available Endocrine resistance is a major problem with anti-estrogen treatments and how to overcome resistance is a major concern in the clinic. Reliable measurement of cell viability, proliferation, growth inhibition and death is important in screening for drug treatment efficacy in vitro. This report describes and compares commonly used proliferation assays for induced estrogen-responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cell cycle arrest including: determination of cell number by direct counting of viable cells; or fluorescence SYBR®Green (SYBR DNA labeling; determination of mitochondrial metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay; assessment of newly synthesized DNA using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU nucleoside analog binding and Alexa Fluor® azide visualization by fluorescence microscopy; cell-cycle phase measurement by flow cytometry. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with ICI 182780 (Faslodex, FTY720, serum deprivation or induction of the tumor suppressor p14ARF showed inhibition of cell proliferation determined by the Trypan Blue exclusion assay and SYBR DNA labeling assay. In contrast, the effects of treatment with ICI 182780 or p14ARF-induction were not confirmed using the MTS assay. Cell cycle inhibition by ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction was further confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and EdU-DNA incorporation. To explore this discrepancy further, we showed that ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction increased MCF-7 cell mitochondrial activity by MTS assay in individual cells compared to control cells thereby providing a misleading proliferation readout. Interrogation of p14ARF-induction on MCF-7 metabolic activity using TMRE assays and high content image analysis showed that increased mitochondrial activity was concomitant with increased mitochondrial biomass with no loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, or cell death. We conclude that, whilst p14ARF and ICI 182780 stop cell cycle

  9. Discovery of A-type Granite Zone and Its Geodynamic Significance in the Western Kunlun Mts., China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yaohui; YANG Wanzhi

    2001-01-01

    There is a distinct zone of A-type granite in western Kunlun Mts. with the scope corresponding to the Kudi mantle steps. The A-type granites generated in late Indosinian, intergrowthing with late Hercynian I-type granites. The characteristics of A-type granitic rocks are enrichment in alkali, LREE,Y, Nb, Zr, lean in Al, Mg, Ca, Ba and Sr transition elements, and extended SiO2 contents, which are quite similar to those of A-type granite in Chaelundi, Australia. The research results indicate that the studied granites belong to A2-type which formed in late orogenic extension environment and intruded in the process of the lithospheric delamination.

  10. New records of pseudoscorpions for the fauna of the Bükk Mts., Northeast Hungary (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones

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    Novák, J.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A research was carried out to explore the pseudoscorpion species composition of the Bükk Mts., NortheastHungary. During the survey seventeen species were recorded of which twelve are new to the area and four species [Chthonius(Chthonius carinthiacus Beier, 1951, Chthonius (C. diophthalmus Daday, 1888, Mundochthonius carpaticus Rafalski, 1948,Chernes similis (Beier, 1932] are new to the fauna of Hungary. Five species, Microbisium manicatum (L. Koch, 1873,Neobisium (Neobisium seminudum (Daday and Tömösváry, 1880, Neobisium (Blothrus minutum (Tömösváry, 1882, Roncus euchirus (Simon, 1879 and Rhacochelifer uadrimaculatus (Tömösváry, 1882 were removed from the list of the Hungarian pseudoscorpion fauna.

  11. Preliminary Data on the Plant and Vertebrate Animal Diversity in the Area of Dedovo Village (West Rhodopes Mts.

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    Krasimir Todorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dedovo Village (Rodopi Municipality, Plovdiv District is located at 25 km from Plovdiv City in the Western Rhodopes Mts., at an altitude of 1000 to 1060 meters. Its proximity to the city and relatively preserved natural environment make it a more attractive place during the last years for relaxation, especially in the summer. However, the increased tourist presence in the area leads to an increase of anthropogenic pressure on the natural ecosystems. Aim of this study is to assess the plant and vertebrate animal diversity in the area of Dedovo Village and to identify the potential threats and risks to its conservation. More than 70 plant species were described, including one rare species and 5 Balkan endemics and 30 species, listed in the Bulgarian Medicinal plants Act. From the vertebrate animals 39 species were described, including 15 mammals (3 species with conservation status, 15 birds (4 species with conservation status, 6 reptiles and 2 amphibians.

  12. A simple high-content cell cycle assay reveals frequent discrepancies between cell number and ATP and MTS proliferation assays.

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    Grace Ka Yan Chan

    Full Text Available In order to efficiently characterize both antiproliferative potency and mechanism of action of small molecules targeting the cell cycle, we developed a high-throughput image-based assay to determine cell number and cell cycle phase distribution. Using this we profiled the effects of experimental and approved anti-cancer agents with a range mechanisms of action on a set of cell lines, comparing direct cell counting versus two metabolism-based cell viability/proliferation assay formats, ATP-dependent bioluminescence, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium reduction, and a whole-well DNA-binding dye fluorescence assay. We show that, depending on compound mechanisms of action, the metabolism-based proxy assays are frequently prone to 1 significant underestimation of compound potency and efficacy, and 2 non-monotonic dose-response curves due to concentration-dependent phenotypic 'switching'. In particular, potency and efficacy of DNA synthesis-targeting agents such as gemcitabine and etoposide could be profoundly underestimated by ATP and MTS-reduction assays. In the same image-based assay we showed that drug-induced increases in ATP content were associated with increased cell size and proportionate increases in mitochondrial content and respiratory flux concomitant with cell cycle arrest. Therefore, differences in compound mechanism of action and cell line-specific responses can yield significantly misleading results when using ATP or tetrazolium-reduction assays as a proxy for cell number when screening compounds for antiproliferative activity or profiling panels of cell lines for drug sensitivity.

  13. PENGARUH FAKTOR INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL SISWA TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR MATA PELAJARAN IPS KELAS VIII DI MTS N 02 SEMARANG

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    Erlina Indriasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasil belajar mempunyai fungsi sebagai indikator untuk mengetahui sejauh manakompetensi yang telah dikuasai oleh siswa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untukmengetahui, menganalisis dan mengkaji pengaruh motivasi, sikap, lingkungankeluarga dan lingkungan sekolah secara parsial dan secara simultan terhadap hasilbelajar mata pelajaran IPS. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Sampelpenelitian ini berjumlah 161 siswa kelas VIII. pengumpulan data melalui angketdan dokumentasi. Analisis data dengan menggunakan analisis Regresi LinierSederhana dan Berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1 ada pengaruh yangsignifikan antara motivasi dan hasil belajar sebesar 8,47%, (2 ada pengaruh yangsignifikan antara sikap dan hasil belajar sebesar 18,57%, (3 ada pengaruh yang signifikanantara lingkungan keluarga dan hasil belajar sebesar 10,62%, (4 ada pengaruhyang signifikan antara lingkungan sekolah dan hasil belajar sebesar4,28%, dan(5 ada pengaruh yang signifikan antara motivasi, sikap, lingkungan keluarga, danlingkungan sekolah dan hasil belajar IPS kelas VIII di MTs N 02 Semarang secarabersama-sama sebesar 49,3%. Learning outcomes has the function as an indicator to determine the extent of competencethat has been mastered by the student. The purpose of this study is to investigate, analyzeand assess the influence of motivation, attitude, family environment and school environmentpartially and simultaneously to the learning outcomes of the eye social studies. This study usesquantitative methods. The study sample totaled 161 eighth grade students. collection of datathrough questionnaires and documentation. Analysis of the data using the Simple LinearRegression analysis and Regression. The results showed (1 no significant relationship betweenmotivation and learning outcomes of 8.47%, (2 no significant relationship between attitudesand learning outcomes of 18.57%, (3 no significant relationship between family environmentand learning outcomes of 10

  14. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN INQUIRY TRAINING TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATERI POKOK USAHA DAN ENERGI KELAS VIII MTS N-3 MEDAN

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    Ratni Sirait

    2012-06-01

    36 orang. Hasil analisis data melalui uji t menunjukkan bahwa diperoleh thitung = 1,71 dan ttabel = 1,67, sehingga thitung > ttabel, artinya Ha diterima. Dapat disimpulkan ada pengaruh terhadap hasil belajar siswa dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran inquiry training pada materi pokok usaha dan energi kelas VIII semester I MTs N 3 Medan.

  15. MTS colorimetric assay in combination with a live-dead assay for testing encapsulated L929 fibroblasts in alginate poly-L-lysine microcapsules in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, CM; Jahnke, A; Stange, J; de Vos, P; Hopt, UT

    Biomaterials such as applied in microcapsules may have harmful effects on encapsulated cells. Up to now, there are no adequate assays available for testing the function and viability of cells in capsules. Therefore, we investigated whether the combination of MTS proliferation assay and live-dead

  16. MTS colorimetric assay in combination with a live-dead assay for testing encapsulated L929 fibroblasts in alginate poly-L-lysine microcapsules in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, CM; Jahnke, A; Stange, J; de Vos, P; Hopt, UT

    2002-01-01

    Biomaterials such as applied in microcapsules may have harmful effects on encapsulated cells. Up to now, there are no adequate assays available for testing the function and viability of cells in capsules. Therefore, we investigated whether the combination of MTS proliferation assay and live-dead via

  17. Oligomeric forms of the metastasis-related Mts1 (S100A4) protein stimulate neuronal differentiation in cultures of rat hippocampal neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitskaya, V; Grigorian, M; Kriajevska, M

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation and axonal growth are controlled by a variety of factors including neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix components, and cell adhesion molecules. Here we describe a novel and very efficient neuritogenic factor, the metastasis-related Mts1 protein, belonging to the S100...

  18. Metastasis-associated protein Mts1 (S100A4) inhibits CK2-mediated phosphorylation and self-assembly of the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriajevska, M; Bronstein, I B; Scott, D J

    2000-01-01

    A role for EF-hand calcium-binding protein Mts1 (S100A4) in the phosphorylation and the assembly of myosin filaments was studied. The nonmuscle myosin molecules form bipolar filaments, which interact with actin filaments to produce a contractile force. Phosphorylation of the myosin plays...

  19. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

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    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  20. In situ gamma ray survey for geological mapping of Kmetasomatized metavolcanics at Bükkszentkereszt, Bükk Mts, Hungary

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    Németh Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Middle-Upper Triassic Bagolyhegy Metarhyolite Formation of the Bükk Mts. (Hungary hosts silicified bodies with high potassic feldspar content formed by Kmetasomatism. The rocks underwent a multistage deformation history including syn- and postmetamorphic folding and faulting. As the outcrop area is covered by soil and debris with some exposed silicified cliffs only, and potassium content is a characteristic feature of the metasomatized rocks, geological mapping was supported by a spectral gamma ray survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl crystal. A thunderstorm felling the beech forest made the soil horizon B also accessible in several pits, providing the opportunity to make measurements on the weathered debris instead of the topsoil (horizon A. Measurements in different arrangements were designed to test the effects of measuring time, measuring geometry and soil horizon. Our results show that concentration values obtained on the debris with a 2 min measuring time can be compared with those measured on exposed rock surfaces, producing a more reliable geological map than measurements on the topsoil with randomly variable K depletion. Pit geometry effects can be eliminated by the K/(eU+eTh ratio. This results in a more realistic K distribution map if neither U nor Th enrichments are present. The survey successfully delineated the unexposed outcrop of K-enriched rocks on the survey area.

  1. Initial Fertilization Impact on Norway Spruce Nutrition and Growth in the Krušné Hory Mts.

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    Jan Pecháček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consisted in verifying the hypothesis whether the application of tableted fertilizers Silvamix® Forte, Silvamix® R, Stromfolixyl® and calcareous dolomite affected significantly the nutrition and growth of Norway spruce. In order to carry out research investigation, the experimental Suchdol locality has been selected as it represents large‑scale reclaimed sites in the Krušné hory Mts. Ameliorating agents were applied using the initial spot fertilization of Norway spruce plantations. In the course of two years, activities as follows were carried out annually: (1 top shoots measurement, (2 sampling the latest needle year‑class. The applied fertilizers impact on the concentrations of nutrients in needle dry matter was not significant with minor exception. Fertilizers Silvamix® Forte and Silvamix® R can be recommended to support seedlings growth in the area of interest since there had been positive effect on annual height increment found out. Calcareous dolomite showed the most favourable effect on the shoot biomass growth. Stromfolixyl® fertilizer had no effect on the annual increment; its impact on the nutrition can be characterized as insignificant since fertilized individuals showed lower phosphorus concentration in needle dry matter.

  2. An Early Aged Ophiolite in the Western Kunlun Mts.,NW Tibetan Plateau and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xuchang; WANG Jun; SU Li; JI Wenhua; SONG Shuguang

    2005-01-01

    The early aged ophiolites have attracted attention of many geologists in recent decades, because the early aged ophiolites can provide the information about the ancient oceanic processes relevant to the evolution of plate tectonics in the early period of the earth, and also concern such problems as whether there existed a "Proto-Tethys" and the break-up and convergence of the Rodinian Supercontinent. This paper reveals a definite complete ophiolite of Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic, named Kuda ophiolite in the western Kunlun Mts., NW Tibetan Plateau, and reports the recent reasonable SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 510±4 Ma, and 502±13 Ma for the cumulates of the Kuda ophiolite, using the most powerful dating tool, the SHRIMP-Ⅱ. The geochemical and geochronology data integrating with the geological setting suggest that the Kuda ophiolite might have formed in an archipelago oceanic basin, not in a vast ocean, the so-called "Proto-Tethys",and was tectonically emplaced during the Early Paleozoic.

  3. Changes of Frost Damage and Treeline Advance for Swiss Stone Pine in the Calimani Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania

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    KERN, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Checking the tree-ring structure of 39 living and 9 crossdated dead samples of Swissstone pine (Pinus cembra L. collected from the upper timberline of the CalimaniMts. we haveidentified 59 frost rings over the past 250 years. We found concentrated occurrence of frost events inthree decades: in the 1790s, 1810s and 1910s. No frost ring was observed in two bidecadal periods:1750-1770 and 1850-1870. Out of the analysed interval 1963-2004 is the longest period without frostring occurrence. After 1920 both frequency and severity of frost events seem to decrease compared tothe prior 170 years. We determined the altitude of highest growing stone pine individuals in theBradului Ciont–Pietrosu region in June, 2006. Individuals were sorted into tree-form or bush-likemorphological groups. Mean elevation data of the groups were corrected by an estimated constant biasof GPS measurements (-30 m. Comparing the corrected values to early 20th century inventory data65 m and 95 m upward migration was determined for treeline and boundary of bush-like occurence,respectively. The parallel results suggest that the 20th century advance of the upper forest limit wasdue to the decrease of frost stress at the zone of timberline.

  4. Ichnological record of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary interval: two examples from the Holy Cross Mts (Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachacz, Michał; Uchman, Alfred; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (Late Devonian) boundary interval within the carbonate-siliciclastic series in the Kowala and Płucki sections (Holy Cross Mts, Central Poland) has been analysed to evaluate the influence of the Kellwasser event on the macrobenthic tracemaker community. The Upper Kellwasser event has a lithologically variable record, as horizons of flints (Kowala) and as a bed of bituminous, black, cephalopod limestone (Płucki). Both sections show mostly laminated, unbioturbated beds of marlstones or shales just above the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, which point to events of anoxia on the sea floor. However, the first anoxic horizon occurs below the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. The trace fossils and bioturbational structures are uncommon and poorly diversified. Trichichnus and Multina are the only frequent trace fossils in some beds. Moreover, one horizon above the Frasnian-Famennian boundary contains numerous Multina and a single ? Planolites. Such poorly diversified trace fossil assemblage suggests an unfavourable environment for most of burrowing organisms and fluctuations in oxygenation from anoxic, to dysoxic conditions. The occurrence of the trace fossils and bioturbational structures as spotted and mottled ichnofabrics from the 1.3 m above the Frasnian-Famennian boundary is interpreted as an improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions after the Upper Kellwasser event.

  5. The Role of Hybrid Make-to-Stock (MTS) - Make-to-Order (MTO) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Control Models in Food and Beverage Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najhan Mohd Nagib, Ahmad; Naufal Adnan, Ahmad; Ismail, Azianti; Halim, Nurul Hayati Abdul; Syuhadah Khusaini, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    The inventory model had been utilized since the early 1900s. The implementation of the inventory management model is generally to ensure that an organisation is able to fulfil customer's demand at the lowest possible cost to improve profitability. This paper focuses on reviewing previous published papers regarding inventory control model mainly in the food and beverage processing industry. The author discusses four inventory models, which are the make-to-stock (MTS), make-to-order (MTO), economic order quantity (EOQ), and hybrid of MTS-MTO models. The issues raised by the researchers on the above techniques as well as the elements need to be considered upon selection have been discussed in this paper. The main objective of the study is to highlight the important role played by these inventory control models in the food and beverage processing industry.

  6. Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

    2013-02-21

    The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds.

  7. Synergistic effects and related bioactive mechanisms of Potentilla fruticosa Linn. leaves combined with green tea polyphenols studied with microbial test system (MTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Luo, Zi-Wen; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei; Ji, Xia

    2017-06-12

    Previous research found Potentilla fruticosa leaf extracts (PFE) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTP) showed obvious synergistic effects based on chemical mechanisms. This study further confirmed the synergy of PFE + GTP viewed from bioactivities using the microbial test system (MTS). The MTS antioxidant activity results showed the combination of PFE + GTP exhibited synergistic effect and the ratio 3:1 showed the strongest synergy, which were in accordance with the results in H2O2 production rate. The combination of PFE + GTP promoted CAT and SOD enzyme activity and their gene expression especially at the ratio 3:1. Therefore, the synergism of PFE + GTP may be due to the promotion of CAT and SOD genes expression which enhanced the CAT and SOD enzyme activities. These results confirmed the synergy of PFE + GTP and could provide theoretical basis to produce a compounded tea made of a mixture of leaves from Potentilla species.

  8. Geomorphological Inventory as a Tool for Proclaiming Geomorphosite (a Case Study of Mt. Myslivna in the Novohradské hory Mts. — Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Rypl, J.; Kirchner, K. (Karel); Dvořáčková, S.

    2016-01-01

    The study locality of Mt. Myslivna within the Novohradské hory Mts. (the Czech Republic) represents an area with restricted access prior to 1989. Detailed geomorphological inventory carried out in years 2002 – 2010. Destructive as well as accumulative rock landforms were mapped with the use of GPS. The northwestern slopes of Mt. Myslivna were declared a Natural Monument due to its natural beech wood vegetation in 1992. However, the extent of the protected area does not include qualitatively a...

  9. PENERAPAN MEDIA MONOPOLY GAMES SMART (MGS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATERI EKOSISTEM DI KELAS VII MTS AL-WAHDAH SUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam proses pembelajaran siswa dituntut untuk aktif melaluiaktivitas-aktivitas yang membangun kerja kelompok dan dalam waktu singkatmembuat mereka berfikir tentang materi pelajaran. Keterlibatan siswa secara aktif dalam pembelajaran biologi sangat diperlukan, sehingga apa yang dipelajari akan lebih tertanam dalam pikiran siswa. PenerapanMonopoly Games Smartpada pembelajaranBiologi merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan kreatifitas siswa serta dapat mengurangi kejenuhan belajar siswa, sehingga mendapatkanhasilbelajar siswa yang memuaskan. Adapun yang menjadi tujuan penelitian ini adalah:(1 Untuk mengkaji penerapan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart pada materi Ekosistem di MTs Al-Wahdah Sumber. (2 Untuk mengkaji hasil belajar siswa pada pembelajaran biologi materi Ekosistem dengan menggunakan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart di MTs Al-Wahdah Sumber. (3 Untuk mengkaji respon siswa terhadap penggunaan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart dalam pembelajaran biologi khususnya pada materi Ekosistem di Mts Al-Wahdah Sumber. Penelitian ini dilakukan di MTs Al-Wahdah dengan teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah instrumen tes (pre-test dan post-test untuk mengukur hasil belajar siswa, observasi untuk mengetahui aktivitas siswa dan angketuntuk mengetahui respon siswa terhadap media pembelajaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa (1 berdasarkan hasil analisis observasi, aktivitas siswa meningkat setelah diterapkan media Monopoly Games Smart. (2 Hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen menggunakan media pembelajaran Monopoly Games Smart nilai rata-rata pretest sebesar 39, posttest 78 dan n-gain 0,62.. Terbukti dari hasil perhitungan uji T menggunakan SPSS 16 diperoleh nilai Sig. 0,000 < (0,05 yang berarti terdapat peningkatan hasil belajar biologi siswa. (3 berdasarkan hasil analisis angket mengenai respon siswa terhadap penerapan media hampir dari siswa (82% dengan kriteria sangat kuat, menyukai penerapan strategi pembelajaran Monopoly

  10. Un estudio al impacto de las iniciativas de mejora de las cadenas de suministro y de fabricación en empresas que aplican MTO y MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel L. Lituve

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas manufactureras tienen como objetivo mejorar los procesos internos y externos para incrementar la ventaja competitiva. Estos procesos incluyen prácticas de manufactura esbelta, de racionalización de proveedores y de integración logística. En este trabajo, se analizan estas prácticas y su impacto en el desempeño del negocio y, en particular, se exploran las diferencias entre las empresas que aplican make-to-order –MTO– y make-to-stock –MTS–, con los datos recolectados de 216 empresas manufactureras de Australia. En los resultados se encontró una clara diferencia del enfoque de mejora entre las empresas MTO y las MTS. Las MTO muestran un impacto significativo de la integración logística en el desempeño empresarial, pero no de las prácticas de manufactura esbelta y de racionalización de proveedores. La situación se revierte completamente para las empresas MTS que, aunque logran efectos significativos en las prácticas internas de manufactura esbelta y en la racionalización de proveedores, no lo logran en la integración logística. Además, que la distinción entre empresas MTO y MTS es importante cuando se analizan las iniciativas para mejorar las cadenas de fabricación y de suministro.

  11. A novel spatial Delayed Non-Match to Sample (DNMS) task in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rune; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Moustgaard, Anette

    2009-01-01

    The pig (Sus scrofus) is a valuable animal for modeling human brain diseases. When evaluating animal models of many human brain disorders cognitive testing is crucial, but the pig's ability to learn the typical types of tasks used in neuropsychological testing of other species is largely unknown....

  12. New Zospeum species (Gastropoda, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae from 980 m depth in the Lukina Jama–Trojama cave system (Velebit Mts., Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Weigand

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the eutroglobiont gastropod taxon Zospeum Bourguignat, 1856 is described. Zospeum tholussum sp. n. is characterized based on a population from the Lukina Jama–Trojama cave system (Ve­lebit Mts., Croatia. A single living specimen occurred at 980 m depth. The species is morphologically related to Zospeum amoenum (Frauenfeld, 1856, but can be readily distinguished from the latter by the presence of a weak columellar fold and its dome-like structured 2nd whorl. DNA barcoding is capable to clearly delineate Z. tholussum from other Zospeum spp. as well.

  13. Research for MTS classification methods of parts shape error%零件形状误差的MTS测量识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪; 李勇

    2004-01-01

    针对工业生产中的对机器人视觉及产品实时质量监控,提出了机械零件的MTS(Mahalnobis-Taguchi System)判别分类方法.并以Taguchi方法对判别特征进行优化筛选,减少了无用特征和"噪音"的干扰,以马氏距离(Mahalanobis Distance)作为判别分类的判据.实验表明该方法能有效提高判别分类的速度和精确度.

  14. Potential compensation of hydrological extremes in headwaters: case study of upper Vltava River basin, Šumava Mts., Czechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír.; Česák, Julius

    2010-05-01

    Increasing frequency of catastrophic flash floods and extreme droughts in recent years results in an urgent need of solving of flood protection questions and measures leading to discharge increase in dry periods. Flattening of discharge call for the use of untraditional practices as a suitable complement to classical engineering methods. These measures could be represented by gradual increase of river catchment retention capacity in headstream areas. Very favorable conditions for this research solution are concentrated to the upper part of Otava River basin (Vltava River left tributary, Šumava Mts., southwestern Czechia) representing the core zone of a number of extreme floods in Central Europe and the area with high peat land proportion. A number of automatic ultrasound and hydrostatic pressure water level gauges, climatic stations and precipitation gauges and utilization of modern equipment and methods were used in chosen experimental catchments to assess the landscape retention potential and to find out rainfall-runoff relations in this area. Successively, the detailed analysis of peat land hydrological function was carried out. The peat bogs influence on runoff conditions were assessed by thorough comparison of runoff regimes in subcatchments with different peat land proportion. The peat bog influence on hydrological process can be considered also with respect to its affecting of water quality. Therefore, hydrological monitoring was completed by ion, carbon (TOC) and oxygen isotopes balance observing within periods of high or low discharges in order to precise runoff phases separation by means of anion deficiency. Pedological survey of different soil types and textures was carried out to precise the estimation of its water capacity. Detailed analyses of extreme runoff ascending and descending phases and minimum discharges in profiles closing several subcatchments with different physical-geographic conditions show higher peak flow frequency and their shorter

  15. Stomatal ozone flux and visible leaf injury in native juvenile trees of Fagus sylvatica L.: a field study from the Jizerske hory Mts., the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasáková-Matoušková, Leona; Hůnová, Iva

    2015-07-01

    The study was carried out at six sites in the Jizerskehory Mts. in the north of the Czech Republic. At all these sites, ranging in altitude between 460 and 962 m a. s. l., and during the period from June to September in 2008, O3 concentrations and environmental parameters important for accumulated stomatal O3 flux (AFst) into Fagus sylvatica leaves were measured. At five sites, visible injury on Fagus sylvatica L. juvenile tree leaves was observed. A combination of actual O3 levels in the Jizerkehory Mts. and environmental conditions, though relative air humidity and air temperature significantly limited stomatal conductance, has been sufficient enough to cause O3 uptake exceeding the critical level (CL) for forest ecosystems. The AFst values ranged between 13.4 and 22.3 mmol O3 m(-2). The CL for the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 above a flux threshold 1.6 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (AFst1.6) was exceeded at all sites from ca 45 to 270% (160% on average). The CL of 5 ppm h(-1) for AOT40 (accumulated O3 exposure above threshold of 40 ppb) was exceeded at four sites. The relationship between visible injury on O3 indices was found. The conclusions based on AOT40 and AFSt are not the same. AFSt has been determined as better predictor of visible injury than AOT40.

  16. Genetic structure and taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie in Stołowe Mts. (locus classicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of Pinus uliginosa Neumann from Wielkie Tor-fowisko Batorowskie peat-bog (locus classicus was studied by means of isoenzyme variability and compared with genetic structure of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mts and P. sylvestris populations from Klodzka Valley and Czersk. The level of genetic variability in the population of P. uliginosa (heterozygosity, genotypic polymorphism was similar to that in populations of P. mugo, with an excess of homozygosity in relation to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. An average number of alleles per locus in population of P. uliginosa is the same as in the studied P. sylvestris populations, but the average number of genotypes is slightly lower. However, populations of P. mugo from montaneus stands in Tatra Mts. are characterized by a higher number of alleles per locus than that in P. uliginosa population.In populations of P. mugo from peat-bogs, a lower number of alleles and genotypes is noted than in P. uliginosa population. The coefficients of genetic similarity (Nei and Hedrick show the distinctly separate character of P. uliginosa as compared to P. sylvestris and loose relationship of this taxon to P. mugo. Also the measure of genetic differentiation of populations (GST confirms the specificity of this pine taxon.

  17. Monitoring of Landslide Activity by Synergic Use of X-Band and L-Band InSAR in the Ceske Stredohori Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlecik, Pavel; Lazecky, Milan; Nico, Giovanni; Mascholo, Luigi; Balek, Jan; Marek, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    Neovolcanic range of the České Středohoří Mts. in northwestern Czech Republic represents the region with susceptibility to various types of landslides. Evaluation of landslide activity using InSAR can reveal valuable information both in spatial and temporal scale. On the other hand, we cannot obtain full spatial information in hilly terrain of České Středohoří Mts., another limit is the presence of dense vegetation.Two approaches are applied in our research. Firstly, we would like to delimit an area of few hundreds of square kilometers and to process as much as possible of SAR images using multitemporal InSAR techniques (PSI, Quasi-PS, SBAS) to acquire of spatiotemporal distribution of possible active landslides. Secondly, for selected localities we want to process only SAR images with suitable dates of their origin (following the dates of known landslide activity, dates of in-situ monitoring etc.) using X-band, C-band and L-band SAR data.

  18. UPAYA MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR BIOLOGI MELALUI METODE INKUIRI YANG MENGGUNAKAN KOMIK BIOLOGI SISWA KELAS VII A MTs NEGERI METRO TAHUN PELAJARAN 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Wahyuningsih

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were (1 to improve students’ learning activity by using inquiry method with biology comics for the students of VII A MTs Negeri Metro (2 to improve students’ achievement in learning biology by using inquiry method with biology comics for the students of VII A MTs Negeri Metro. The results of this research were (1 learning through inquiry method which uses biology comics can improve students’ activity during the learning process. From the data of observation, the students achievements increase from cycle I to cycle II (from 46.6% to 55.28%, it means that the increasing is about 8.68% (2 learning through inquiry method which uses biology comics can improve students’ activity during the learning process, the students achievements increase from cycle II to cycle III (from 60% to 76.7%, it means that the increasing is about 16, 7%.   Kata kunci: metode inkuiri, media komik biologi, aktivitas belajar, hasil belajar biologi

  19. Soft-sediment Deformation Structures Related to Earthquake from the Devonian of the Eastern North Qilian Mts. and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; XU Yajun; YANG Jianghai

    2008-01-01

    Devonian in the North Qilian orogenic belt and Hexi Corridor developed terrestrial molasse of later stage of foreland basin caused by collision between the North China plate and Qaidam microplate. The foreland basin triggered a intense earthquake, and formed seismites and earthquake- related soft-sediment deformation. The soft-sediment deformation structures of Devonian in the eastern North Qilian Mts. consist of seismo-cracks, sandstone dykes, syn-depositional faults, microfolds (micro-corrugated lamination), fluidized veins, load casts, flame structures, pillow structures and brecciation. The seismo-cracks, syn-depositional faults and microfolds are cracks, faults and folds formed directly by oscillation of earthquake. The seismic dykes formed by sediment instilling into seismic cracks. Fluidized veins were made by instilling into the seismo-fissures of the fluidized sands. The load casts, flame structures and pillow structures were formed by sinking and instilling caused from oscillation of earthquake along the face between sandy and muddy beds. The brecciation resulted from the oscillation of earthquake and cracking of sedimentary layers. The seismites and soft-sediment deformations in Devonian triggered the earthquake related to tectonic activities during the orogeny and uplift of North Qilian Mts.

  20. Mantle Branch Structure in the South-Central Segment of the Da Hinggan Mts., Inner Mongolia and Its Ore-controlling Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; WANG Baode; NIE Fengjun; JIANG Sihong; SHAO Jian; GUO Lijun; LIU Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mantle branch structure is the third tectonic unit of multiple evolution of a mantle branch. It is not only the main mechanism of intercontinental orogeny, but also an important ore-forming and ore-control structure. Studies on geotectonic evolution, regional geological characteristics and ore-forming and ore-control structures have shown that since the Mesozoic the Da Hinggan Mts. region has entered a typical intercontinental orogenic stage, and it is closely related to mantle branch activities. The south-central segment of the Da Hinggan Mts. is a typical mantle branch structure and possesses obvious magmatic-metamorphic complexes in the core, detachment slip beds in the periphery and overlapped fault depression basins. Moreover, all of these are the principal factors leading to ore formation and ore control in the region. This paper also further explores the mechanism of mineralization in the south-central segment of the Da Hinggan, summaries the rules of mineralization, puts forward the models of mineralization and points out future ore-exploring orientation.

  1. Extracellular S100A4(mts1) stimulates invasive growth of mouse endothelial cells and modulates MMP-13 matrix metalloproteinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Birgitte; Ornås, Dorte; Grigorian, Mariam

    2004-01-01

    S100A4(mts1) protein expression has been strongly associated with metastatic tumor progression. It has been suggested as a prognostic marker for a number of human cancers. It is proposed that extracellular S100A4 accelerates cancer progression by stimulating the motility of endothelial cells......, thereby promoting angiogenesis. Here we show that in 3D culture mouse endothelial cells (SVEC 4-10) respond to recombinant S100A4 by stimulating invasive growth of capillary-like structures. The outgrowth is not dependent on the stimulation of cell proliferation, but rather correlates...... with the transcriptional modulation of genes involved in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Treatment of SVEC 4-10 with the S100A4 protein leads to the transcriptional activation of collagenase 3 (MMP-13) mRNA followed by subsequent release of the protein from the cells. Beta-casein zymography...

  2. Inheritance of Jurassic rifted margin architecture into the Apennines Neogene mountain building: a case history from the Lucretili Mts. (Latium, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Andrea; Corrado, Sveva; Marino, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    The western Lucretili Mts. in the central Apennines (Latium, Italy) have been recently re-mapped in great detail and are the subject of combined stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural investigations. In this paper, we present a new stratigraphic interpretation of the Jurassic paleogeography of western Lucretili Mts., where a rift-derived intrabasinal paleo-high of the Alpine Tethys has been identified for the first time by means of facies analysis and biostratigraphic dating. Recognised facies associations, combined with dated stratigraphic sections, allow to define the morphology of the structural paleo-high and to identify the associated gravity-driven deposits (olistoliths) accumulated in the surrounding basin. Furthermore, we investigated the modes of interaction between Jurassic extensional structures and the subsequent contractional patterns developed during the Tertiary mountain building. In detail, the role played during Apennines tectonics by the paleo-escarpments bounding the paleo-high and by the surrounding olistoliths has been analysed. The paleo-escarpments either acted as focussing features for ENE-directed frontal thrust ramp localisation and were offset with small shortening amounts or reactivated as NNE striking high angle transpressional faults or preserved the original geometries as a result of variable orientation of paleo-escarpments with respect to the Neogene compressive stress field (with ENE oriented sigma1). Newly formed ENE striking tear faults connect these either inherited or neo-formed discontinuities. This complex stratigraphic and structural pattern is substantially different from the previous interpretations of this portion of the central Apennines based on a hypothesised layer-cake stratigraphy deformed by neo-formed Neogene thrusts. This contribution strengthens the importance of integrating facies analyses and structural investigations to detect the influence of pre-orogenic structures on compressive structural patterns

  3. Dynamics of development and variability of surface degradation in the subalpine and alpine zones (an example from the Velká Fatra Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepeška Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five centuries, the inappropriate management of the Vel’ká Fatra Mts. sub-alpine and alpine areas has led to the development of different forms of surface destruction. For evaluation of the dynamics and variability of surface degradation the territory of the Hornojelenská valley was chosen. It is a significant avalanche area. It has clearly been destroyed by avalanches, water erosion and cryogenic erosion as well as anthropo-zoogenic processes. The forms of destruction were mapped on a scale of 1:200 based on the aerial photographs and satellite images taken in 1961, 2003, 2009 and 2012. The total area of degradative morphogenetic forms (DMF in 1961 was 5.5780 ha, 4.0650 ha in 2003, 4.5752 ha in 2009 and 4.9431 ha in 2012. The DMF reached its peak in 1961. In the mid-1960s, there were ambitions to reforest the highest areas of the study area that led to the decrease of DMF and the development of vegetation. The present exogenous geomorphologic processes are causing a gradual increase of the total destructed area.

  4. Emplacement age for the mafic-ultramafic plutons in the northern Dabie Mts. (Hubei): Zircon U-Pb, Sm-Nd and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The protoliths of mafic-ultramafic plutons in the northern Dabie Mts. (NDM) (Hubei) include pyroxenite and gabbro. The zircon U-Pb dating for a gabbro suggests that emplacement of mafic magma took place in the post-collisional setting at the age of 122.9(0.6 Ma. It is difficult to obtain a reliable Sm-Nd isochron age, due to disequilibrium of the Sm-Nd isotopic system. Two hornblende 40Ar/39Ar ages of 116.1(1.1 Ma and 106.6(0.8 Ma may record cooling of metamorphism in the mafic-ultramafic plutons in Hubei below 500(C. The hornblende 40Ar/39Ar ages for the mafic-ultramafic rocks in Hubei are evidently 15-25 Ma younger than those for the same rocks in Anhui, indicating that there is a diversity of the cooling rates for the mafic-ultramafic rocks in Hubei and Anhui. The difference in their cooling rates may be controlled by the north-dipping normal faults in the NDM. The intense metamorphism occurring in the mafic-ultramafic rocks in Hubei may result from the Yanshanian magmatic reheating and thermal fluid action induced by the Cretaceous migmatization. The geochemical similarity of these mafic-ultramafic rocks wherever in Hubei and Anhui may be attributed to the same tectonic setting via an identical genetic mechanism.

  5. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  6. p16/MTS1 inactivation in ovarian carcinomas: high frequency of reduced protein expression associated with hyper-methylation or mutation in endometrioid and mucinous tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Langosch, K; Ocon, E; Becker, G; Löning, T

    1998-02-20

    Inactivation of the tumor-suppressor gene p16 (MTS1/ CDKN2/INK4a) has been described in various human malignancies. Although p16 deletion has been found in various ovarian tumor cell lines, p16 inactivation by homozygous deletion or mutation has been reported only sporadically in primary ovarian carcinomas. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed p16 protein expression by immuno-histochemistry (IHC) on paraffin sections of 94 primary ovarian carcinomas of different histological subtype. Loss of expression was detected in 19 primary tumors (20%), mainly mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas. To reveal the cause of suppressed expression, we performed (i) analysis of homozygous deletions by comparative PCR after micro-dissection, (ii) mutation analysis by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and subsequent direct sequencing and (iii) methylation-specific PCR to determine the methylation status of 5'-CpG islands. Loss of or weak p16 expression was caused by hyper-methylation (12/19 IHC-negative cases), somatic mutation (10 tumors) or homozygous deletion (1 case). Aberrant p 16 results by one of these methods were detected in 71-79% of endometrioid and mucinous, but in only 10% of serous-papillary, carcinomas. Our data suggest that p16 inactivation is a typical feature of certain subtypes of ovarian carcinoma.

  7. Anatomical differences between Pinus mugs Truro populations from the Tarts Mts.. expressed in needle traits and in needle and cone traits together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old needles were collected from 429 individuals of dwarf mountain pine (Pius mugn Turra from 10 populations of this species growing in the Tatra Mts. (5 populations from calcareous and 5 from calcium-free undersoil. Thirteen anatomical traits of the needles were studied. For obtaining a full picture of the variability of the dwarf mountain pine, the differences were investigated in ten populations (385 plants as regards 27 traits of needles and cones. The data obtained by measurements served as basis for performing multivariate analysis of variance and testing the statistical hypotheses, for discriminant analysis, calculation of the Mahalanobis distances and construction of a minimum spanning tree of the shortest Mahalanobis distances and agglumerative clustering by the method of' nearest neighbourhood. The results of these analyses indicated that the dwarf mountain pine populations differ ,statistically significantly as regards the whole complex of needle traits and form three groups not correlated with the type of undersoil on which they grow. Most closely similar are the populations from Kominy Tylkowe, Morskie Oko and Wyżni Toporowy Staw. The population from Kobylarz is the most diverse. Investigation of' the differences in the complex of' needle and cone traits proved that the traits of cones are decisive for the variability picture.

  8. Identifikasi Tes Kemampuan Verbal Siswa Menurut WISC dengan Tema “Suhu dan kalor dalam Kehidupan” di MTs Plus Az Zahro Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kemampuan verbal siswa menurut WISC dengan tema “suhu dan kalor dalam kehidupan” berdasarkan standar kurikulum 2013. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan subjek penelitian siswa kelas VII MTs Plus Az-Zahro Cilacap. Penelitian dirancang dengan memberikan tes kemampuan verbal menurut WISC yang terdiri dari 6 skala verbal yaitu Information (pengetahuan umum, Comprehension (pemahaman, Arithmetic (berhitung, Similarities (kemiripan, Digit span (rentang angka, dan Vocabulary (perbendaharaan kata. Data hasil pemberian tes menunjukkan bahwa 63,40% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala pengetahuan umum; 58,29% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala pemahaman; 38,72% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala berhitung; 40,43% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala kemiripan; 28,08% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala rentang angka; dan 53,19% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala perbendaharaan kata.

  9. PENANGGULANGAN PENYALAHGUNAAN NARKOBA & SEX BEBAS DI KALANGAN REMAJA MELALUI PEMBINAAN HUKUM DAN PENYULUHAN PENDIDIKAN KESEHATAN SISWA MTS SA AL-MINA KECAMATAN BANDUNGAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martitah Martitah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penyalahgunaan dan peredaran gelap narkotika, psikotropika dan bahan berbahaya lainnya (Narkoba maupun maraknya sex bebas dengan berbagai implikasi dan dampak negatifnya merupakan suatu masalah global yang mengancam kehidupan masyarakat, bangsa dan negara. Berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut pembinaan hukum dan penyuluhan pendidikan kesehatan di kalangan remaja perlu dilakukan agar remaja dapat lebih mengerti dan memiliki daya tangkal terhadap pengaruh negatif. Metode ceramah, diskusi, dan tanya jawab dipilih untuk menjelaskan mengenai karakteristik dan perkembangan motorik siswa MTs, Selain itu, media film juga dipakai untuk mendukung kelancaran penyampaian informasi. Dengan memperhatikan persentase kehadiran dan keaktifan peserta dalam setiap sesi serta hasil posttest dapat disimpulkan bahwa peserta mampu mengenali dampak hukum dan dampak sosial serta dampak negatif lain akibat penyalahgunaan Narkoba maupun perilaku seks bebas di kalangan remaja. Harapannya mereka mampu secara mandiri menjauhi dan menghindari hal tersebut. Rekomendasi kegiatan ini adalah perlunya penyuluhan dilaksanakan secara berkala, terprogram, dan berkesinambungan, khususnya sehingga kesadaran dan daya tangkal siswa terhadap penyalahgunaan Narkoba dan perilaku seks bebas dapat lebih ditingkatkan.

  10. 土工布拉伸强度的测定及其不确定度评定%A Tensile Strength Test of Geotextile on MTS and Evaluation on the Measurement Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于书凤; 王时越; 刘国寿; 缪云伟

    2011-01-01

    The tensile strength test of two teams of geotextiles ( each 10) are made with self-made clamp which meets the slanderer requirement on MTS 810( nonspecial-purpose test machine). Examining how the data which get from experiment distribute and determining abnormal data, then calculation of tensile strength and evaluation on measurement are finished with valid data. The result shows tensile strength test of geotextile can finish on MTS and measurement repeatability is to introduce the most important factors of uncertainty.%以两组(各10块)某一规格的土工布为研究对象,按相应规范要求,采用自制夹具,在MTS810试验机(非专用试验机)上完成试验.针对两组试验数据进行分布检验,对异常数据进行判断并对其拉伸强度进行了不确定度评定.结果表明,用MTS试验机对土工布进行拉伸强度试验是可行的,测量的重复性是引入不确定度的最主要影响因素.

  11. Contribution to understanding historical evolution of rockfalls and landslides slopes using dendrochronological methods: example from the Kamienne Mts, Sudetes, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ireneusz; Owczarek, Piotr; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Migoń, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marek

    2013-04-01

    In the area of Kamienne Mts (Central Sudetes), within the volcanic bedrock of Permian age, vast landslide slopes have developed. Their relief is often complex and include main scarps at different stages of degradation and landslide tongues, accompanied by rock walls, scree slopes and debris cones. Absolute ages of these landslides remain unconstrained. We have analyzed three landslide slopes in the highest parts of the Kamienne Mts. Study sites are characterized by different features of relief, which indicate their diverse relative age. Using dendrochronological tools (dating tree-ring eccentricity, compression wood, scars and resin ducts) we have estimated the level of contemporary activity of these landforms. Relief of the slope of Mt Turzyna (895 m a.s.l.) suggests that the site represents a landslide at an early stage of development - with an initial scarp, fresh slope trench and steep landslide tongue. Using dendrochronological tools we have confirmed ongoing slope instability in the area. It occurs with average frequency of 2 events per decade during the last 50 years. Within a study site located on the slope of Mt Suchawa (928 m a.s.l.) a vast landslide main scarp exists, partially with rock face sections. Rock walls are subject to rock fall. Between the head scarp and a landslide body of complex morphology and step-like profile scree slope and a debris cone exist. Dendrogeomorphic analysis shows that activation of landslide slope occurs 1-2 times every 10 years (avg. from the last 90 years). Studies have also confirmed the contemporary activity of rock falls (avg. frequency: 1/10 years) and creep of debris within the cone (avg. frequency: 1-2/10 years during the last 40 years). Within the site located on the slope of Mt Włostowa (903 m a.s.l.) a rock wall exist accompanied by scree slope and forested debris cone. Below the cone clear features of landslide relief are observed. Using dendrochronological tools we have found that the main contemporary

  12. 400 years of summer climatic conditions in the N Carpathian Mts. (eastern Europe) based on O and C stable isotopes in Pinus Cembra L tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Popa, Ionel; Kern, Zoltán; Persoiu, Aurel

    2016-04-01

    For a better understanding of how the climate is changing and how the environment responds to these changes, it is necessary to understand how the climate has varied in the past. Romania's virgin forests have a great potential to obtain long tree-ring chronologies with annual resolution; but so far, only a few studies resulted in quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this context, the aim of this study is 1) to calibrate the relationship between the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon in tree rings and the main climatic parameters and determine the potential of Pinus cembra (Cǎlimani Mts., N Romania, Eastern Europe) for paleoclimatic reconstructions; 2) to provide the first palaeoclimatic reconstitution in Romania based on the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon in tree ring cellulose, and 3) to test the hypothesis that nearby sulphur mines have not altered the climatic signal recorded by the stable isotopic composition of tree rings, contrary to the similar signal recorded by TRW. For this study, we have analysed wood samples of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) from living and dead trees from Cǎlimani Mts., NE Romania, aged between 1600 and 2012 AD. The isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon from the cellulose was analysed at the Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Budapest, Hungary, using a high-temperature pyrolysis system (Thermo Quest TC-EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finningan Delta V) following a ring by ring (i.e., non-pooled) approach. The average level of δ18O and δ13C in cellulose for the period 1600-2012 was 28.83‰ and -22.63 ‰. The tree ring cellulose δ18O and δ13C values showed a strong positive correlation with maximum air temperature (r = 0.6 for δ18O and r = 0.5 for δ13C), mean temperature (r = 0.6 for δ18O and r = 0.45 for δ13C), and sunshine duration (r = 0.69 for δ18O) and negatively correlated with precipitation amount (r = -0.5 for δ18O and r = 0.3 for δ13C) and

  13. Structure, development and health status of spruce forests affected by air pollution in the western Krkonoše Mts. in 1979–2014

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    Král Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and health status of waterlogged or peaty spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst. forests in the summit parts of the Krkonoše Mts. in the Czech Republic were studied in 1979–2014. The objective was to evaluate the stand structure, dead wood, trend of the health status and productivity on four permanent research plots (PRP in relation to air pollution (SO2 and NOx concentrations and climatic conditions (temperatures and precipitation amounts. Stand structure was evaluated on the base of the measured parameters of individual trees on PRP. The health status of trees was evaluated according to foliage, and their vitality was assessed according to their radial growth documented by dendrochronological analyses. The radial growth was negatively correlated with SO2 and NOx concentrations. Stand dynamics during the observation period was characterised by increased tree mortality, the presence of dead wood and reduction of stand density from 1983 to 1992, while the most severe impairment of health status and stand stability occurred in 1982–1987. The foliage mass of living trees has been gradually increasing since 1988, but no pronounced improvement of tree vitality was documented after the decrease in SO2 concentration. However, particularly physiologically weakened spruce trees were attacked by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus. The process of forest damage is manifested not only by foliage reduction but also by symptoms of various necroses on the assimilatory organs. In terms of climatic data, the weather in April had the most important effect on radial growth. Diameter increment showed positive statistically significant correlation with temperature in growing season, but the precipitation effect was low.

  14. Low level of genetic variation within Melica transsilvanica populations from the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and the Pieniny Mts revealed by AFLPs analysis

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    Magdalena Szczepaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented distribution, the breeding system and effects of genetic drift in small-size populations occurring at edge of the species range play an important role in shaping genetic diversity of such a species. Melica transsilvanica is a plant rare in the flora of Poland, where it reaches the northern limit of its continuous range. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP DNA profiling method was applied to measure genetic diversity among and within populations of M. transsilvanica. Additionally, genetic relationships between M. transsilvanica and Melica ciliata, two closely related species, were explored. A total of 68 plants from 7 populations of M. transsilvanica and 24 plants from 2 populations of M. ciliata, collected in Poland and outside it, were analyzed. Using 294 AFLP fragments from 3 primer combinations, accessions were grouped into two major clusters associating with M. ciliata and M. transsilvanica, respectively. Further, two subclusters, corresponding to the samples collected from the Pieniny Mts and from the Kraków - Częstochowa Upland were clearly distinguished within the M. transsilvanica group. The hierarchical AMOVA exhibited significant genetic distinction between these geographic regions (60.89%, p < 0.001. The obtained results showed that the most genetic diversity resided between the populations of M. transsilvanica (86.03% while considerably lower genetic variation was found within the populations (13.97%, which is consistent with the results reported for self-plants. The low level of AFLP genetic variation of M. transsilvanica can be caused by the geographic isolation of populations, which preserves the dominant self-mating breeding system of the species. Individual populations of M. transsilvanica are characterized by isolated gene pools differing by a small number of loci.

  15. Liquid phase oligomerization of 1-hexene over different mesoporous aluminosilicates (Al-MTS, Al-MCM-41 and Al-SBA-15) and micrometer/nanometer HZSM-5 zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Grieken, R.; Escola, J.M.; Moreno, J.; Rodriguez, R. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2006-05-24

    The liquid phase oligomerization of 1-hexene at 200{sup o}C and 5MPa using n-octane as solvent towards hydrocarbon mixtures useful as fuels (gasoline and diesel) was tested over several acid catalysts: micrometer ({mu}-) and nanocrystalline (n-) HZSM-5 zeolites, mesoporous hydrothermal Al-MCM-41, and sol-gel Al-MTS and Al-SBA-15 catalysts. The conversion was always above 75% except for {mu}-HZSM-5 (just 8.4%) due to its low external surface area (5m{sup 2}g{sup -1}) and the fast deactivation in the reaction conditions used in this work. The total selectivity towards oligomers was around 95% and the highest share of C{sub 9}-C{sub 12} dimers (47%), C{sub 13}-C{sub 18} trimers (33%) and heavy C{sub 19}-C{sub 30} compounds (33%) were yielded over Al-SBA-15, n-HZSM-5 and sol-gel Al-MTS, respectively. The remarkable oligomerization performance of n-HZSM-5 was ascribed to its high external surface area (102m{sup 2}g{sup -1}) and for the mesoporous catalysts, to their large BET surface area. In particular, Al-MTS showed the best behaviour due to its higher BET surface area and slightly weaker acidity. All the catalysts exhibited steady-state performance with time on stream (TOS) without drastic changes in activity up to 180min. Simulated distillation analyses proved that the lighter fuel (gasoline+diesel) was obtained over Al-MTS (final distillation temperature=463{sup o}C; C{sub 26}-C{sub 32}=8.4%) while the heaviest was obtained over n-HZSM-5 zeolite (final distillation temperature=524{sup o}C; C{sub 28}-C{sub 40}=11.7%), probably related to its stronger acidity and microporous nature. The similar nature of hydrocarbons compounds retained over the catalysts after reaction proved by FTIR spectroscopy together with the thermogravimetric analyses results, showed the stronger adsorption of the reaction products promoted by the microporous nature of zeolites. (author)

  16. Differential erosion by different-sized glaciers as reflected in 10Be-derived erosion rates of glacier valley walls, Kichatna Mts., Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Anderson, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    /yr, slope-normal), come from the Trident glacier. The Shadows and Caldwell glaciers yield similar 10Be concentrations (16000-22000 at/g) and erosion rates (0.5-0.7 mm/yr). We attribute the difference to a higher downwearing rate in the headwaters of the Trident glacier, which has higher ice discharge in its headwaters because its three main tributaries converge within its upper 4 km. In a threshold-slope, steady-relief landscape, downwearing by a glacier or river leads to an identical amount of downwearing of adjacent divides. In a landscape like the Kichatna Mts., where supraglacial slopes are dominantly 60-70°, a given amount of downwearing leads to a much smaller amount of backwearing. This is enhanced by the “Teflon Peaks” feedbacks, in which the steepness of the slopes allows no snow to stick and no glacial ice to form, preserving divides against slope reduction and focusing erosion in the valleys. Collectively, these effects allow adjacent glaciers with different rates of downwearing (such as the Shadows and Trident) to erode to different levels without one capturing the other. The results are kilometer-wide glacial gorges separated by kilometer-tall knife-edge ridges.

  17. Reconstructing air temperature and permafrost attributes associated with past periglacial structures: a case study for sorted nets from the Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Křížek, Marek; Krause, David

    2017-04-01

    infer the palaeo-temperature and palaeo-permafrost conditions associated with relict large-scale sorted nets in the Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic. To achieve this, we employ a multi-disciplinary approach consisting of the Monte Carlo simulation based on a simple equilibrium thermal model, the Stefan equation, in an inverse form, driven by data obtained from remote sensing, geophysical soundings, and modern analogues from elsewhere. The results are subjected to a comprehensive uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We introduce a robust, yet straightforward and easy-to-follow procedure to utilize these periglacial phenomena and other structures indicative of the base of palaeo-active layer to reconstruct former climate. Acknowledgement The research is supported by the Czech Science Foundation, project number 17-21612S. References Ballantyne, C. K., and Harris, C.: The Periglaciation of Great Britain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994. Gleason, K. J., Krantz, W. B., Caine, N., George, J. H., and Gunn, R. D.: Geometrical Aspects of Sorted Patterned Ground in Recurrently Frozen Soil, Science, 232, 216-220, doi: 10.1126/science.232.4747.216, 1986. Hallet, B., and Prestrud, S.: Dynamics of periglacial sorted circles in Western Spitsbergen, Quaternary Res., 26, 81-99, doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(86)90085-2, 1986. Ray, R. J., Krantz, W. B., Caine, T. N., and Gunn, R. D.: A model for sorted patterned-ground regularity, J. Glaciol., 29, 317-337, doi: 10.3198/1983JoG29-102-317-337, 1983. Peterson, R. A., and Krantz, W. B.: Differential frost heave model for patterned ground formation: Corroboration with observations along a North American arctic transect, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G03S04, doi: 10.1029/2007JG000559, 2008.

  18. Spectral Entropy Can Predict Changes of Working Memory Performance Reduced by Short-Time Training in the Delayed-Match-to-Sample Task

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    Yin Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectral entropy, which was generated by applying the Shannon entropy concept to the power distribution of the Fourier-transformed electroencephalograph (EEG, was utilized to measure the uniformity of power spectral density underlying EEG when subjects performed the working memory tasks twice, i.e., before and after training. According to Signed Residual Time (SRT scores based on response speed and accuracy trade-off, 20 subjects were divided into two groups, namely high-performance and low-performance groups, to undertake working memory (WM tasks. We found that spectral entropy derived from the retention period of WM on channel FC4 exhibited a high correlation with SRT scores. To this end, spectral entropy was used in support vector machine classifier with linear kernel to differentiate these two groups. Receiver operating characteristics analysis and leave-one out cross-validation (LOOCV demonstrated that the averaged classification accuracy (CA was 90.0 and 92.5% for intra-session and inter-session, respectively, indicating that spectral entropy could be used to distinguish these two different WM performance groups successfully. Furthermore, the support vector regression prediction model with radial basis function kernel and the root-mean-square error of prediction revealed that spectral entropy could be utilized to predict SRT scores on individual WM performance. After testing the changes in SRT scores and spectral entropy for each subject by short-time training, we found that 16 in 20 subjects’ SRT scores were clearly promoted after training and 15 in 20 subjects’ SRT scores showed consistent changes with spectral entropy before and after training. The findings revealed that spectral entropy could be a promising indicator to predict individual’s WM changes by training and further provide a novel application about WM for brain–computer interfaces.

  19. Estimation of the geothermal potential of the Caldara di Manziana site in the Mts Sabatini Volcanic District (Central Italy) by integrating geochemical data and 3D-GIS modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaldi, Massimo; Lelli, Matteo; Tarchini, Luca; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Patera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    High-enthalpy geothermal fields of Central Italy are hosted in deeply fractured carbonate reservoirs occurring in thermally anomalous and seismically active zones. However, the Mts. Sabatini volcanic district, located north of Rome, has an interesting deep temperatures (T), but it is characterized by low to very low seismicity and permeability in the reservoir rocks (mostly because of hydrothermal self-sealing processes). Low PCO2 facilitates the complete sealing of the reservoir fractures, preventing hot fluids rising and, determining a low CO2 flux at the surface. Conversely, high CO2 flux generally reflects a high pressure of CO2, suggesting that an active geothermal reservoir is present at depth. In Mts. Sabatini district, the Caldara of Manziana (CM) is the only zone characterized by a very high CO2 flux (188 tons/day) from a surface of 0.15 km2) considering both the diffuse and viscous CO2 emission. This suggests the likely presence of an actively degassing geothermal reservoir at depth. Emitted gas is dominated by CO2 (>97 vol.%). Triangular irregular networks (TINs) have been used to represent the morphology of the bottom of the surficial volcanic deposits, the thickness of the impervious formation and the top of the geothermal reservoir. The TINs, integrated by T-gradient and deep well data, allowed to estimate the depth and the temperature of the top of the geothermal reservoir, respectively to ~-1000 m from the surface and to ~130°C. These estimations are fairly in agreement with those obtained by gas chemistry (818geothermal potential has been estimated to 48÷68 MW, which would represent ~30% to ~40% of the total thermal power estimated at regional scale for the Manziana geothermal system. Our results, suggest that the W-SW sector of Bracciano lake is the most thermally anomalous zone of the area. Geothermometers and the GIS model indicated a temperature range between 120 and 150°C, confirming the presence of a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource in

  20. Zooplankton community composition of high mountain lakes in the Tatra Mts., the Alps in North Tyrol, and Scotland: relationship to pH, depth, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skála Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The European EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic & socio-economic Evaluation project was a survey of high mountain lakes (above treeline across Europe using unified methods of sampling and analysis. The sampling was carried out in summer or autumn 2000, and comprised biological samples, and samples for chemical analysis. Data from three lake districts are used in this paper: the Tatra Mts. in Slovakia and Poland (45 lakes, the Alps in Tyrol in Austria (22 lakes, and Scotland (30 lakes. As it is shown by multiple regression analysis, DTOC (dissolved or total organic carbon is the key variable for most groups of zooplankton. With increasing DTOC and mostly with chlorophyll-a decreasing, pH increasing and depth decreasing, macrofitrators with coarse filter meshes are replaced by microfiltrators with fine filter meshes. Higher DTOC may increase bacterioplankton production and advantage species able to consume bacteria (microfiltrators. Other zooplankton species also differ in their preference for DTOC, chlorophyll-a, pH and depth, but DTOC being positively correlated with chlorophyll-a and pH positively correlated with depth. It may be caused by their different preference for food quality in terms of C:P ratio.

  1. Microstructural, modal and geochemical changes as a result of granodiorite mylonitisation – a case study from the Rolovská shear zone (Čierna hora Mts, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkašovský Roman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong tectonic remobilisation and shear zone development are typical features of the easternmost part of the Veporicum tectonic unit in the Western Carpathians. The granodiorite mylonites in the area of the Rolovská shear zone (Čierna hora Mts underwent a complex polystage evolution during the Hercynian and Alpine orogenies. Deformation during the latter reached greenschist facies under metamorphic conditions. Mylonites are macroscopically foliated rocks with a stretching lineation and shear bands. Structurally different mylonite types, ranging from protomylonites to ulramylonites with typical grainsize reduction from the margins towards the shear zone centre, have been assessed. The modal mineralogy of the different mylonite types changes considerably. Typical is a progressive decrease in feldspar content and simultaneously the quartz and white mica content increases from protomylonites towards the most strongly deformed ultramylonites. The deformation had a brittle character in less deformed rocks and a ductile one in more deformed tectonites. Obvious chemical changes occur in mesomylonites and ultramylonites. During mylonitisation, the original biotite granodiorite was depleted of Mg, Fe, Na, Ca and Ba, while K, Rb and mainly Si increased considerably. Other (major and trace elements reflect erratic behaviour due to lateral mobility. Chemical changes indicate the breakdown and subsequent recrystallisation of biotite and feldspars and, in turn, the crystallisation of albite and sericite. REE decrease in ultramylonites due to the breakup of accessory minerals during deformation and alteration.

  2. The impact of 90 years of drainage works on some chemical properties of raised peat bog organic soils - case study from valley of the Upper San river in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Wetland ecosystems, including raised peat bogs are characterized by a specific water conditions and unique vegetation, which makes peatland highly important habitats due to protection of biodiversity. Transformation of peat bog areas is particularly related to changes in the environment e.g. according to reclamation works. Drainage of peatlands is directly associated to the decrease of groundwater levels and lead to a number of changes in the chemical and physical properties of peat material, included contents of exchangeable cations in the surface layers of peat soils in the decession phase of peat development and release above compounds from the soil to ground or surface waters. The aim of the research was to determine the impact of extended drainage works on chemical composition of sorption complex of raised peat bog organic soils and identification the potential environmental effects of alkaline cations leaching to the surface waters. Research was carried out on the peat bogs located in the Upper San valley in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Soil samples used in this study were collected from 3 soil profiles in 10 or 20 cm intervals to the approximately 130 cm depth. Laboratory analyses included determination of basic properties of organic material such as the degree of peat decomposition, ash content, soil pH and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen concentrations. Additionally the amount of alkaline cations, exchangeable and extractable acidity was determined. Furthermore, the degree of saturation of the sorption complex with alkaline cations (V) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are calculated. In order to evaluate the impact of the examined peat bog to the environment, also water samples were collected and ions composition was measured. The obtained results show that studied organic soils are oligotrophic and strongly acidic. In the case of organic material related to decession phase of peat development, as a result of the lengthy drainage works

  3. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  4. Ensino de leitura e escrita através do pareamento com o modelo e seus efeitos sobre medidas de inteligência Teaching and writing through matching to sample and its effects on intelligence measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonçalves Medeiros

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois grupos (G1 e G2 de três crianças, entre oito e doze anos, repetentes, participaram do estudo. Ambos foram submetidos à aplicação do WISC e do IAR no início e final do estudo. O G1 foi submetido a um treino de discriminações condicionais, com palavras faladas como modelos e palavras impressas como comparação. Todas as crianças do G1 aprenderam a ler, com aumento maior de QI do que as crianças do G2. Nos testes apresentaram porcentagem elevada de leitura das palavras ensinadas e de generalização. No IAR, tanto os sujeitos do G1 quanto do G2 apresentaram mudanças nas habilidades medidas pelo teste, em especial, lateralidade, análise-síntese e coordenação motora, com maior porcentagem de itens alterados para os sujeitos do G1. Os resultados indicam a existência de uma relação entre a emergência de leitura generalizada e aumento de QI.Two groups (G1 and G2 consisting of three flunked children each, ranging from eight to twelve years old, participated in the study. Both groups were given the WISC and IAR tests at the beginning and at the end of the study. G1 underwent a training of conditional discriminations, with words spoken as sample and words printed as comparison. All the children of G1 learned how to read, with greater increase of IQ than the children of G2. In the tests they presented high percentage of reading of the taught and of the generalized words. In IAR, both the subjects of G1 and of the G2 showed changes in the measured abilities for the test, especially, laterality, analysis-synthesis and motor coordination, with larger percentage of items altered for the G1 subjects. The results indicate the existence of a relationship between the emergence of generalized reading and increase of IQ.

  5. “延迟匹配样本任务”范式下人误的ERP研究%ERP study on the human error in delayed matching-to-sample task paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 李永建; 左娟

    2013-01-01

    人因失误可分为虚报(执行差错)和漏报(忽略)两大类.为了探讨人因失误的机理,提高人因认知的可靠性,采用事件相关电位技术(Event-Related Brain Potentials,ERP)和延迟匹配样本任务范式,研究两类失误在认知加工不同阶段(信息编码输入、信息复述保持和信息提取匹配)的事件相关电位差异.试验刺激的编排、呈现及反应时(Reaction Time,RT)数据的采集通过E-Prime编程软件实现,认知加工3个阶段的脑电信号利用德国BP公司64导脑电记录系统采集.数据方差分析结果表明,漏报的反应时大于虚报的反应时(p<0.05),验证了内隐记忆的存在.ERP总平均图及P300平均峰值配对t检验表明,两类失误的脑电差异主要表现在信息编码输入阶段,具体表现为Pz电极点漏报的P300波幅显著大于虚报的P300波幅(p<0.01);信息复述保持阶段和信息提取匹配阶段脑电差异不显著,原因在于P300的注意效应.研究表明,P300波幅可作为反映虚报与漏报不同加工机制的脑电指标,信息编码阶段对信息的加工程度可能是导致不同类型人误的主要原因.

  6. Equivalência de estímulos após treino de pareamento consistente de estímulos com atraso do modelo Stimulus equivalence after consistent delayed matching-to-sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grauben José Alves de Assis

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores documentaram a formação de relações de equivalência a partir do treino com pareamento consistente de estímulos. Este estudo, com figuras usuais, objetivou verificar os efeitos de um procedimento similar, mas com atraso na apresentação do modelo, em oito universitários de ambos os sexos. Foi usado um microcomputador com tela sensível ao toque. No ensino das discriminações condicionais AB e AC, intercalado aos testes de simetria BA e CA, e de equivalência BC e CB, o modelo era apresentado na "janela" central da tela; após a resposta ao modelo, este ficava ausente, e três estímulos de comparação, um dos quais o consistente (Sc, eram apresentados, simultaneamente, nas "janelas" laterais, sem conseqüências diferenciais para as respostas corretas e incorretas. Sete participantes alcançaram o critério (100% de acerto, cinco demonstraram as relações de simetria e um demonstrou equivalência. Esses resultados replicaram parcialmente os estudos anteriores.Previous studies have shown the formation of equivalence relations following training by stimulus consistency matching. Using common figures as stimuli, the aim of this experiment was to verify the effects of a similar procedure involving, however, delayed smaple stimulus presentation among eight university students of both sexes. A microcomputer with a touch-sensitive screen was utilized. Between training of conditional discriminations, AB and AC, symmetry (BA, CA and equivalence tests (BC, CB were inserted; the sample stimulus appeared in the center of the screen. Following response, the sample was withdrawn, and three comparison stimuli - one of them consistent - were shown simultaneously in the side windows, without differential consequences for correct or incorrect responses. Seven respondents reached criterion, five demonstrated having attained symmetry, and one, equivalence relations. These results replicated, in part, the outcomes of previous experiments.

  7. Go/No-Go Procedure with Compound Stimuli: Effects of Training Structure on the Emergence of Equivalence Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisante, Priscila C.; Galesi, Fernanda L.; Sabino, Nathali M.; Debert, Paula; Arntzen, Erik; McIlvane, William J.

    2013-01-01

    When the matching-to-sample (MTS) procedure is used, different training structures imply differences in the successive discriminations required in training and test conditions. When the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli is used, however, differences in training structures do not imply such differences. This study assessed whether the…

  8. MTS1/p16 protein aberrance expression with gene deleton and 5'CpG island methylation in endometrial carcinoma%子宫内膜癌中p16蛋白异常表达及基因缺失和甲基化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼书; 张蔚; 刘元姣

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究子宫内膜癌中 p16蛋白与其基因缺失及 CpG岛甲基化的关系.方法:对 36例子宫内膜癌标本分别用免疫组化方法和 PCR技术检测 MTS1/p16蛋白表达和基因纯合性缺失及第一外显子异常甲基化情况.结果: 36例癌组织中 14例 p16蛋白表达阳性,蛋白表达缺失率为 61.11%( 22/36); 9例发生基因缺失, 12例发生甲基化,未发现基因缺失与甲基化同时存在的病例, p16基因总失活率 58.33%; 22例 p16蛋白表达缺失标本有 19例基因失活.结论: p16蛋白缺失程度与子宫内膜癌组织学分级和临床分期呈正相关; p16蛋白缺失程度与 p16基因缺失和甲基化有关.

  9. The Road Inventory of Wichita Mts National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the relative needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was asked to inventory all public access and...

  10. Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a first part of work devoted highland rush endophytes: Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei and Aureobasidium pullulans. The basidiomycete strain, possibly Lagarobasidium detriticum was also isolated.

  11. Forty years of MTS studies in the Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerov, Alexander I.; Rokityansky, Igor I.; Tregubenko, Viktor I.

    1999-10-01

    Extensive EM studies have been made in the Ukraine during the last 40 years and a set of reliable results have been received. Data from 3000 Magnetotelluric soundings are presented as maps of effective apparent resistivity at periods of 150 s and 500 s and impedance phase at T = 150 s. The principal results are: S1 map at the scale 1:2500000, tracing and study of Carpathian, Kirovograd and Donbas regional conductivity anomalies, a map of the crustal conductivity for Ukrainian Shield, a study of faults.

  12. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Sudety Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Brej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sudeten flora consists of some plants we can recognize as heavy metal accumulators. Between others there are: Thlaspi caerulescens, Arabidopsis halleri, Armeria maritima ssp. halleri s.l. and probably the endemic fern Asplenium onopteris var. silesiaca. The authors present the concentrations of some important heavy metals measured in aboveground plant dry weight. The highest concentration of zinc was 8220 ppm (Thlaspi, nickel - 3100 ppm (Thlaspi, lead - 83 ppm (Armeria, copper - 611 ppm (Arabidopsis and cadmium - 28 ppm (Thlaspi. The concentrations depend rather on species or population specification than on ore deposit quality. There are no typical hyperaccumulator among plants we have examined, but some signs of hyperaccumulation of nickel, zinc and lead could be observed. There are no typical endemic taxa, only Asplenium onopteris var. silesiaca and Armeria maritima ssp. halleri may be recognized as neoendemic taxa, but still of unclear systematic position. During the study we tried to find out why some Sudeten vascular plants do not develop heavy metals hyperaccumulation and why they are rather latent hyperaccumulators. Finally, we suggest to protect some metallicolous areas in spite they are rather territories with low plant biodiversity.

  13. Some notes on the genus Aconitum in Chornohora Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution to ecology and chorology of Aconitum in high-mountain zone of the Ukrainian Carpathians. It was confirmed that genus Aconitum in the Chornogora mountain range is represented by 14 taxa, and 7 more taxa were listed as potential for this region. These taxa belong to 3 subgenera and are divided on 4 main biomorphological groups delimited on the base of their habitat, life form, ecology and altitudinal distribution. The soil and vegetation types for all taxa have been identified and the maps of their distribution have been prepared. The most influent threats and their categories were identified. Threat category for A. × nanum was changed from DD to VU, and for A. firmum subsp. fussianum from NT to VU.

  14. Prediagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea via Multiclass MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ton Su

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has become an important public health concern. Polysomnography (PSG is traditionally considered an established and effective diagnostic tool providing information on the severity of OSA and the degree of sleep fragmentation. However, the numerous steps in the PSG test to diagnose OSA are costly and time consuming. This study aimed to apply the multiclass Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MMTS based on anthropometric information and questionnaire data to predict OSA. Implementation results showed that MMTS had an accuracy of 84.38% on the OSA prediction and achieved better performance compared to other approaches such as logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machine, C4.5 decision tree, and rough set. Therefore, MMTS can assist doctors in prediagnosis of OSA before running the PSG test, thereby enabling the more effective use of medical resources.

  15. Gender differences in behavioral inhibitory control: ERP evidence from a two-choice oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; He, Yuanyuan; Qinglin, Zhang; Chen, Antao; Li, Hong

    2008-11-01

    The inhibition of inappropriate behaviors is important for adaptive living in changing environments. The present study investigated gender-related behavioral inhibitory control by recording event-related potentials for standard and deviant stimuli while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by accurately pressing different keys within 1000 ms. The results showed faster reaction times (RTs) for deviant stimuli in women than in men, although RTs for standard stimuli were similar across genders. There were significant gender and stimulus interaction effects on mean amplitudes during each of the 170-230-ms, 250-330-ms, and 350-600-ms intervals, and women exhibited shorter latencies and larger amplitudes than men at deviant-related P2, N2, and P3 components. As an accurate, fast response to the rare deviant stimuli involves behavioral inhibitory control on the prepotent response whereas the response to the standard stimuli does not, it is clear that there is a general gender difference in behavioral control for human adults. This may relate to differential inhibitory demands by each gender during evolution.

  16. Interaction of Reinforcement Conditions and Developmental Level in a Two-Choice Discrimination Task with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Robert C.; Ratliff, Richard G.

    1974-01-01

    Reports a study of 540 first-, fourth-, and eighth-grade students who participated in a discrimination task under three reinforcement conditions: reward, punishment and a combination of both. Results indicate the superiority of learning under punishment conditions. Interactions involving the sex of subject and experimenter are also discussed.…

  17. 脑胶质瘤中pRb表达与CDK4、MTS基因异常的相关性研究%Molecular pathological study on expression of pRb and CDK4,MTS gene changes in human gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田新华; 江澄川; 高翔; 陈商群; 许凯黎; 周瑾

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate expression of pRb and CDK4, MTS gene changes in human gliomas and relationship with the clinical pathology. Methods Brain gliomas with different pathologic types were detected by using PCR-SSCP, Southern blot, Slot blot and immunohistochemistry. Results The negative expression of p16 or pRb and CDK4 amplification often occurred independently. The total rate of negative expression of p16 and/or pRb and/or deletion of p15 and/or CDK4 amplification were in 89% (42/47).Conclusions The propensity was occurrence of singular (89%) rather than combined aberrant expression of p16 or pRb or CDK4 amplification. The suppression of p16, p15 or pRb or the increased activity of CDK4 were sufficient to disrupt this regulatory mechanism in a manner that favors cell proliferation and tissues canceration.%目的 探讨脑胶质瘤中CDK4、MTS基因异常及pRb表达改变与脑胶质瘤发生发展的相关性。方法 应用PCR-SSCP、分子杂交及免疫组化技术检测68例不同病理分级脑胶质瘤。结果 p16基因表达阴性或pRb无表达或CDK4扩增多为单独发生,其中III-IV级肿瘤中pRb、p16蛋白失表达或p15基因缺失或CDK4基因扩增的综合发生率为89%(42/47)。结论 脑胶质瘤中细胞生长周期“关卡”蛋白p16、pRb、或CDK4单因素的异常比交错并发的改变更为常见,p16、pRb失活或CDK4扩增的任一改变,即可能破坏细胞增殖的正常调控,促发脑胶质瘤细胞的癌性增殖或恶性演变。

  18. Results of surgery in patients with bilateral independent temporal lobe spiking (BITLS with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS investigated with bilateral subdural grids Resultados cirúrgicos em pacientes com descargas bilaterais independentes do lobo temporal (DBILT e ressonância magnética normal ou com esclerose mesial bilateral investigados com implante bilateral de grades subdurais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The introduction of new technologies in the clinical practice have greatly decreased the number of patients submitted to invasive recordings. On the other hand, some patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy have normal MR scans or bilateral potentially epileptogenic lesions. This paper reports the results of invasive neurophysiology and surgical outcome in such patients. METHOD: Sixteen patients were studied. Eleven had normal MRI (Group I and five had bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (Group II. All patients had BITLS and non-localizatory seizures on video-EEG monitoring. All patients were implanted bilaterally with 32-contacts subdural grids. They were submitted to a cortico-amygdalo-total hippocampectomy at the side defined by chronic electrocorticography (ECoG. RESULTS: In Group I, seizures came from a single side in nine patients. In nine patients, seizures started at one side, spread to the ipsolateral contacts and contralaterally afterwards. On the other hand, in two Group I patients seizures started in one mesial region and spread to the contralateral parahippocampus and neocortex before spreading to ipsolateral contacts. All patients in Group II had seizures starting unilaterally with focal EcoG onset in the mesial regions. Eight Group I patients are seizure-free and three are in Engel's class II. Eighty percent of Group II patients are seizure-free after surgery and one patient is in Engel's class II. CONCLUSION: Good surgical results can be obtained in patients with BITLS. Patients with normal MRI seem to have a worse prognosis when compared to patients with unilateral or even bilateral MTS. Extensive subdural coverage is essential in patients with normal MRI.INTRODUÇÃO: A introdução de novas tecnologias na prática clínica tem diminuído em muito a necessidade do estudo com eletrodos invasivos em pacientes epilépticos refratários. Por outro lado, alguns pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal ainda possuem

  19. 新疆昆仑山北坡黄土细颗粒混合矿物IRSL,[post-IR]OSL和细颗粒石英OSL测年初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON DATING USING IRSL AND [ POST-IR] OSL SIGNALS FROM FINE-GRAINED POLYMINERALS AND OSL SIGNAL FROM FINE-GRAINED QUARTZ IN LOESS AT NORTHERN SLOPE OF KUNLUN MTS.,XINJIANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克旗

    2012-01-01

    使用感量校正多测片再生(SMAR)法对新疆昆仑山北坡的12个黄土样品的细颗粒混合矿物和细颗粒石英进行了等效剂量(De)的测量.测试结果显示,该地区黄土的[ post-IR]OSL和OSL信号强度相对于黄土高原的样品偏低,初步认为与物源不同及粉尘堆积和堆积后经受的风化作用微弱有关.细颗粒混合矿物的IRSL等效剂量值基本上小于其细颗粒石英OSL的,反映出长石存在明显的异常衰减现象;[post-IR] OSL信号主要来自于长石,用于测年需谨慎;细颗粒石英OSL更适合用于对该地区黄土的测年.%The equivalent doses of fine-grained polymineials and OSL signal from fine-grained quartz were measured by using SMAR protocol to 12 loess samples from the northern slope of Kunlun Mts.,Xinjiang. 8 of the 12 samples were collected from a loess section, which is 84m thick and located in a terrace, southwest of Aqiang township (36°23'30"N,81°54'57"E;2670m a. s. 1. )in Yutian County,and the other 4 samples were collected from terraces (36°15'52"~36°16'35"N,81°29'28" ~ 81°30'35"E;2100 -2120m) at the west bank of the Keriya River. The results show that the intensities of [ post-IR ] OSL and OSL signals are lower than those of the loess samples from the Loess Plateau, which can be related preliminarily to the source differences between the two kinds of loess. It is also probable that the weak weathering of dust during accumulating and after accumulation make the intensity differences. These two factors resulted in the differences of the content and types of minerals between the two areas, as well as a different sensitivity of luminescence signals. The weak signals mean a low signal to noise ratio when a young sample is measured,which will make a low reliability of equivalent dose(De) .The obvious anomalous fading of IRSL signals from feldspars was observed,thus it must be cautious to use the signal to date a sample,which will result in a fact that its De is less

  20. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Máthé, Zoltán; Pekker, Péter; Dódony, István; Kovács-Kis, Viktória; Sipos, Péter; Cora, Ildikó; Kovács, Ivett

    2016-04-01

    Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG), and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite. Based on the structural and chemical data two illite type minerals are present in the BCF samples: 1M polytype containing octahedral Fe and Mg besides Al, 2M polytype illite generally is free of Fe andMg. Close association of very thin illite plates and nanosized hematite crystals is typical textural feature for BCF. The goal of this study is to provide solid mineralogical basis for further studies focusing on radionuclide sorption properties.

  1. Pembelajaran Berbasis Multimedia dan Pembelajaran Konvensional (Studi Komparasi di MTs Al-Muttaqin Plemahan Kediri)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    CONVENTIONAL AND MULTIMEDIA BASED LEARNING A COMPARATION STUDY IN AL-MUTTAQIN PLEMAHAN KEDIRI SECONDARY SCHOOLS. The interaction during learning process is influenced by the circumstances, the effectiveness of learning media is the example. This research is to test the theory of two motivation factors that put forward by the Herzberg. He states that the motivation of the person in doing something influenced by two factors namely intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. This theory is then mad...

  2. Seasonal Variations In Density Profiles And Densification Process At Mts. Logan And Wrangell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, S.; Shiraiwa, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Benson, C. S.; Naruse, R.

    2004-12-01

    Detailed density measurements were carried out for ice cores which were drilled at Mt. Logan (60° 35'20"N, 140° 36'15"W; 4135m a.s.l.; Shiraiwa et al., 2003) and Mt. Wrangell (62° 00'N, 140° 03'W; 4100m a.s.l.; Shiraiwa et al., 2004). The detailed density profiles show periodic fluctuations which seem to indicate seasonal cycles. In Mt. Logan, the number of annual layers which are estimated from the density profile agrees well with that estimated from the oxygen isotope data (Goto-Azuma et al., 2003) and the age of the ice core estimated from tritium peaks. On the other hand, in Mt. Wrangell, the number of annual layers from the density profile is quite different from that of the hydrogen isotope profile. The accumulation time series reconstructed from the density profile in Mt. Wrangell shows significant correlations with precipitation data of weather stations that locate near Mt. Wrangell. Accumulation rate and mean annual temperature at both sites are estimated to be almost the same (Benson & Motyka, 1978; Shiraiwa et al., 2003; Goto-Azuma et al., 2003; Shiraiwa et al., 2004). However, their firn/ice transition depths (Mt. Logan: 50m, Mt. Wrangell: 90m) are considerably different. This difference cannot be explained only from the difference in initial densities. Densification rate in Mt. Logan is higher than in Mt. Wrangell, i.e. compactive viscosity coefficient calculated from depth-density profile in Mt. Wrangell is more than double of the value in Mt. Logan.

  3. Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (7th). Special and Incentive Pays. Major Topical Summary (MTS) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    ship, assigned to perform the same. 25 (g) The term "exposure to highly toxic pesticides" means the 26 conduct of fumigations using phosphine ...sulfuryl fluoride, 27 hydrogen cyanide, methyl bromide, or fumigants of comparable H-3 1 toxicity by members assigned to perform entomology, pest control, 2...pest management, or preventive medicine functions for an 3 installation or uniformed service. The term does not include the 4 use of solid fumigant

  4. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN QAWAID SHARRAF DENGAN PENDEKATAN QIYASIYAH di MTs NEGERI SUMBER BUNGUR PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Muhlis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses that will be discussed are the description of learning model, students responses, and factors influencing the development of qawaid sharraf learning model by using  qiyasiyah approach. Based on the research result, it has been identified that there are four type of learning model that have been intensively and effectively applied to achieve better qualified learning. They are: firstly, basic competence and learning indicator based learning model; secondly, wazan memorizing by providing example of wazan fi’il madhi on the basis of thariqah tashrif bina’ shahih; thirdly, applying tashrif models on the al-Qur’an pronunciation. There are optimal and positive responses of students toward the development of qawaid sharraf learning model by using qiyasiyah approach, it is supported by the following indicators: (1 motivation emergence, (2 students learning interest increase, (3 students learning competence development, (4 the starting point of Arabic language improvement. In general, the main factor influencing the development of qawaid sharraf learning model by using qiyasiyah approach is the professional planning and process. However, there are several components that are able to endorse the efforts: (1 qualified schools management, (2 students recruitment, (3 teachers competence.

  5. Pelatihan Penyusunan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Indonesia bagi Guru Smp/Mts di Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftakhul Huda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This training has several goals, namely to open insights, and observers of Indonesian teachers about gender equality in everyday life, giving insight to analyze the value of inequality/ gender equality, and compile teaching materials Indonesian perspective of gender equality. Implementation of this training method is applied in two stages: the preparation stage and implementation stage. Preparation stage includes internal coordination (: preparatory concepts, preparation of materials and the coordination of external (: contacting a speaker, contact the PDM Surakarta, Surakarta Dikspora contacted, and invited the school. Implementation stage is the stage of core training employed by interactive lectures, questions and answers, and tutorials. Training lasted for one day and 13 participants attended junior secondary school teachers. Based on analysis of implementation of teacher understand the preparation of teaching materials Indonesian gender perspective. This is evident from the responses of the material, examples, and instructional materials containing ilutrasi gender inequality.

  6. Pembelajaran Berbasis Multimedia dan Pembelajaran Konvensional (Studi Komparasi di MTs Al-Muttaqin Plemahan Kediri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualimul Huda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONVENTIONAL AND MULTIMEDIA BASED LEARNING A COMPARATION STUDY IN AL-MUTTAQIN PLEMAHAN KEDIRI SECONDARY SCHOOLS. The interaction during learning process is influenced by the circumstances, the effectiveness of learning media is the example. This research is to test the theory of two motivation factors that put forward by the Herzberg. He states that the motivation of the person in doing something influenced by two factors namely intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. This theory is then made the basis development the theory of motivation to learn that the students learning achievement motivation is influenced by those two factors components. In addition in this research also focus testing the effectiveness of learning media that put forward by Edgar Dale known with Dale's Cone of Experience. This study use a quantitative research using mixed approach method. Data collection is done by questionnaires and documentation, interview and observation. The sampling is determined by the technique of random sampling. Analysis of statistical data with the t-test independent formula. the results of the analysis comparison with t-test, independent data shows that there is a significant difference between motivation and student learning achievements between the learning using multimedia computer and conventional methods so that it can be concluded that the motivation and achievement of student learning using multimedia computer is better than using conventional methods in Al-Muttaqin Plemahan Kediri Secondary Schools.

  7. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Tibor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Boda Claystone Formation (BCF is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermal analysis (DTA-TG, and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite.

  8. Regional distribution and relevance in paleonvironmental studies of lakes in the Tatra Mts. (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna POCIASK-KARTECZKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific limnological research in the Tatra Mountains were initiated by Stanislaw Staszic in the early XIX century.  After the World War II, the evolution of Tatra lakes was investigated by Kondracki, Klimaszewski, Baumgart-Kotarba and. Extensive paleolimnological investigations in the Tatra Mountains were started by the group of scientists led by K. Starmach in the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. There has been not much research concerned to the regional distribution of lakes and their properties in the Tatra Mountains (Pociask-Karteczka 2013. Very early division of lakes presented A. Gadomski (1922, which distinguished four types of lakes: a tarns (cirque lake or corrie loch, b bedrock-dammed lakes, c moraine lakes. This division was concerned in subsequent publications (Choiński 2007. M. Lukniš (1973, 1985 recognized additional types: kettles and landslide-dammed lakes and M. Klimaszewski (1988 – inter-sheepback lakes. J. Pacl and K. Wit-Jóźwik in Klima Tatier (Pacl, Wit-Jóźwik 1974 were focused on the temperature of water in lakes in Polish and Slovak parts and M. Borowiak (2000a,b provided a comprehensive analysis of types, dimensions, temperature and chemical composition of water in lakes in the Tatra Mountains.According to present day state of knowledge, one may distinguish following genetic types of lakes: I glacial, II not-glacial. There are four types of the glacial origin lakes in the Tatra Mountains (Fig. 1: a tarns (cirque lakes or corrie loch, b bedrock-moraine dammed lakes, c inter-sheepback lakes, d moraine lakes, e kettles.Most of lakes in the Tatra Mountains are tarns and bedrock-moraine dammed lakes, and they are located at the elevation over 1400 m a.s.l. in the Western Tatra Mountains, and over 1600 m a.s.l. in the High Tatra Mountains. Some of them are paternoster lakes – a series of stair-stepped lakes formed in individual rock basins aligned down the course of a glaciated valley. Lakes in the Five Polish Lakes Valley is an example of such type. The inter-sheepback lakes occur at higher elevations (e.g. Wyżnie Mnichowe Stawki, Zamrznuté oká. There is a little number of moraine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (e.g. Smreczyński, Toporowy Niżni and kettles (e.g. Štrbské Pleso, Kotlinowy Stawek. Some lakes are located among rock debris or rock debris and moraine material (Dwoisty Staw Gąsienicowy, Anitino očko – they are of polygenetic origin. 

  9. Fluoride load on ecosystems in western part of Krusne hory Mts determined by bioindication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, F.; Zemek, F.; Herman, M.; Kierdorf, H.; Kierdorf, U. [University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2001-07-01

    Chemical analyses of bone tissue of red deer from two hunting grounds situated in the Krusne hory (Ore Mountains) have revealed different trajectories of fluorine to these forested areas since the sixties. Concentrations of fluorine in the site furthest (a 40 km) from the emission sources display relatively stable contents through the last fifty years, and a decreasing trend in the last decade. Long-term contents of fluorine in samples from the second group (half distance) have increased since the fifties. The species of this region have not been able to resist high immission loads from nearby coal power plants.

  10. KONSTRUKSI SOSIAL GURU IPS TENTANG PEMBELAJARAN IPS DI MTS KECAMATAN KOTA SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi Rasyid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini mendeskripsikan tentang (1 mengetahui konstruksi sosial guru IPS, (2 Implementasi pembelajaran guru di Kelas, (3 Paradigma kepala sekolah tentang pembelajaran IPS.Metode penelitian menggunakan kualitatif, tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali substansi mendasar dibalik fakta yang terjadi pada guru IPS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa guru IPS mengkonstruksikan IPS menjadi empat konstruksi, (1 IPS adalah ilmu pengetahuan sosial yang peserta didik diharuskan bisa bersikap sosial yang baik sebagai perwujudan dari ilmu pengetahuan sosial, (2 IPS adalah mengkaji kehidupan sehari-hari dan masalah sosial yang ada dalam masyarakat, (3 IPS adalah mengkaji tentang hubungan manusia baik individu dengan individu, individu dengan kelompok maupun kelompok dengan kelompok, (4 IPS adalah mata pelajaran yang di dalamnya ada mata pelajaran sejarah, geografi, sosiologi dan ekonomi. This study describes the purpose of (1 determine the social construction of social studies teachers, (2 Implementation of teacher learning in class, (3 the principal of the learning paradigm of social studies. Using qualitative research methods, the main purpose of this study was to explore the fundamental substance behind the facts that occurred in social studies teacher. The results showed that teachers of social studies constructs into four construction, (1 social studies is a social studies that students are required to be good social as the embodiment of social studies, (2 social studies is reviewing everyday life and social problems that exist in the community, (3 social studies is to examine whether individual human relationships with individuals, groups of individuals and groups with the group, (4 social studiess are subjects in which there is the eye the lessons of history, geography, sociology and economics

  11. Climatic sensitivity of the non-glaciated mountains cryosphere (Tatra Mts., Poland and Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gądek, Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    This paper concerns the response of the conditioned by orography cryosphere of the non-glaciated mountains of mid-latitude to the climate impulses. It presents the relationships among the air temperature, precipitation, snow cover, lake ice cover, firn-ice patches (glacierets) and permafrost in the Tatras. The data from the warmest multi-year in the history of the local meteorological measurements and statistical models (multiple regression) have been used. The results indicate that all the components of the contemporary cryosphere are very sensitive to the changes in the air temperature in winter or snow precipitation/accumulation. Due to the diverse orographic conditions, interannual variability of seasonal and perennial, surface and subsurface ice deposits in the mountain areas may not be synchronous. However, the long-term trends of this variability reflect the changes in the global climate system.

  12. Using the Operant MTS Procedure as a Masking Task for Respondent Acquisition of Stimulus Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Delgado Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se habla de adquisición de clases funcionales cuando el comportamiento es controlado por aquellas propiedades de los estímulos que son comunes a todos los miembros de la clase. Un análisis en términos de sustitución de funciones es necesario para explicar la adquisición de varios tipos de clases funcionales. En este estudio se examinó la adquisición de clases de estímulos comparadores en un entrenamiento estándar de igualación a la muestra, mediante la inclusión de un estímulo contextual diferente para cada clase de comparadores. Las fases de entrenamiento y pruebas de equivalencia sirvieron como una tarea de enmascaramiento para prevenir la interferencia de respuestas verbales con respecto a las relaciones entre el estímulo contextual y los comparadores durante el entrenamiento. Hubo respuestas respecto a una o más clases de comparadores para la mayoría de los participantes. Los hallazgos indican que la función compartida por los miembros de una clase puede ser adquirida por un estímulo arbitrario en ausencia de refuerzo y de respuestas verbales.

  13. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic species evidence the belonging of such groups to the class of Middle European broad-leaved forest Querco-Fagetea. However, there is a reason to believe that they are close to the class of sour oligotrophic and mesotrophic Atlantic deciduous forests Quercetea robori-petraeae. 12 diagnostic species confirm belonging of these groups to the order Fagetalia sylvaticae represented by the European mesophytic deciduous forests. At the level of unions of plant communities no clear association was found. Most of the diagnostic species in phytocenoses under study indicate proximity of the floristic composition of the plants to association Potentillo albae-Quercetum which represents light subcontinental oak forest.

  14. Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (7th). Compensation Structure. Major Topical Summary (MTS) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    See Department of the Navy, Manual of Navy Total Force Manpower, OPNAVINST 1000.16 series. A-1 sampling, or operational audits are the basis for...Knowledge Test (SKT), Promotion Fitness Exam ( PFE ), and performance reports the most important factors. The SKT measures knowledge in a specific career...field; the PFE measures knowledge of military subjects and management practices at a specific grade level; and performance reports measure past job

  15. The occurrence of, and economic losses caused by Armillaria in the Western Carpathian Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kaliszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation carried out in the Western Carpathian Mountains (Ujsoły, Węgierska Górka, Ustroń and Wisła Forest Districts demonstrated a strong relationship between dieback in Norway spruce stands and the intensity of occurrence of Armillaria ostoyae. For the most endangered site types – mountain deciduous forest (LG and mountain mixed forest (LMG, analyses of losses of annual volume increment and of stand productivity were performed, and their financial dimensions determined. The greatest losses – of about 8 m3/ha/year for tree stands of the age of 100 years, and 400 m3/ha for the rotation period – were found for LG (Mountain broadleaved forest site type.

  16. Geomorphological, pedological and dendrochronological signatures of a relict landslide terrain, Mt Garbatka (Kamienne Mts), SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoń, Piotr; Kacprzak, Andrzej; Malik, Ireneusz; Kasprzak, Marek; Owczarek, Piotr; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Pánek, Tomaš

    2014-08-01

    In the Kamienne Mountains the largest concentration of apparently relict landslides in the Sudetes range occurs. On the northern slopes of Mt Garbatka mass movements re-shaped two adjacent slope hollows and a wide depositional area is located down the valley. The main landslide body is nearly 1 km long and 200-300 m wide. Its flattened surface morphology and the occurrence of large dispersed allochtonous boulders in the distal part suggests a flow-like movement, initiated by shallow translational slides in the upper slopes. The thickness of colluvium, determined by an ERT survey, may reach 10 m. Geomorphic signatures of mass movement are subdued, suggesting that considerable time has elapsed since the origin of the landslide and that large-scale mass movements are likely pre-Holocene in age. This is consistent with the results of an extensive soil survey within the landslide body and on the surrounding slopes. Similarity of soil properties and well-developed horizonation of profiles both within the landslide and outside it shows that no major disturbance has taken place during the soil formation period. Dendrogeomorphological research, in turn, yielded evidence of numerous growth disturbances recorded in tree rings of Norway spruce growing on the landslide body. These signals are interpreted that the slope surface is not entirely stable under current environmental conditions. Flow or creep of landslide material is not very likely, given the characteristics of cover materials, and it is hypothesized that dendrochronological signals develop in response to ground deformation through piping and throughflow. Landslide hazard in the valley below Mt Garbatka appears low at present but to claim complete stability would be premature.

  17. Mapping of buried river terraces on the Kopite Hill, Gerecse Mts., Northern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Dániel; Szőts, Gergely K.; Ruszák, Zsófia; Bereczki, László; Molnár, Gábor; Timár, Gábor; Fodor, László; Csillag, Gábor; Lantos, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    The Gerecse Mountains is a part of the Transdanubian Mountain Range. The Kopite Hill located on the northern part of the Gerecse Mountains, on the southern side of the Danube and the Hungarian-Slovakian border. At the southern side of the Danube (100 m a.s.l.) a 290 m high hill of Pannonian (Miocene) marine clay, silt and sand can be found. These Pannonian strata are covered with Pliocene-Pleistocene alluvial sediments, loess and travertine. On the Kopite Hill some small outcrops of gravel can be found, which thought to be one of the highest river terrace levels, but it is not proved. To the northwest there is 270-300 m high plateau of the 'Roman-quarry' with a formerly mined travertine-body. According to a recent discovery a Mammoth-tooth and other fossils of mammals were found there, which were dated and correlated. Because the travertine body is at lower height than the assumed terrace level, a maximum rate of uplift can be given. The aim of our fieldwork was to determine the geometry of gravel strata and the connections between the distinct outcrops and the travertine body. We used multielectrode measurements with supplementary VES measurements. We found that on the north side of Kopite Hill and to south from the Roman-quarry there is an almost horizontal 300*100 m large, 8-13 m thick pebble stratum. Direct connection to the travertine body is not possible, because there is a few tens of meters gap between the two bodies, filled with loess. We assume the gravel stratum with its 258-252 m height (gently dips to the south) is a river terrace. On the southest point of this river terrace the thickness of the gravel suddenly increases to 22 meters. To the south there are also some gravel outcrops, and also a drill which suggest that the bottom of these gravels are higher on higher level, about at 265 m a.s.l.. We interpret this phenomenon as a higher terrace level. With the use of geoelectrical methods we could determine the geometry of gravel stratum on the Kopite Hill and we found no direct connection to the travertine body. The geometry of the gravel stratum strengthens the former thought, that a river terrace can be found about 255 m a.s.l. and also the measurements revealed a higher terrace level about 265 m a.s.l.. Because we know the age of the Mammoth-tooth we can determine the approximate maximum rate of uplift, which occurred as high as 0.3 mm/a. This research is supported by the project OTKA NK-83400 (SourceSink Hungary).

  18. Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (7th). Allowances. Major Topical Summary (MTS) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Kraft, Inc. Baxter Healthcare Corporation Bayer AG McDonald’s Corporation Best Products Company, Inc. Miami Herald BMW of North America Michelin Tire...Corporation Boeing Company Miller Brewing Company Borden, Inc. Mitre Corporation Borg-Warner Mobay Chemical Corporation Boston Edison Company Monsanto

  19. Grusification of granite (scheme based on the study of granites from Sudety Mts., SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Gruses that are developed on the Karkonosze granite (three outcrops) and the Izera granite (one outcrop) were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS and electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, chemical analysis (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratio determination and K-Ar dating. Three groups of samples were distinguished according to the degree of grusification (group I - compact granite; group II - friable granite; group III - granitic grus). The results of the examination allowed to present the simplified scheme of the grusification: 1. Development of microcracks (caused by tectonic stress, mechanical upload or magma cooling processes) promote circulation of hydrothermal fluids in granites; 2. The presence of the microcracks in granite facilitate the circulation of low-temperature fluids (low-temperature hydrothermal or weathering fluids). Fluids cause hydration and expansion of primary biotite (vermiculitization), what leads to development of secondary cracks in a rock. Fluids can also induce advanced alteration of plagioclases into clay minerals (mainly smectite or vermiculite). Expansion of biotite during vermiculitization is the most important factor in grusification. Other processes of alteration also contribute to grusification. Hydrothermal fluids in granite contribute the increase of alteration degree of primary minerals (e.g. sericitization and albitization of feldspar, chloritization or muscovitization of biotite, decomposition of monazite-(Ce) and formation of secondary REE phosphates). If primary biotite is subjected to muscovitization or chloritization, complete grusification of granite does not occur because of lack of vermiculitation.

  20. An explosive seismic sounding profile across the transition zone between west Kunlun Mts. and Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Qiusheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Liu, T. S., Loess and the Environment, Beijing: China Ocean Press, 1985, 1-251.[2]Chen, L. X., Zhu, Q. G., Luo, H. B. et al., East Asian Monsoon, Beijing: China Meteorology Press, 1991, 28-61.[3]An, Z. S., Liu, T. S., Lu, Y. C. et al., The long-term palaeomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-palaeosol sequence in central China, Quaternary International, 1990, (7/8): 91-95.[4]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Shift of the monsoon intensity on the Loess Plateau at ca. 0.85 MaBP, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1993, 38(2): 586-591.[5]Chen, J., An, Z. S., Wang, Y. J. et al., Distributions of Rb and Sr in the Luochuan loess-paleosol sequence of China during the last 800 ka: Implications for paleomonsoon variations, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(3): 225-232.[6]Chen, J., Wang, Y. J., Ji, J. F. et al., Rb/Sr variations and its climatic stratigraphical significance of a loess-paleosol profile from Luochuan, Shaanxi Province, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(4): 350-356.[7]Guo, Z. T.,Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Climate extremes in loess of China coupled with the strength of deep-water for-mation in the North Atlantic, Global and Planetary Change, 1998, 18: 113-128.[8]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., An, Z. S., Paleosols of the last 0.15 Ma in the Weinan loess section and their paleoclimate signifi-cance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1994, 14(3): 256-269.[9]Guo, Z, T,, Fedoroff, N., Liu, T. S., Micromorphology of the loess-paleosol sequence of the last 130 ka in China and pa-leoclimatic event, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1996, 26(3): 392-398.[10]Guo, Z., Liu, T., Guiot, J., et al., High frequency pulses of East Asian monsoon climate in the last two glaciations: Link with the North Atlantic, Climate Dynamics, 1996, 12: 701-709.[11]Guo, Z. T., Peng, S. Z., Wei, L. Y. et al., Weathering signals of Millennial-Scale oscillations of the East Asian Summer monsoon over the last 220 ka, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44 (supplement 1): 20-25.[12]Ding, Z. L., Yu, Z. W., Rutter, N. W. et al., Towards an orbital time scale for Chinese loess deposits, Quaternary Science Review, 1994,13: 39-70.[13]Duchaufour, Ph., Pedologie, Tome 1: Pedogenese et Classification, Paris-New York-Barcelone-Milan: Masson, 1983, 1-477.[14]Singer, M. J., Bowen, L. H., Verosub, K. L. et al., Mossbauer spectroscopic evidence for citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite ex-traction of maghemite from soils, Clays and Clay Minerals,1995, 43: 1-7.[15]Hunt, C. P., Singer, M. J., Kletetschka, G. et al., Effect of citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite treatment on fine-grained mag-netite and maghemite, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1995, 130: 87-94.[16]Mehra, O., Jackson, M. L., Iron oxide removal from soil and clay by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bi-carbonate, Clay and Clay Minerals, 1960, 7: 317-327.[17]McKeague, J. A., Manual on soil sampling and methods of analysis, Toronto: Canadian Society of Soil Science, 1981, 1-212.[18]Kukla, G., An, Z. S., Melice, J. L. et al., Magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess, Transaction of Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 1990, 81: 263-288.[19]Guo, Z. T., Wei, L. Y., Lu, H. Y. et al., Changes in the composition of Late Pleistocene aeolian dust and the environmental significance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(1): 41-48.[20]Heller, F., Liu, X. M., Liu, T. S. et al., Magnetic susceptibility of loess in China, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1991,103: 301-310.[21]Yang, J. D., Chen, J., An, Z. S. et al., Variations in 87Sr/86Sr Ratios of calcites in Chinese loess: A proxy for chemical weathering associated with the East Asian Summer monsoon, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 2000,157: 151-159.[22]Verosub, K. L., Fine, P., Singer, M. J. et al., Pedogenesis and paleoclimate: Interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, Geology, 1993, 21: 1011-1014.[23]Banerjee, S. K., Hunt, C. P., Liu, X., Separation of local signals from the regional paleomonsoon record of the Chinese loess plateau: A rock magnetic approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1993, 20: 843-846.[24]Vidic, N. J., TenPas, J. D., Verosub, K. L. et al., Separation of pedogenic and lithogenic components of magnetic suscepti-bility in the Chinese loess/paleosol sequence as determined by the CBD procedure and a mixing analysis, Geophys. J. Int., 2000, 142: 551-562.[25]Deng, C. L., Yuan, B. Y., Zhu, R. X. et al., Magnetic susceptibility of Holocene loess-black loam sequence from Jiaodao, Shanxi, before and after citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extraction, Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 2000, 43(4): 514-520.[26]Hunt, C. P., Banerjee, S. K., Han, J. M. et al., Rock-magnetic proxies of climate change in the loess-palaeosol sequences of the western Loess Plateau of China, 1995, Geophys. J. Int., 1995, 123: 232-244.[27]Liu, X. M., Liu, T. S., Heller, F. et al., The grain size of magnetic minerals in Chinese loess and its implications for paleo-climate, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1991, 21(6): 639-644.[28]Chen, F. H., Bloemendal, J., Feng, Z. D. et al., East Asian monsoon variations during oxygen isotope stage 5: Evidence from the northwestern margin of the Chinese Loess Plateau, Quaternary Science Reviews, 1999, 18: 1127-1135.[29]Pan, B. T., Wang, J. M., Loess record of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau monsoon variations in the eastern part of the plateau since the Last Interglacial, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(4): 330-335.[30]Imbrie, J., Imbrie, J. Z., Modeling the climate response to orbital variation, Science, 1980, 207: 943-953.[31]Liu, T. S., Quaternary Environment (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1997, 189-239.

  1. New data on the Western Transylvanides along the Ampoi Valley (Southern Apuseni Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Suciu-Krausz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify some of the issues regarding the mineralogical content and the source area of the Cretaceous deposits from Ampoi Valley basin (Southern Apuseni Mountains fourteen lithologic logs were drawn from the Ampoi Valley both side tributaries (Slatinii, Ruzi, Vâltori, Valea lui Paul, Feneş, Călineasa, Fierului Brook, Bobului, Satului, Tăuţi, Galaţi, Presaca Ampoiului, Valea Mică and Valea Mare brooks. The main sedimentary rock types were identified (conglomerates, wacke and lithic sandstones, clays, and marls. The sandstones were classified according to the ternary diagrams. Their petrographic features revealed both a magmatic and a metamorphic source area for them.

  2. Multiclass MTS for saxophone timbre quality inspection using waveform-shape-based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang; Su, Chao-Ton

    2009-06-01

    Under the highly developed automation today, the manufacture of saxophone is still a nonautomatic process and much relies on highly skilled technicians. In order to insure the timbre quality, the sound of finished saxophone must be tested in the final inspection stage. The evaluation of timbre quality mainly depends on the professional musicians' hearing judgment; however, the sensitivity of human perception can be influenced by many factors. To improve the reliability of saxophone timbre quality inspection, an automatic multiclass timbre classification system (AMTCS) is developed and used to assist in the inspection work. The AMTCS is composed of our proposed waveform-shape-based feature extraction method in parameterization phase and multiclass Mahalanobis-Taguchi system in classification phase. The numerical experiments show that the musical instrument classification accuracy obtained by our proposed AMTCS is satisfactory. Through employing the AMTCS, strong assistance was provided to the inspection of saxophone timbre quality, and a perfect identification rate on the saxophones with different timbre quality levels is achieved. Moreover, the significant tones having impact on saxophone timbre quality can also be easily identified by AMTCS.

  3. [Hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of runoff at Qiyi glacier, Qilian Mts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Bo; Li, Quan-Lian; Song, Gao-Ju; He, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Xi

    2008-03-01

    Glacier ice, supraglacier stream water, ice-marginal stream water, proglacier stream water samples were collected at Qiyi glacier located in central part of Qilian Mountain 2006-06 - 2006-07. Major ions concentration, pH and EC were analyzed. The results indicate that pH varies from 8.05 to 8.79, and EC 32.4 - 134.4 microS cm(-1). The order of major ions concentration in differed water is: supraglacier stream water SO4(2-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-), Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) mainly comes from carbonate weathering,and some is from sulfate dissolution. Concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) increase quicker than Na(+) and Ca(2+) in proglacier stream and ice-margin stream that is inverse to their abundance in crust. The spatial characteristic of ions concentration is controlled by the process of water-rock and temporal change is hydrological factors.

  4. Simulação computacional do comportamento de formação de classes de equivalência pelo procedimento go/no-go com estímulos compostos

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Roberto Vernucio

    2015-01-01

    A partir do treino de relações condicionais podem emergir relações que não foram diretamente treinadas, formando-se classes de equivalência. As pesquisas sobre equivalência de estímulos comumente adotaram o procedimento matching-to-sample (MTS) e utilizam humanos como sujeitos experimentais. Mais recentemente, alguns estudos utilizaram modelos computacionais para simular o comportamento de formação de classes de equivalência. O modelo computacional comumente utilizado chama-se RELNET, que sim...

  5. Transfer of training from one working memory task to another: Behavioural and neural evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Beatty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available N-back working memory (WM tasks necessitate the maintenance and updating of dynamic rehearsal sets during performance. The delayed matching-to-sample (dMTS task is another WM task, which in turn involves the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of stimulus representations in sequential order. Because both n-back and dMTS engage WM function, we hypothesized that compared to a control task not taxing WM, training on the n-back task would be associated with better performance on dMTS by virtue of training a shared mental capacity. We tested this hypothesis by randomly assigning subjects (N = 43 to train on either the n-back (including 2-back and 3-back levels or an active control task. Following training, dMTS was administered in the fMRI scanner. The n-back group performed marginally better than the active control group on dMTS. In addition, although the n-back group improved more on the less difficult 2-back level than the more difficult 3-back level across training sessions, it was improvement on the 3-back level that accounted for 21% of the variance in dMTS performance. For the control group, improvement in training across sessions was unrelated to dMTS performance. At the neural level, greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, right posterior parietal cortex and the cerebellum distinguished the n-back group from the control group in the maintenance phase of dMTS. Degree of improvement on the 3-back level across training sessions was correlated with activation in right lateral prefrontal and motor cortices in the maintenance phase of dMTS. Our results suggest that although n-back training is more likely to improve performance in easier blocks, it is improvement in more difficult blocks that is predictive of performance on a target task drawing on WM. In addition, the extent to which training on a task can transfer to another task is likely due to the engagement of shared cognitive capacities and underlying neural substrates

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  7. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Thomas A; Cook, Robert G; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  8. The Comprehensive Retrieval Method of Electromagnetic Parameters Using the Scattering Parameters of Metamaterials for Two Choices of Time-Dependent Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhi-Ling; KONG Ling-Bao; JIN Hai-Bo; CAO Mao-Sheng; LI Xiao; QI Xin

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic parameters (permittivity and permeability) method, retrieved from the reflection and transmission coefficients of a slab, is presented. Improvements over existing methods, including the determination of the permittivity, permeability and impedance of the slab, are expressed as explicit functions of the S parameters for both the time-dependent factors, eiωt and e-iωt (ω is the angular frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave), and the proper selection of the sign of impedance and the real part of the refractive index. Moreover, based on the retrieving method, the calculations of the electromagnetic parameters of the conventional-material teflon slab standard sample through the experimental data of the S parameters are performed, which confirm the validity of the technique for the retrieval of electromagnetic parameters.%The electromagnetic parameters (permittivity and permeability) method,retrieved from the reflection and transmission coefficients of a slab,is presented.Improvements over existing methods,including the determination of the permittivity,permeability and impedance of the slab,are expressed as explicit functions of the S parameters for both the time-dependent factors,eiwt and e-iwt (ω is the angular frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave),and the proper selection of the sign of impedance and the real part of the refractive index.Moreover,based on the retrieving method,the calculations of the electromagnetic parameters of the conventional-material teflon slab standard sample through the experimental data of the S parameters are performed,which confirm the validity of the technique for the retrieval of electromagnetic parameters.

  9. Delay aversion but preference for large and rare rewards in two choice tasks: implications for the measurement of self-control parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviola Giovanni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is defined as intolerance/aversion to waiting for reward. In intolerance-to-delay (ID protocols, animals must choose between small/soon (SS versus large/late (LL rewards. In the probabilistic discount (PD protocols, animals are faced with choice between small/sure (SS versus large/luck-linked (LLL rewards. It has been suggested that PD protocols also measure impulsivity, however, a clear dissociation has been reported between delay and probability discounting. Results Wistar adolescent rats (30- to 46-day-old were tested using either protocol in drug-free state. In the ID protocol, animals showed a marked shift from LL to SS reward when delay increased, and this despite adverse consequences on the total amount of food obtained. In the PD protocol, animals developed a stable preference for LLL reward, and maintained it even when SS and LLL options were predicted and demonstrated to become indifferent. We demonstrate a clear dissociation between these two protocols. In the ID task, the aversion to delay was anti-economical and reflected impulsivity. In the PD task, preference for large reward was maintained despite its uncertain delivery, suggesting a strong attraction for unitary rewards of great magnitude. Conclusion Uncertain delivery generated no aversion, when compared to delays producing an equivalent level of large-reward rarefaction. The PD task is suggested not to reflect impulsive behavior, and to generate patterns of choice that rather resemble the features of gambling. In summary, present data do indicate the need to interpret choice behavior in ID and PD protocols differently.

  10. Gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto avoid ovipositing in Bermuda grass hay infusion and it’s volatiles in two choice egg-count bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, LK; Okal, MN; Borg-Karlson, AK; Fillinger, U; Lindh, JM

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of mosquito species in the Culex and Aedes genera prefer to lay eggs in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) hay infusions compared to water alone. These mosquitoes are attracted to volatile compounds from the hay infusions making the infusions effective baits in gravid traps used for monitoring vectors of arboviral and filarial pathogens. Since Bermuda grass is abundant and widespread, it is plausible to explore infusions made from it as a potential low cost bait for outdoor ...

  11. Dissociations between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Louise C.; Livesey, Evan J.

    2010-01-01

    Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this…

  12. Suppression of tumor development and metastasis formation in mice lacking the S100A4(mts1) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhofer, Jörg; Berg, Christian Hededam

    2005-01-01

    distribution of host-derived stroma cells. Coinjection of CSML100 cells with immortalized S100A4(+/+) fibroblasts partially restored the dynamics of tumor development and the ability to form metastasis. These fibroblasts were characterized by an enhanced motility and invasiveness in comparison with S100A4...

  13. The stibian mustard gold from the Kriván¿ Au deposit,Tatry Mts., Slovak Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Martin, Chovan; František, Bakos

    2007-01-01

    The Kriván Au-Sb mineralization is hosted in several subhorizontal variscan mylonite zones located in granitoid rocks. Ore minerals occur in thin lens-shaped quartz veinlets. Albite, chlorite, calcite, muscovite and tourmaline are minor gangue minerals. Four mineral assemblages have been recogniz...

  14. Chemical and mineralogical data of the metalliferous mineralization from S. Carlo mine (Peloritani mts, Ne Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisacane, G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization processes in the Peloritani Belt (Southern Sector of the Calabria- Peloritani Arc prevalently developed during the Variscan orogenesis producing Pb, Zn, Fe, As, Sb, Cu, Ag, W, etc. polymetalliferous ore-bearing horizons. This paper focuses on the polymetalliferous mineralization recognised in the ancient S. Carlo Mine, which has already been subject of some studies and is part of an important discordant vein deposits system that are widespread in the Mandanici Unit (MaU. This Unit is characterized by a Variscan low-P, polyphasic and plurifacial metamorphic basement, exhibiting a prograde zoning, from chlorite zone of greenschist facies to oligoclase-almandine zone of amphibolite facies. The Variscan main foliation (Fv2 is irregularly cut by mineralized veins of decimetric to metric width. They are also perpendicular to the Alpine mylonitic shear zones of metric thickness developing along the sub-horizontal tectonic contacts between the tectono-stratigraphic units. These vein deposits formed along late-Alpine systems of fractures and faults, after Peloritani nappe emplacement. Minerographic study reveals a metalliferous mineral association mainly composed of tetrahedrite associated with, in order of decreasing abundance, chalcopyrite, bournonite, pentlandite, stromeyerite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, bismuthinite, boulangerite, jamesonite, covellite, bornite and argentite. Quartz, siderite and ankerite among non-metalliferous minerals are predominant. This work has been supported by mineralogical studies and chemical analyses carried out by Atomic Absorption and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry on powdered and separated samples of minerals. Geochemical data (major and trace elements have allowed a detailed characterization of the minerals. They have revealed that the most significant minerals with Au contents around 1 ppm are tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and bournonite. The presence of this noble metal in all minerals is important and shows that the mineralizing event is late and widespread. The Ag content is generally about 2000 ppm in all metalliferous minerals, and is higher than those found in the same minerals of other Peloritani deposits in which this content is around 1000 ppm. Sphalerite and carbonates show very low Ag content. Chalcopyrite, sphalerite, bournonite and tetrahedrite show high contents of Ni, As, Bi. Cd and Mn are concentrated in sphalerite. Fe content in sphalerite is on average > 6%, in agreement with pressure-temperature conditions (pressure from 2 to 3 kbar and temperature from 420 to 550 C.

  15. Gas geochemical survey of long dormant Ciomadul volcano (South Harghita Mts., Romania): constraints on the flux and origin of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Ionescu, Artur; Harangi, Szabolcs; Palcsu, László; Etiope, Giuseppe; Baciu, Cǎlin

    2016-04-01

    The Ciomadul, located in the South Harghita Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) is the youngest volcano built by the Neogene volcanism in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region. The volcanic activity was characterized by an initial extrusive lava dome building period from about 200 ka to 100 ka followed by a more explosive eruption stage from 57 to 32 ka. Although the volcano seems to be inactive, several features (e.g. geophysical anomalies in the crust; fast remobilization of near solidus long lasting crystal mush prior to the past eruptions) suggest that melt-bearing magmatic body could still exist beneath the Ciomadul. This is supported by the abundance of dry gas emanations (CO2, CH4, H2S), CO2 rich mineral water springs and bubbling pools. The long-term observation of seemingly inactive, dormant volcanoes has become important in the past years (Ontake volcano-Japan, Colli Albani volcano-Italy). Gas-geochemical survey and monitoring (noble gases, isotopic composition of carbon species, flux measurements) of such volcanoes is an adequate tool in detecting changes in their volcanic plumbing system. Starting from 2015 we commenced a gas-monitoring study to constrain the origin of fluids at Ciomadul by measuring the flux of two gas-species and collecting the gas-phase from several mofettes and mineral water springs. A total of 46 sites have been surveyed, including 29 gas emanations (mofettes and bubbling pools), 3 drilled wells, 11 springs and 3 surface water sites. We provide the first complex CO2 and CH4 flux measurements in the area considering mofettes and bubbling pools. The CO2 flux values range between 10 and 264 kg/day while the CH4 flux has a range between 125 and 4723 g/day. Estimates of total CO2 and CH4 output into the atmosphere are ~229 and ~1.3 t/year, respectively. These values are consistent with other geothermal systems in Europe. The chemical composition of samples indicate CO2 content of up to 96.77%, CH4 content up to 1.42% and He content up to 13.2 ppm. The isotopic composition of He ranges between 2.86-1.13Ra (air-normalized 3He/4He); and δ13C CO2 ranges between -3.24‰ and -3.59‰ vs. PDB, coherently indicating the magmatic origin of these fluids. The δ13C CH4 ranges between -23.7 and -7.8 ‰ vs. PDB, suggesting a dominant abiotic origin of CH4, variably mixed with a thermogenic (biotic) component, likely from thermal cracking of organic matter in sediments involved in the volcanic plumbing system. Pure abiotic CH4 is not quantifiable based on the currently available data. A few samples, with positive δ13C CH4 values, may suggest CH4 oxidation, probably due to local conditions. The magmatic origin of He and CO2 and the dual origin of CH4 (abiotic and biotic mixture) confirms the presence of a slowly degassing, melt-bearing magmatic body, consistent with previous geophysical data. Acknowledgments The research was financially supported by the OTKA, project number K116528 and the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537.

  16. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Peloritani Mts. (Sicily, Italy) and clues for tectonic control of relief processes

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, G.; S. Scudero

    2013-01-01

    Many destructive shallow landslides hit villages in the Peloritani Mountains area (Sicily, Italy) on 1 October 2009 after heavy rainfall. The collection of several types of spatial data, together with a landslide inventory, allows the assessment of the landslide susceptibility by applying a statistical technique. The susceptibility model was validated by performing an analysis in a test area using independent landslide information, the results being able to correctly predict...

  17. Metallogeny of the Gold Quadrilateral: style and characteristics of epithermal - subvolcanic mineralized structures, South Apuseni Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian territory contains numerous ore deposits mined since pre-Roman times. An assessment of historical gold production of the Gold Quadri-lateral (GQ yielded a total estimate of 55.7 Moz of gold throughout an area of 2400 km2. Interpreted in terms of mineralization density this is 23,208 oz of gold/ km2. The geological setting of the GQ is represented mainly by Tertiary (14.7 My to 7.4 My calc-alkaline volcano-plutonic complexes of intermediate character in sedimentary basins of molasse type. These basins are tectonically controlled by NW-SE lineation across early Alpine magmatic products, i.e. subduction related Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous igneous association (island arc ophiolites and granitoids and Upper Cretaceous igneous association (banatites. The Tertiary magmatism is associated with extensional tectonics caused by NE escape of the Pannonian region during Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene times. As a result of tectono-magmatic and mineralization-alteration characteristics, two metallogenetical types were separated in the GQ, i.e. calc-alkaline andesitic (CAM and sub-alkaline rhyodacitic (SRM. Both develop almost entirely low-sulfidation type of Au epithermal mineralization. However, two subtypes, -rich in sulfide (2-7% and -poor in sulfide (7-20% were delineated and correlated with CAM type and SRM type respectively. Furthermore, CAM is connected at deeper levels with Cu-Au+/-Mo porphyry systems in contrast with SRM, which is a non-porphyry environment. The Brad-Săcărâmb district contains mainly CAM type andesitic structures. It is a porphyry environment with epithermal low-sulfidation-rich sulfide vein halo (Barza, Troiţa-Bolcana deposits. However, a few SRM type patterns, such as Măgura Ţebii, Băiţa-Crăciuneşti and Săcărâmb, deposits exhibit Au-Ag-Te low-sulfidation-poor sulfide epithermal vein halo. The Zlatna-Stănija district exhibits similar characteristics, with Au-Ag+/-Pb, Zn veins in Cu-Au subvolcanic-porphyry environment (CAM type. An exception is the Faţa Băii Au-Ag-Te vein system that corresponds to SRM type. Rosia Montana-Bucium district is more elaborated in terms of a porphyry-epithermal relationship. Both CAM type (Roşia Poieni, Bucium Tarniţa deposits and SRM type (Roşia Montană deposit exist. The Baia de Arieş district is definitely the non-porphyry environment of SRM type, with Au-Ag-Te veins and breccia pipes hosted in sub-alkaline andesitic rocks.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU PELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA BERBASIS KESANTUNAN UNTUK PESERTA DIDIK SMP/MTS KELAS VII SEMESTER 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Setyo Atmoko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unit Penelitian dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat merupakan salah satu unit di Universitas Respati Yogyakarta yang bertugas untuk mengelola kegiatan penelitian dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang dilakukan oleh dosen. Dalam proses pengolahan data kegiatan kegiatan penelitian dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat masih mengalami beberapa permasalahan yaitu belum adanya basis data yang digunakan untuk pengumpulan data rekam jejak kegiatan penelitian dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat oleh dosen dan sistem pengarsipan dokumen masih berbentuk kertas yang berdampak pada kerusakan dokumen, hilangnya dokumen, efisiensi ruang dan pencarian data. Penelitian yang dilakukan bertujuan menghasilkan luaran sistem informasi yang dapat melakukan proses pengolahan data penelitian dan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang dikelola oleh Unit Penelitian dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat di Universitas Respati Yogyakarta. Pengolahan data mengacu pada komponen beban kerja dosen dibidang penelitian dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat. Metode pengembangan dilakukan dengan tahapan analisa sistem, perancangan sistem, coding dan implementasi sistem. Hasil pengembangan sistem informasi penelitian dan pengabdian masyarakat yaitu sebuah sistem yang dapat membantu Unit Penelitian dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat dalam proses pengolahan data rekam jejak kegiatan penelitian dan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang dilakukan dosen.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL LINGKAR SASTRA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN APRESIASI CERITA PENDEK BERMUATAN NILAI-NILAI PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER PESERTA DIDIK SMP/ MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Hidayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Keterampilan mengapresiasi cerita pendek sangat penting dikuasai oleh peserta didik. Kenyataannya keterampilan ini belum dikuasai secara maksimal. Oleh karena itu, perlu dikembangkan sebuah model pembelajaran apresiasi cerpen. Penelitian ini bertujuan memaparkan karakteristik model pembelajaran sesuai kebutuhan guru dan peserta didik, prinsip-prinsip model, prototipe, dan keefektifan model. Pengembangan model dilakukan dengan Research and Development , Borg dan Gall. Secara hirarkis dari analisis kurikulum, teoretis, kebutuhan guru dan peserta didik, mengembangkan prototipe, uji ahli, revisi prototipe, uji coba terbatas, dan penyusunan model. Pengumpulan data dengan angket, lembar pengamatan, dan lembar penilaian. Pengembangan model menghasilkan: (1 karakteristik model lingkar sastra menurut guru dan peserta didik; (2 prinsip-prinsip model (3 propotipe model;(4 keefektifan model dengan diujicobakan pada peserta didik kelas IX B SMP Kesatrian 2 Semarang. Hasilnya mampu meningkatkan hasil belajar apresiasi cerpen dari rata-rata nilai tes awal 60,63 menjadi 77,19 dan pencapaian KKM dari 40,63% menjadi 93,75%. Dampak pengiring karakter jujur, menghargai prestasi, gemar menyimak, dan komunikatif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan  bahwa model ini dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mengapresiasi cerpen.Skills are very important to appreciate short stories dominated by learners. In fact these skills have not been mastered to the fullest. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an appreciation of the learning model of short stories. This study aims to describe the characteristics of the learning model according to the needs of teachers and learners, the principles of the model, the prototype, and the effectiveness of the model. Model development is done by the Research and Development, Borg and Gall. Hierarchically from the curriculum analysis, theoretical, needs of teachers and learners, developing prototypes, testing experts, the revised prototype, limited testing, and modeling. With the questionnaire data collection, observation sheets, and assessment sheets. Development of the model generates: (1 the characteristics of the model according to the literature circle teachers and learners; (2 the principles of the model (3 propotipe models, (4 the effectiveness of the models tested in class IX students of SMP Kesatrian 2 Semarang. The results can improve learning outcomes appreciation of the short story the average value of the initial test be 77.19 and 60.63 KKM achievement of 40.63% to 93.75%. Impact accompaniment honest character, appreciate the accomplishments, likes to listen to, and communicative.

  20. Distribution, ecology and conservation status of Dionysia involucrata Zaprjag., an endangered endemic of Hissar Mts (Tajikistan, Middle Asia

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    Arkadiusz S. Nowak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dionysia involucrata Zaprjag. (Primulaceae is known as critically endangered endemic species of Hissar Mountains in Tajikistan. It is reported from few localities mainly in Varzob River valley and its tributaries. The species inhabits steep or overhanging faces of granite rocks in narrow river gorges. During the research all known populations of D. involucrata were examined in respect of the habitat conditions and species composition of vegetation plots. We analyzed the population extent of the species in its range in Tajikistan and the main threats in order to assess its conservation status. The detrended correspondence analysis was performed on a matrix of 65 relevés and 49 species (vascular plants and mosses, to classify the phytocoenosis with domination of D. involucrata according to their floristic composition in relation to other petrophytic vegetation units. Using our field data regarding present extent of occurrence and area of occupancy we conclude that the threat category of D. involucrata should be reassessed from critically endangered to endangered. The species shows decline tendency in extent of occurrence, area of occupancy as well as in number of locations. The vegetation plots with domination of D. involucrata have relatively high level of separateness due to different species composition. We define the new association – Dionysietum involucratae – representing chasmophytic vegetation of submontane and montane zone in Middle Asia (ca. 1000–1600 m a.s.l.. The plots of Dionysietum involucratae were found mainly on granite rocks, on very steep or overhanging faces, on southwestern or southern exposition. The association is rather poor in species with inconsiderable contribution of mosses. Despite the diagnostic species, Campanula incanescens, Carex koshewnikowii and Scutellaria hissarica were the most abundant and frequent taxa within the researched patches of vegetation.

  1. Functional significance of metastasis-inducing S100A4(Mts1) in tumor-stroma interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    down-regulates the pro-apoptotic bax and the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 genes. For the first time, we demonstrate here that the S100A4 protein added to the extracellular space strongly stimulates proteolytic activity of VMR cells. This activity most probably is associated with matrix...

  2. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Peloritani Mts. (Sicily, Italy and clues for tectonic control of relief processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Guidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many destructive shallow landslides hit villages in the Peloritani Mountains area (Sicily, Italy on 1 October 2009 after heavy rainfall. The collection of several types of spatial data, together with a landslide inventory, allows the assessment of the landslide susceptibility by applying a statistical technique. The susceptibility model was validated by performing an analysis in a test area using independent landslide information, the results being able to correctly predict more than 70% of the landslides. Furthermore, the susceptibility analysis allowed the identification of which combinations of classes, within the different factors, have greater relevance in slope instability, and afterwards associating the most unstable combinations (with a short–medium term incidence with the endogenic processes acting in the area (huge regional uplift, fault activity. Geological and tectonic history are believed to be key to interpreting morphological processes and landscape evolution. Recent tectonic activity was found to be a very important controlling factor in landscape evolution. A geomorphological model of cyclical relief evolution is proposed in which endogenic processes are directly linked to superficial processes. The results are relevant both to risk reduction and the understanding of active geological dynamics.

  3. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in a forest-river system in the South Qinling Mts., China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A

    2016-04-15

    The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios vary significantly between different water types (p system in a mountainous catchment.

  4. Pengelolaan Sistem Informasi Akademik Berbasis SMS Gateway di MTs. Ma’arif 7 Bomo Punung Kabupaten Pacitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Widiyantoro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are: to describe the planning design and the implementation of the system as well as describe the public response to the school. The methods used in this study is a qualitatif approach, that is by interviewing, observing, and documenting as the data collection techniques. The planning of system design, is begun by doing a needs analysis that will be “shared” through SMS access, i.e student’s attendance, the student’s scores, and the notices to the student’s parents. The system implementation is applied to two users groups. They are internal user and external user. From the results of the test of system implementation it is obtained that the timeliness rate is 6.8 seconds, the accuracy of the system is 100 %, and reliability rate is 100%, and the operating procedure is quite easy and familiar. While the public response fully supports the implementation of academic information system, because it can be accessed anytime, and averywhere through SMS, as well as can foster a public positive image to the school, because of the changes and improvements made by the school especially in the academic services as a new breakthrough in the field of technology.

  5. Macromycetes of the Potentillo albae-Quercetum in the Świętokrzyskie Mts. - monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of macromycetes collected on two observation plots in the forest community Potentillo albae-Quercetum in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. The aim of these investigation was to determine the participation and the role of macromycetes in the forest community with oak trees. During the investigation 182 taxons of macrofungi were collected, 33 species of them were connected with oak trees.

  6. Effect of P15INK4b/MTS2 on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells SMMC-7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The full length cDNA coding for P15 INK4b, which is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was cloned to plasmid PXJ41-neo (Eco RⅠ/XhoⅠ site) and the new constructed plasmid pXJp15 was obtained. pXJp15 was transferred into the human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells by lipofectine reagent. After G418 selection, a series of cell lines stably expressing high levels of P15 (named SHT) and the clone containing vector PXJ41-neo only (named SVXJ) were obtained by Northern and Western analysis. The results showed that the proliferation of SHT cells is inhibited compared with that of SVXJ cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that overexpressing of P15 inhibited the growth of SHT cells by decreasing progrssion of cells from G1 to S and G2 to M phases. The levels of c-Myc and c-Fos were obviously decreased in SHT cells compared with control cells by Western blotting. The decreased expression of oncogene may be one of the molecular mechanisms of the effect of P15 on the proliferation of in SHT cells.

  7. [Vegetation and its relation with climate conditions near the timberline of Beitai, the Xiaowutai Mts., northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengtao; Liu, Hongyan; Cui, Haiting

    2002-05-01

    On the basis of field investigations, the timberline range of Beitai, the Xiaowutai Mountains was carved up, and the changes in the makeup and diversity of plants with the altitude were discussed. The results showed that the timberline with gradual changes in the northern slope of Beitai ranged from 2620-2800 m. In timberline, herbaceous plants were rich, and the diversity was higher than that in coniferous forest and sub-alpine meadow zones. The turnover rates of species were gradually hoisting from the centre of timberline to sub-alpine meadow and forest zones, and highest at the edge of timberline. Betula, Picea meyreri and Larix principis-ruprechtii species were the ecological indicator for research on environmental changes. Climate indication significance of these arbor species distributed in and near the timberline was also discussed.

  8. Petrology, geochemistry, and Sr-isotope characteristics of lavas from the area of Commenda, Mts. Vulsini, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civetta, L.; Del Carmine, P.; Manetti, P.; Peccerillo, A.; Poli, G.

    1984-01-01

    Major, trace element and Sr-isotope compositions are reported for a suite of lavas. The analyzed samples have all low silica contents and variable but generally high CaO, MgO and FeO/sub t/. Based on K/sub 2/O/sup 5/ and K/sub 2/O/Na/sub 2/O ratio, the rocks from Commenda can be classified as belonging to the Potassic Series (KS) and the High-potassium Series (HKS). The HKS rocks appear to have derived by crystal/liquid fractionation from the most mafic types with separation olivine and clinopyroxene and then of clinopyroxene + leucite. The most primitive HKS rocks have aphyric texture and high Mg-values, Cr and Ni contents which are close or within the range of values of magmas formed by partial melting of periodotitic mantle sources. The KS rocks have lower incompatible element contents as the HKS rocks with similar degree of evolution. The variations of Sr-isotopic ratios of the analyzed rocks and of other Vulsinian lavas, indicate that the basic HKS Vulsinian rocks did not interact significantly with the continental crust. Instead, the KS appears to have evolved by combined crystal fractionation and assimilation processes, starting from parental magmas which had /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio not significantly lower than that found in the less evolved rocks of the suite. The most primitive HKS rocks from Commenda have hygromagmatophile element distribution pattern characterized by high ratio of LILE/HFSE with negative anomalies of Ta and Ti.

  9. Application of UAS photogrammetry for assessment of flood driven fluvial dynamics of montane stream. Case study - Roklansky creek, Sumava Mts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Miřijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana

    2014-05-01

    Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial dynamics and to verify the spatial information acquired using UAS photogrammetry. The results of above mentioned techniques are applied to build hydrodynamic model explaining threshold conditions for initiation of changes in fluvial morphology of the riverbed in relation to known and theoretical flood magnitude. The presented study proved the UAS photogrammetry to be unique source of spatial information, allowing analysis of dynamics of fluvial systems with unprecedented precision and flexibility. This technique has full potential to bring spatial information to a new qualitative level and in experimental areas with limited availability of spatial information. The preliminary results achieved in the study enabled us to discuss the synergic potential of coupling the UAS photogrammetry, sensor networks and other hydroinformatic techniques to enhance significantly our knowledge on the dynamics of fluvial systems. Key words: UAS photogrmmetry, DTM, fluvial processes, erosion, hydrodynamic modelling

  10. The Gesneriaceae of Sulawesi VI: The species from Mekongga Mts. with a new species of Cyrtandra described

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrokhman Kartonegoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field exploration of the flora of the Mekongga Mountainous area of Southeast Sulawesi was conducted from 2009 to 2011. Herbarium specimens collected during this exploration and additional collections from Herbarium Bogoriense (BO  included  21 species in nine genera of the  family Gesneriaceae. These comprise one species of Aeschynanthus, four species of Agalmyla, one species of    Codonoboea, seven species of Cyrtandra, one species of Epithema, three species of Monophyllaea, two species of Rhynchoglossum, one species of Rhynchotechum and one species of Stauranthera. Twelve of these species are consider-ed endemic to Sulawesi while the rest are known to occur on neighbouring islands or are more widely distributed.    Monophyllaea merrilliana, previously known only from the Philippine Islands and Borneo, is newly recorded for     Sulawesi. A new species of Cyrtandra collected in the Mekongga area, C. widjajae, which resembles C. gorontaloensis from North Sulawesi but differs in having shorter pedicels and curved rather than straight fruits, is described.

  11. Evolution of Pleistocene to Holocene eruptions in the Lesser Caucasus Mts:Insights from geology, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Sugden, Patrick; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Halama, Ralf; Ishizuka, Osamu; Connor, Laura; Karapetian, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Both effusive and highly explosive (VEI>5) and often voluminous caldera volcanism has developed atop the collision zone between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. Currently what is exposed on the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian active orogenic plateau is post-Mesozoic felsic to intermediate collision-related plutons, and mostly collision or post-collision related Quaternary volcanic structures. We have studied in detail the volcanism, tectonics and geophysics on the territory of E.Turkey and Armenia, where several large stratovolcanoes (Ararat, Lesser Ararat, Aragats, Tsghuk, Ishkhanasar) are surrounded by distinct monogenetic volcanic fields (distributed volcanism). These large in volume stratovolcanoes and the associated low volume monogenetic cones range from normal calk-alkaline to high-K shoshonitic in affinity, with their products ranging from basanites to high K trachytes and rhyolites. Several volcanic provinces, namely Kechut/Javakheti, Aragats, Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik are recognized in Armenia and each of them has > 100 mapped volcanoes. These have distinct geochemical (mineral chemistry, trace element and Sr-Nd-B isotope systematics) and petrological (melt eruption temperatures and volatile contents) fingerprints that may or may not vary over time. Age determinations and volcano-stratigraphy sections for each of the case studies we aim to present shows that the volcanism includes a continuous record from Pleistocene to Holocene, or even historical eruptions. The excellent volcano exposures and the now complete high resolution database (GIS), geological mapping, and new and improved K-Ar and Ar-Ar geochronology, uniquely allows us to evaluate the driving forces behind the volcanism in this continent-continent collision setting that is uniquely associated with long lasting eruption episodes. We shall compare the now well studied historical/Holocene eruptions with those pre-dating them, with the aim to identify possible geochemical or petrological precursors, on both local and regional scales. Our presentation will include several case studies, new ages, high resolution maps of many volcanoes and their association with young active faulting and often large earthquakes. We will present one particular high resolution case study (on Aragats volcanic complex) where we attempted to quantify the volcanic hazards. This is important as this region hosts the active Metsamor nuclear power plant and the capital city of Yerevan (population > 1.4 million), where people live in area with very low (10^6), yet existing risk for a renewed volcanic activity.

  12. Mejoras en la exactitud del reloj de ángulo horario del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, J. L.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Para aumentar la exactitud en el control del ángulo horario del telescopio, se está implementando el uso de un reloj con una precisión de 1/100 seg. En conjunto con el encoder que otorga la posición con un acierto de 0,012 seg. de arco, se podrá implementar otro dígito en el reloj de ángulo horario con la posibilidad de ver las décimas. Esto, sumado a la precisión ya lograda en declinación, permitirá realizar offsets con mayor exactitud.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN INSTRUMEN ASESMEN AUTENTIK KETERAMPILAN MENULIS TEKS CERPEN DAN TEKS FABEL UNTUK SISWA SMP/MTS YANG MENGIMPLEMENTASIKAN KURIKULUM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Fadliyatis S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce a text writing skills assessment instrument of short stories and fables and text describe the results of a reliability test instrument products. This type of research is the development of research development model adaptation O'Malley and Pierce (1994. There are four products in this study: (1 the task of writing the authentic text of the short story, (2 guide teachers for writing text stories, (3 the task of writing an authentic text fable, and (4 guide teachers for writing text fable. The research result of this development: (1 product assessment instrument text short stories get a correlation value of 0, 829 and (2 product assessment instrument text fable obtain a correlation value of 0, 761. Correlation values obtained product assessment instrument text stories and fables text> 0.05 means product assessment instrument text short stories and fables have high reliability. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu menghasilkan instrumen asesmen keterampilan menulis teks cerpen dan teks fabel dan mendeskripsikan hasil uji reliabilitas produk instrumen. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian pengembangan dengan model pengembangan adaptasiO’Malley dan Pierce (1994. Ada empat produk dalam penelitian ini yakni (1 tugas menulis autentik teks cerpen, (2 panduan guru menulis untuk teks cerpen, (3 tugas menulis autentik teks fabel, dan (4 panduan guru untuk menulis teks fabel. Hasil penelitian pengembangan ini yaitu (1 produk instrumen asesmen  teks cerpen mendapatkan nilai korelasi 0, 829 dan (2 produk instrumen asesmen  teks fabel mendapatkan nilai korelasi 0, 761. Nilai korelasi yang diperoleh produk instrumen asesmen teks cerpen dan teks fabel > 0.05 artinya produk instrumen asesmen teks cerpen dan teks fabel memiliki reliabilitas yang tinggi.

  14. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN INQUIRY DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN AQIDAH AKHLAK KELAS VIII MTs NEGERI TEBING TINGGI EMPAT LAWANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianti Asmayani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMost of teaching and learning process that used by the teacher is lecturing method. It could be the reason that the students feel bored and effects to their bad score. In order to solve these problems, the teacher should select the appropriate method which could stimulate students to think and active in the teaching and learning process. The result of the study showed that inquiry method could improve students score on Aqidah Akhlak subject especially on Mukjizat dan kejadian luar biasa lainya material.  Moreover, it was found that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement between the students who were taught by the application of inquiry model on those who were not. The result could be seen that mean score of the students was 17. The post-test score was 10.08, and KKM was 47.37%. Moreover perbedaan t0 is higher than  either at significant level of 5% or at significant level of 1%, it was 2,00  <  5,19 > 2,65.  Keywords: inquiry learning model, result of the study, subject learning

  15. The role of S100a4 (Mts1) in Apc- and Smad4-driven tumour onset and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlasi, Yaser; Noori, Rubina; Marolin, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction S100a4 is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the family of S100-proteins, highly expressed in different stromal cell types. S100A4 has been reported as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer in association with tumour progression and metastasis. Methods In this study, we analysed...... the in vivo role of S100a4 in intestinal tumour initiation and progression using different transgenic and knockout mouse models. Results We found that genetic ablation or overexpression of S100a4 in both Apc- and Smad4-mutant mice do not affect tumour initiation in the intestinal tract. In contrast, S100a4...... epithelial overexpression in Apc1638N/+/KRASV12G mice increases the dissemination of intestinal tumour cells to the liver, in agreement with its role in tumour metastasis. Moreover, we report a novel role for S100a4 in desmoid formation where S100a4 deficiency results in a significant reduction of the tumour...

  16. Rock property measurements guide interpretation of electromagnetic, magnetic and gravity models at Mts. Adams, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Horton, R.; Polster, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken volcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Such alteration significantly reduces the electrical resistivity, magnetization and density of volcanic rocks, resulting in a clear distinction between altered and unaltered rock in geophysical survey measurements. We measured electrical resistivity, susceptibility and density of rock samples to help constrain models of the three-dimensional distribution of water saturated, hydrothermally altered sections of several Cascade Volcanoes, Washington, critical for understanding volcanic landslide hazards. Samples ranged from fresh, massive andesite and dacite to completely altered powders composed of opal, alunite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite. The resistivity of each sample was measured over 11 frequencies ranging from 100 to 100,000 Hz for dry and wet samples. Almost all dry sample resistivities typically exceed 5000 ohm-m. Water saturation levels vary from 2 to 33 wt% in the rocks samples and surpass 50% for the powders. Fresh andesite resistivity values exceed 1500 ohm-m, even when saturated. Resistivities of saturated, moderately altered samples and an intensely altered, low-porosity (~5%) opal and alunite sample are greater than 450 ohm m. Values less than 100 ohm-m are associated with saturated (>50%), intensely altered opal + alunite powders. Magnetic susceptibilities for the fresh volcanic rocks range from 4-25 x 10-3 SI while those of altered andesites range from 0 to 0.35 x 10-3 SI. Densities for the fresh rocks range from about 2200 - 2600 kg/m3 and 1300-1900 kg/m3 for the altered rocks. The combination of the rock property measurements, geophysical data and geological mapping, indicates the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of altered rock west of the modern summit of Mt. Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mt. Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mt. Baker is restricted to thinner (transform debris avalanches into lahars. The EM data identified water-saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100 - 200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. At Mt. St. Helens, perched aquifers are identified in the 1980 avalanche deposits as well as in older, thick breccia or avalanche deposits. The modeled distribution of alteration and pore fluids helps identify likely sources for future alteration-related debris flows and clearly shows that debris flow hazard studies on altered volcanoes are greatly enhanced by magnetic, EM and gravity data.

  17. Concept learning and the use of three common psychophysical paradigms in the archerfish (Toxotes chatareus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E

    2014-01-01

    Archerfish are well known for their specialized hunting technique of spitting water at prey located above the water line. This unique ability has made them a popular focus of study as researchers try to understand the mechanisms involved in targeting and spitting. In more recent years, archerfish have also become an increasingly popular model for studying visual discrimination and learning in general. Until now, only the alternative forced-choice (AFC) task has been used with archerfish, however, they may be capable of learning other classical discrimination tasks. As well as providing alternative, and potentially more efficient, means for testing their visual capabilities, these other tasks may also provide deeper insight into the extent to which an organism with no cortex can grasp the concepts underlying these tasks. In this paper, we consider both the matched-to-sample (MTS) and the odd-one-out (OOO) tasks as they require the subject to learn relatively sophisticated concepts rather than a straight, stimulus-reward relationship, of the kind underlying AFC tasks. A variety of line drawings displayed on a monitor were used as stimuli. We first determined if archerfish could complete the MTS and OOO test and then evaluated their ability to be retrained to new stimuli using a 4-AFC test. We found that archerfish were unable to learn the MTS and had only a limited capacity for learning the OOO task. We conclude that the MTS and OOO are impractical as paradigms for behavioral experiments with archerfish. However, the archerfish could rapidly learn to complete an AFC test and select the conditioned stimulus with a high degree of accuracy when faced with four stimuli, making this a powerful test for behavioral studies testing visual discrimination. In addition, the fish were able to learn the concept of oddity under particular training circumstances. This paper adds to the growing evidence that animals without a cortex are capable of learning some higher order concepts.

  18. Early cretaceous (Valanginian and Hauterivian) belemnites and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from a marine hydrothermal vent site and adjacent facies of the Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujtor, L.; Janssen, N.M.M.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The first record of belemnites from fossil hydrothermal vent sites in the Mecsek Mountains of Hungary emphasizes the occurrences of belemnites in Mesozoic chemosynthetic-microbial based ecosystems reported only from cold seep carbonates to date. From the outer shelf-upper bathyal (<300 m) hydrotherm

  19. MTS dye based colorimetric CTLL-2 cell proliferation assay for product release and stability monitoring of interleukin-15: assay qualification, standardization and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Gopalan; Yang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Hengguang; Giardina, Steve; Vyas, Vinay; Mitra, George; Yovandich, Jason; Creekmore, Stephen P; Waldmann, Thomas A; Quiñones, Octavio; Alvord, W Gregory

    2009-08-31

    A colorimetric cell proliferation assay using soluble tetrazolium salt [(CellTiter 96(R) Aqueous One Solution) cell proliferation reagent, containing the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) and an electron coupling reagent phenazine ethosulfate], was optimized and qualified for quantitative determination of IL-15 dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation activity. An in-house recombinant Human (rHu)IL-15 reference lot was standardized (IU/mg) against an international reference standard. Specificity of the assay for IL-15 was documented by illustrating the ability of neutralizing anti-IL-15 antibodies to block the product specific CTLL-2 cell proliferation and the lack of blocking effect with anti-IL-2 antibodies. Under the defined assay conditions, the linear dose-response concentration range was between 0.04 and 0.17ng/ml of the rHuIL-15 produced in-house and 0.5-3.0IU/ml for the international standard. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with the use of scripts written in the R Statistical Language and Environment utilizing a four-parameter logistic regression fit analysis procedure. The overall variation in the ED(50) values for the in-house reference standard from 55 independent estimates performed over the period of 1year was 12.3% of the average. Excellent intra-plate and within-day/inter-plate consistency was observed for all four parameter estimates in the model. Different preparations of rHuIL-15 showed excellent intra-plate consistency in the parameter estimates corresponding to the lower and upper asymptotes as well as to the 'slope' factor at the mid-point. The ED(50) values showed statistically significant differences for different lots and for control versus stressed samples. Three R-scripts improve data analysis capabilities allowing one to describe assay variations, to draw inferences between data sets from formal statistical tests, and to set up improved assay acceptance criteria based on comparability and consistency in the four parameters of the model. The assay is precise, accurate and robust and can be fully validated. Applications of the assay were established including process development support, release of the rHuIL-15 product for pre-clinical and clinical studies, and for monitoring storage stability.

  20. Extremely high radon activity concentration in two adits of the abandoned uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary (Sudety Mts., Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of radon activity concentration were conducted for a period of 6 months, from April to September 2011, in the air of two adits constituting part of the disused uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary. Adits no. 19 and 19a in Kowary had been chosen owing to the occurrence within them of the highest documented radon concentrations in Poland, With levels higher than a million Bq m(-3). The main goal of this study was to characterize the level of (222)Rn activity concentration registered in selected workings of this underground space, investigate (222)Rn changes and their characteristics over selected periods of time (an hour, a day, a month, six months) and determine the effective doses, which provided the basis for estimating the risk of exposure to increased ionizing radiation for employees and visitors to the mine. The highest values of (222)Rn activity concentration inside the adits occurred at the time when visitors, guides and other members of the staff were present there. The recorded values of radon activity concentration, regardless of the time and the month when the measurement was performed, remained at an average level of 350-400 kBq m(-3). These values were far above the limit of 1.5 kBq·m(-3) recommended by international guidelines. The maximum values ranged from 800 to more than 1000 kBq·m(-3). Radon activity concentration changes occurred only in periods determined by 7-h cycles of connecting and disconnecting the mechanical ventilation. For about 7 h after activating the ventilation system, between 7 a. m. and 2 p. m., and after closing the adit, between 7 p. m. and 2 a. m., (222)Rn activity concentrations decreased to levels even as low as 100 kBq·m-3. However, as early as 3-4 h after disconnecting the ventilation system, there was a sharp rise in the values of (222)Rn activity concentration, to the level higher than 800 kBq·m-3. The risk of receiving a radiation dose higher than the national standard of 1 mSv/year by members of the public occurred as soon as after spending 1 h inside the workings. The minimum monthly effective radiation dose received by every employee in the tourist adit no. 19 in Kowary was higher than 1/5 (4 mSv) of the annual effective dose allowed by Polish law (20 mSv/year). In the non-tourist adit no. 19, the minimum monthly radiation dose was more than 3 times as high as the allowed value of 4 mSv. Due to the highly disturbing and unfavourable, from a radiological protection point of view, conditions inside the disused uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary, the mine manager decided to increase the efficiency of the designed mechanical ventilation system and launch measurements of radon activity concentration in the workplace. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epiphytic mosses from the genera Orthotrichum s.l. and Nyholmiella in the Nízký Jeseník Mts (Northern Moravia, Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Číhal Lukáš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the distribution of the genera Orthotrichum s.l. and Nyholmiella in the phytogeographical district 98. Nízký Jeseník, and follows the project carried out between years 2005 and 2009 in nearby phytogeographical district 97. Hrubý Jeseník. The total number of 57 locations was visited during the year 2015, and 142 samples of mosses were collected. Altogether, 9 species of genus Orthotrichum s.l. and 1 species of the genus Nyholmiella were recently recorded in the studied area. Lists of species and localities are given.

  2. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  3. Cenozoic structural evolution of the southwestern Bükk Mts. and the southern part of the Darnó Deformation Belt (NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Attila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive structural field observations and seismic interpretation allowed us to delineate 7 deformation phases in the study area for the Cenozoic period. Phase D1 indicates NW–SE compression and perpendicular extension in the Late Oligocene–early Eggenburgian and it was responsible for the development of a wedge-shaped Paleogene sequence in front of north-westward propagating blind reverse faults. D2 is represented by E–W compression and perpendicular extension in the middle Eggenburgian–early Ottnangian. The D1 and D2 phases resulted in the erosion of Paleogene suites on elevated highs. Phase D2 was followed by a counterclockwise rotation, described in earlier publications. When considering the age of sediments deformed by the syn-sedimentary D3 deformation and preliminary geochronological ages of deformed volcanites the time of the first CCW rotation can be shifted slightly younger (~17–16.5 Ma than previously thought (18.5–17.5 Ma. Another consequence of our new timing is that the extrusional tectonics of the ALCAPA unit, the D2 local phase, could also terminate somewhat later by 1 Myr. D4 shows NE–SW extension in the late Karpatian–Early Badenian creating NW–SE trending normal faults which connected the major NNE–SSW trending sinistral faults. The D5 and D6 phases are late syn-rift deformations indicating E–W extension and NW–SE extension, respectively. D5 indicates syn-sedimentary deformation in the Middle Badenian–early Sarmatian and caused the synsedimentary thickening of mid-Miocene suites along NNE–SSW trending transtensional faults. D5 postdates the second CCW rotation which can be bracketed between ~16–15 Ma. This timing is somewhat older than previously considered and is based on new geochronological dates of pyroclastite rocks which were not deformed by this phase. D6 was responsible for further deepening of half-grabens during the Sarmatian. D7 is post-tilt NNW–SSE extension and induced the deposition of the 700 m thick Pannonian wedge between 11.6–8.92 Ma in the southern part of the study area.

  4. Measurement of overall uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals by aerosol particles sampled from ambient air at Mts. Tai and Mang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Akimoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available HO2 uptake coefficients for ambient aerosol particles, collected on quartz filter using a high-volume air sampler in China, were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence technique at 760 Torr and 298 K, with a relative humidity of 75%. Aerosol particles were regenerated with an atomizer using the water extracts from the aerosol particles. Over 10 samples, the measured HO2 uptake coefficients for the aerosol particles at the Mt. Tai site were ranged from 0.13 to 0.34, while those at the Mt. Mang site were in the range of 0.09–0.40. These values are generally larger than those previously reported for single-component particles, suggesting that the minor components such as metal ions and organics in the particle could contribute to the HO2 uptake. A box model calculation suggested that the heterogeneous loss of HO2 by ambient particles could significantly affect the HOx concentrations and chemistry.

  5. Measurement of overall uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals by aerosol particles sampled from ambient air at Mts. Tai and Mang (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Akimoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available HO2 uptake coefficients for ambient aerosol particles, collected on quartz fiber filter using a high-volume air sampler in China, were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence technique at 760 Torr and 298 K, with a relative humidity of 75%. Aerosol particles were regenerated with an atomizer using the water extracts from the aerosol particles. Over 10 samples, the measured HO2 uptake coefficients for the aerosol particles at the Mt. Tai site were ranged from 0.13 to 0.34, while those at the Mt. Mang site were in the range of 0.09–0.40. These values are generally larger than those previously reported for single-component particles, suggesting that reactions with the minor components such as metal ions and organics in the particle could contribute to the HO2 uptake. A box model calculation suggested that the heterogeneous loss of HO2 by ambient particles could significantly affect atmospheric HOx concentrations and chemistry.

  6. Prognostic Value of Promoter Hypermethylation of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta (RARB) and CDKN2 (p16/MTS1) in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Alidoosti, Asdollah; Hosseini, Seyed Yousef; Parvin, Mohammad; Emranpour, Mohammad Hasan; Taslimi, Farnaz; Salehi, Eisa; Fadavip, Pedram

    2011-12-01

    The molecular mechanism of prostate cancer is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of promoter hypermethylation of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) and p16 among benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer patients. In this case-control study, 63 patients were included in three groups; 21 with BPH as the control group, 21 with prostate cancer and good prognostic factors (based on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score and stage) as good prognosis group, and 21 with prostate cancer and poor prognostic features as poor prognosis group. The prostate biopsy specimen of each individual was examined for hypermethylation of RARB and p16 promoters by methylation specific PCR (MSPCR). Seven (33.3%) patients with good prognosis and 15 (71.4%) patients with poor prognosis were positive for RARB methylation, which were significantly higher than controls (Pp16 promoter methylation was shown in 19.0% and 47.6% patients with good and poor prognosis, respectively. The RARB and p16 promoter methylation in the poor prognosis group was significantly higher than that in the good prognosis group (P =0.02 for RARB and Pp16). Hypermethylation of RARB and p16 promoters may predict prognosis in prostate cancer.

  7. The origin of the Avram Iancu U-Ni-Co-Bi-As mineralization, Băiţa (Bihor) metallogenic district, Bihor Mts., Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajzon, Norbert; Szentpéteri, Krisztián; Szakáll, Sándor; Kristály, Ferenc

    2015-10-01

    The Băiţa metallogenic district in the Bihor Mountains is a historically important mining area in Romania. Uranium mining took place between 1952 and 1998 from various deposits, but very little is known about the geology and mineralogy of these deposits. In this paper, we describe geology and mineralogy of uranium mineralization of the Avram Iancu uranium mine from waste dump samples collected before complete remediation of the site. Texturally and mineralogically complex assemblages of nickeline, cobaltite-gersdorffite solid solution, native Bi, Bi-sulfosalts, molybdenite, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite occur with uraninite, "pitchblende," and brannerite in most of the ore samples. The association of nickel, cobalt, and arsenic with uranium is reminiscent of five-element association of vein type U-Ni-Co-Bi-As deposits; however, the Avram Iancu ores appear to be more replacement-type stratiform/stratabound. Avram Iancu ore samples contain multistage complex, skarn, uranium sulfide, arsenide assemblages that can be interpreted to have been formed in the retrograde cooling stages of the skarn hydrothermal system. This mineralizing system may have built-up along Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene "Banatite" intrusions of diorite-to-granite composition. The intrusions crosscut the underlying uraniferous Permian formations in the stacked NW-verging Biharia Nappe System. The mineralization forms stacked, multilayer replacement horizons, along carbonate-rich lithologies within the metavolcanic (tuffaceous) Muncel Series. Mineral paragenesis and some mineral chemistry suggest moderate-to-high uranium sulfide stage along stratigraphically controlled replacement zones and minor veins. Uranium minerals formed abundantly in this early stage and include botryoidal, sooty and euhedral uraninite, brannerite, and coffinite. Later and/or lower-temperature mineral assemblages include heterogeneous, complexly zoned arsenide-sulfarsenide solid solutions associated with minute but abundant uranium minerals. Within the later arsenide-sulfarsenide mineral assemblage, there is great variation in Ni, Co, and S content with generally increasing arsenic content. Uranium minerals in this late-stage assemblage include very fine euhedral uraninite and brannerite inclusions in arsenide-sulfarsenide minerals. Native bismuth and Bi-sulfosalt krupkaite are observed in this As-S-rich assemblage strongly associated with cobaltite.

  8. The Implementation of Education Character on Moral in MTsN (Islamic Junior High State School) 1 Pontianak in the Academic Year 2015/2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianawati

    2017-01-01

    This paper based on the importance of moral character that it has been formed by cultural values and national character and it also can be found in the various subjects are contained in the standard of national curricula. The foundation of moral development is Qur'an and Hadist that is enacted in National Education Law No. 20/2003 which stated…

  9. Prognostic Value of Promoter Hypermethylation of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta (RARB) and CDKN2 (p16/MTS1) in Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ameri A; Alidoosti A; Hosseini Y; Parvin M; Emranpour MH; Taslimi F; Salehi E; Fadavi P

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The molecular mechanism of prostate cancer is poorly understood.The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of promoter hypermethylation of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) and p16 among benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer patients.Methods:In this case-control study,63 patients were included in three groups; 21 with BPH as the control group,21 with prostate cancer and good prognostic factors (based on prostate-specific antigen,Gleason score and stage) as good prognosis group,and 21 with prostate cancer and poor prognostic features as poor prognosis group.The prostate biopsy specimen of each individual was examined for hypermethylation of RARB and p16 promoters by methylation specific PCR (MSPCR).Results:Seven (33.3%) patients with good prognosis and 15 (71.4%) patients with poor prognosis were positive for RARB methylation,which were significantly higher than controls (P <0.0001).p16 promoter methylation was shown in 19.0% and 47.6% patients with good and poor prognosis,respectively.The RARB and p16 promoter methylation in the poor prognosis group was significantly higher than that in the good prognosis group (P -0.02 for RARB and P<0.0001 for p16).Conclusion:Hypermethylation of RARB and p16 promoters may predict prognosis in prostate cancer.

  10. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Studies of the Transition Metal Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanines. Part 5. Voltammetric Studies of Adsorbed Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanines (MTsPc) in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Reserve University and the York University groups. IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Accepted for publication in the Journalof Electroanalytical Chemistry and... Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry October 1, 1985 Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpose of the United

  11. Distribution, floristic structure and habitat requirements of the riparian forest community Populetum talassicae ass. nova in the Central Pamir-Alai Mts (Tajikistan, Middle Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz S. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the floristic structure, distribution and habitat requirements of a new forest syntaxon, Populetum talassicae ass. nova. The potential range of the Populetum talassicae association comprises the central Pamir-Alai and Tian-Shan Mountains in Middle Asia. The biotope of this community comprises high mountain river valleys and shore zones of mountain lakes situ- ated at elevations between 2200 and 2750 m. Phytocoenoses of the Populetum talassicae association are characterized by a clear predominance in the tree layer of a characteristic species of the association ‒ Populus talassica. Shrubs are not so abundant; how- ever, the undergrowth layer of the community could reach up to 60% of the total cover, consisting mainly of Salix spp., Hipophaë rhamnoides, Lonicera stenantha, Juniperus semiglobosa and J. seravschanica. The herbaceous layer is quite rich and has about 20 species on average. Among associated species mainly meadow, rush and marsh taxa have been noted. Regarding the considerable cover of the meadow species, the association of Populetum talassicae has been classified as the Populetea laurifolio-suaveolentis syntaxon. A new plant alliance was proposed ‒ Populion talassicae all. nova with Pedicularis dolichorhiza and Astragalus tibetanus as diagnostic species. The described forest association is one of the rarest and most rapidly disappearing wood communities in Tajikistan, which means that special conservation attention is called for.

  12. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L.) Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer) Seitz.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzakowa, M.; R. Zieliński; Szweykowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b). A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  13. Evolution of arched roofs in salt caves: Role of gravity-induced stress and relative air humidity and temperature changes (Zagros Mts., Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Filippi, Michal; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In salt caves in the halite karst in SE Iran the disintegration of rock salt into individual grains can be observed. Highly disintegrated blocks and individual grains form a major volume of debris in many caves on islands in the Persian Gulf. Larger cave rooms have often perfectly arched roof. The perfect geometry of rooms and interlocking of salt grains indicate that evolution of room cross-sections in these caves is controlled by feedback between gravity-induced stress and rock salt disintegration in similar way as in evolution of sandstone landforms (Bruthans et al. 2014). Those portions of rock salt, which are under compressional stress, disintegrate much slower than portions under tensile stress. Important question is the kind of weathering mechanism responsible for intergranular disintegration of rock salt. The relationship between disintegration, its rate and cave climate was studied. Clearly the fastest disintegration rate was found in caves with strong air circulation (i.e, short caves with large cross-sections, open on both ends). Temperature and air humidity changes are considerable in these caves. On the other hand the disintegration is very slow in the inner parts of long caves with slow air circulation or caves with one entrance. The best example of such caves is the inner part of 3N Cave on Namakdan salt diapir with nearly no air circulation and stable temperature and humidity, where disintegration of rock salt into grains is missing. Strong effect of cave climate on disintegration rate can be explained by deliquescence properties of halite. Halite is absorbing air moisture forming NaCl solution if relative humidity (RH) exceeds 75 % (at 20-30 oC). In the Persian Gulf region the RH of the air is passing the 75 % threshold in case of 91% days (Qeshm Island, years 2002-2005), while in mountainous areas in mainland this threshold is less commonly reached. In most of nights (91 %) in Persian Gulf the air with RH >75 % is entering the salt caves and air moisture is wetting the dry rock and slightly diluting the percolating brine in ceiling of the caves, which is otherwise just saturated with respect to halite. During days the RH is <75% and brine partly dries up and precipitates halite. By repeating the cycle of dissolution and precipitation of halite and possibly also by temperature changes the rock salt is disintegrated into interlocked salt grains, whose behavior is then strongly controlled by gravity-induced stress. Research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation (GA CR No. 16-19459S). Reference: Bruthans J, Soukup J., Vaculíková J., Filippi M., Schweigstillova J., Mayo A.L., Masin D., Kletetschka G.,Rihosek J. (2014): Sandstone landforms shaped by negative feedback between stress and erosion. Nature Geoscience 7(8): 597-601.

  14. Doxycycline-Regulated p16(MTS1) Expression Suppresses the Anchorage-Independence and Tumorigenicity of Breast Cancer Cell Lines that Lack Endogenous p16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Maria C; Langan, Thomas A; Sclafani, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The RB pathway controls the critical transition from G1 into S phase of the mammalian cell cycle. Deregulation of the RB pathway by means of RB or p16 inactivation has been implicated in the development of virtually all human cancers. Such findings have led to the view that the loss of RB-mediated regulation at the G1/S checkpoint is a precondition for human malignancy. Our analysis of the RB-positive MCF-7 and ZR75.1 breast cancer cell lines revealed a lack of endogenous p16 protein expression as a result of the homozygous deletion and methylation of the p16 gene at the CDKN2A locus, respectively. We employed the TET-OFF inducible expression system to investigate the effects of non-growth inhibitory levels of functional p16 protein upon the in vitro and in vivo transformed properties of the MCF-7 and ZR75.1 cell lines. Stable transfectants of MCF-7 and ZR75.1 cells were isolated that expressed different levels of p16 protein in the absence of doxycycline (DOX) but continued to proliferate in culture. Transfectants that expressed modest levels of p16 (relative to SV40 T antigen-transformed HBL-100 breast epithelial cells) demonstrated a marked suppression of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Further, the induction of moderate and high levels of p16 (relative to HBL-100) resulted in the suppression of tumorigenicity of both MCF-7 and ZR75.1 cells as assayed by injection into nude mice. From these data, we concluded that RB pathway restoration by non-growth inhibitory levels of p16 protein was sufficient to revert breast cancer cells to a non-transformed and non-tumorigenic state.

  15. Ethogram and time budget of golden eagle during breeding season in Tianshan Mts.%金雕巢期行为谱及时间分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵序茅; 马鸣; 丁鹏; 张同; 克德尔汗·巴亚恒; 邢睿; 黄亚慧

    2013-01-01

    2010年7~9月、2011年4~9月、2012年7月,采用焦点动物取样法,累计对新疆西北部别珍套山和阿拉套山巢期的5对金雕(Aquila chrysaetos)及其雏鸟观测89d,行为记录911 h.制成金雕的行为谱,将各行为分为12类46种,并进行了相关描述.依据巢期的不同阶段(孵化期和育雏期)统计出各行为的时间分配:孵化期,亲鸟行为以孵卵为主(95.28%);育雏期,亲鸟的各行为时间分配依次为,离巢(77.81%)、护幼(18.5%)、喂食(2.64%)、警戒(1.05%),在育雏期的前(0~3周)、中(3~6周)、后(6-雏鸟离巢)阶段,护幼、喂食、离巢的时间分配差异极其显著(p<0.01).雏鸟各行为时间分配依次为,休息(68.73%)、警戒(21.41%)、取食(5.56%)、运动(4.28%)、保养(1.02%).育雏期的前、中、后阶段,雏鸟的休息、警戒和运动行为的时间分配差异极其显著(p<0.01).行为时间分配的差异,主要受不同阶段金雕能量需求、身体发育状况的影响.

  16. Cenozoic structural evolution of the southwestern Bükk Mts. and the southern part of the Darnó Deformation Belt (NE Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Attila; Beke, Barbara; Fodor, László; Lukács, Réka

    2016-02-01

    Extensive structural field observations and seismic interpretation allowed us to delineate 7 deformation phases in the study area for the Cenozoic period. Phase D1 indicates NW-SE compression and perpendicular extension in the Late Oligocene-early Eggenburgian and it was responsible for the development of a wedge-shaped Paleogene sequence in front of north-westward propagating blind reverse faults. D2 is represented by E-W compression and perpendicular extension in the middle Eggenburgian-early Ottnangian. The D1 and D2 phases resulted in the erosion of Paleogene suites on elevated highs. Phase D2 was followed by a counterclockwise rotation, described in earlier publications. When considering the age of sediments deformed by the syn-sedimentary D3 deformation and preliminary geochronological ages of deformed volcanites the time of the first CCW rotation can be shifted slightly younger (~17-16.5 Ma) than previously thought (18.5-17.5 Ma). Another consequence of our new timing is that the extrusional tectonics of the ALCAPA unit, the D2 local phase, could also terminate somewhat later by 1 Myr. D4 shows NE-SW extension in the late Karpatian-Early Badenian creating NW-SE trending normal faults which connected the major NNE-SSW trending sinistral faults. The D5 and D6 phases are late syn-rift deformations indicating E-W extension and NW-SE extension, respectively. D5 indicates syn-sedimentary deformation in the Middle Badenian-early Sarmatian and caused the synsedimentary thickening of mid-Miocene suites along NNE-SSW trending transtensional faults. D5 postdates the second CCW rotation which can be bracketed between ~16-15 Ma. This timing is somewhat older than previously considered and is based on new geochronological dates of pyroclastite rocks which were not deformed by this phase. D6 was responsible for further deepening of half-grabens during the Sarmatian. D7 is post-tilt NNW-SSE extension and induced the deposition of the 700 m thick Pannonian wedge between 11.6-8.92 Ma in the southern part of the study area.

  17. Biosensing MAPs as "roadblocks": kinesin-based functional analysis of tau protein isoforms and mutants using suspended microtubules (sMTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Mehmet C; Orazov, Yslam; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Karsten, Stanislav L; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-21

    The concept of a reconstructed microtubule kinesin-based transport system was originally introduced for studies of underlying biophysical mechanisms of intracellular transport and its potential applications in bioengineering at micro- and nanoscale levels. However, several technically challenging shortcomings prohibit its use in practical applications. One of them is the propensity of microtubules to bind various protein molecules creating "roadblocks" for kinesin molecule movement and subsequently preventing efficient delivery of the molecular cargo. The interruption in kinesin movement strictly depends on the specific type of "roadblock", i.e. the microtubule associated protein (MAP). Therefore, we propose to use the "roadblock" effect as a molecular sensor that may be used for functional characterization of particular MAPs with respect to their role in MT-based transport and associated pathologies, such as neurodegeneration. Here, we applied a kinesin-based assay using a suspended MT design (sMT assay) to functionally characterize known MAP tau protein isoforms and common mutations found in familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The proposed sMT assay is compatible with an on-chip format and may be used for the routine characterization of MT associated molecules applicable to diagnostics and translational research.

  18. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L. Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer Seitz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krzakowa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b. A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  19. Morphometric analysis of Arabidopsis arenosa (L. Law. on the waste heap Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Štrba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine of differences in morphometric traits of the model species Arabidopsis arenosa (L. Law. on the heap and neighbour site on the basic of research realized in growing season 2011 on the heap Maximilián in Špania Dolina. We focused on plant height, width of rosette of leaves, width and length of lowest stem leaf, number of seed per one silique, weight of roots and weight of overground parts. The results were subjected of statistical analysis with the assistance of a Student t-test, idicators of variability and central values.The results show statistically significant difference at height level of confidence for each of the average of measured traits.The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the whole habitus of plant and its evolution.

  20. Short-term radon activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno (Sudety Mts., SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2014-09-01

    Short-term (222)Rn activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno were studied, based on continuous measurements conducted between 16 May 2008 and 15 May 2010. The results were analysed in the context of numbers of visitors arriving at the facility in particular seasons and the time per day spent inside by staff and visitors. This choice was based on partially published earlier findings (Fijałkowska-Lichwa and Przylibski, 2011). Results for the year 2009 were analysed in depth, because it is the only period of observation covering a full calendar year. The year 2009 was also chosen for detailed analysis of short-term radon concentration changes, because in each period of this year (hour, month, season) fluctuations of noted values were the most visible. Attention has been paid to three crucial issues linked to the occurrence and behaviour of radon and to the radiological protection of workers and visitors at the tourist route in Kletno. The object of study is a complex of workings in a former uranium mine situated within a metamorphic rock complex in the most radon-prone area in Poland. The facility has been equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, which is turned on after the closing time and at the end of the working day for the visitor service staff, i.e. after 6 p.m. Short-term radon activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno are related to the activity of the facility's mechanical ventilation. Its inactivity in the daytime results in the fact that the highest values of (222)Rn activity concentration are observed at the time when the facility is open to visitors, i.e. between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. The improper usage of the mechanical ventilation system is responsible for the extremely unfavourable working conditions, which persist in the facility for practically all year. The absence of appropriate radiological protection (i.e. preventive measures like shortening working day, dosimetric measurements in the workplace) is a serious problem in the Kletno adit.

  1. Variations of the spring precipitation day numbers reconstructed from tree rings in the Urumqi River drainage,Tianshan Mts. Over the last 370 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yujiang; JIN Liya; SHAO Xuemei; HE Qing; LI Zhizhong; LI Jiangfeng

    2003-01-01

    The tree-ring cores of Tianshan spruces collected from nine sites in the Urumqi River drainage of the middle Tianshan Mountains were used to establishthree types of the tree-ring width chronologies over the last 370 years, using the international standard method of dendrochronology. Our study demonstrates that dendrochronology can be better used to reconstruct the number of the precipitation day than to reconstruct the precipitation amount in middle Tianshan Mountains. It is found that the residual chronology among the three tree-ring width chronologies has the best relationship with number of spring precipitation days from May 20 to June 8. The chronologies at Haxionggou B site and Zaierdegou site in the Urumiqi drainage have the highest correlation with the observed number of spring precipitation days at Daxigou meteorological station, and are used to reconstruct the spring precipitation days over the last 370 years in the drainage. The main significant decreasing trend of the number of the spring precipitation days occurred during 1665-1717, while the significant increasing trends happened during 1805-1841 and 1914-1943. The reconstructed series of the number of spring precipitation days has quasi-periodic variations of 3.3, 2.1, 2.5, 12.3 and32.0 years with the dominated short periodical changes. The long cycle of 32 years is shown quite clearly in the 10-year smoothed sequence. The maximum spring precipitation days occurred mainly in the 1630s, 1840s and 1940s, while the lowest number of spring precipitation days for the 10-year average occurred in the 1710s.

  2. Emplacement age for the mafic-ultramafic plutons in the northern Dabie Mts. (Hubei): Zircon U-Pb, Sm-Nd and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jianghai

    2002-01-01

    [1]Zhang, Q., Ma, B. L., Liu, R. X. et al., A remnant of continental lithospheric mantle above a subduction zone: Geochemical constraints on ultramafic rocks from Raobazhai area in Anhui Province, Sci. in China, Ser. B, 1995, 38(12): 1522- 1529.[2]Zhai, M. G., Cong, B. L., Petro-tectonics of the Sulu-Dabie Shan metamorphic belt, Central and East China, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(3): 319-328.[3]Li, S. G., Hart, S. R., Zheng, S. G. et al., Timing of collision between the North and South China Blocks-- the Sm-Nd isotopic age evidence, Sci. in China, Ser. B, 1989, 32(11): 1393-1400.[4]Ni, Y. H., Li, S. G., Sm-Nd ages of the syn-collisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Dabie Mountains, Chinese Sci. Bull., 1998, 43(2): 160-163.[5]Chen, D. G., Wu, Y. B., Xia, Q. K. et al., Sm-Nd ages for the Jiaoziyan gabbro pluton and the characteristics of Nd isotopes, Acta Geosci. Sinica, 1997, 18(Suppl.): 9-11.[6]Jahn, B. M., Wu, F. Y., Lo, C. H. et al., Crust-mantle interaction induced by deep subduction of the continental crust: geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from post-collisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the northern Dabie complex, central China, Chem. Geol., 1999, 157: 119-146.[7]Li, S. G., Jagoutz, E., Zhang, Z. Q. et al., Structure of high-metamorphic belt in the Dabie mountains and its tectonic implications, Chinese Sci. Bull., 1995, 40(Suppl.): 138-140.[8]Zhang, R. Y., Liou, J. G., Tsai, C. H., Petrogenesis of a high-temperature metamorphic terrain: a new interpretation for the north Dabie Shan, central China, J. Metamorphic Geol., 1996, 14: 319-333.[9]Wang, J. H., The Early Evolution of the Dabie Complex, with Special Reference to the Genetic Mechanism of Migmatites, Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1991, 1-140.[10]Suo, S. T., Zhong, Z. Q., You, Z. D., Extensional deformation of post ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and exhumation process of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie massif, China, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 225-236.[11]Hacker, B. R., Wang, Q. C., Ar/Ar geochronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in Central China, Tectonics, 1995, 14: 994-1006.[12]Ge, N. J., Hou, Z. H., Li, H. M. et al., Zircon U-Pb ages of the Shacun gabbro body, Yuexi, Dabie orogen and its geological implications, Chinese Sci. Bull., 2000, 45(1): 74-79.[13]Xu, S. T., Liu, Y. C., Jiang, L. L. et al., Tectonic Regime and Evolution of the Dabie Mountains, Beijing: Science Press, 1994, 1-175.[14]Li, S. G., Ni, Y. H., Zheng, S. G. et al., Interaction between subducted continental crust and the mantle: I. Major and trace element geochemistry of syncollisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Dabie Mountains, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(5): 545-553.[15]Blundy, J. D., Holland, T. J. B., Calcic amphibole equilibrium and a new amphibole plagioclase geothermometer, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1990, 104: 208-224.[16]Hammartron, J. M., Zen, E. A., Aluminum in hornbole: an empirical igneous geobarometer, Amer. Mineral., 1986, 71: 1297-1313.[17]Hollister, L. S., Grisson, G. C., Peters, E. K. et al., Confirmation of the empirical correlation of Al in hornblende with pressure of solidification of calcalkaline plutons, Amer. Mineral., 1987, 72: 231-239.[18]Johnson, M. C., Rutherford, M. J., Experimental calibration of an aluminium-hornblende geobarometer applicable to calc-alkaline rocks, EOS, 1988, 69: 1511.[19]Whitney, J. A., Stormer, J. C., The distribution of NaAlSi3O8 between coexisting microcline and plagioclase and its effect on geothermometric calculations, Am. Mineral., 1977, 62: 687-691.[20]Zhang, R. Y., Cong, B. L., Mineral Thermometers and Barometers, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983, 150-173.[21]Krogh, T. E., A low-contamination method for hydrothermal decomposition of zircon and extraction of U and Pb for isotopic age determinations, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1973, 48: 505-511.[22]Krogh, T. E., Vapour transfer for the dissolution of zircons in a multi-sample capsule at high-pressure, in Short Papers of the Fourth International Conference on Geochronology, Cosmochronology, and Isotope Geology (ed. Zartman, R. E.), USGS Open-File Rep., 1978, 78-701: 233-234.[23]Mao, C. X., Zhu, N. J., Zhu, B. Q. et al., Measurement techniques and application of the Sm-Nd isotopic system, Geochimica, 1989, (1): 36-42.[24]Ludwig, R. K., Isoplot--a plotting and regression program for radiogenic-isotope data, version 2.57, USGS Open-File Rep, 1992, 91-445: 40.[25]Steiger, R. H., J?ger, E., Subcommission on geochronology: Conventions on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmo-chronology, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1977, 36: 359-362.[26]Dai, T. M., Hong, A. S., 40Ar/39Ar dating and some isotopic determinations on Himalayan biotite from granitoids in southern Tibet, Geochimica, 1982, (1): 48-55.[27]McDougall, I., Harrison, T. M., Geochronology and Thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar Method, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, 1-269.[28]Chen, T. Y., Niu, B. G., Liu, Z. G. et al., Isotopic geochronology of metamorphism and Yanshanian magmatism within the Dabie Shan, Acta Geol. Sinica, 1991, 65(4): 329-335.[29]Chen, J. F., Xie, Z., Liu, S. S., Cooling age of Dabie orogen, China determined by 40Ar-39Ar and fission track techniques, Sci. in China, Ser. B, 1995, 38(6): 749-757.[30]Li, S., Wang, T., Geochemistry of Granitoids in the Tongbai-Dabie Mountains, Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1991, 1-208.[31]Hacker, B. R., Ratschbacher, L., Webb, L. et al., U/Pb zircon ages constrain the architecture of the ultrahigh-pressure Qinling-Dabie orogen, China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1998, 161: 215-230.[32]Deng, S. X., Wang, J. H., Sun, M. et al., Types of leucosomes in the migmatites and their U-Pb ages at Fenghuangguan, Hubei, Geochimica, 1997, 26(2): 75-86.[33]Ratschbacher, L., Hacker, B. R., Webb, L. E. et al., Exhumation of the ultrahigh-pressure continental crust in east central China: Cretaceous and Cenozoic unroofing and the Tan-Lu fault, J. Geophys. Res., 2000, 105(B6): 13030-13338.[34]Faure, M., Lin, W., Shu, L. S. et al., Tectonics of the Dabieshan (eastern China) and possible exhumation mechanism of ultrahigh-pressure rocks, Terra Nova, 1999, 11(6): 251-258.[35]Suo, S. T., Sang, L. K., Han, Y. J. et al., The Petrology and Tectonics in the Dabie Precambrain Metamorphic Terrain, Central China, Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1993, 151-181.[36]Wang, J. H., Wu, J. P., Yang, W. H., Dynamic mechanism for migmatization in Dabie Complex, northern Hubei Province, China, Acta Geol. Sinica, 1994, 68(4): 308-323.[37]Wang, J. H., Sun, M., Chang, X. Y. et al., Dynamic models for origin of the migmatites with thermal centers in the Dabie complex, Hubei, central China, in Procs. 30th IGC, 17: Precambrain Geology and Metamorphic Petrology (eds. Qian, X. L., You, Z. D., Jahn, B. M. et al.), Zeist: VSP, 1997, 203-215,[38]Li, S. G., Ni, Y. H., Hart, S. R. et al., Interaction between subducted continental crust and the mantle: II Sr and Nd isotopic geochemistry of syncollisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Dabie Mountains, Sci. in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(6): 632-638.[39]Yin, A., Nie, S., A Phanerozoic palinspastic reconstruction of China and its neighboring regions, in The Tectonic Evolution of Asia (eds. Yin, A., Harrision, T. M.), New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 442-485.

  3. Doxycycline-Regulated p16MTS1 Expression Suppresses the Anchorage-Independence and Tumorigenicity of Breast Cancer Cell Lines that Lack Endogenous p16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Maria C; Langan, Thomas A; Sclafani, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The RB pathway controls the critical transition from G1 into S phase of the mammalian cell cycle. Deregulation of the RB pathway by means of RB or p16 inactivation has been implicated in the development of virtually all human cancers. Such findings have led to the view that the loss of RB-mediated regulation at the G1/S checkpoint is a precondition for human malignancy. Our analysis of the RB-positive MCF-7 and ZR75.1 breast cancer cell lines revealed a lack of endogenous p16 protein expression as a result of the homozygous deletion and methylation of the p16 gene at the CDKN2A locus, respectively. We employed the TET-OFF inducible expression system to investigate the effects of non-growth inhibitory levels of functional p16 protein upon the in vitro and in vivo transformed properties of the MCF-7 and ZR75.1 cell lines. Stable transfectants of MCF-7 and ZR75.1 cells were isolated that expressed different levels of p16 protein in the absence of doxycycline (DOX) but continued to proliferate in culture. Transfectants that expressed modest levels of p16 (relative to SV40 T antigen-transformed HBL-100 breast epithelial cells) demonstrated a marked suppression of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Further, the induction of moderate and high levels of p16 (relative to HBL-100) resulted in the suppression of tumorigenicity of both MCF-7 and ZR75.1 cells as assayed by injection into nude mice. From these data, we concluded that RB pathway restoration by non-growth inhibitory levels of p16 protein was sufficient to revert breast cancer cells to a non-transformed and non-tumorigenic state.

  4. A high-resolution Early Holocene-late MIS 3 environmental rock- and palaeomagnetic record from Lake Sf. Ana, Carpathian Mts, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel VERES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments are excellent sources of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information because they usually provide continuous and high-resolution records. In centraleastern Europe however lacustrine records that extend beyond the Holocene are rather sparse.Palaeomagnetic records from this region are also insufficiently explored, and usually associated with terrestrial deposits such as loess. In this context, the lacustrine record of Lake Sf. Ana, a volcanic crater lake in the East Carpathians, Romania, provides an important archive for reconstructing past paleomagnetic secular variation in the region from early Holocene to late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3.

  5. Analisis Tingkat Kognitif Uji Kompetensi pada Buku Sekolah Elektronik (BSE Matematika SMP/MTs Kelas VII Kurikulum 2013 Berdasarkan Taksonomi Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Yunita Susanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Buku teks pelajaran berperan penting dan strategis dalam upaya meningkatkan mutu pendidikan dasar dan menengah. Buku teks dilengkapi dengan soal-soal latihan yang belum terklasifikasi tingkat kognitifnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kognitif soal uji kompetensi beserta persentase masing-masing tingkat kognitif soal uji kompetensi pada BSE Matematika SMP Kelas VII kurikulum 2013 semester 1 maupun semester 2. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa soal uji kompetensi BSE Matematika semester 1 mencakup 9 variasi soal dari 24 variasi soal menurut tingkat kognitif Revisi Taksonomi Bloom. Dari 166 pertanyaan, terdapat 6.6% tingkat C2-faktual; 17% tingkat C2-konseptual; 22% tingkat C2-prosedural; 3% tingkat C3-faktual; 6.6% tingkat C3-konseptual; 28% tingkat C3-prosedural; 1.8% tingkat C4-konseptual; 14% tingkat C4-prosedural; 0.6% tingkat C6-konseptual; dan 0% pertanyaan tingkat yang lainnya. Sedangkan pada BSE Matematika semester 2 mencakup 11 variasi soal. Dari 170 pertanyaan terdapat 0.6% tingkat C1-faktual; 0.6% tingkat C1-konseptual; 2.9% tingkat C2-faktual; 15% tingkat C2-konseptual; 15% tingkat C2-prosedural; 8.2% tingkat C3-konseptual; 30% tingkat C3-prosedural; 4.7% tingkat C4-konseptual; 5.3% tingkat C4-prosedural; 14% tingkat C5-konseptual; 4.1% tingkat C6 konseptual; dan 0% tingkat yang lain.Textbooks have an important and strategic role in improving the quality of primary and secondary education. Textbook comes with practice questions are not yet classified the cognitive level. The aims of this study are determining the level of cognitive matter competency test along with the percentage of each level of cognitive matter competency test on BSE Class VII SMP Math curriculum 2013 1st half and 2nd semester. Type of research is descriptive research with a qualitative approach. It can be concluded that about half of the competency test BSE Mathematics 1 includes 9 variations of about 24 variations of matter according to the degree of cognitive Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. Of the 166 questions, there is a 6.6% rate of C2-factual; 17% C2-conceptual level; 22% C2-procedural level; 3% level C3-factual; 6.6% C3-conceptual level; 28% level of C3-procedural; 1.8% C4-conceptual level; 14% of C4-procedural level; 0.6% C6-conceptual level; and 0% of the questions that other level. While in the second half of BSE Mathematics includes 11 variations matter. Of the 170 questions contained 0.6% level of C1-factual; 0.6% C1-conceptual level; 2.9% rate of C2-factual; 15% C2-conceptual level; 15% C2-procedural level; 8.2% C3-conceptual level; 30% level of C3-procedural; 4.7% C4-conceptual level; 5.3% rate of C4-procedural; 14% of the C5-conceptual level; 4.1% C6 conceptual level; and the 0% level to another.

  6. Estudio Palinológico de los 35 mts. Superiores de la Sección Tarragona, Sabana de Bogotá Estudio Palinológico de los 35 mts. Superiores de la Sección Tarragona, Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas J. Hernando

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se da a conocer el resulrado del estudio palinológico de los 35 metros superiores de la sección Tarragona, localizada en la Sabana de Bogotá, a 2.560 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Se describen 2 géneros (Spirotremesporites, Striadyadosporites y 5 especies(Spirotremesporites simplex, Spirotremesporites multiplex, Spirotremesporites ecuatorialis, Striadyadosporites elongatus y Striadyadosporites constrictus de fungi fósil, 14 tipos de polen, 8 tipos de esporas triletes, 4 tipos de Pediastrum y un tipo especial de Chlorococcales. Con base en la relación de polen de elementos de páramo a polen de elementos de bosque (Pp/Pb y a la estrarigrafía, se dividió el diagrama depolen en 8 zonas climáticas (vegetación, con las cuales fue posible correlacionar la sección Tarragona con otras secciones levantadas en la Sabana de Bogotá y regiones aledañas. Utilizando esta correlación y las fechas de edad absoluta que se han obtenido en las diferentes secciones del área, fue posible efectuar una correlacion tentativa con las unidades cronoestratigráficas europeas.  Los 35 metros superiores de la sección Tarragona representan la historia geológica de por lo menos los últimos 500.000 años de la Sabana de Bogotá.In this study it is given the result of the palynological study of the uppermost 35 meters of the Tarragona section, located in the Sabana de Bogotá at an altitude of 2.560 meters above sea level.  It is described: 2 genus (Spirotremesporites, Striadyadosporites and 5 species (Spirotremesporites simplex, Spirotremesporites multiplex, Spirotremesporites ecuatorialis, Striadyadosporites elongatus and Striadyadosporites constrictus of fossil fungi, 14 types of pollen, 8 types of trilete spores, 4 types of Pediastrum and one special type of Chlorococcales.  On the basis of the relation, Pollen of paramo elements to Pollen of forest elements (Pp/Pb and the stratigraphy it was possible to divide the pollen diagram in 8 climatic zones (vegetation; with them, it was possibleto correlate the Tarragona section with another sections carried out in the Sabana de Bogotá and surrounding areas. With this correlation and the absolute ages from the different sections of the area, it was possible to make a tentative correlation with the european cronostratigraphyc units. The uppermost 35 meters of the Tarragona section represents the geologicalhistory at least of the last 500.000 years of the Sabana de Bogotá.

  7. Research on morphological caracteristics of endokarst in Rarau Massif. Premises for local palaeoclimatic records

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinu OPREA; Georgiana BUTA

    2014-01-01

    ...; however, limestone and dolomite are the most relevant in terms of spatial distribution and morphological diversity, as shown by the karst landforms present in Apuseni Mts, Banat Mts, Cerna Mts...

  8. Assessment of cytotoxicity of carbon nanoparticles using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) cell viability assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Lin, Jonathan B; Hussain, Saber M

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, there has been an increasing interest in technologies that rely upon these incredibly small particles for their unique properties. However, assessment of their biological consequences has been riddled with assay limitations. Here, we describe application of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium cell viability assay to study cytotoxicity of various carbon-based nanomaterials on cells and discuss some pitfalls of this method.

  9. Twenty six-week exposure to 2 amino-3 methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) does not significantly increase the incidence of tumours in HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Lukanidin, E.; Ambartsumian, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    and C57BL/6ByA (wild type) mice (15 males and 15 females of each genotype per group) received either a control diet for 53 weeks or a control diet plus 0.03% 2-amino-3 methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for 26 weeks and a control diet for the remaining 27 weeks. IQ is a food mutagen with a carcinogenic...... effect in non-human primates and rodents. IQ is a liver carcinogen and also causes lung tumours and tumours of the forestomach in mice. Body weight gain and feed intake were decreased (p...

  10. How alpine heathlands response to the snow cover change on the ski slope? Long-lasting ski slope impact case study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mts (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Zeidler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and duration of snow cover are important variables that affect ecosystem processes in the alpine zone. The establishment of ski resorts dramatically change their surrounding environment and ski slopes represent significant anthropogenic impact in the mountains. We assessed the changes in environmental factors, phenology, growth, and reproductive performance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, a dominant species of alpine heathlands, caused by a “nature-friendly” managed ski slope (i.e., without artificial snow and machine grading at permanent plots established on the ski slope under operations (inside the ski slope and on an unaffected control area (outside the ski slope. A lower mean temperature and a shorter time of great temperature fluctuation during snow melting, a longer time span of snow cover, and a higher snow water equivalent were observed inside the ski slope compared to outside it. Due to changed environmental conditions, the beginning of growth was postponed, and a delay in phenological development was observed in the bilberry at the ski slope. However, bilberry ripened both inside and outside the ski slope in a similar period and showed similar cover and even higher flower and fruit densities inside the ski slope compared with natural surroundings. The persistence of bilberry was not deteriorated and its performance was even better inside the ski slope. On the ski slope, managed snow cover can reduce the potential vegetation shifts due to expected impact of the climate warming. That should be taken into account in conservation and management planning.

  11. Rozmieszczenie i ekologia rozsiewania się chiuastów w zespołach polnych w Gorcach [Distribution and dispersal ecology of weeds in segetal plant communities in the Gorce Mts. (Polish Western Carpathians)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kornaś

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal ecology of 113 taxa of weeds studied. The weight of their diaspores was determined and their morphological adaptations to natural dispersal agents were examined. The role of man in weed dispersal was established by analysing 25 crop seed samples of local origin. Dispersal spectra of cereal crop culture community Geranio-Silenetum vicietosum, root-crop culture community G.-S. veronicetosum, and flax culture community Spergulo-Lolietum remoti were compiled. The reasons of decline of t...

  12. 基于RDS与MTS的N层事务性Web数据库应用程序的构造与实现%The Construct and Implent of N tier Transaction Web Database Application Based on RDS and MTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习胜丰

    2003-01-01

    基于RDS与MTS的N层Web应用系统使用户在客户端能对大量数据进行复杂的交互式处理.而将定制的事务逻辑组件组织到Windows MTS事务服务中,就可以充分利用MTS服务器所提供的事物处理服务功能,以建立高效、安全的N层Web应用系统.本文阐述了基于RDS和MTS服务的N层Web应用系统的构造及其运作机制,并结合实例介绍了它的具体实现方法.

  13. The Evaluation of Complex Borehole Geophysics and Corescanning: for Detailed Characterization of Oriented Fracture Sets, Zones, and Hydraulic Flow on Different Scales. A Case Study: Moragy Granite, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maros, G.; Zilahi-Sebess, L.; Dudko, A.; Koroknai, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Our presentation outlines the methodology to determine the relationship between fractures and flow systems, and it tries to homogenize the results deriving from methods of different resolutions in a geological model. The granite suffered multi-phase brittle deformation during the Alpine orogene, the fractures renewed several times and were filled with multi-generation infillings. The cores were scanned with the ImaGeo system, the fractures were oriented, characterized in detail from geological and geophysical point of views, and structurally evaluated. A structural model was sketched (Maros et al 2004). The results were refined by the information received from geophysical data, primarily from well-logging (Zilahi-Sebess et al 2003), but radar measurements, crosshole velocity tomography were also used (Toros et al 2004). Transmissivity in granite: 10-6-10-12, main fractures: 10-6-10-5 m2/s. Porous and fracture flow models were set up (Benedek et al 2003, Balla et al 2004). Correlations were found between the core-logging and the well-logging: acoustic openness, density, acoustic velocity, resistivity versus fracture frequency, fracture zones versus HPF influx places. The complex evaluation made the determination of the size and dip of fracture zones more precise. The flow characteristics of individual fractures and fracture zones, however, are influenced by their unique features; no parameter-group can be selected that definitely produces permeable or impermeable fractures. The interpretation of the observations carried out on different scales can be done in several ways. One method is to use methods of different resolutions densely enough to be representative. We examined the relation of information deriving from high resolution methods and the well-logging. On the basis of the depth-trends it is possible to extrapolate the information around the borehole. The relationship with the geophysical surveys is possible through the resistivity and acoustic measurements. An important agent is the VSP, which provides a direct comparison between the surface and the well-logging measurements. Another method is the scaling of the fractal distribution of fractures, since, apparently, the permeability on core-scale can be deduced from the large-scale tectonics. But the uncertainty of this cannot be predicted due to the numerous infilling events. Besides, the same infilling event acts differently on different scales. Similarly, the permeability of the blocks cannot be deduced from the porosity of the cores, because the fracture system is pressure-sensitive due to the unevenness of the fracture surfaces, and is also influenced by the mineralization and the ion concentration of the water. So core examinations, permeability measurements (BHTV, HPF), and their comparison to hydrodynamic testing are essential. Balla, Z. et al 2004: Hydrogeological pattern of the Bataapati Site - Ann. Rep. of the Geol. Inst. of Hung. pp. 449-472. Benedek, K. et al 2003: Hydrodynamical modelling for safety assessment - Manuscript, Batatom kft, Hungary Maros, Gy. et al 2004: Tectonics and structural evolution of the NE part of the Moragy Hills - Ann. Rep. of the Geol. Inst. of Hung. pp. 371-401. Toros, E. et al 2004: Complementary ground-based and borehole seismic and radar survey at the Bataapati site - Ann. Rep. of the Geol. Inst. of Hung. pp. 265-284. Zilahi-Sebess, L 2003: Well-logging methods to investigate a granitic site for radioactive waste deposition,- Geoph. Trans. 44/ 2. pp. 51-93.

  14. Morphometric traits of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. on the copper dump-field Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Štrba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to determine difference in length of needles and annual wood increments of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies L. on the dump-field and for comparison on referential site. We performed 500 measurements of needles for each tree species and for each study area. The annual wood increments were measured on wood bores from five tree individuals from each species and from both study areas – dump-field and referential site. Student t-test and indicators of central values evaluated differences of the measured attributes. The results show statistically significant difference at 99% level of confidence for both attributes – length of needles and annual wood increments. The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the plants growing.

  15. Rozmieszczenie i ekologia rozsiewania się chiuastów w zespołach polnych w Gorcach [Distribution and dispersal ecology of weeds in segetal plant communities in the Gorce Mts. (Polish Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kornaś

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dispersal ecology of 113 taxa of weeds studied. The weight of their diaspores was determined and their morphological adaptations to natural dispersal agents were examined. The role of man in weed dispersal was established by analysing 25 crop seed samples of local origin. Dispersal spectra of cereal crop culture community Geranio-Silenetum vicietosum, root-crop culture community G.-S. veronicetosum, and flax culture community Spergulo-Lolietum remoti were compiled. The reasons of decline of the segetal flora with altitude was explained by the limiting action of climatic factors upon weeds.

  16. Characterization of Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope in Taojinchong Gold Mine in Mid-xuefeng Mts.%雪峰山中段淘金冲金矿床氢氧同位素特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 宋泽友; 马小双; 陈新跃

    2015-01-01

    The gold rush hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in quartz of gold mine geological characteristics and main metallogenic stage composition of, to the gold rush gold source of ore-forming lfuid are discussed. Research shows that the gold rush gold deposit ore-forming lfuid δ DH20‰ values ranged from-97‰ to -44‰, δ 18OH20‰ value between -2.04‰ to +8.92‰, the mineralization phase I and II stage of ore-forming lfuid mainly to magmatic water and metamorphic water mixed, stage III with the gradual opening of the metallogenic environment, temperature and pressure reduction, precipitation gradually accounted for dominance.%本文通过对淘金冲金矿区地质特征和主成矿阶段石英氢氧同位素组成研究,对淘金冲金矿成矿流体来源进行了探讨。研究结果显示淘金冲金矿床成矿流体δDH20‰值介于-97‰~-44‰,δ18OH20‰值介于-2.04‰~+8.92‰,成矿期第Ⅰ阶段及第Ⅱ阶段成矿流体以岩浆水和变质水混合为主,第Ⅲ阶段随着成矿环境逐渐开放,温度压力降低,大气降水逐渐占主导地位。

  17. A new species of Trikeraia Bor. (Gramineae) from Tianshan Mts. in Xinjiang of China%新疆天山三角草属(禾本科)一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢学峰; 卢生莲; 陈桂琛

    2001-01-01

    @@天山三角草新种图1 Trikeraia tianshanica S. L. Lu et X. F. Lu, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species insignis spiculis suis majusculis (12~14 mm longis), a speciebus nobis notis bene distincta. Differt a Trikeraia hookere (Stapf) Bor. glumis et lemmate 5-nervio, antheris ca. 1.2 mm longis, arista lemmatis in medio geniculata, ca. 10 mm longa, inferne torta.

  18. Exploration on the Soviet System by CPC in the Agrarian Revolution Period---Basing on Analysis of the Two Choices and the Value of Transformation%土地革命时期中共对苏维埃政权的探索历程--基于两次选择及转变的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞

    2016-01-01

    大革命失败后,中国共产党在土地革命时期开始探索建立自己的政权,在自身性质以及苏联影响下,首先选择“工农苏维埃”模式,并取得了很大成果;但由于这种模式强烈的革命性和阶级性并不能够适应变化发展的局势需要,最终被“人民苏维埃”模式所取代。“人民苏维埃”模式这一理论创新突破了苏维埃模式的局限性,适应了国情变化的阶段性要求,是探索中国独特政权模式的开端,为以后继续探索新的历史条件下符合中国国情的政权建设模式打下了基础。%After the failure of the Great Revolution,CPC started to explore to build its own system during the time of A-grarian Revolution.Under the influences of its own character as well as the Soviet System,it chose the pattern of"Soviet politi-cal power of workers and peasants"initially,and it came out with a great achievement.However,the pattern of"Soviet political power of workers and peasants"was eventually replaced by the pattern of"people's representative soviet"on the account of the predicament that the drastic revolutionary and class nature of it could not adapt to the requirements of changes and develop-ment.The theoretical revolution of"people's representative soviet"pattern on the other hand broke through the limit of"Soviet political power of workers and peasants"pattern.It not only matched the periodical need of the changed national conditions well,but also started the researches on Chinese unique system pattern,laying the foundation for coming researches on the build-ing of system patterns that were suitable for new historical conditions.

  19. Similarities in the detection of stimulus symmetry by individuals with and without mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, M T; Soraci, S A

    1993-11-01

    Intelligence-related differences in the detection of stimulus organization previously identified by Soraci, Carlin, Deckner, and Baumeister (1990) were examined further to determine whether they would (a) extend to similar checkerboard stimuli varying solely with respect to symmetry and (b) generalize to form-like polygon stimuli. Detection performances of 10 individuals with mild mental retardation, 10 CA-matched, and 10 MA-matched individuals were assessed on a rapid presentation a two-choice match-to-sample task. The organizations of the target and distractor stimuli were varied across four levels of symmetry: double, vertical, horizontal, and asymmetrical. Results indicated that detection rates for each group were highest when the target stimulus was vertically symmetrical or when target-distractor structural disparity was maximal. However, no significant main effects of subject group or stimulus type (i.e., checkerboard vs. polygon) were found, thereby arguing for the robustness of the symmetry effect across groups differing in intelligence and physically dissimilar stimulus types.

  20. Matching based on biological categories in Orangutans (Pongo abelii) and a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Following a series of experiments in which six orangutans and one gorilla discriminated photographs of different animal species in a two-choice touch screen procedure, Vonk & MacDonald (2002) and Vonk & MacDonald (2004) concluded that orangutans, but not the gorilla, seemed to learn intermediate level category discriminations, such as primates versus non-primates, more rapidly than they learned concrete level discriminations, such as orangutans versus humans. In the current experiments, four of the same orangutans and the gorilla were presented with delayed matching-to-sample tasks in which they were rewarded for matching photos of different members of the same primate species; golden lion tamarins, Japanese macaques, and proboscis monkeys, or family; gibbons, lemurs (Experiment 1), and subsequently for matching photos of different species within the following classes: birds, reptiles, insects, mammals, and fish (Experiment 2). Members of both Great Ape species were rapidly able to match the photos at levels above chance. Orangutans matched images from both category levels spontaneously whereas the gorilla showed effects of learning to match intermediate level categories. The results show that biological knowledge is not necessary to form natural categories at both concrete and intermediate levels.

  1. Effects of select and reject control on equivalence class formation and transfer of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Tomanari, Gerson Y; Vaidya, Manish

    2015-09-01

    The present study used a single-subject design to evaluate the effects of select or reject control on equivalence class formation and transfer of function. Adults were exposed to a matching-to-sample task with observing requirements (MTS-OR) in order to bias the establishment of sample/S+ (select) or sample/S- (reject) relations. In Experiment 1, four sets of baseline conditional relations were taught-two under reject control (A1B2C1, A2B1C2) and two under select control (D1E1F1, D2E2F2). Participants were tested for transitivity, symmetry, equivalence and reflexivity. They also learned a simple discrimination involving one of the stimuli from the equivalence classes and were tested for the transfer of the discriminative function. In general, participants performed with high accuracy on all equivalence-related probes as well as the transfer of function probes under select control. Under reject control, participants had high scores only on the symmetry test; transfer of function was attributed to stimuli programmed as S-. In Experiment 2, the equivalence class under reject control was expanded to four members (A1B2C1D2; A2B1C2D1). Participants had high scores only on symmetry and on transitivity and equivalence tests involving two nodes. Transfer of function was extended to the programmed S- added to each class. Results from both experiments suggest that select and reject controls might differently affect the formation of equivalence classes and the transfer of stimulus functions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Two Choices: Li Dazhao and Hu Shi during the May Fourth Movement: An Investigation of the Relations between Li Dazhao and Hu Shi in Their Dispute over "Problems and - isms"%两种选择:"五四"时期的李大钊与胡适——"问题与主义"之争中李大钊与胡适关系探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志光

    2007-01-01

    "问题与主义"之争涉及马克思主义与实验主义之间的最初冲突.虽然李大钊与胡适在论战中各自表达了不同的哲学与社会政治思想,但是这种冲突具有"原初"性质;在李大钊的"根本解决"与胡适的"点滴改良"之间存在着可以沟通的环节;李大钊与胡适的关系表明,中国革命可以在原则的坚定性和策略的灵活性之间保持"必要的张力".

  3. Методы комплексной оптимизации магнитолевитирующих транспортных систем

    OpenAIRE

    Lasher, A.; M. Umanov; Ye. Frishman; Ye. Prishedko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS) for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT) almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS) are hardly currently used ...

  4. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  5. 大兴安岭北部锆石U-Pb年龄对额尔古纳地块构造归属的制约%Zircon U-Pb Age of the North Da Hinggan Mts., NE China and Its Constraint to Attribute of the Ergun Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    表尚虎; 郑卫政; 周兴福

    2012-01-01

    Recent years, zircon U-Pb dating for the basement of the Ergun block provides important evidence for investigating the attribute of the Ergun block. U-Pb ages for various samples from Xinghuaukou rock groups in liilinlinchang and Hanjiayuanzi indicate that the Xinghuadukou rock group and its accompanied metamorphic pluton formed in the early Proterozoic Tonian period. Migmatization occurs commonly in the Xinhuadukou rock group. The U-Pb age (431. 5 + 1. 6-430+16Ma) of the metamorphic zircon from the migmatized felsic veins of the Xinghuadukou rock group in Hanjiayuanzi, and zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope analysis of early Paleozoic granite in the Tahe region (Gc Wenchun et al. ) suggest that multiple post-orogenic granites widely distributed in the Ergun block was the product of partial melting of crustal materials triggered by pressure decreasing during the fast uplifting-erosion process of the Ergun block in early Paleozoic, while the Xinghuadukou rock group experienced migmatization of relic magma in the early Silurian after the emplacement of post-mountain-building granites formed in the early Caledonian. Dating analysis of part samples from eroded source rock and country rocks yields the following data: 2800 Ma, 2600 Ma, 2400 Ma, 2200 Ma and 1888 Ma, indicating that an old crystalline basement did existed in the Ergun block during Neoarchean to PaLeoproterozoic. Rock assemblages of the Xinghuadukou rock group, which are exposed in the Medulihe region, is characteristic of graphite-bearing khondalite which can be compared with the Damahe rock of Mahsan rock group and Xindong rock group in eastern Heilongjiang Province. Therefore, the old crystalline basement of the Ergun block was likely located at the Mendulihe district of the Mohe area, and the Xinghuadukou rock group exposed in the southeast was the product of accretion of continental margin during the period from Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic. Emplacement and welding of Early Paleozoic orogenic granite transformed it into stable terrestrial block.%近几年,有关额尔古纳地块基底性质的锆石U-Pb样品测年,为讨论额尔古纳地块的构造归属提供了重要资料.绿林林场兴华渡口岩群二云母石英片岩的碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄892±20Ma、韩家园子兴华渡口岩群含十字石榴二云片岩的碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄1000~1100Ma、韩家园子兴华渡口岩群绿帘石化斜长角闪片岩的岩浆锆石U-Pb年龄816+27Ma、韩家园子达拉罕片麻杂岩(区域上相当于呼中地区凤水山片麻杂岩)的岩浆锆石U-Pb 年龄981.0±6Ma~820±3Ma等数据,表明兴华渡口岩群及其相伴的变质深成岩形成于新元古代拉伸纪(青白口纪)至成冰纪(南华纪)早期.兴华渡口岩群普字发育混合岩化.根据韩家园子东兴华渡口群的建群处混合岩化长英质脉体的变质锆石U-Pb年龄431.5±1.6~430±16Ma,及葛文春等对塔河地区早古生代花岗岩锆石的U-Pb 年龄和Hf同位素研究表明,广布于额尔古纳地块上的众多早加里东期的后造山花岗岩是古生代早期额尔古纳地块快速隆升-剥蚀过程中所引起的降压导致下地壳物质熔融的产物;而兴华渡口群的混合岩化作用是早加里东期的后造山花岗岩侵位后,残余岩浆于早志留纪对兴华渡口群混合岩化作用的结果.部分测年样品中岩石的蚀源区或围岩的2800 Ma、2600 Ma、2400Ma、2200 Ma、1888Ma等数据表明,额尔古纳地块内的确存在着相当于新太古代—早元古代的古老结晶基底.漠河地区门都里河一带出露的“兴华渡口群”的岩石组合为以含石墨为特征的孔兹岩系,可与黑龙江省东部麻山岩群、兴东岩群大马河岩组相对比.据此,额尔古纳地块的古老的结晶基底可能位于漠河地区门都里河一带,其东南侧出露的兴华渡口岩群系新元古代中期大陆边缘增生产物,早古生代后造山花岗岩的侵位、焊接,使其转化为稳定的陆块.

  6. 中国庐山晚第四纪沉积岩系的石英形貌显微结构及环境过程%Microstructure and Morphology of Quartz from Late Quaternary Sedimentary Rocks in Lushan Mts. China, and Its Environment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡东生; 李小豫; 熊卫强; 张华京; 弓虎军; 胡文瑄; 张国伟

    2012-01-01

    During systematic investigation on the typical profiles of the Late Quaternary in the Lushan region, the authors collected quartz samples from the profiles. The samples were sieved into particles with quartz particle size of Θ= l~3mm. Observation under electronic microscope reveals quartz microstructures such as morphology, deformation, and dynamic chemical effect. Key events taking place in the process were analyzed to understand environmental response of strata profiles. Through comprehensive index which reflects earth surface process and environmental response, four paleo-climate environmental stages were determined from bottom to top: glacier environment, inter glacier environment, ice margin environment to post glacier environment. The research results provide new evidence for further study and understanding of evolution and global change of the Quaternary environment in the Lushan region.%基于庐山山地晚第四纪地层典型断面的系统调查,从地层剖面层序中筛选的微粒(θ=1~3mm)石英颗粒进行环境电子显微镜观测研究,辨认出显微结构-颗粒形态-变形构造-动力化学作用等特征,运用系统过程发展中的节点事件进行层型剖面的环境响应分析,采取综合指标表征地球表层过程及环境响应情景,明确划分出四个古气候环境发展阶段,由下往上分别表现为冰期环境-间冰期环境-冰缘环境-冰后期环境,为深入研究及科学认识庐山第四纪环境演化过程及全球变化提供了新的基础依据.

  7. Live Cell Imaging Reveals Structural Associations between the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis [W] [OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Debolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Persson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic interactions between these two essential components in live cells have not been explored. Here, we use spinning-disc confocal microscopy to dissect interaction and cooperation between cortical AFs and MTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, utilizing fluorescent reporter constructs for both components. Quantitative analyses revealed altered AF dynamics associated with the positions and orientations of cortical MTs. Reorganization and reassembly of the AF array was dependent on the MTs following drug-induced depolymerization, whereby short AFs initially appeared colocalized with MTs, and displayed motility along MTs. We also observed that light-induced reorganization of MTs occurred in concert with changes in AF behavior. Our results indicate dynamic interaction between the cortical actin and MT cytoskeletons in interphase plant cells. PMID:21693695

  8. Contribution Of Madrasah In Enhancing Curiculum 2013 (A Study On The Readiness Of Madrasah In Implementing Of Curiculum 2013 In Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyani Mudis Taruna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the implementation of Curriculum 2013 in Madrasa tsanawiyah (MTs. The preparation includes readiness head MTs, the readiness of teachers, as well as enabling and inhibiting factors in the implementation of Curriculum 2013 MTs. The subjects of this study were MTs in Central Java. This study used a qualitative method with the following results; (1 generally head MTs and subject teachers at the school has been able to implement the K-13, both from the aspect of the facility and in the course of learning in the classroom. (2 supporting factor in the implementation of the curriculum in 2013 at MTs, including the existence of a workshop K-13 by the schools and by the working group of Madrasah (KKM, while inhibiting factor in the implementation of the curriculum in 2013 was the absence of mentoring supervisor madrassas and no handbook of teachers and learners, especially on the subjects of religious education.

  9. Influence of CH3SiCl3 Consistency on Growth Process of SiC Film by Kinetic Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cuixia; YANG Yanqing; LUO Xian

    2012-01-01

    CH3SiCl3 (MTS)-H2-Ar system has been applied to prepare SiC film with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method in this paper.For three facets of SiC film,some significant influence on growth rate,surface roughness,thickness and relative density brought by MTS consistency has been mainly discussed with kinetic monte carlo (KMC) method.The simulation results show that there is a certain scale for mol ratio of H2 to MTS (H2/MTS) with different deposition temperature.When MTS consistency increases,growth rate and surface roughness of three facets all increase,which manifests approximate linearity relationship.Thickness of three facets also increases while increasing trend of three facets thickness is different obviously.Although relative density of three facets all increases,increasing trend shows a little difference with MTS consistency increasing.

  10. Small calcified lesions suggestive of neurocysticercosis are associated with mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. B. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and neurocysticercosis (NC. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of NC and MTS. Method: We randomly selected patients with different epilepsy types, including: MTS, primary generalized epilepsy (PGE and focal symptomatic epilepsy (FSE. Patients underwent a structured interview, followed by head computed tomography (CT. A neuroradiologist evaluated the scan for presence of calcified lesions suggestive of NC. CT results were matched with patients’ data. Results: More patients in the MTS group displayed calcified lesions suggestive of NC than patients in the other groups (p=0.002. On multivariate analysis, MTS was found to be an independent predictor of one or more calcified NC lesions (p=0.033. Conclusion: After controlling for confounding factors, we found an independent association between NC calcified lesions and MTS.

  11. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  12. Miura-type transformations for lattice equations and Lie group actions associated with Darboux-Lax representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, George; Igonin, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    Miura-type transformations (MTs) are an essential tool in the theory of integrable nonlinear partial differential and difference equations. We present a geometric method to construct MTs for differential-difference (lattice) equations from Darboux-Lax representations (DLRs) of such equations. The method is applicable to parameter-dependent DLRs satisfying certain conditions. We construct MTs and modified lattice equations from invariants of some Lie group actions on manifolds associated with such DLRs. Using this construction, from a given suitable DLR one can obtain many MTs of different orders. The main idea behind this method is closely related to the results of Drinfeld and Sokolov on MTs for the partial differential KdV equation. Considered examples include the Volterra, Narita-Itoh-Bogoyavlensky, Toda, and Adler-Postnikov lattices. Some of the constructed MTs and modified lattice equations seem to be new.

  13. Granule cell dispersion is not a predictor of surgical outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Neves, Rafael Scarpa; Jardim, Anaclara Prada; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Lancellotti, Carmen; Marinho, Taissa Ferrari; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Centeno, Ricardo; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Targas Yacubian, Elza Márcia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study of a series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was to analyze the association of granule cell dispersion (GCD) with surgical prognosis, patterns of MTS and clinical data. Hippocampal specimens from 66 patients with MTLE and unilateral MTS and from 13 controls were studied. Quantitative neuropathological evaluation was performed on NeuN-stained hippocampal sections. Patients' clinical data, types of MTS and surgical outcome were reviewed. GCD occurred in 45.5% of cases and was not correlated with clinical variable. More severe neuronal loss was observed in patients with GCD. Except for MTS Type 2 - observed only in four no- GCD patients - groups did not differ with respect to the types of MTS. Surgical outcome was similar in both groups. In conclusion, GCD was associated with the degree of hippocampal cell loss, but was not a predictor of surgical outcome.

  14. Mesenterielt tranktionssyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Paul Suno; Ambrus, Rikard; Zaar, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS) manifests in 58-87% of patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery and is characterised by a triad of hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing. Prostacyclin is released from the gut mucosa following intestinal eventration and cyclooxygenase antagonists prevent...... the development of MTS. Also the use of remifentanil appears to increase the incidence of MTS and hypotension is aggravated by epidural analgesia. Yet, prostacyclin may be important for maintaining microcirculation within the splanchnic area and preserve its mucosal barrier....

  15. Towards a quantitative understanding of mitotic spindle assembly and mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilner, Alex; Craig, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The ‘simple’ view of the mitotic spindle is that it self-assembles as a result of microtubules (MTs) randomly searching for chromosomes, after which the spindle length is maintained by a balance of outward tension exerted by molecular motors on the MTs connecting centrosomes and chromosomes, and compression generated by other motors on the MTs connecting the spindle poles. This picture is being challenged now by mounting evidence indicating that spindle assembly and maintenance rely on much m...

  16. Modular training for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy: The safe way to go

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives should be describe a modular training scheme (MTS) which aims to provide training in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) and ensure the safety of the patients. Subjects and methods Two trainees with no experience in PCNL attended the MTS under the supervision of an experienced mentor. The MTS included five modules, comprising an initial animal laboratory course (using pigs), to acquire basic skills (Module 1), and Modules 2–5 included making the puncture, tract dilatation, single...

  17. Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed that only the actin cytoskeleton resides in dendritic spines and controls spine morphology and plasticity. Here we report that microtubules (MTs) are present in spines and that shRNA knockdown of the MT-plus end binding protein EB3 significantly reduces spine formation. Furthermore, stabilization and inhibition of MTs by low doses of taxol and nocodazole enhance and impair spine formation elicited by BDNF, respectively. Therefore, MTs play an important role in the con...

  18. Study of thickness of sediments in Sakhalin by the method of magnetotelluric sounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' perovich, I.M.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Kharakhinov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the geoelectric section of Sakhalin Island and technique of field investigations by the MTS method are presented. The correlations of longitudinal and transverse curves of MTS are considered and their possible distortions are analyzed. On the basis of analysis of distortions the quntitative interpretation of the MTS curves is made and the map of thicknesses of the Sakhlain Island sediments is prepared. 4 figures.

  19. Tension-dependent regulation of microtubule dynamics at kinetochores can explain metaphase congression in yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Melissa K; Pearson, Chad G; Sprague, Brian L; Zarzar, Ted R; Bloom, Kerry; Salmon, E D; Odde, David J

    2005-01-01

    During metaphase in budding yeast mitosis, sister kinetochores are tethered to opposite poles and separated, stretching their intervening chromatin, by singly attached kinetochore microtubules (kMTs...

  20. Dominant Skyline Query Processing over Multiple Time Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Chao-Kun Wang; Ya-Jun Xu; Yuan-Chi Ning

    2013-01-01

    Multiple time series (MTS),which describes an object in multi-dimensions,is based on single time series and has been proved to be useful.In this paper,a new analytical method called α/β-Dominant-Skyline on MTS and a formal definition of the α/β-dominant skyline MTS are given.Also,three algorithms,called NL,BC and MFB,are proposed to address the α/β-dominant skyline queries over MTS.Finally experimental results on both synthetic and real data verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method and algorithms.

  1. EFL MATERIALS IN MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH: WHAT DO THEY REALLY NEED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study is a part of a larger research project, by a team of English Language Training for Islamic Schools (ELTIS, into the resources used in MTs. This paper talks about the needs of Islamic Junior High Schools (Madrasah Tsanawiyah, henceforth, MTs for ELT materials. The research involved a number of principals, teachers and students of MTs in two areas: East Java and West Nusa Tenggara. Presentation and discussion of the analysis of the needs will be followed with some suggestions addressing some major weaknesses in the resources currently available in MTs.

  2. Buckling of microtubules: An insight by molecular and continuum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin; Meguid, S. A., E-mail: meguid@mie.utoronto.ca [Mechanics and Aerospace Design Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2014-10-27

    The molecular structural mechanics method has been extended to investigate the buckling of microtubules (MTs) with various configurations. The results indicate that for relative short MTs the shear deformation effect, rather than the nonlocal effect, is mainly responsible for the limitation of their widely used Euler beam description and the observed length-dependence of their bending stiffness. In addition, the configuration effect of MTs is also studied and considered as an explanation for the large scattering of the critical buckling force and bending stiffness observed in existing experiments. This configuration effect is also found to mainly originate from the geometry of the MTs and is mainly determined by the protofilament number.

  3. Mild systemic thermal therapy ameliorates renal dysfunction in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Takashige; Hayata, Manabu; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Izumi, Yuichiro; Iiyama, Junichi; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Thermal therapy has become a nonpharmacological therapy in clinical settings, especially for cardiovascular diseases. However, the practical role of thermal therapy on chronic kidney disease remains elusive. We performed the present study to investigate whether a modified thermal protocol, repeated mild thermal stimulation (MTS), could affect renal damages in chronic kidney disease using a mouse renal ablation model. Mice were subjected to MTS or room temperature (RT) treatment once daily for 4 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (Nx) or sham operation (Sh). We revealed that MTS alleviated renal impairment as indicated by serum creatinine and albuminuria in Nx groups. In addition, the Nx + MTS group showed attenuated tubular histological changes and reduced urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion approximately by half compared with the Nx + RT group. Increased apoptotic signaling, such as TUNEL-positive cell count and cleavage of caspase 3, as well as enhanced oxidative stress were significantly reduced in the Nx + MTS group compared with the Nx + RT group. These changes were accompanied with the restoration of kidney Mn-SOD levels by MTS. Heat shock protein 27, a key molecular chaperone, was phosphorylated by MTS only in Nx kidneys rather than in Sh kidneys. MTS also tended to increase the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt in Nx kidneys, possibly associated with the activation of heat shock protein 27. Taken together, these results suggest that modified MTS can protect against renal injury in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

  4. The destruction of natural river reaches due to improper land development - an example of the valleys of Czadeczka and Krężelka rivers (Beskid Śląski Mts / Niszczenie naturalnych odcinków koryt rzecznych na skutek niewłaściwej zabudowy – przykład dolin Czadeczki i Krężelki (Beskid Śląski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Ireneusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Koryta rzek Czadeczki i Krężelki (Beskidzie Śląski są współcześnie miejscami poddawane regulacji, przez co rzeki te tracą swój naturalny charakter, częściowo nadal zachowany. Przeanalizowano powody dla których rzeki te są regulowane. Z wykorzystaniem archiwalnych map prześledzono czas powstania budynków w dnach dolin, w bezpośrednim sąsiedztwie koryt rzecznych w latach 1790-2012. Następnie porównano miejsca zabudowane z miejscami występowania elementów regulacji koryt rzecznych takich jak: opaski betonowe wzmacniające brzegi, obudowy kamienne wzmacniające brzegi, progi w dnach koryt. Wyniki wskazują na ścisły związek pomiędzy wzrostem ilości budynków w dnach dolin w XX wieku oraz regulacją koryt. Mechanizm niszczenia nielicznych zachowanych naturalnych odcinków rzek polega na irracjonalnym wydawaniu pozwoleń na zabudowę terenów zalewowych i zagrożonych erozją boczną cieków. Następnie mieszkańcy w obawie przed powodziami i podmywaniem gruntów czy zabudowań zabiegają o regulację cieków, co daje im pozorne poczucie bezpieczeństwa. W efekcie naturalne biegi rzek są niszczone, skuteczna ochrona przeciwpowodziowa i przeciwerozyjna nadal nie jest zapewniona, a skala potencjalnych strat nawet wzrasta ze względu na rozwijającą się zabudowę

  5. A mountain of millipedes II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; Frederiksen, Sara Barup

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aquattuor Frederiksen, 2013 is revised. A. denticulatus Frederiksen, 2013 (type species) from the East Usambara Mts, Tanzania, is redescribed, and six new species are described: A. claudiahempae sp. nov. from Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, and fi ve species from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania: ...

  6. Quantitative analysis of microtubule transport in growing nerve processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma*, Ytao; Shakiryanova*, Dinara; Vardya, Irina;

    2004-01-01

    the translocation of MT plus ends in the axonal shaft by expressing GFP-EB1 in Xenopus embryo neurons in culture. Formal quantitative analysis of MT assembly/disassembly indicated that none of the MTs in the axonal shaft were rapidly transported. Our results suggest that transport of axonal MTs is not required...

  7. Neoproterozoic Molar-tooth Structure and Constraint of Depositional Facies and Environment in the North China Platform in Jiangsu, Anhui and Liaoning, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongqing; GAO Linzhi; LIU Yanxue

    2005-01-01

    Molar tooth structure (MTS) represented by complex ptygmatical shapes is widely distributed in the Proterozoic of the world.MTS filled by fine,equant sparry calcite (or dolomite) displays an abrupt contact with hosting rocks,which are mainly composed of carbonaceous micrites and fine-grained carbonates with local silts and stormdominated deposits with graded,cross or wave beddings,numerous erosional surfaces and truncated and fills or guttered bases.Occurrence of MTS suggests a result of the constraint of sedimentary facies,and the storm-base in ramp settings is the maximum depth for the formation of MTS.Vertical succession of MTS-bearing carbonates shows a deposition stacked by high-frequency shallow subtidal and peritidal cycles.An individual cyclic MTS-bearing sequence is characterized by thinning,shallowing and dynamic decreasing-upward,and peritidal caps of purple red iron and organic carbonaceous sediments with more complicated shapes of MTS are common on the top of individual MTS-bearing sequences.

  8. Studying neuronal microtubule organization and microtubule-associated proteins using single molecule localization microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chazeau, Anaël; Katrukha, Eugene A; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of highly polarized neurons critically depends on the proper organization of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. In axons, MTs are uniformly oriented with their plus-end pointing outward whereas in mature dendrites MTs have mixed orientations. MT organization and dynamic

  9. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  10. Similarities and differences between two different types of the thermoluminescence dosimeters belonging to the LiF family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, A.M. [Ionizing Radiation Metrology Department, National Institute for Standards, Giza (Egypt); Khamis, F. [Physics Department, University of Tripoli, Tripoli (Lebanon); Polymeris, George S. [Institute of Nuclear Science, Ankara University, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Carinou, E. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Ag. Paraskevi (Greece); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particles Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Makedonia (Greece)

    2017-01-15

    The kinetic parameters of the glow-peaks of Harshaw - LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD) and Poland - LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) dosimeters were investigated at different dose levels using the computerized glow-curve deconvolution (CGCD) algorithm. The results showed that the glow-curve structure and the kinetic parameters of the MTS - 6 and the TLD dosimeter are identical. In addition, the glow-curve structure and the kinetic parameters of the MTS - N and MTS - 7 dosimeters. However, unusual low activation energy (∝1.67 eV) and frequency factor (∝10{sup 15} s{sup -1}) values were detected for peak 5 of MTS - N, and MTS - 7 at the 50 Gy dose-level. Moreover, unlike the activation energy and the frequency factor of peak 5 of the TLD dosimeters, the activation energy and the frequency factor of peak 5 of MTS - N and MTS - 7 are substantially dependent on the absorbed dose level. The results also showed that peak 2 of the same dosimeters has also unusual low activation energy and frequency factor values. However, these values showed high stability over the different dose levels. The explanations of these unusual behaviors of peak 5 were discussed and a correlation between peak 2 and peak 5 was pointed out. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Assessment of Effects of Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Labrot, Zachary C.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in social skills training often utilizes procedures such as partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate changes in duration in social engagements due to intervention. Although previous research suggests PIR to be more inaccurate than MTS in estimating levels of behavior, treatment analysis decisions…

  12. Estimation of the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    To estimate time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis 1 New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle in southern Mexico, ninety-two sentinel cattle in four free-ranging dairy herds at high- (=500 mts) and low-elevation (<500 mts) locations in southern Mexico were studied. A prospective cohort s...

  13. Manothermosonication of foods and food-resembling systems: effect on nutrient content and nonenzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercet, A; Burgos, J; López-Buesa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect significantly the nutrient content studied. However, it changes the behavior of nonenzymatic browning. No formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) was detected in fruit juice model systems after heat and MTS treatments at the experimental conditions used. In a milk-resembling system, free HMF formation by MTS is higher compared to that by heat treatment. As the MTS temperature increases, free HMF production by both treatments equaled on another. For bound HMF the production rate is lower by MTS than by heat treatment under the experimental conditions used. Formation kinetics of brown pigments and that of fluorescent compounds are different for both treatments. Fluorescence and brown pigment production are faster in MTS.

  14. Effect of Gold Nanorod Surface Chemistry on Cellular Interactions In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reagent (phenazine ethosulfate; PES). Metabolically active cells reduce the MTS compound into a colored formazan product that is soluble in tissue...salt into a red formazan product. For both the MTS and LDH assay, the formazan product was measured by 7 Distribution A: Approved for public

  15. Microtubule-associated protein65 is essential for maintenance of Phragmoplast bipolarity and formation of the cell plate in Physcomitrella patens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosetsu, K.; Keijzer, de J.; Janson, M.E.; Goshima, G.

    2013-01-01

    The phragmoplast, a plant-specific apparatus that mediates cytokinesis, mainly consists of microtubules (MTs) arranged in a bipolar fashion, such that their plus ends interdigitate at the equator. Membrane vesicles are thought to move along the MTs toward the equator and fuse to form the cell plate.

  16. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein influences microtubule dynamics at the cell periphery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, M.P.; Mehra, N.; Jorna, A.S.; Beest, M. van; Giles, R.H.; Voest, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein protects microtubules (MTs) from destabilization by nocodazole treatment. Based on this fixed-cell assay with static end points, VHL has been reported to directly stabilize the MT cytoskeleton. To investigate the dynamic changes in MTs induced by VHL in living cel

  17. Checking Thorough Refinement on Modal Transition Systems Is EXPTIME-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretinsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2009-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS), a specification formalism introduced more than 20 years ago, has recently received a considerable attention in several different areas. Many of the fundamental questions related to MTSs have already been answered. However, the problem of the exact computational com...... EXPTIME-hard even if the left-hand side MTS is fixed....

  18. EXPTIME-Completeness of Thorough Refinement on Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS), a specification formalism introduced more than 20 years ago, has recently received a considerable attention in several different areas. Many of the fundamental questions related to MTSs have already been answered. However, the problem of the exact computational com...... EXPTIME-hard even if the left-hand side MTS is fixed and deterministic....

  19. Measuring the effects of fractionated radiation therapy in a 3D prostate cancer model system using SERS nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Victoria L; Stewart, Grant; Nailon, William H; McLaren, Duncan B; Campbell, Colin J

    2016-08-15

    Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) are three-dimensional cell cultures that possess their own microenvironments and provide a more meaningful model of tumour biology than monolayer cultures. As a result, MTS are becoming increasingly used as tumor models when measuring the efficiency of therapies. Monitoring the viability of live MTS is complicated by their 3D nature and conventional approaches such as fluorescence often require fixation and sectioning. In this paper we detail the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to measure the viability of MTS grown from prostate cancer (PC3) cells. Our results show that we can monitor loss of viability by measuring pH and redox potential in MTS and furthermore we demonstrate that SERS can be used to measure the effects of fractionation of a dose of radiotherapy in a way that has potential to inform treatment planning.

  20. Mechanical stability of bipolar spindle assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Malgaretti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Assembly and stability of mitotic spindle is governed by the interplay of various intra-cellular forces, e.g. the forces generated by motor proteins by sliding overlapping anti-parallel microtubules (MTs) polymerized from the opposite centrosomes, the interaction of kinetochores with MTs, and the interaction of MTs with the chromosomes arms. We study the mechanical behavior and stability of spindle assembly within the framework of a minimal model which includes all these effects. For this model, we derive a closed--form analytical expression for the force acting between the centrosomes as a function of their separation distance and we show that an effective potential can be associated with the interactions at play. We obtain the stability diagram of spindle formation in terms of parameters characterizing the strength of motor sliding, repulsive forces generated by polymerizing MTs, and the forces arising out of interaction of MTs with kinetochores. The stability diagram helps in quantifying the relative effec...

  1. Cloning and characterization of a gene for the stage-specific 82-kDa surface antigen of metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, J E; Cano, M I; Yoshida, N; da Silveira, J F

    1994-05-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA clone coding for a metacyclic trypomastigote-specific surface glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 82 kDa (MTS-gp82). By immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation, antibodies against the recombinant protein recognized an 82-kDa protein of metacyclic trypomastigotes, without any detectable reaction towards amastigotes, epimastigotes or tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes. The insert of the MTS-gp82 cDNA clone strongly hybridized with a single 2.2-kb metacyclic trypomastigote mRNA, suggesting that the steady-state levels of mRNAs for MTS-gp82 are developmentally regulated. MTS-gp82 is encoded by a multigene family whose members are distributed in several chromosomes. Sequence analysis revealed 40-56% identity at amino acid level between MTS-gp82 and members of Trypanosoma cruzi gp85/sialidase family (TSA-1, Tt34c1, SA85-1.1). MTS-gp82 showed several amino acid motifs that are characteristic of gp85/sialidase family, such as the Asp box (SxDxGxTW), the subterminal (VTVxNVFLYNR) motif and the putative GPI-anchor sequence. On the basis of its structural features, the MTS-gp82 gene could be included in the T. cruzi gp85/sialidase family, but constituting a distinct group which is preferentially expressed in metacyclic trypomastigotes.

  2. Transdermal and oral dl-methylphenidate-ethanol interactions in C57BL/6J mice: transesterification to ethylphenidate and elevation of d-methylphenidate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Guinevere H; Novak, Andrew J; Griffin, William C; Patrick, Kennerly S

    2011-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J mice will model human metabolic interactions between dl-methylphenidate (MPH) and ethanol, placing an emphasis on the MPH transdermal system (MTS). Specifically, we asked: (1) will ethanol increase d-MPH biological concentrations, (2) will MTS facilitate the systemic bioavailability of l-MPH, and (3) will l-MPH enantioselectively interact with ethanol to yield l-ethylphenidate (l-EPH)? Mice were dosed with MTS (¼ of a 12.5 cm(2) patch on shaved skin) or a comparable oral dl-MPH dose (7.5 mg/kg), with or without ethanol (3.0 g/kg), and then placed in metabolic cages for 3 h. MPH and EPH isomer concentrations in blood, brain, and urine were analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry monitoring of N-(S)-prolylpiperidyl fragments. As in humans, MTS greatly facilitated the absorption of l-MPH in this mouse strain. Similarly, ethanol led to the enantioselective formation of l-EPH and to an elevation in d-MPH concentrations with both MTS and oral MPH. Although only guarded comparisons between MTS and oral MPH can be made due to route-dependent drug absorption rate differences, MTS was associated with significant MPH-ethanol interactions. Ethanol-mediated increases in circulating concentrations of d-MPH carry toxicological and abuse liability implications should this animal model hold for ethanol-consuming attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients or coabusers.

  3. Transdermal and Oral dl-Methylphenidate–Ethanol Interactions in C57BL/6J Mice: Transesterification to Ethylphenidate and Elevation of d-Methylphenidate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BELL, GUINEVERE H.; NOVAK, ANDREW J.; GRIFFIN, WILLIAM C.; PATRICK, KENNERLY S.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J mice will model human metabolic interactions between dl-methylphenidate (MPH) and ethanol, placing an emphasis on the MPH transdermal system (MTS). Specifically, we asked: (1) will ethanol increase d-MPH biological concentrations, (2) will MTS facilitate the systemic bioavailability of l-MPH, and (3) will l-MPH enantioselectively interact with ethanol to yield l-ethylphenidate (l-EPH)? Mice were dosed with MTS (¼ of a 12.5 cm2 patch on shaved skin) or a comparable oral dl-MPH dose (7.5 mg/kg), with or without ethanol (3.0 g/kg), and then placed in metabolic cages for 3 h. MPH and EPH isomer concentrations in blood, brain, and urine were analyzed by gas chromatographic–mass spectrometry monitoring of N-(S)-prolylpiperidyl fragments. As in humans, MTS greatly facilitated the absorption of l-MPH in this mouse strain. Similarly, ethanol led to the enantioselective formation of l-EPH and to an elevation in d-MPH concentrations with both MTS and oral MPH. Although only guarded comparisons between MTS and oral MPH can be made due to route-dependent drug absorption rate differences, MTS was associated with significant MPH–ethanol interactions. Ethanol-mediated increases in circulating concentrations of d-MPH carry toxicological and abuse liability implications should this animal model hold for ethanol-consuming attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients or coabusers. PMID:21240977

  4. Clinical prediction of postoperative seizure control: structural, functional findings and disease histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, H; Hildebrandt, M; Kerling, F; Kasper, B S; Hammen, T; Dörfler, A; Weigel, D; Buchfelder, M; Blümcke, I; Pauli, E

    2009-02-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) constitutes a heterogenic entity with different clinical histories, pathomorphological hippocampal findings and varying postoperative outcome. 64 patients with MTLE, scheduled for hippocampal resection, were included. Initial precipitating injuries (IPI), structural and functional findings and neuropathological classification of hippocampal specimens were related to prediction of surgical outcome. Patients with severe hippocampal sclerosis (mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) type 1b) became completely seizure free (80% Engel Ia) significantly more often compared with approximately 40% of seizure freedom in other types of MTS or in patients without hippocampal cell loss (non-MTS), irrespective of the extent of hippocampal resection. Age at IPI was found to be related to MTS variants (psilent period of about 5 years; (3) unequivocal unilateral EEG localisation; (4) MRI signs of MTS; and (5) Wada Test indicates contralateral memory compensation and ipsilateral reduced memory capacity. MTS type 1b, characterised by severe cell loss in all hippocampal subfields including the dentate gyrus, and associated with optimal postoperative seizure control, was preoperatively clinically best differentiated from other MTS types by the Wada Memory Test.

  5. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Krężel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  6. May-Thurner Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available May-Thurner syndrome (MTS has been recognized as a clinical entity for almost six decades. The true incidence rate of MTS is unknown and perhaps ranges from 22 to 32% according to the autopsy studies in the early twentieth century. However, MTS related deep venous thrombosis (DVT accounts for only 2%-3% of all lower limb DVTS. In MTS, the left common iliac vein is compressed against the fifth lumbar vertebrae by the right common iliac artery, as it crosses in front of the vein. Chronic pulsation of the artery is thought to cause elastin, collagen deposition, and intimal fibrosis leading to formation of venous spur and venous thrombosis. MTS can present as acute or chronic DVT leading to pulmonary embolism (PE, chronic leg pain, chronic ulcers, or skin pigmentation changes. In this case report we have described an interesting case of a 28-year-old Caucasian female who presented for evaluation of shortness of breath (SOB associated with cough for one week. SOB was found to be secondary to massive bilateral pulmonary embolism resulting from extensive MTS related DVT of the left lower extremity. Patient underwent pharmacomechanical treatment with local thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and venoplasty along with stent placement that extended to inferior vena caval junction. Subsequently patient was discharged on coumadin. MTS should be considered in differentials when faced with a case of unilateral DVT particularly in younger age group.

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Peruvian Andean hispanics: the PREVENCION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Zea-Diaz, Humberto; Morey-Vargas, Oscar L; Bolaños-Salazar, Juan F; Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Postigo-MacDowall, Mauricio; Corrales-Medina, Fernando; Valdivia-Ascuña, Zoila; Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina; Paredes-Díaz, Sheyla; Villalobos-Tapia, Paola; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio; Goldberg, Ronald B; Chirinos, Julio A

    2007-11-01

    Data regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MTS) in Andean populations are limited. We evaluated the prevalence of MTS according to American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria among 1878 subjects in the PREVENCION study in Peru. In women, the most common component was low HDL cholesterol (60.9%) followed by abdominal obesity (36.9%). In men, the most common component was elevated triglycerides (52.0%) followed by low HDL cholesterol (32.5%), whereas the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 14%. Abnormal fasting glucose was the least common component in men (5.4%) and women (5.0%). The prevalence of MTS was significantly higher in women compared to men (23.2% versus 14.3%) and increased steeply with age, particularly in women (por=30kg/m2) instead of waist circumference as a component of the MTS lead to equivalent prevalence estimates of MTS in men but significantly underestimated the prevalence in women. The MTS is highly prevalent among Peruvian Andeans, particularly in older women. The pattern of MTS components in this Andean population is characterized by a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and a relatively low prevalence of elevated fasting glucose. Further studies are required to characterize genetic and environmental determinants of these patterns.

  8. [Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae): seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Mairin; Rojas, Nilis; Rojas-Astudillo, Luisa; Chung, Kyung

    2013-06-01

    Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts) in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325 samples were obtained from February to December 2003. We determined the following biometric indices in bivalves: Condition Index (CI), meat yield (RC) and dry weight-length relationship (PSL). Besides, Mts in whole tissue were separated by molecular exclusion chromatography, Sephadex G-50 and quantified by saturation with cadmium. Our results showed that the biometric indices (RC and PSL) had seasonal variations between localities and maturity stages, with the exception of IC. No significant differences were found between sexes. Mts showed seasonal variations between localities, with the highest concentrations between February and March, and minimum ones between September and December, coinciding with the respectively high and low productivity periods in the area. The mussels from Rio Caribe had higher Mts concentration than those from Chacopata. Furthermore, immature mussels showed the highest Mts concentration while the lowest was found in spawned specimens. We found a significant negative relationship between Mts and CI. Our results demonstrated that MTs in Perna viridis are influenced by the condition index and reproductive status, as well as physico-chemical factors in the marine environment.

  9. Collective cargo hauling by a bundle of parallel microtubules: bi-directional motion caused by load-dependent polymerization and depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Dipanwita; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    A microtubule (MT) is a hollow tube of approximately 25 nm diameter. The two ends of the tube are dissimilar and are designated as ‘plus’ and ‘minus’ ends. Motivated by the collective push and pull exerted by a bundle of MTs during chromosome segregation in a living cell, we have developed here a much simplified theoretical model of a bundle of parallel dynamic MTs. The plus-end of all the MTs in the bundle is permanently attached to a movable ‘wall’ by a device whose detailed structure is not treated explicitly in our model. The only requirement is that the device allows polymerization and depolymerization of each MT at the plus-end. In spite of the absence of external force and direct lateral interactions between the MTs, the group of polymerizing MTs attached to the wall create a load force against the group of depolymerizing MTs and vice versa; the load against a group is shared equally by the members of that group. Such indirect interactions among the MTs give rise to the rich variety of possible states of collective dynamics that we have identified by computer simulations of the model in different parameter regimes. The bi-directional motion of the cargo, caused by the load-dependence of the polymerization kinetics, is a ‘proof-of-principle’ that the bi-directional motion of chromosomes before cell division does not necessarily need active participation of motor proteins.

  10. Areal differentiation of spermatophytic flora in Henan Province%河南省种子植物区系地域分异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂宾

    2006-01-01

    Henan province, located between 110°21'E-116°39'E and 31°23'N-36°22'N, stretches from warm-temperate to subtropical transitional zone. Its special position and resultant varied physical conditions, in its long geologic history, give rise to not only a rich but also complex and prominently transitional flora. Therefore, in-depth study of the floristic areal differentiation is of importance to Chinese florilization and in accurately drawing the boundary of warm-temperate and subtropic zones in China. Based on the recent floristic data, this paper conducts comparison and analysis of the floristic difference and resemblance among the Dabie, Tongbai, Funiu and Taihang Mts. in Henan province. The result shows that the Dabie and the Tongbai Mts. have the similar flora components, the northern and the southern slopes of the Funiu Mts. have identical flora, but the Taihang Mts. stand alone in their floristic character. Therefore these mountainous areas should be grouped into three floral regions in China: the Dabie and the Tongbai Mts. belong to East China Floral Region, the Taihang Mts. to North China Floral Region, and the two slopes of the Funiu Mts. to Central China region.

  11. Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, B; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3 mM cadmium, copper or zinc. Analysis of metal bound fusion proteins using atomic absorption spectrometry showed that PjMT1 bound higher levels of all three heavy metals as compared to PjMT2 and PjMT3. A comparative analysis of the genomic regions (including promoter for all three PjMTs) is also presented. All three PjMTs are induced by H(2)O(2) and ABA applications. PjMT1 and PjMT2 are induced by copper and zinc respectively while PjMT3 is induced by copper, zinc and cadmium. Variation in induction of PjMTs in response to metal exposure and their differential binding to metals suggests that each MT has a specific role in P. juliflora. Of the three MTs analyzed, PjMT1 shows maximum heavy metal sequestration and is thus a potential candidate for use in heavy metal phytoremediation.

  12. Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the carboxy-terminal domain of a 90-kilodalton surface antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA for a metacyclic trypomastigote-specific glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 90 kDa, termed MTS-gp90. By immunoblotting, antibodies to the MTS-gp90 recombinant protein reacted exclusively with a 90-kDa antigen of metacyclic trypomastigotes. The insert of the MTS-gp90 cDNA clone strongly hybridized with a single 3.0-kb mRNA of metacyclic forms, whereas the hybridization signal with epimastigote mRNA was weak and those with RNAs from other developmental sta...

  13. Transdermal and Oral dl-Methylphenidate–Ethanol Interactions in C57BL/6J Mice: Transesterification to Ethylphenidate and Elevation of d-Methylphenidate Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Guinevere H.; NOVAK, ANDREW J.; Griffin, William C.; Patrick, Kennerly S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J mice will model human metabolic interactions between dl-methylphenidate (MPH) and ethanol, placing an emphasis on the MPH transdermal system (MTS). Specifically, we asked: (1) will ethanol increase d-MPH biological concentrations, (2) will MTS facilitate the systemic bioavailability of l-MPH, and (3) will l-MPH enantioselectively interact with ethanol to yield l-ethylphenidate (l-EPH)? Mice were dosed with MTS (¼ of a 12.5 cm2 patch on shaved skin) or a ...

  14. CANALES (2) [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ALGUNAS PIEDRAS CAIDAS. SEDIMENTACION. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CONSTRUCCION DE ARENA, CAL Y PIEDRAS REDONDEADAS. CON RIPIOS POR TODAS PARTES. EN SECTORES HAY PAREDES DE HASTA 4 MTS. DE ALTO PARA SALVAR EL DESNIVEL. UN METRO DE ANCHO DEL CANAL Y 0`5 MTS. LA COBERTURA DEL MISMO. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN NATURAL Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No LA OTRA ACEQUIA QUE CIRCULA POR LA PARTE SUPERIOR ESTA MAS DETERIORADA. VAN A 10 MTS. DE SEPARACIO...

  15. Connections between microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum in mitotic spindle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. were treated with an 0.025 per cent aqueous solution of an oleander glycosides mixture which produces severe disturtaances in the mitotic spindle and high hypertrophy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in the whole cells. There appear between the kinetochore microtubules (MTs numerous elongated and narrow ER cisterns, particularly well visible when the number of kinetochore MTs is reduced. Both these structures (MTs and ER are frequently connected by cross-bridges. The presumable role of these connections is discused.

  16. On Determinism in Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretinsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    with respect to the semantic view based on the sets of the implementations of a given MTS specification. Recent work indicates that some of these limitations might be overcome by considering deterministic systems, which seem to be more manageable but still interesting for several application areas....... In the present article, we provide a comprehensive account of the MTS framework in the deterministic setting. We study a number of problems previously considered on MTS and point out to what extend we can expect better results under the restriction of determinism....

  17. Reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation. Lack of association with Muir-Torre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Dana L; Minni, John P; Nowak, Michael; Abenoza, Pascual; Nousari, Carlos H

    2009-06-01

    We hereby report a case of a reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation (RASD), a rare and often mislabeled benign lesion that is characterized by epidermal acanthosis and clusters of sebocytes in a reticulated seborrheic keratosis-like pattern. The presence of multiple sebaceous tumors, most notably cystic sebaceous adenomas and keratoacanthomas, has been associated with Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). Although very rare, cases of RASD have been reported with MTS, which potentially offers profound clinical significance to this neoplasm. This case further supports the lack of association of MTS with RASD.

  18. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Kobayashi, T. [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Three evolutionary stages of the collision orogenic deformation in the Middle Yangtze Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A discussion of collision orogenic deformation has been made for the Middle Yangtze Region. Based on its deformation assemblage orders, three developing stages are classified successively as compression thrust uplift, strike-slip escape rheology and tension extension inversion. The collision orogenesis of the studied region has been divided into three developing periods of initial, chief and late orogeny. Based on the data from Wugong Mts., Jiuling Mts. and Xuefeng Mts.,for each stage, its variation of stress and strain axes, the conversion of joint fractures and their relative tectonic evolution are described, models are plotted and corresponding explanations are made for the rock chronology dating value in the same tectonic period.

  20. New facial papules in a sixty-six year-old woman with bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrani, Radhika N.; Ghosh, Arunima; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Agarwal, Piyush K.; Apolo, Andrea B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Key Teaching Points Muir-Torre Syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that results from a mutation in mismatch repair genes. It is characterized by sebaceous neoplasms, keratoacanthomas, and visceral neoplasm(s) affecting the colon, uterus, ovaries, bladder, or other organs. Mismatch repair immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability testing of sebaceous neoplasms is available to confirm a diagnosis of MTS. Early recognition of cutaneous features of MTS could lead to early diagnosis and prevention of advanced neoplasms in patients and family members. PMID:25108634

  1. Performance Simulations of Moving Target Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of appropriate moving target search (MTS algorithms for computer-generated bots poses serious challenges as they have to satisfy stringent requirements that include computation and execution efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the performance and behaviour of existing moving target search algorithms when applied to search-and-capture gaming scenarios. As part of the investigation, we also introduce a novel algorithm known as abstraction MTS. We conduct performance simulations with a game bot and moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that abstraction MTS exhibits competitive performance even with large problem spaces.

  2. Laboratory Professionals: Who's Who in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as in clinical chemistry, immunology, molecular pathology, microbiology, or blood bank /transfusion service. MLSs/MTs have ... Many labs are looking for laboratory professionals with advanced degrees and experience. « Prev | Next » Proudly sponsored by ... ...

  3. Decreased Necrotizing Fasciitis Capacity Caused by a Single Nucleotide Mutation That Alters a Multiple Gene Virulence Axis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall J. Olsen; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Ara A. Ayeras; Vedia E. Gonulal; Concepcion Cantu; Stephen B. Beres; Nicole M. Green; Benfang Lei; Tammy Humbird; Jamieson Greaver; Ellen Chang; Willie P. Ragasa; Charles A. Montgomery; Joiner Cartwright; Allison McGeer; Donald E. Low; Adeline R. Whitney; Philip T. Cagle; Terry L. Blasdel; Frank R. DeLeo; James M. Musser; Richard Krause

    2010-01-01

    ... ("flesh-eating disease"). Working from this clinical observation, we find that wild-type mtsR function is required for group A Streptococcus to cause necrotizing fasciitis in mice and nonhuman primates...

  4. Proteomic-based insight into Malpighian tubules of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wu Zhong

    Full Text Available Malpighian tubules (MTs are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP and Absolute protein expression (APEX analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera.

  5. HSPB1 facilitates the formation of non-centrosomal microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Almeida-Souza

    Full Text Available The remodeling capacity of microtubules (MT is essential for their proper function. In mammals, MTs are predominantly formed at the centrosome, but can also originate from non-centrosomal sites, a process that is still poorly understood. We here show that the small heat shock protein HSPB1 plays a role in the control of non-centrosomal MT formation. The HSPB1 expression level regulates the balance between centrosomal and non-centrosomal MTs. The HSPB1 protein can be detected specifically at sites of de novo forming non-centrosomal MTs, while it is absent from the centrosomes. In addition, we show that HSPB1 binds preferentially to the lattice of newly formed MTs in vitro, suggesting that its function occurs by stabilizing MT seeds. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of the role of HSPB1 in the development, maintenance and protection of cells with specialized non-centrosomal MT arrays.

  6. Relations between ultrastructure of mitotic spindle and chromosome translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. treated with an 0.25 per cent mixture of water-soluble glycosides from Nerium oleander were insepected in a light microscope (LM and severe disturbances were found in all phases of mitosis. The same cells were observed in the electron microscope (EM and relations were noted and analysed between the chromosome arrangement and the submicroscopic structure of the mitotuc spindle. The successive steps in the disintegration of the formed spindle are described: fragmentatiun of all microtubules (MTs starting from the poles, disappearance of non-kinetachore MTs and further the external MTs of the kineto,chore bundle. The central (internal parallel ones remain the longest at the kinerf,ochares. Oleander glycosides cause disintegration of the existing MTs and prevent formation of new ones. The causes of restitution transformations in the successive phases of mitosis are discussed.

  7. Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.

  8. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  9. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  10. Electrical mapping of microtubular structures by surface potential microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Cantiello, Horacio F.

    2009-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal polymers that play an essential role in cell division and transport in all eukaryotes and information processing in neurons. MTs are highly charged polyelectrolytes, composed of hollow cylindrical arrangements of αβ-tubulin dimers. To date, there is little information about electrical properties of MTs. Here, we deposited and dried MTs onto a gold-plated surface to image their topology by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and determined their electrical mapping with surface potential microscopy (SPM). We found a strong linear correlation between the magnitude of relative surface potential and MT parameters, including diameter and height. AFM images confirmed the cylindrical topology of microtubular structures, and the presence of topological discontinuities along their surface, which may contribute to their unique electrical properties.

  11. [Toward the promotion of effective communication between medical doctors and medical technologists--strategy beyond the team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Miyuki; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2009-02-01

    It is essential to establish effective communication between medical doctors (MDs) and medical technologists (MTs), such as during telephone conversations, to ensure high quality and clinically significant laboratory test results. However, the level of communication between MDs and MTs is still inadequate in Japan. Suggested here in are resources to promote effective MD-MT communication through a case analysis of severe sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), since, even today, DIC remains life-threatening, and the rapid response of the clinical laboratory is critical. Recently, in our laboratory, a Customer Support Center has been launched to improve the information flow between MDs and MTs and support further mutual understanding. In conclusion, effective communication between MDs and MTs will result in faster and higher quality laboratory tests that are essential for efficient diagnosis and treatment, and thus ensure a better outcome for patients.

  12. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    ... of fruits extracts. Methanol extracts were prepared from toxic and edible fruits. ... in 2 ml of methanol. Ten ml of diethyl ether were added to remove chlorophyll pigments. ... in metabolically active cells accomplish the conversion of MTS into.

  13. Studies on the role of microtubules in myofibrillogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZHONGXIANG; HOWARDHOLTZER

    1990-01-01

    Co-localization of microtubule (MT) and muscle myosin (MHC) myofibril immunofluoresoonoe in developing myotubes of chicken skeletal muscle cultures was observed by using double staining of tubulin and MHC indirect immunofluorescence.120-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-12-acetate (TPA) selectively and reversibly blocks myofibrillogenesis and alters the morphology of myotubes in to myosacs where MTs are present in radiating pattern.When the arrested myogenic cells recover and start myofibrillogenesis after released from TPA,prior to the emergence of myofibrils,the pre-ecisting MTs become bipolarly aligned coincidently with the tubular restoration of cell shape.Single nascent myofibrils overlapping with MTs extend into the base of growth tips where MTs go farther to the end of the tips.That MT might act as scaffold in guiding the bipolar elongation of the growing myofibrils was suggested.Taxol and colcemid disturbed MT polymerization and disposition,and interfered with the normal spatial assembly of myofibrils in developing myotubes.

  14. Free vibration analysis of microtubules based on the molecular mechanics and continuum beam theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Chengyuan

    2016-10-01

    A molecular structural mechanics (MSM) method has been implemented to investigate the free vibration of microtubules (MTs). The emphasis is placed on the effects of the configuration and the imperfect boundaries of MTs. It is shown that the influence of protofilament number on the fundamental frequency is strong, while the effect of helix-start number is almost negligible. The fundamental frequency is also found to decrease as the number of the blocked filaments at boundaries decreases. Subsequently, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is employed to reveal the physics behind the simulation results. Fitting the Euler-Bernoulli beam into the MSM data leads to an explicit formula for the fundamental frequency of MTs with various configurations and identifies a possible correlation between the imperfect boundary conditions and the length-dependent bending stiffness of MTs reported in experiments.

  15. Aurora-A regulates MCRS1 function during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Sylvain; Timón, Krystal; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-07-02

    The mitotic spindle is made of microtubules (MTs) nucleated through different pathways involving the centrosomes, the chromosomes or the walls of pre-existing MTs. MCRS1 is a RanGTP target that specifically associates with the chromosome-driven MTs protecting them from MT depolymerases. MCRS1 is also needed for the control of kinetochore fiber (K-fiber) MT minus-ends dynamics in metaphase. Here, we investigated the regulation of MCRS1 activity in M-phase. We show that MCRS1 is phosphorylated by the Aurora-A kinase in mitosis on Ser35/36. Although this phosphorylation has no role on MCRS1 localization to chromosomal MTs and K-fiber minus-ends, we show that it regulates MCRS1 activity in mitosis. We conclude that Aurora-A activity is particularly important in the tuning of K-fiber minus-ends dynamics in mitosis.

  16. Multivariate Time Series Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  17. The Herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia of Vrachanska Planina Mountains - Species Composition, Distribution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV NAUMOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vrachanska Planina Mts. is located in northwestern Bulgaria and is a relatively well-defined part of Stara Planina Mts. So far, no comprehensive studies on the species composition and distribution of the herpetofauna of Vrachanska Planina Mts. have been published. The current study reports 8 new species of amphibians and reptiles, which are new for the region and confirms all previously known 19 species. All species localities have been mapped in the UTM-grid (1x1 km. The spatial distribution, as well as the vertical distribution and the species richness are analyzed. The importance of the existing protected areas in Vrachanska Planina Mts. and protected Natura2000 zones for the conservation of herpetofauna are discussed. Some potential threats to amphibians and reptiles in the research area (such as drying-up of water basins, fires and road mortality are reported.

  18. Multiple susceptibility loci for radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL. We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via ¹²⁷Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98 and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61, as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93 and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54. Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3 reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for

  19. Multiple susceptibility loci for radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Ponce, Lorenz R; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL). We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R)-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI) after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via ¹²⁷Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs) with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98) and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61), as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93) and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54). Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3) reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for irradiation

  20. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  1. Multiple Susceptibility Loci for Radiation-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-Intercross Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L.; Ponce, Lorenz R.; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL). We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R)-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI) after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via 127Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs) with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98) and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61), as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93) and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54). Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3) reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for irradiation

  2. The German Version of the Manchester Triage System and its quality criteria--first assessment of validity and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Gräff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The German Version of the Manchester Triage System (MTS has found widespread use in EDs across German-speaking Europe. Studies about the quality criteria validity and reliability of the MTS currently only exist for the English-language version. Most importantly, the content of the German version differs from the English version with respect to presentation diagrams and change indicators, which have a significant impact on the category assigned. This investigation offers a preliminary assessment in terms of validity and inter-rater reliability of the German MTS. METHODS: Construct validity of assigned MTS level was assessed based on comparisons to hospitalization (general / intensive care, mortality, ED and hospital length of stay, level of prehospital care and number of invasive diagnostics. A sample of 45,469 patients was used. Inter-rater agreement between an expert and triage nurses (reliability was calculated separately for a subset group of 167 emergency patients. RESULTS: For general hospital admission the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.749; for admission to ICU it was 0.871. An examination of MTS-level and number of deceased patients showed that the higher the priority derived from MTS, the higher the number of deaths (p<0.0001 / χ² Test. There was a substantial difference in the 30-day survival among the 5 MTS categories (p<0.0001 / log-rank test.The AUC for the predict 30-day mortality was 0.613. Categories orange and red had the highest numbers of heart catheter and endoscopy. Category red and orange were mostly accompanied by an emergency physician, whereas categories blue and green were walk-in patients. Inter-rater agreement between expert triage nurses was almost perfect (κ = 0.954. CONCLUSION: The German version of the MTS is a reliable and valid instrument for a first assessment of emergency patients in the emergency department.

  3. [Current states and future aspects of graduate schools for adult graduate students: experiences of the master's course as a medical technologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Takehiro; Suwabe, Akira

    2012-12-01

    The educational system for medical technologists (MTs) has gradually shifted from a three-year technical school system to a four-year university system. It is worthwhile for MTs to advance to a graduate school, in order to improve their routine-work skills, performances, and also to advance their own research as well as to learn how to direct younger MTs. Recently, MTs who advance to the graduate school as adult graduate students are increasing. In this article, the current states and future aspects of the graduate school of Iwate Medical University are reported. In our Department of Central Clinical Laboratory in Iwate Medical University Hospital, three of my colleagues have completed the master's course of the graduate school as adult graduate students, and three are currently attending the school. Nevertheless, none of them has advanced to the doctor's course yet. The primary reason why they do not advance is the heavy burden on any adult graduate students physically, mentally, and financially to study in the graduate school and carry out routine duties at the same time. Thus, in order to encourage MTs to go or to graduate school education, it is important to arrange systems which will enable MTs to advance to the graduate school as adult graduate students. I believe there are three key elements to make this possible. Firstly, prepare easier access to curriculums for MTs to study special fields and learn special skills. Secondly, arrange an increase in the salary scheme depending on the degree attained from the graduate school. Thirdly, provide financial support for graduate school expenses. In conclusion, it is expected that a large number of MTs will advance to the graduate school if these changes for a better educational environment are made.

  4. Note on the distribution of some lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of the Tatra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New data about the occurrence of 25 species of rare lichens and 3 lichenicolous fungi in the Tatra National Park (Western Carpathians are provided. Of these species, Fellhaneropsis vezdae is recorded for the first time from the whole Tatra Mts. and Vezdaea stipitata is new to the Polish Tatra Mts. The distribution of the species in the Tatra National Park is indicated.

  5. Jury awards $6,000 in firing of hair stylist with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-27

    A Federal jury in New Mexico awarded $6,000 to the estate of a hairdresser after deciding that his employer retaliated against him for filing a discrimination complaint. The employer, MTS Corp., fired [name removed] after other workers refused to work with him. MTS Corp. also denied his request to work at his primary salon, denied his attendance at the company Christmas party, and claimed that he worked fewer hours than required. Outstanding legal costs are still being disputed.

  6. Warfighter IT Interoperability Standards Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-22

    Data Model JCA Joint Capability Area JCB Joint Capabilities Board JCPAT-E Joint C4I Program Assessment Tool-Empowered JCR Joint Capabilities...Joint Capabilities Release ( JCR ) FBCB2 Movement Tracking System (MTS) JCR -Log x FBCB2 Tactical Ground Reporting System (TIGR) Began FY11 x MC FSC2...Configuration Management Process Mounted MTS ( JCR LOG) Joint Capabilities No data model No TIGR Warfighting Mission Area, Joint

  7. Review of molar tooth structure research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Kuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, molar tooth structure (MTS has been studied. The study developed in three stages. During the first stage (before 1980, researchers described three basic morphologies of MTS, mainly from the Belt Supergroup in North America, and they provided several hypotheses for the origin of MTS. During the second stage (1980–1999, the frequent discoveries of MTS on all continents resulted in many detailed descriptions of their shape and in several hypotheses concerning the origin of MTS. Notably, hypotheses of MTS’s origin such as seismic activity and biological activity were developed. Since 2000, research has progressed into a new stage (the third stage. This is due to discoveries of MTS in the Meso–Neoproterozoic of China and elsewhere, and the ongoing debate on the seismic or biological origin is replaced by a hypothesis that involves gas expansion and chemically-controlled carbonate precipitation (both of them possibly affected by biological activities. This latter idea has gradually been commonly recognized as the mainstream theory. Despite continued disagreements, researchers now agree that microsparry calcite played a controlling role regarding the development and the global distribution of MTS in time and space during the Proterozoic, the morphological diversity, and the impact on the sedimentary environment. The present contribution analyses the three major hypotheses regarding the origin of MTS; it also discusses the shortcomings of the hypotheses regarding a seismic or biologic origin, and it details the modern hypothesis that links formation of cracks to the precipitation of sparry calcite. It is deduced that important questions dealing with the Precambrian can be answered, among other aspects regarding the depositional palaeogeography and stratigraphic correlations.

  8. Oxidative stress decreases microtubule growth and stability in ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Drum, BML; Yuan, C.; Li, L; Liu, Q.; Wordeman, L; Santana, LF

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.Microtubules (MTs) have many roles in ventricular myocytes, including structural stability, morphological integrity, and protein trafficking. However, despite their functional importance, dynamic MTs had never been visualized in living adult myocytes. Using adeno-associated viral vectors expressing the MT-associated protein plus end binding protein 3 (EB3) tagged with EGFP, we were able to perform live imaging and thus capture and quantify MT dynamics in ventricular myocyt...

  9. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). III: Descriptions of two new willow-dwelling species, new synonym, annotated check-list, and key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-07-09

    Macropsis milkoi Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan, Alay and Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and Macropsis anufrievi Tishetshkin sp. n. from Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Tajikistan) are described. M. elaeagni Emelyanov, 1964 = M. cyanescens Dubovskiy, 1966 syn. n. is redescribed and illustrated based on the material from Central Asia. Annotated check list and key to 30 Macropsis species from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the mountains of Southern Kazakhstan are given.

  10. The Neutron Pile as a Tool in Quantitative Analysis; The Gallium and Palladium Contents of Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-09-10

    5 Carleton 3 Deport 8 Henbury 11 Mount Toy 4 Odessa 10 Saudia Mts. 6 Spearman 6 Tlaxcala 2 Willow Creek 3 Xiquipilco 11 I. M. No. 2 3 I...10 4.15 Sandia Mts. 3 2.24 Spearman 3 3.67 Tlaxcala 4 2.29 Willow Creek 3 3.70 Xiquipilco 10 4.72 REFERENCES 1. Brown, H. and G. Patterson, J

  11. Electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of surface sol-gel processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Wilson, George S

    2004-09-28

    (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MTS) forms a unique film on a platinum substrate by self-assembly and sol-gel cross-linking. The gelating and drying states of the self-assembled MTS sol-gel films were probed by use of electrochemical and spectroscopic methods. The thiol moiety was the only active group within the sol-gel network. Gold nanoparticles were employed to detect the availability of the thiol group and their interaction further indicated the physicochemical states of the sol-gel inner structure. It was found that the thiol groups in the open porous MTS aerogel matrix were accessible to the gold nanoparticles while thiol groups in the compact MTS xerogel network were not accessible to the gold nanoparticles. The characteristics of the sol-gel matrix change with time because of its own irreversible gelating and drying process. The present work provides direct evidence of gold nanoparticle binding with thiol groups within the sol-gel structures and explains the different permeability of "aerogel" and "xerogel" films of MTS on the basis of electrochemical and spectroscopic results. Two endogenous species, hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid, were used to test the permeability of the self-assembled sol-gel film in different states. The MTS xerogel film on the platinum electrode was extremely selective against ascorbic acid while maintaining high sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide in contrast to the relatively high permeability of ascorbic acid in the MTS aerogel film. This study showed the potential of the MTS sol-gel film as a nanoporous material in biosensor development.

  12. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.

  13. Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. in Poland: distribution, habitat and host preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ten new localities of Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. from Poland (Middle Roztocze, Równina Bełska plain, Wyżyna Malopolska upland, Góry Kaczawskie Mts and Western Bieszczady Mts. Information on hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the new localities is given and a supplemented map of the distribution in Poland is included.

  14. The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.

  15. CT findings of gallbladder metastases: Emphasis on differences according to primary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Eun Sun; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Shin, Cheong Il; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won Jae [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To describe computed tomography (CT) features of metastatic gallbladder (GB) tumors (Mts) from various primary tumors and to determine whether there are differential imaging features of Mts according to different primary tumors. Twenty-one patients who had pathologically confirmed Mts and underwent CT were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical findings including presenting symptoms, type of surgery, and interval between primary and metastatic tumors were recorded. Histologic features of primary tumor and Mts including depth of invasion were also reviewed. Imaging findings were analyzed for the location and morphology of Mts, pattern and degree of enhancement, depth of invasion, presence of intact overlying mucosa, and concordance between imaging features of primary and metastatic tumors. Significant differences between the histologist of Mts and imaging features were determined. The most common primary tumor metastasized to the GB was gastric cancer (n = 8), followed by renal cell carcinoma (n = 4) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3). All Mts (n = 21) manifested as infiltrative wall thickenings (n = 15) or as polyploid lesions (n = 6) on CT, similar to the features of primary GB cancers. There were significant differences in the morphology of Mts, enhancement pattern, enhancement degree, and depth of invasion according to the histology of primary tumors (p < 0.05). Metastatic adenocarcinomas of the GB manifested as infiltrative and persistently enhancing wall thickenings, while non-adenocarcinomatous metastases usually manifested as polypoid lesions with early wash-in and wash-out. Although CT findings of MGTs are similar to those of primary GB cancer, they are significantly different between the various histologies of primary tumors.

  16. Metallothioneins, Unconventional Proteins from Unconventional Animals: A Long Journey from Nematodes to Mammals †

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Isani; Emilio Carpenè

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1) homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2) detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3) free radical scav...

  17. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANKA VIDINOVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species, belonging to 7 subgenera, 11 genera and 7 families, are currently known from 8 sites of streams and rivers on the territory of Vrachanska Planina Mts. They represent 15,52 % of the mayflies known up to now for Bulgaria. Twelve species are newly reported for the mountain. Brief faunistic and zoogeographical notes are given. The conservation status of the species is also discussed. Ephemeroptera, faunistics, Vrachanska Planina Mts., NW Bulgaria.

  18. Understanding onsets of rainfall in Southern Africa using temporal probabilistic modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cheruiyot, D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available and Digital Sciences Department, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa. (iosunmakinde@csir.co.za) N Easterly Monsoons Easterlies Zonal ITCZ Congo Air Bounda Meridional ITCZ Extra... models from the weather parameters embedded in the multivariate time series (MTS). The MTS serves as input to the ESA technology. The algorithms emerge interlink temporal models from frames 0 to n. Let tiV represent variables of the ESA at time t...

  19. A stochastic model of kinetochore–microtubule attachment accurately describes fission yeast chromosome segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline; Tournier, Sylvie; Gachet, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduce...

  20. Robustness of multimodal processes itineraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Banaszak, Z.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns multimodal transport systems (MTS) represented by a supernetworks in which several unimodal networks are connected by transfer links and focuses on the scheduling problems encountered in these systems. Assuming unimodal networks are modeled as cyclic lines, i.e. the routes det...... of multimodal processes driven itinerary planning problem is our main contribution. Illustrative examples providing alternative itineraries in some cases of MTS malfunction are presented....

  1. Turbidites as indicators of paleotopography, Upper Miocene Lake Pannon, Western Mecsek Mountains (Hungary)

    OpenAIRE

    Sztanó Orsolya; Sebe Krisztina; Csillag Gábor; Magyar Imre

    2015-01-01

    The floor of Lake Pannon covering the Pannonian Basin in the Late Miocene had considerable relief, including both deep sub-basins, like the Drava Basin, and basement highs, like the Mecsek Mts, in close proximity. The several km thick lacustrine succession in the Drava Basin includes profundal marls, basin-center turbidites, overlain by shales of basin-margin slopes, coarsening-upward deltaic successions and alluvial deposits. Along the margin of the Mecsek Mts locally derived shoreface sands...

  2. An Adaptive System of Decision Making for Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Titov, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    In the article an adaptive model of decision-making for financial markets based on the method of weighted indicators is considered. The model is built on signals from several standard mechanical trade systems (MTS) by generalizing and redistributing between them weight coefficients that change according to the effectiveness of the MTS. Calculations are per-formed by making use of price dynamic data from the international currency market FOREX.

  3. Teaching Generalized Reading and Spelling to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kosuke; Noro, Fumiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of constructed-response matching-to-sample (CRMTS) training on the generalization of reading and spelling skills in three Japanese children with autism using a series of overlapping-syllable word sets. We taught them to construct printed words to match printed words, spoken words, and pictures through the CRMTS procedure.…

  4. Language Helps Children Succeed on a Classic Analogy Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Stella; Gentner, Dedre

    2014-01-01

    Adult humans show exceptional relational ability relative to other species. In this research, we trace the development of this ability in young children. We used a task widely used in comparative research--the relational match-to-sample task, which requires participants to notice and match the identity relation: for example, AA should match BB…

  5. Sensitivity to Spacing Changes in Faces and Nonface Objects in Preschool-Aged Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in the spacing of features in faces and a class of nonface objects (i.e., frontal images of cars) was tested in 3- and 4-year-old children and adults using a delayed or simultaneous two-alternative forced choice matching-to-sample task. In the adults, detection of spacing information was robust against exemplar…

  6. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  7. A Computer-Based Program to Teach Braille Reading to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions…

  8. The Effect of Asymmetrical Sample Training on Retention Functions for Hedonic Samples in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sabrina; Santi, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Rats were trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task to discriminate sample stimuli that consisted of the presence of food or the absence of food. Asymmetrical sample training was provided in which one group was initially trained with only the food sample and the other group was initially trained with only the no-food sample. In…

  9. Own- and Other-Race Face Identity Recognition in Children: The Effects of Pose and Feature Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; de Viviés, Xavier; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    We used a matching-to-sample task and manipulated facial pose and feature composition to examine the other-race effect (ORE) in face identity recognition between 5 and 10 years of age. Overall, the present findings provide a genuine measure of own- and other-race face identity recognition in children that is independent of photographic and image…

  10. Hippocampus Is Required for Paired Associate Memory with Neither Delay Nor Trial Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinah; Seo, Yeran; Kim, Jangjin; Lee, Inah

    2012-01-01

    Cued retrieval of memory is typically examined with delay when testing hippocampal functions, as in delayed matching-to-sample tasks. Equally emphasized in the literature, on the other hand, is the hippocampal involvement in making arbitrary associations. Paired associate memory tasks are widely used for examining this function. However, the two…

  11. Mediating Access to Headsprout® Early Reading for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Thompson, Julie L.; Englert, Carol Sue; Mariage, Troy; Johnson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require instructional programs that simultaneously address academic content, interfering behavior, and potential gaps in prerequisite skills for a given curriculum. This study examined the impact of an intervention package consisting of contingent reinforcement and match-to-sample training on the…

  12. Relations among Acute and Chronic Nicotine Administration, Short-Term Memory, and Tactics of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample…

  13. Associative Symmetry by Pigeons after Few-Exemplar Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Saulo M.; Huziwara, Edson M.; Machado, Armando; Tomanari, Gerson Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether pigeons can show associative symmetry on a two-alternative matching-to-sample procedure. The procedure consisted of a within-subject sequence of training and testing with reinforcement, and it provided (a) exemplars of symmetrical responding, and (b) all prerequisite discriminations among test samples…

  14. Limitations in 4-Year-Old Children's Sensitivity to the Spacing among Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…

  15. Own- and Other-Race Face Identity Recognition in Children: The Effects of Pose and Feature Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; de Viviés, Xavier; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    We used a matching-to-sample task and manipulated facial pose and feature composition to examine the other-race effect (ORE) in face identity recognition between 5 and 10 years of age. Overall, the present findings provide a genuine measure of own- and other-race face identity recognition in children that is independent of photographic and image…

  16. Transformations of Mathematical and Stimulus Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Ford, Angela M.; Payne, Robert; Ninness, Sharon K.; Smith, Ronald J.; Ward, Todd A.; Elliott, Marc P.

    2006-01-01

    Following a pretest, 8 participants who were unfamiliar with algebraic and trigonometric functions received a brief presentation on the rectangular coordinate system. Next, they participated in a computer-interactive matching-to-sample procedure that trained formula-to-formula and formula-to-graph relations. Then, they were exposed to 40 novel…

  17. Young Children's Haptic Exploratory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…

  18. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax…

  19. Learning Potential Among the Moderately and Severely Retarded. Studies in Learning Potential, Volume 3, Number 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James L.; Budoff, Milton

    The study investigated the feasibility of M. Budoff and M. Friedman's (1964) learning potential paradigm as an assessment approach with 40 moderately and severely mentally retarded persons (aged 12 to 22 years). Ss were tested three times: initially, after one week, and after one month with a match-to-sample block design test. Twenty of the Ss…

  20. Persistent Neuronal Firing in Primary Somatosensory Cortex in the Absence of Working Memory of Trial-Specific Features of the Sample Stimuli in a Haptic Working Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xianchun; Hsiao, Steven S.; Bodner, Mark; Lenz, Fred; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that primary somatosensory (SI) neurons in well-trained monkeys participated in the haptic-haptic unimodal delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. In this study, 585 SI neurons were recorded in monkeys performing a task that was identical to that in the previous studies but without requiring discrimination and active…

  1. Language, Cognition, and the Right Hemisphere: A Response to Gazzaniga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jerre

    1983-01-01

    Disputes several assumptions made by Gazzaniga in the preceding article, namely: (l) that any capacity to extract meaning from spoken or written words indicates linguistic competence; and (2) that the right hemisphere is passive and nonresponsive and that the limits of its cognitive abilities are manifested in simple matching-to-sample tasks. (GC)

  2. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  3. Relations among Acute and Chronic Nicotine Administration, Short-Term Memory, and Tactics of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample…

  4. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  5. Prerequisite Skills That Support Learning through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…

  6. Function Transfer in Human Operant Experiments: The Role of Stimulus Pairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Although function transfer often has been studied in complex operant procedures (such as matching to sample), whether operant reinforcement actually produces function transfer in such settings has not been established. The present experiments, with high school students as subjects, suggest that stimulus pairings can promote function transfer in…

  7. Semantic False Memories in the Form of Derived Relational Intrusions Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinther, Paul M.; Dougher, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in characterizing memory phenomena that typically have been characterized by cognitive models, and the current study extends this development by producing "false memories" in the form of functional equivalence responding. A match-to-sample training procedure was administered in order to…

  8. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Wijers, Albertus; Klaver, Peter; Mulder, Gijsbertus

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  9. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  10. Early and late stages of working-memory maintenance contribute differentially to long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, H.C.; Kiemeneij, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigated the role of early and late stages of working-memory maintenance, which have been suggested to differentially contribute to long-term memory formation. In experiment 1, we administered a delayed-match-to-sample task, requiring participants to remember line drawings of n

  11. Language Helps Children Succeed on a Classic Analogy Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Stella; Gentner, Dedre

    2014-01-01

    Adult humans show exceptional relational ability relative to other species. In this research, we trace the development of this ability in young children. We used a task widely used in comparative research--the relational match-to-sample task, which requires participants to notice and match the identity relation: for example, AA should match BB…

  12. Audiovisual Matching in Speech and Nonspeech Sounds: A Neurodynamical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Marco; Schmid, Gabriele; Deco, Gustavo; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception provides an opportunity to investigate the mechanisms underlying multimodal processing. By using nonspeech stimuli, it is possible to investigate the degree to which audiovisual processing is specific to the speech domain. It has been shown in a match-to-sample design that matching across modalities is more difficult…

  13. Vibration of bioliquid-filled microtubules embedded in cytoplasm including surface effects using modified couple stress theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanpour Arani, A; Abdollahian, M; Jalaei, M H

    2015-02-21

    This paper aims to investigate vibrational behavior of bioliquid-filled microtubules (MTs) embedded in cytoplasm considering surface effects. The interactions between the MT, considered as an orthotropic beam within the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) and Timoshenko beam (TB) models, and its surrounding elastic media are simulated by Pasternak foundation model. The modified couple stress theory (MCST) is applied so as to consider the small scale effects while motion equations are derived using energy method and Hamilto's principle for both EBB and TB models. Finally, an analytical method is employed to obtain the frequency of a bioliquid-filled MT, and therefore frequency-response curves are plotted to investigate the influences of small scale parameter, mass density of bioliquid, surface layer and surrounding elastic medium graphically. The results indicate that bioliquid and surface layers play a key role on the frequency of MTs and that the frequency of MTs is decreased with increasing of the mass density of the bioliquid. Vibration analysis of MTs is being considered as a vital problem since MTs look like the nervous system of the biological cells and transmit vibrational signals. It should be noted that the results of this work are hoped to be of use in advanced medical applications especially in the forthcoming use of MTs in transporters for bio-nanosensors.

  14. The presynaptic microtubule cytoskeleton in physiological and pathological conditions: lessons from Fragile X Syndrome and Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bodaleo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the nervous system to generate neuronal networks relies on the establishment and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Synapses are composed of functionally different presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. An appropriate synaptic architecture is required to provide the structural basis that supports synaptic transmission, a process involving changes in cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin microfilaments are the main cytoskeletal components present at both presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals in glutamatergic synapses. However, in the last few years it has been demonstrated that microtubules (MTs transiently invade dendritic spines, promoting their maturation. Nevertheless, the presence and functions of MTs at the presynaptic site are still a matter of debate. Early electron microscopy (EM studies revealed that MTs are present in the presynaptic terminals of the central nervous system (CNS where they interact with synaptic vesicles (SVs and reach the active zone. These observations have been reproduced by several EM protocols; however, there is empirical heterogeneity in detecting presynaptic MTs, since they appear to be both labile and unstable. Moreover, increasing evidence derived from studies in the fruit fly neuromuscular junction proposes different roles for MTs in regulating presynaptic function in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the main findings that support the presence and roles of MTs at presynaptic terminals, integrating descriptive and biochemical analyses, and studies performed in invertebrate genetic models.

  15. Oxidative stress decreases microtubule growth and stability in ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Benjamin M L; Yuan, Can; Li, Lei; Liu, Qinghang; Wordeman, Linda; Santana, L Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Microtubules (MTs) have many roles in ventricular myocytes, including structural stability, morphological integrity, and protein trafficking. However, despite their functional importance, dynamic MTs had never been visualized in living adult myocytes. Using adeno-associated viral vectors expressing the MT-associated protein plus end binding protein 3 (EB3) tagged with EGFP, we were able to perform live imaging and thus capture and quantify MT dynamics in ventricular myocytes in real time under physiological conditions. Super-resolution nanoscopy revealed that EB1 associated in puncta along the length of MTs in ventricular myocytes. The vast (~80%) majority of MTs grew perpendicular to T-tubules at a rate of 0.06μm∗s(-1) and growth was preferentially (82%) confined to a single sarcomere. Microtubule catastrophe rate was lower near the Z-line than M-line. Hydrogen peroxide increased the rate of catastrophe of MTs ~7-fold, suggesting that oxidative stress destabilizes these structures in ventricular myocytes. We also quantified MT dynamics after myocardial infarction (MI), a pathological condition associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our data indicate that the catastrophe rate of MTs increases following MI. This contributed to decreased transient outward K(+) currents by decreasing the surface expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels after MI. On the basis of these data, we conclude that, under physiological conditions, MT growth is directionally biased and that increased ROS production during MI disrupts MT dynamics, decreasing K(+) channel trafficking.

  16. Active Erk Regulates Microtubule Stability in H-ras-Transformed Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene E. Harrison

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that activated erk regulates cell functions, at least in part, by mechanisms that do not require gene transcription. Here we show that the map kinase, erk, decorates microtubules (MTs and mitotic spindles in both parental and mutant active rastransfected 10T1 /2 fibroblasts and MCF10A breast epithelial cells. Approximately 20% of total cellular erk decorated MTs in both cell lines. A greater proportion of activated erk was associated with MTs in the presence of mutant active H-ras than in parental cells. Activation of erk by the ras pathway coincided with a decrease in the stability of MT, as detected by a stability marker. The MKK1 inhibitor, PD98059 and transfection of a dominant negative MKK1 blocked ras-induced instability of MTs but did not modify the association of erk with MTs or affect MT stability of the parental cells. These results indicate that the subset of active erk kinase that associates with MTs contributes to their instability in the presence of a mutant active ras. The MT-associated subset of active erk likely contributes to the enhanced invasive and proliferative abilities of cells containing mutant active H-ras.

  17. Iliac vein compression syndrome: Clinical, imaging and pathologic findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katelyn; N; Brinegar; Rahul; A; Sheth; Ali; Khademhosseini; Jemianne; Bautista; Rahmi; Oklu

    2015-01-01

    May-Thurner syndrome(MTS) is the pathologic compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery, resulting in left lower extremity pain, swelling, and deep venous thrombosis. Though this syndrome was first described in 1851, there are currently no standardized criteria to establish the diagnosis of MTS. Since MTS is treated by a wide array of specialties, including interventional radiology, vascular surgery, cardiology, and vascular medicine, the need for an established diagnostic criterion is imperative in order to reduce misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Although MTS has historically been diagnosed by the presence of pathologic features, the use of dynamic imaging techniques has led to a more radiologic based diagnosis. Thus, imaging plays an integral part in screening patients for MTS, and the utility of a wide array of imaging modalities has been evaluated. Here, we summarize the historical aspects of the clinical features of this syndrome. We then provide a comprehensive assessment of the literature on the efficacy of imaging tools available to diagnose MTS. Lastly, we provide clinical pearls and recommendations to aid physicians in diagnosing the syndrome through the use of provocative measures.

  18. Usage of neck circumference as novel indicator of erectile dysfunction: a pilot study in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Y; Gulmez, H; Bozkurt, A; Nuhoglu, B; Usta, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual problem worldwide. The association between ED and components of metabolic syndrome (MtS) is well established. This study examined neck circumference (NC) as a possible indicator of MtS and also of ED. Ninety-two patients were included and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients with ED and Group 2 consisted of 45 healthy volunteers. Questionnaires, differences in anthropometric and laboratory measurements between patients with ED and the control group, and a cut-off value for NC were investigated. The mean NC in ED patients was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P = 0.001), and Group 1 also demonstrated more MtS criteria than Group 2 (P circumference for ED and MtS were 105.5 and 102.5 cm respectively. In the light of these findings, NC may be a new component of MtS in ED patients. Additionally, NC may be a novel indicator of central obesity and ED. We suggest that NC values of 35 cm and over may predict ED in patients with MtS.

  19. Mitosis in Oedogonium: spindle microfilaments and the origin of the kinetochore fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, M J; Pickett-Heaps, J D

    1980-10-01

    New ultrastructural observations of mitosis in the closed spindle of Oedogonium cardiacum have been made using cells fixed with glutaraldehyde and tannic acid. Fine filaments 5 to 8 nm in diameter are attached to kinetochores from prophase through anaphase. Some are free in the early division nucleus while others emanate from forming kinetochores at prophase when few if any microtubules (MTs) are inside the nucleus. During prometaphase, MTs invade the nucleus from the poles and appear to interact with the microfilaments. Early in prometaphase, numerous MTs are laterally associated with kinetochores, and the kinetochore fiber is often formed first at one kinetochore of a pair. During metaphase and anaphase, the microfilaments are interspersed among the MTs of these kinetochore fibers. There also is an ill-defined matrix concentrated in the kinetochore fiber, and MTs are often coated irregularly with osmiophilic material. Live mitotic cells of Oedogonium were studied using time lapse cinematography, and we correlate these observations with the above results. We conclude that these microfilaments may constitute one structural component of the traction apparatus that moves chromosomes during metakinesis and anaphase, and that at least some (and possibly many) of the MTs of the kinetochore fiber are derived from those entering the nucleus at prometaphase.

  20. Auras in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Nei, Maromi; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-05-15

    We investigated auras in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). We also investigated the clinical differences between patients with MTS and abdominal auras and those with MTS and non-mesial temporal auras. All patients with drug-resistant TLE and unilateral MTS who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 1986 through 2014 were evaluated. Patients with good postoperative seizure outcome were investigated. One hundred forty-nine patients (71 males and 78 females) were studied. Thirty-one patients (20.8%) reported no auras, while 29 patients (19.5%) reported abdominal aura, and 30 patients (20.1%) reported non-mesial temporal auras; 16 patients (10.7%) had sensory auras, 11 patients (7.4%) had auditory auras, and five patients (3.4%) reported visual auras. A history of preoperative tonic-clonic seizures was strongly associated with non-mesial temporal auras (odds ratio 3.8; 95% CI: 1.15-12.98; p=0.02). About one-fifth of patients who had MTS in their MRI and responded well to surgery reported auras that are historically associated with non-mesial temporal structures. However, the presence of presumed non-mesial temporal auras in a patient with MTS may herald a more widespread epileptogenic zone.

  1. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants. PMID:25268921

  2. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  3. Use of an aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for cell growth assays in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, A H; Owen, T C; Barltrop, J A; Cory, J G

    1991-07-01

    A new tetrazolium analog of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was evaluated as a substitute for MTT in the microculture screening assay for in vitro cell growth. This new tetrazolium compound, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS), in the presence of phenazine methosulfate (PMS), gave a water-soluble formazan product that had an absorbance maximum at 490-500 nm in phosphate-buffered saline. The amount of colored product formed was proportional to the number of cells and the time of incubation of the cells with MTS/PMS. MTS/PMS was reactive in all the cell lines tested which included mouse leukemia L1210 cells, mouse Ehrlich tumor cells, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, and human colon tumor cells (HT-29). HT-29 and 3T3 fibroblasts reduced MTS/PMS more efficiently than they reduced MTT. Comparable to the amount of product formed from MTT, MTS/PMS gave excellent product formation. The IC50 value for pyrazoloimidazole obtained using MTS/PMS was 200 microM; for 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, the IC50 value was 0.9 nM. These values compared very favorably with the IC50 values obtained by direct cell counts. Further, the same IC50 values were obtained when the absorbances of the formazan product in the 96-well plates were determined after different times of incubation.

  4. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325

  5. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; Fanimakki, Omid

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks.

  6. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B 1 in broiler model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Amiridumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS, as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB 1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB 1 . Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1, 250 ppb AFB 1 (T2, 500 ppb AFB 1 (T3, 0.5% MTS (T4, 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB 1 (T5, 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6, 1.0% MTS (T7, 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB 1 (T8, and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB 1 (T9. The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB 1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid, lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, and High density lipoprotein (HDL and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010 were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB 1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65, Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13, and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42 compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively, (P < 0.05. In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011 and AST (244.51 ± 4.91. Using MTS together with AFB 1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB 1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB 1 on broiler chicks.

  7. Determination and uncertainty of moment tensors for microearthquakes at Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesicek, J.D.; Sileny, J.; Prejean, S.G.; Thurber, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to determine general moment tensors (MTs) for microearthquakes in volcanic areas are often hampered by small seismic networks, which can lead to poorly constrained hypocentres and inadequate modelling of seismic velocity heterogeneity. In addition, noisy seismic signals can make it difficult to identify phase arrivals correctly for small magnitude events. However, small volcanic earthquakes can have source mechanisms that deviate from brittle double-couple shear failure due to magmatic and/or hydrothermal processes. Thus, determining reliable MTs in such conditions is a challenging but potentially rewarding pursuit. We pursued such a goal at Okmok Volcano, Alaska, which erupted recently in 1997 and in 2008. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates a seismic network of 12 stations at Okmok and routinely catalogues recorded seismicity. Using these data, we have determined general MTs for seven microearthquakes recorded between 2004 and 2007 by inverting peak amplitude measurements of P and S phases. We computed Green's functions using precisely relocated hypocentres and a 3-D velocity model. We thoroughly assessed the quality of the solutions by computing formal uncertainty estimates, conducting a variety of synthetic and sensitivity tests, and by comparing the MTs to solutions obtained using alternative methods. The results show that MTs are sensitive to station distribution and errors in the data, velocity model and hypocentral parameters. Although each of the seven MTs contains a significant non-shear component, we judge several of the solutions to be unreliable. However, several reliable MTs are obtained for a group of previously identified repeating events, and are interpreted as compensated linear-vector dipole events.

  8. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  9. Preliminary assessment of neck circumference in benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yigit; Gulmez, Hakan; Ates, Erhan; Gulum, Mehmet; Savas, Murat

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the impact of neck circumference (NC) in the treatment of bening prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with metabolic syndrome (MtS). Additionally, we determined dose response to alpha-blockers and cut-off values for NC and waist circumference (WC), in these patients. Materials and Methods Non-randomized, open-labelled, and multi-centre study was conducted between March 2014 and September 2015. The BPH patients were enrolled and were divided into 2 groups: with MtS (Group 1; n=94) and without MtS (Group 2; n=103). Demographic data, anthropometric measurements, blood analyses, uroflowmetric parameters, post voiding residual urine (PVR), prostate volume, quality of life (QoL) index, NC and WC were recorded. Both groups were administered oral alpha-blockers and response to treatment was evaluated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained and significant p was p<0.05 . Results In total, 197 patients were enrolled with mean age of 60.5±8.1 years. Mean NC and WC were higher in MtS patients (p<0.001). Uroflowmetry parameters and QoL indexes were comparable between groups before treatment. International prostate symptom score, uroflowmetry parameters, and QoL significant improved in Group 2 than Group 1, at 1 st and 6 th months of treatment with alpha-blockers. Success rate of treatment was significant higher in Group 2 than Group 1 (p<0.001). Cut-off values were 42.5cm and 113.5cm for NC and WC respectively, for response to alpha-blockers in BPH patients with MtS. Conclusions MtS can be related with BPH and can negatively affect the response to alpha-blocker treatment. NC can be used for predicting response to alpha-blocker treatment in BPH patients with MtS.

  10. A randomized, single-blind trial of 5% minoxidil foam once daily versus 2% minoxidil solution twice daily in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hillmann, Kathrin; Dietz, Ekkehart; Canfield, Douglas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2011-12-01

    Although twice-daily application of propylene glycol-containing 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) stimulates new hair growth, higher concentrations of minoxidil in a once-daily, propylene glycol-free formulation may improve efficacy and reduce unpleasant side effects. We sought to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability and to show noninferiority of once-daily 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) with twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia. A total of 113 women with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with 5% MTF or 2% MTS. The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline in nonvellus target area hair count at week 24. Secondary end points included change in nonvellus target area hair width, overall efficacy by global photographic review as assessed by treatment-blinded evaluators and the subject herself, adverse events, and participants' assessment of product aesthetics. After 24 weeks, women randomized to 5% MTF once daily showed noninferior target area hair count and target area hair width and experienced greater, but nonsignificant, improvements in target area hair count, target area hair width, and overall efficacy by global photographic review than those randomized to 2% MTS used twice daily. 5% MTF was significantly superior to 2% MTS in participants' agreement with "the treatment does not interfere with styling my hair" (P = .002). Women randomized to 5% MTF experienced significantly lower rates of local intolerance (P = .046) especially in pruritus and dandruff compared with 2% MTS. Because of differences in the formulations tested, study participants were not blinded to treatment. Once-daily 5% MTF is noninferior and as effective for stimulating hair growth as twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia and is associated with several aesthetic and practical advantages. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring oral mucositis of pediatric patients with cancer: A psychometric evaluation of chinese version of the oral mucositis daily questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karis Kin Fong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral mucositis is a frequent clinical condition that has been shown to affect pediatric cancer patients. Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire (OMDQ is one of the few available patient-reported outcome measures to assess the extent and impact of oral mucositis. The objectives of the study were to translate the Mouth and Throat Soreness-Related Questions of the OMDQ into Chinese (OMDQ MTS-Ch for children and adolescents aged 6–18 years receiving chemotherapy and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: This was part of a multicenter, prospective cohort study involving two phases. Phase I involved forward-backward translation to fit the cognitive and linguistic age level of the children and adolescents, followed by face and content validation, together with pretesting. In Phase II, which evaluated the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity, a total of 140 patients completed the OMDQ MTS-Ch for 14 days. Results: The OMDQ MTS-Ch had satisfactory face and content validities. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the OMDQ MTS-Ch was 0.984. All of the corrected item-total correlations were higher than 0.90. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient between consecutive days for the OMDQ MTS-Ch items ranged from 0.576 to 0.983; the only value that was not over 0.70 was that for the paired study days 7 and 8 for the item of talking. The mean area-under-the-curve OMDQ MTS-Ch item scores were significantly different among patients with different degrees of mucositis severity (P < 0.001, supporting the discriminant validity. Conclusions: It has been shown that the OMDQ MTS-Ch has a good level of reliability and discriminant validity and can be completed by children aged ≥6 years and adolescents on a daily basis to measure mucositis and its related functional limitations.

  12. Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sushil Sharma,1 Afsha Rais,1 Ranbir Sandhu,1 Wynand Nel,1 Manuchair Ebadi21Saint James School of Medicine, Bonaire, The Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, Center of Excellence in Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Mammalian metallothioneins (MTs are low molecular weight (6–7 kDa cysteine-rich proteins that are specifically induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs. MT induction in cell therapy may provide better protection by serving as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic agents, and by augmenting zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Liposome-encapsulated MT-1 promoter has been used extensively to induce growth hormone or other genes in culture and gene-manipulated animals. MTs are induced as a defensive mechanism in chronic inflammatory conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, hence can serve as early and sensitive biomarkers of environmental safety and effectiveness of newly developed NPs for clinical applications. Microarray analysis has indicated that MTs are significantly induced in drug resistant cancers and during radiation treatment. Nutritional stress and environmental toxins (eg, kainic acid and domoic acid induce MTs and aggregation of multilamellar electron-dense membrane stacks (Charnoly body due to mitochondrial degeneration. MTs enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-1, a rate-limiting enzyme complex involved in the oxidative phosphorylation. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (eg, selegiline inhibit α-synuclein nitration, implicated in Lewy body formation, and inhibit 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium and 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced apoptosis in cultured human dopaminergic neurons and mesencephalic fetal stem cells. MTs

  13. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton

  14. The Ala16Val genetic dimorphism modulates the import of human manganese superoxide dismutase into rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Angela; Khoury, Hania; Prip-Buus, Carina; Cepanec, Claude; Pessayre, Dominique; Degoul, Françoise

    2003-03-01

    A genetic dimorphism encodes for either alanine (Ala) or valine (Val) in the mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and has been reported to modulate the risk of some cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and severe alcoholic liver disease. Although functional consequences of this dimorphism on MnSOD activity have not been assessed, computer models predict a partial alpha-helix structure for the Ala-MnSOD/MTS, but a beta-sheet structure for the Val-variant, which could hamper mitochondrial import. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the in-vitro import of chimaeric proteins composed of either one of the MnSOD/MTS fused to the mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein, and the import of the two human MnSOD precursor variants into rat liver mitochondria. Compared to Ala-proteins, the Val-MnSOD/MTS-DHFR precursor and Val-MnSOD precursor were both partly arrested within the inner mitochondrial membrane. The Ala-MnSOD precursor generated 30-40% more of the active, matricial, processed MnSOD homotetramer than the Val-MnSOD precursor. These results show that the Ala-MnSOD/MTS allows efficient MnSOD import into the mitochondrial matrix, while the Val-variant causes partial arrest of the precursor within the inner membrane and decreased formation of the active MnSOD tetramer in the mitochondrial matrix.

  15. Distribution of Dengue Vectors during Pre- and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Higher Attitudes of Nilgiri Hills of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ravikumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomological survey was carried out to record dengue vectors during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2012 from different breeding places in residential and forested areas of different altitudes of the Nilgiris, namely, Mettupalayam (330 mts, Kallar (400 mts, Burliar (900 mts, Marapalam (1050 mts, and Coonoor (1800 mts. Results showed that maximum number of dengue vector breeding was recorded at Mettupalayam during pre-monsoon season followed by Kallar, Burliar, Coonoor, and Marapalam. The post-monsoon season survey also revealed that the maximum number of dengue vector breeding was found at Mettupalayam, followed by Burliar, Coonoor, and Kallar, and Aedes immature was not found in Marapalam. Ae. aegypti species was recorded in all the study areas during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Whereas Ae. albopictus was recorded only at Mettupalayam, Kallar, and Burliar during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Besides these two dengue vectors, a nonvector species Ae. vittatus (n=9 was also recorded at Kallar and Burliar.

  16. Fourier and fractal analysis of cytoskeletal morphology altered by xenobiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Urani, Chiara; Fumarola, Laura

    2003-06-01

    The cytoskeletal microtubules (MTs) of rat hepatocytes treated by Benomyl (a fungicide) were imaged by means of immunofluorescent staining and optical microscopy. Images of untreated, or control (C), and of treated (T) cells were processed both by fractal and Fourier analysis. The C-MTs had contour fractal dimensions higher (>= 1.4) than those of T-MTs (enhancement," which corresponds to the application of a (pseudo)differential operator to the image. Enhanced spectra were interpolated by a polynomial, q, of degree 39, from which morphological descriptors were extracted. Descriptors from Fourier analysis made image classification possible. Principal components analysis was applied to the descriptors. In the plane of the first two components, {z1,z2}, the minimum spanning tree was drawn. Images of T-MTs formed a single cluster, whereas images of C-MTs formed two clusters, C1 and C2. The component z1 correlated positively with the local maxima and minima of q, which reflected differences between T and C in power spectral density in the 1 to 2000 cycles/mm spatial frequency band. The difference between C1 and C2 was ascribed to anisotropy of the MT bundles. The implemented image classifier is capable of telling differences in cytoskeletal organization. As a consequence the method can become a tool for testing cytotoxicity and for extracting quantitative information about intracellular alterations of various origin.

  17. Science Signaling Podcast for 15 November 2016: A new type of kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-11-15

    This Podcast features an interview with Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, author of a Research Article that appears in the 15 November 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a newly developed inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 participates in several signaling networks and has been implicated in various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairments, and cancer. Licht-Murava et al developed L807mts, a substrate-competitive peptide inhibitor that blocks GSK-3 activity through an unusual mechanism. L807mts not only bound to the substrate recognition domain of GSK-3, it was also phosphorylated by the kinase. This phosphorylated form of L807mts remained associated with GSK-3 and inhibited GSK-3 activity. L807mts treatment reduced cellular, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. L807mts is an advance in kinase inhibitor development because it is both highly specific and very potent.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. [Problems in career planning for novice medical technologists in Japanese national hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Shu; Tsutaya, Shoji; Akimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Keiya; Yabaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    Skills and knowledge regarding many different types of test are required for medical technologists (MTs) to provide accurate information to help doctors and other medical specialists. In order to become an efficient MT, specialized training programs are required. Certification in specialized areas of clinical laboratory sciences or a doctoral degree in medical sciences may help MTs to realize career advancement, a higher earning potential, and expand the options in their career. However, most young MTs in national university hospitals are employed as part-time workers on a three-year contract, which is too short to obtain certifications or a doctoral degree. We have to leave the hospital without expanding our future. We need to take control of our own development in order to enhance our employability within the period. As teaching and training hospitals, national university hospitals in Japan are facing a difficult dilemma in nurturing MTs. I hope, as a novice medical technologist, that at least university hospitals in Japan create an appropriate workplace environment for novice MTs.

  19. Feedback Mechanism for Microtubule Length Regulation by Stathmin Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Maria; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-12-01

    We formulate and analyze a theoretical model for the regulation of microtubule (MT) polymerization dynamics by the signaling proteins Rac1 and stathmin. In cells, the MT growth rate is inhibited by cytosolic stathmin, which, in turn, is inactivated by Rac1. Growing MTs activate Rac1 at the cell edge, which closes a positive feedback loop. We investigate both tubulin sequestering and catastrophe promotion as mechanisms for MT growth inhibition by stathmin. For a homogeneous stathmin concentration in the absence of Rac1, we find a switch-like regulation of the MT mean length by stathmin. For constitutively active Rac1 at the cell edge, stathmin is deactivated locally, which establishes a spatial gradient of active stathmin. In this gradient, we find a stationary bimodal MT length distributions for both mechanisms of MT growth inhibition by stathmin. One subpopulation of the bimodal length distribution can be identified with fast growing and long pioneering MTs in the region near the cell edge, which have been observed experimentally. The feedback loop is closed through Rac1 activation by MTs. For tubulin sequestering by stathmin, this establishes a bistable switch with two stable states: one stable state corresponds to upregulated MT mean length and bimodal MT length distributions, i.e., pioneering MTs; the other stable state corresponds to an interrupted feedback with short MTs. Stochastic effects as well as external perturbations can trigger switching events. For catastrophe promoting stathmin we do not find bistability.

  20. Stathmin and microtubules regulate mitotic entry in HeLa cells by controlling activation of both Aurora kinase A and Plk1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Victoria C; Cassimeris, Lynne

    2013-12-01

    Depletion of stathmin, a microtubule (MT) destabilizer, delays mitotic entry by ∼4 h in HeLa cells. Stathmin depletion reduced the activity of CDC25 and its upstream activators, Aurora A and Plk1. Chemical inhibition of both Aurora A and Plk1 was sufficient to delay mitotic entry by 4 h, while inhibiting either kinase alone did not cause a delay. Aurora A and Plk1 are likely regulated downstream of stathmin, because the combination of stathmin knockdown and inhibition of Aurora A and Plk1 was not additive and again delayed mitotic entry by 4 h. Aurora A localization to the centrosome required MTs, while stathmin depletion spread its localization beyond that of γ-tubulin, indicating an MT-dependent regulation of Aurora A activation. Plk1 was inhibited by excess stathmin, detected in in vitro assays and cells overexpressing stathmin-cyan fluorescent protein. Recruitment of Plk1 to the centrosome was delayed in stathmin-depleted cells, independent of MTs. It has been shown that depolymerizing MTs with nocodazole abrogates the stathmin-depletion induced cell cycle delay; in this study, depolymerization with nocodazole restored Plk1 activity to near normal levels, demonstrating that MTs also contribute to Plk1 activation. These data demonstrate that stathmin regulates mitotic entry, partially via MTs, to control localization and activation of both Aurora A and Plk1.

  1. Multitarget stool DNA for colorectal cancer screening:A review and commentary on the United States Preventive Services Draft Guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry M Berger; Bernard Levin; Robert J Hilsden

    2016-01-01

    Multitarget stool DNA(mt-sDNA) testing was approved for average risk colorectal cancer(CRC) screening by the United States Food and Drug Administration and thereafter reimbursed for use by the Medicare program(2014).The United States Preventive Services Task Force(USPSTF) October 2015 draft recommendation for CRC screening included mt-s DNA as an "alternative" screening test that "may be useful in select clinical circumstances",despite its very high sensitivity for early stage CRC.The evidence supporting mt-s DNA for routine screening use is robust.The clinical efficacy of mt-s DNA as measured by sensitivity,specificity,life-years gained(LYG),and CRC deaths averted is similar to or exceeds that of the other more specifically recommended screening options included in the draft document,especially those requiring annual testing adherence.In a population with primarily irregular screening participation,tests with the highest point sensitivity and reasonable specificity are more likely to favorably impact CRC related morbidity and mortality than those depending on annual adherence.This paper reviews the evidence supporting mt-s DNA for routine screening and demonstrates,using USPSTF’s modeling data,that mt-s DNA at three-year intervals provides significant clinical net benefits and fewer complications per LYG than annual fecal immunochemical testing,high sensitivity guaiac based fecal occult blood testing and 10-year colonoscopy screening.

  2. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  3. The time course of the effects of constant-angle and constant-torque stretching on the muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, T J; Costa, P B; Walter, A A; Ryan, E D; Cramer, J T

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the time course of passive range of motion (PROM), passive torque (PASTQ), and musculo-tendinous stiffness (MTS) responses during constant-angle (CA) and constant-torque (CT) stretching of the leg flexors. Eleven healthy men [mean ± standard deviation (SD): age = 21.5 ± 2.3 years] performed 16 30-s bouts of CA and CT stretching of the leg flexors. PROM, PASTQ , and MTS were measured during stretches 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. For PROM and PASTQ , there were no differences between CA and CT stretching treatments (P > 0.05); however, there were stretch-related differences (P stretching (collapsed across CA and CT stretching) with additional increases up to 8 min of stretching. PASTQ decreased following one 30-s bout of stretching (collapsed across CA and CT stretching) and continued to decrease up to 4 min of stretching. In contrast, only the CT stretching treatment resulted in changes to MTS (P stretching, with subsequent decreases in MTS up to 6 min of stretching. These results suggested that CT stretching may be more appropriate than a stretch held at a constant muscle length for decreasing MTS.

  4. Necl-5/PVR enhances PDGF-induced attraction of growing microtubules to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akihiro; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Waseda, Masazumi; Kajita, Mihoko; Miyata, Muneaki; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2010-11-01

    Microtubules (MTs) search for and grow toward the leading edge of moving cells, followed by their stabilization at a specific structure at the rear site of the leading edge. This dynamic re-orientation of MTs is critical to directional cell movement. We previously showed that Necl-5/poliovirus receptor (PVR) interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and integrin α(v) β(3) at the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells, resulting in an enhancement of their directional movement. We studied here the role of Necl-5 in the PDGF-induced attraction of growing MTs to the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells. Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced growth of MTs and attracted them near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells in an integrin α(v) β(3) -dependent manner. Furthermore, Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced attraction of the plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), including EB1, CLIP170, an intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein, and p150(Glued) , a subunit of dynactin, near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge. Thus, Necl-5 plays a role in the attraction of growing MTs to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving cells. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN QIRÃ’AT AL-QUR’ÃN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of peer tutors learning strategies and achievement motivation on learning outcomes of students of class VIII subjects Qirâ’at al-Qur’ân. This research used a 2x2 factorial experimental design and was performed in MTs Ex PGA Univa Project Field with sample of 48 students. The results show: 1 The students who learn Qirâ’at al-Qur’ân through peer tutoring learning strategy is higher than those who learn through expository teaching strategies in MTs Ex PGA Univa Medan Project, 2 learning outcomes of Qirâ’at al-Qur’ân of students who have high achievement motivation with learning strategy peer tutors is higher than expository teaching strategy in MTs Ex PGA Univa Medan Project, 3 learning outcomes of Qirâ’at al-Qur’ân of students who have low achievement motivation and learning strategy is lower than the peer tutor learning strategies Ex MTs expository PGA Univa Medan Project, 4 There is interaction between learning strategies and achievement motivation on learning outcomes Qira'at al-Qur'an of student MTs Ex PGA Univa field Project.

  6. Use of metallothioneins as biomarkers for environmental quality assessment in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhar-Chaabouni, Rim; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2012-04-01

    Detection and assessment of the impact of pollution on biological resources imply increasing research on early-warning markers such as metallothioneins (MTs) in metal exposure. In this paper, we have collated published information on the use of metallothioneins and metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) as biomarkers for environmental quality assessment in the Gulf of Gabès. In this area, some species of fish and bivalve were used as bioindicators of pollution. In these species, an induction of MTs/MTLPs by the essential metals such as Cu and Zn and the non-essential metals such as Cd was observed by different authors who suggest the potential use of these proteins as biomarkers. However, MT concentrations can be influenced by many biotic (sex, maturity stages, and tissues) and abiotic factors (temperature, salinity, and pH). This is essentially the case in field studies where many parameters can randomly affect MT levels, so the endogeneous regulation of MTs must be considered before using MTs as an indicator of heavy metal exposure. Moreover, the use of biomarker cannot be examined independently of the evaluation of techniques that enable its quantification. Therefore, the approach to the use of MTs/MTLP as biomarkers of exposure for an assessment of the physiological status of aquatic organisms is discussed in this paper.

  7. Microtubules, polarity and vertebrate neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cearns, Michael D; Escuin, Sarah; Alexandre, Paula; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular components, long known to participate in morphogenetic events that shape the developing embryo. However, the links between the cellular functions of MTs, their effects on cell shape and polarity, and their role in large-scale morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, these relationships were examined with respect to two strategies for generating the vertebrate neural tube: bending and closure of the mammalian neural plate; and cavitation of the teleost neural rod. The latter process has been compared with 'secondary' neurulation that generates the caudal spinal cord in mammals. MTs align along the apico-basal axis of the mammalian neuroepithelium early in neural tube closure, participating functionally in interkinetic nuclear migration, which indirectly impacts on cell shape. Whether MTs play other functional roles in mammalian neurulation remains unclear. In the zebrafish, MTs are important for defining the neural rod midline prior to its cavitation, both by localizing apical proteins at the tissue midline and by orienting cell division through a mirror-symmetric MT apparatus that helps to further define the medial localization of apical polarity proteins. Par proteins have been implicated in centrosome positioning in neuroepithelia as well as in the control of polarized morphogenetic movements in the neural rod. Understanding of MT functions during early nervous system development has so far been limited, partly by techniques that fail to distinguish 'cause' from 'effect'. Future developments will likely rely on novel ways to selectively impair MT function in order to investigate the roles they play.

  8. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  9. Genetic diversity and population dynamics of Bordetella pertussis in China between 1950-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yinghua; Zhang, Liu; Tan, Yajun; Wang, Lichan; Zhang, Shumin; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-11-17

    Pertussis is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Although pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1960s, pertussis is still an endemic disease in China. To better understand the genetic diversity of the Chinese B. pertussis population, we characterized 115 clinical isolates obtained in China during 1950-2007 using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Forty-six different B. pertussis MLVA profiles (MTs) were identified, of which 13 were new MTs. Analysis using a minimum-spanning tree showed that distinct MTs were prevalent during different periods, suggesting that a dynamic change in B. pertussis MTs occurred over time in China. The predominant MTs in recent isolates from China were different from those of many developed countries. A decreasing trend in genetic diversity of the B. pertussis population was observed following the introduction of pertussis vaccines. Similar to the pertactin 2 (prn2) allele, the novel pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP3) allele first emerged in 2000, but unlike trends elsewhere, ptxP1 remained predominant among the isolates, further reflecting the unique temporal trends in the B. pertussis population in China. Our results suggest that temporal changes in the B. pertussis population may be closely associated with vaccination coverage and the vaccine types used. These data may lead to an improved understanding of the virulence mechanism of B. pertussis and facilitate new strategies for controlling this infectious disease.

  10. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  11. Mechanics of composite cytoskeletal and extracellular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moumita

    2014-03-01

    Living cells sense and respond to mechanical forces in their surroundings. This mechanical response is mainly due to the cell cytoskeleton, and its interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The cell cytoskeleton is a composite polymeric scaffold made of many different types of protein filaments and crosslinking proteins. Two major filament systems in the cytoskeleton are actin filaments (F-actin) and microtubules (MTs). Actin filaments are semiflexible, while the much stiffer MTs behave as rigid rods. I shall discuss theories that help understand how the direct coupling to the surrounding F-actin matrix allows intracellular MTs to bear large compressive forces and controls the range of force transmission along the MTs, and how the MTs not only enhance the stiffness of the cell cytoskeleton, but can also dramatically endow an initially nearly incompressible F-actin matrix with enhanced compressibility relative to its shear compliance. A second source of compositeness in the cytoskeleton is the presences of different types of crosslinkers that can interact cooperatively leading to enhanced mechanical rigidity and tunable response. Like the cytoskeleton, the ECM is also a polymeric composite. It is primarily composed of a mesh of fibrous proteins, mainly stiff collagen filaments, and a comparatively flexible gel of proteoglycans and hyaluronan. I shall discuss a model that shows how the interplay between the collagen network and the background elastic gel leads to a mechanically robust ECM.

  12. The neurodynamics underlying attentional control in set shifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemme, Anja; Deco, Gustavo; Busch, Astrid

    2007-09-01

    In this work we address key phenomena observed with classical set shifting tasks as the "Wisconsin Card Sorting Test" or the "Stroop" task: Different types of errors and increased response times reflecting decreased attention. A component of major importance in these tasks is referred to as the "attentional control" thought to be implemented by the prefrontal cortex which acts primarily by an amplification of task relevant information. This mode of operation is illustrated by a neurodynamical model developed for a new kind of set shifting experiment: The Wisconsin-Delayed-Match-to-Sample task combines uninstructed shifts as investigated in Wisconsin-like tasks with a Delayed-Match-to-Sample paradigm. These newly developed WDMS experiments in conjunction with the neurodynamical simulations are able to explain the reason for decreased attention in set shifting experiments as well the different consequences of decreased attention in tasks requiring bivalent yes/no responses compared to tasks requiring multivalent responses.

  13. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  14. Dissociating effects of acute photic stress on spatial, episodic-like and working memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passecker, Johannes; Barlow, Sally; O'Mara, Shane M

    2014-10-01

    Adaptively responding to acute stress has been of great importance for human and animal survival. However, for our species, stress-related disorders are putting an ever-increasing burden on healthcare systems. It is thus crucial to understand the basic processes and cognitive changes associated with acute stress. Here, we examined the effects of acute stress exposure on spatial (water maze) and memory (delayed match to sample and episodic-memory-like tasks) performance. We found striking performance deficits in stressed animals navigating in the water maze. We also found, in an episodic-like memory task, striking object-location deficits, but not in temporal-object association learning in stressed animals. Finally, no differences were apparent for any delay periods (up to 30s) in a delayed match to sample task. Taken together, these results show a strong differential effect of acute stress on differing memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts.

  16. Metallothioneins, Unconventional Proteins from Unconventional Animals: A Long Journey from Nematodes to Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu and non-essential (Cd and Hg trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1 homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2 detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3 free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.

  17. Cytoplasmic flows as signatures for the mechanics of mitotic positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The proper positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for asymmetric cell division and generating cell diversity during development. Proper position in the single-cell embryo of Caenorhabditis elegans is achieved initially by the migration and rotation of the pronuclear complex (PNC) and its two associated centrosomal arrays of microtubules (MTs). We present here the first systematic theoretical study of how these $O(1000)$ centrosomal microtubules (MTs) interact through the immersing cytoplasm, the cell periphery and PNC, and with each other, to achieve proper position. This study is made possible through our development of a highly efficient and parallelized computational framework that accounts explicitly for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) between the MTs, while also capturing their flexibility, dynamic instability, and interactions with molecular motors and boundaries. First, we show through direct simulation that previous estimates of the PNC drag coefficient, based on either ignoring or ...

  18. A Scalable and Reliable Message Transport Service for the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Kolos, S; Lehmann Miotto, G; Soloviev, I

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) is a large distributed computing system composed of several thousands of interconnected computers and tens of thousands applications. During a run, TDAQ applications produce a lot of control and information messages with variable rates, addressed to TDAQ operators or to other applications. Reliable, fast and accurate delivery of the messages is important for the functioning of the whole TDAQ system. The Message Transport Service (MTS) provides facilities for the reliable transport, the filtering and the routing of the messages, basing on publish-subscribe-notify communication pattern with content-based message filtering. During the ongoing LHC shutdown, the MTS was re-implemented, taking into account important requirements like reliability, scalability and performance, handling of slow subscribers case and also simplicity of the design and the implementation. MTS uses CORBA middleware, a common layer for TDAQ infrastructure, and provides sending/subscribing APIs i...

  19. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff (UCLA); (TTU)

    2011-08-29

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

  20. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  2. Enhanced dynamic instability of microtubules in a ROS free inert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Sirajul; Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Sada, Kazuki; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), one of the regulators in various biological processes, have recently been suspected to modulate microtubule (MT) dynamics in cells. However due to complicated cellular environment and unavailability of any in vitro investigation, no detail is understood yet. Here, by performing simple in vitro investigations, we have unveiled the effect of ROS on MT dynamics. By studying dynamic instability of MTs in a ROS free environment and comparing with that in the presence of ROS, we disclosed that MTs showed enhanced dynamics in the ROS free environment. All the parameters that define dynamic instability of MTs e.g., growth and shrinkage rates, rescue and catastrophe frequencies were significantly affected by the presence of ROS. This work clearly reveals the role of ROS in modulating MT dynamics in vitro, and would be a great help in understanding the role of ROS in regulation of MT dynamics in cells.

  3. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  4. Remote collaborative pseudo-dynamic testing system based on acquisition board control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,NetSLab network platform for remote collaborative pseudo-dynamic testing,which was developed recently by a research group led by the Hunan University,is presented.Aiming at MTS system which is widely used in structural tesring.the control method with acquisition board Was investigated in this study to realize the communication interface between NetSLab and MTS system,and open up the remote collaborative pseudo-dynamic testing system.Using the developed testing system,a collaborative pseudo-dynamic testing on LAN was carried out successfully.The result manifests that the data transmission and collaborative control can be implemented accurately between NetSLab and MTS system,so that the usability of the testing system is validated.

  5. Imaging of high-Z material for nuclear contraband detection with a minimal prototype of a Muon Tomography station based on GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson B; Quintero, Amilkar S; Mitra, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    Muon Tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons in matter is a promising technique for detecting heavily shielded high-Z radioactive materials (U, Pu) in cargo or vehicles. The technique uses the deflection of cosmic ray muons in matter to perform tomographic imaging of high-Z material inside a probed volume. A Muon Tomography Station (MTS) requires position-sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for optimal tracking of incoming and outgoing cosmic ray muons. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) technologies such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are excellent candidates for this application. We have built and operated a minimal MTS prototype based on 30cm \\times 30cm GEM detectors for probing targets with various Z values inside the MTS volume. We report the first successful detection and imaging of medium-Z and high-Z targets of small volumes (~0.03 liters) using GEM-based Muon Tomography.

  6. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H Ronald; Abramson, Jeff

    2011-06-07

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

  7. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis is superior to spa typing and sufficient to characterize MRSA for surveillance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; Pluister, Gerlinde N; van Luit, Martijn; Landman, Fabian; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga; Schot, Corrie; Witteveen, Sandra; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Heck, Max E O C; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-01-01

    Assess the best approach to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) or both. Discriminatory power of spa typing and MLVA was determined using 20,771 MRSA isolates. There were twice as many MLVA types (MTs) as spa types present in the collection. Among the top 70% of the isolates, 37 spa types and 139 MTs were found. MLVA diversity among the top-10 spa types was high (diversity index 0.96), while spa diversity among the top-10 MTs was much lower (diversity index 0.83). The probability that two MRSA isolates with the same spa type also had the same MT was low (Wallace's coefficient 0.27). By contrast, most MRSA isolates yielding the same MT also had the same spa type (Wallace's coefficient 0.90). MLVA is superior to spa typing and will suffice to characterize MRSA isolates for surveillance.

  8. Uch2/Uch37 is the major deubiquitinating enzyme associated with the 26S proteasome in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Miranda; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Seeger, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Conjugation of proteins to ubiquitin plays a central role for a number of cellular processes including endocytosis, DNA repair and degradation by the 26S proteasome. However, ubiquitination is reversible as a number of deubiquitinating enzymes mediate the disassembly of ubiquitin-protein conjugates....... Some deubiquitinating enzymes are associated with the 26S proteasome contributing to and regulating the particle's activity. Here, we characterise fission yeast Uch2 and Ubp6, two proteasome associated deubiquitinating enzymes. The human orthologues of these enzymes are known as Uch37 and Usp14......, respectively. We report that the subunit Uch2/Uch37 is the major deubiquitinating enzyme associated with the fission yeast 26S proteasome. In contrast, the activity of Ubp6 appears to play a more regulatory and/or structural role involving the proteasome subunits Mts1/Rpn9, Mts2/Rpt2 and Mts3/Rpn12, as Ubp6...

  9. Interictal SPECT in the pre surgical evaluation in epileptic patients with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Lucia H.N. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia. Centro Cirurgico de Epilepsia; Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Lins-Filho, Mario L.M. [Hospital de Base, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Maciel, Marina G.; Yoshitake, Rafael; Filetti, Sarah V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of interictal compared to ictal SPECT in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients that present with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Thirty patients with TLE, for whom MRI examinations were normal or who presented with bilateral MTS, were retrospectively studied. Using a confidence interval of 95% and a level of significance for p-value <0.05, an estimated agreement rate of 73% with a minimum agreement rate of 57% was calculated comparing interictal and ictal SPECTs. In conclusion the interictal SPECT is only useful when associated with the ictal SPECT and does not substitute it in the localization of epileptogenic areas in patients with normal MRI or bilateral MTS. (author)

  10. Metallothioneins, unconventional proteins from unconventional animals: a long journey from nematodes to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isani, Gloria; Carpenè, Emilio

    2014-04-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1) homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2) detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3) free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.

  11. Dereplication of macrocyclic trichothecenes from extracts of filamentous fungi through UV and NMR profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Wani, Mansukh C; Kroll, David J; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2010-09-01

    Macrocyclic trichothecenes (MTs), which have potent cytotoxicity, have been isolated from many different fungal species. These compounds were evaluated clinically by the US National Cancer Institute in the 1970s and 1980s. However, they have yet to be advanced into viable drugs because of severe side effects. Our team is investigating a diverse library of filamentous fungi for new anticancer leads. To avoid reisolating MTs through bioactivity-directed fractionation studies, a protocol for their facile dereplication was developed. The method uses readily available photodiode array detectors to identify one of two types of characteristic UV spectra for these compounds. In addition, diagnostic signals can be observed in the (1)H-NMR spectra, particularly for the epoxide and conjugated diene moieties, even at the level of a crude extract. Using these techniques in a complementary manner, MTs can be dereplicated rapidly.

  12. The distribution of Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. sibiricum (L. Hartm. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kwiatkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorological analysis of the distribution of Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. sibiricum (L Hartm. presented in the paper is based on literature data, herbaria and the authors own observations. A. *sibiricum is a rare and threatened species in Poland, reported exclusively from the Karkonosze Mts. and the Pilsko Massif in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. The author discusses the taxonomic position, general distribution as well as environmental and phytocoenotic conditions preferred by the species in Europe. Detailed phytosociological analysis of phytocoenoses in which A. *sibiricum typically occurs in the Karkonosze Mts. is presented. They belong to the association Allietum sibirici Šmarda 1950 which is described here for the first time from Poland.

  13. Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Olga; Gurjanova, Karina; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Kulp, Maria; Karro, Niina; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in a broad range of cellular processes and play a major role in protection of cells towards various stressors. Two functions of MTs, namely the maintaining of the homeostasis of transition metal ions and the redox balance, are directly linked to the functioning of mitochondria. Dyshomeostasis of MTs is often related with malfunctioning of mitochondria; however, the mechanism by which MTs affect the mitochondrial respiratory chain is still unknown. We demonstrated that overexpression of MT-2A in HEK cell line decreased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the cells. HEK cells overexpressing MT-2A demonstrated reduced oxygen consumption and lower cellular ATP levels. MT-2A did not affect the number of mitochondria, but reduced specifically the level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II protein, which resulted in lower activity of the complex IV.

  14. Detection and classification of natural odors with an in vivo bioelectronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Liujing; Guo, Tiantian; Cao, Duanxi; Ling, Liquan; Su, Kaiqi; Hu, Ning; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is recognized as one of the most effective chemosensing systems. We thus investigated the potential of utilizing the rat's olfactory system to detect odors. By chronically coupling multiple microelectrodes to olfactory bulb of behaving rats, we extract an array of mitral/tufted cells (M/Ts) which could generate odor-specific temporal patterns of neural discharge. We performed multidimensional analysis of recorded M/Ts, finding that natural odors released from different fruit lead to distinct odor response patterns. Thus an array of M/Ts carried sufficient information to discriminate odors. This novel brain-machine interface using rat's olfaction presents a promising method for odor detection and discrimination, and it is the first step towards in vivo bioelectronic nose equipped with biological olfaction and artificial devices.

  15. Absence of gender effect on amygdala volume in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivaldo; Lin, Katia; Jackowski, Andrea P; Centeno, Ricardo da Silva; Pinto, Magali L; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza M; Amado, Débora

    2010-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism has already been described in temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). This study evaluated the effect of gender on amygdala volume in patients with TLE-MTS. One hundred twenty-four patients with refractory unilateral or bilateral TLE-MTS who were being considered for epilepsy surgery underwent a comprehensive presurgical evaluation and MRI. Amygdalas of 67 women (27 with right; 32 with left, and 8 with bilateral TLE) and 57 men (22 with right, 30 with left, and 5 with bilateral TLE) were manually segmented. Significant ipsilateral amygdala volume reduction was observed for patients with right and left TLE. No gender effect on amygdala volume was observed. Contralateral amygdalar asymmetry was observed for patients with right and left TLE. Although no gender effect was observed on amygdala volume, ipsilateral amygdala volume reductions in patients with TLE might be related to differential rates of cerebral maturation between hemispheres.

  16. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos; Santiago, Joselita Ferreira Carvalho; Carrete, Henrique; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Castro Neto, Eduardo Ferreira de; Canzian, Mauro; Amado, Débora; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2011-02-01

    We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10) were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) -MTS group (p<0.001), suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05) demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  17. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Chemical engineering of cell penetrating antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Lou, D; Burkett, J; Kohler, H

    2001-08-01

    Antibodies, being exquisitely specific tools in biology, are routinely used to detect and identify intra-cellular structures. However, current intra-cellular application of antibodies requires that the membrane be rendered leaky, resulting in the death of cells. Here, we present a novel method to allow antibodies to penetrate the cellular membrane of living cells without affecting cell viability. A peptide (MTS, membrane transport sequence) that facilitates transport across membranes has been site-specifically attached to antibodies. MTS-antibodies enter the living cells in culture and can be detected by immunofluorescence and ELISA after extraction. Cellular structures are visualized in living cells using a specific MTS-antibody. Antibodies with membrane penetrating properties can become an important tool for the study of intra-cellular processes in living cells. Furthermore, such membrane penetrating antibodies can be used to selectively stimulate or suppress functions of the cellular machinery.

  19. Muscarinic Receptor Occupancy and Cognitive Impairment: A PET Study with [11C](+)3-MPB and Scopolamine in Conscious Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Nishiyama, Shingo; Kawamata, Masahiro; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takei, Nori; Tsukada, Hideo; Domino, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist scopolamine was used to induce transient cognitive impairment in monkeys trained in a delayed matching to sample task. The temporal relationship between the occupancy level of central mAChRs and cognitive impairment was determined. Three conscious monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were subjected to positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mAChR radioligand N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ([11C](+)3-MPB). The scan sequence was pre-, 2,...

  20. A COMPUTER-BASED PROGRAM TO TEACH BRAILLE READING TO SIGHTED INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions of the braille alphabet to their printed-word counterparts. Further, each participant increased the number of words they read in a braille passage ...

  1. A Derived Transfer of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Smeets, Paul M.; Luciano, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the transfer of induced happy and sad mood functions through equivalence relations. Sixteen subjects participated in a combined equivalence and mood induction procedure. In Phase 1, all subjects were trained in 2 conditional discriminations using a matching-to-sample format (i.e., A1-B1, A2-B2, A1-C1, A2-C2). In…

  2. Orbit/CLASP is required for myosin accumulation at the cleavage furrow in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Kitazawa

    Full Text Available Peripheral microtubules (MTs near the cell cortex are essential for the positioning and continuous constriction of the contractile ring (CR in cytokinesis. Time-lapse observations of Drosophila male meiosis showed that myosin II was first recruited along the cell cortex independent of MTs. Then, shortly after peripheral MTs made contact with the equatorial cortex, myosin II was concentrated there in a narrow band. After MT contact, anillin and F-actin abruptly appeared on the equatorial cortex, simultaneously with myosin accumulation. We found that the accumulation of myosin did not require centralspindlin, but was instead dependent on Orbit, a Drosophila ortholog of the MT plus-end tracking protein CLASP. This protein is required for stabilization of central spindle MTs, which are essential for cytokinesis. Orbit was also localized in a mid-zone of peripheral MTs, and was concentrated in a ring at the equatorial cortex during late anaphase. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments indicated that Orbit is closely associated with F-actin in the CR. We also showed that the myosin heavy chain was in close proximity with Orbit in the cleavage furrow region. Centralspindlin was dispensable in Orbit ring formation. Instead, the Polo-KLP3A/Feo complex was required for the Orbit accumulation independently of the Orbit MT-binding domain. However, orbit mutations of consensus sites for the phosphorylation of Cdk1 or Polo did not influence the Orbit accumulation, suggesting an indirect regulatory role of these protein kinases in Orbit localization. Orbit was also necessary for the maintenance of the CR. Our data suggest that Orbit plays an essential role as a connector between MTs and the CR in Drosophila male meiosis.

  3. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Oza, Nikunj C.; Zhu, Qiang; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical monitoring, and financial systems. Domain experts are often interested in searching for interesting multivariate patterns from these MTS databases which often contain several gigabytes of data. Surprisingly, research on MTS search is very limited. Most of the existing work only supports queries with the same length of data, or queries on a fixed set of variables. In this paper, we propose an efficient and flexible subsequence search framework for massive MTS databases, that, for the first time, enables querying on any subset of variables with arbitrary time delays between them. We propose two algorithms to solve this problem (1) a List Based Search (LBS) algorithm which uses sorted lists for indexing, and (2) a R*-tree Based Search (RBS) which uses Minimum Bounding Rectangles (MBR) to organize the subsequences. Both algorithms guarantee that all matching patterns within the specified thresholds will be returned (no false dismissals). The very few false alarms can be removed by a post-processing step. Since our framework is also capable of Univariate Time-Series (UTS) subsequence search, we first demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms on several UTS datasets previously used in the literature. We follow this up with experiments using two large MTS databases from the aviation domain, each containing several millions of observations. Both these tests show that our algorithms have very high prune rates (>99%) thus needing actual disk access for only less than 1% of the observations. To the best of our knowledge, MTS subsequence search has never been attempted on datasets of the size we have used in this paper.

  4. Anaphase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Scholey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip microtubules (MTs as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical “modules” that cooperate to mediate pole–pole separation include: (i midzone pushing or (ii braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs; (iii cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards; (iv ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization; and (v ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux. The differential combination of these modules in different cell types produces diversity in the anaphase B mechanism. Combinations of antagonist modules can create a force balance that maintains the dynamic pre-anaphase B spindle at constant length. Tipping such a force balance at anaphase B onset can initiate and control the rate of spindle elongation. The activities of the basic motor filament components of the anaphase B machinery are controlled by a network of non-motor MT-associated proteins (MAPs, for example the key MT cross-linker, Ase1p/PRC1, and various cell-cycle kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of anaphase B spindle elongation in eukaryotic cells and briefly mentions bacterial DNA segregation systems that operate by spindle elongation.

  5. Construction, detection and microarray analysis on Shigella dysenteriae A1 IroN, ShuA single, double mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN; Wen; LIU; Moqing; PENG; Junping; SUN; Lilian; XU; Xingye; ZHANG; Jinghai; JIN; Qi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we constructed single mutants MTS-1, MTS-2 of IroN and ShuA gene and double mutant MTS of them in Shigella dysenteriae A1 strain 51197 by insert and absence. The functional detection of every mutant was performed at the level of culture medium and cell experiment. The gene expression profiles of the mutants and the wild-type strains under iron- enriched and iron-limited conditions were analyzed by the SD51197 whole genomic microarray. The results showed that all the mutants grew obviously less well than the wild-type strains in L broth appending iron chelator DIP. The addition of iron to the cultures can stimulate the growth of mutants back to wild-type levels. In either the experiments on the ability of intracellular multiplication or the cell-to-cell spread in HeLa and U937 cell lines, mutants showed no obvious change in virulence compared with the parental strain SD51197. However when DIP was added to the cultured HeLa cells, the ability of intracellular multiplication of MTS-1, MTS-2, MTS has reduced about 23.4%, 25.2%, 43.6% respectively. The analysis of expression profiles under the iron-limited condition showed that the mutants were more sensitive for the changes of iron deficiency than the wild-type strains, many genes have been altered. Up-regulated genes mainly involved genes of transcription, coenzyme metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, and unknown functional genes, while down-regulated genes mainly involved genes of energy and carbohydrate metabolism and unknown function genes; the expression levels of known iron-transport associated genes generally showed up-regulated. The results demonstrated that iron-transport associated genes IroN, ShuA were likely to have some effects on the virulence and growth of S. dysenteriae.

  6. The Late Cretaceous igneous rocks of Romania (Apuseni Mountains and Banat): the possible role of amphibole versus plagioclase deep fractionation in two different crustal terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Berza, Tudor; Gesels, Julie; Dupont, Alain

    2016-04-01

    We provide new whole-rock major and trace elements as well as 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic data of a suite of samples collected in the Late Cretaceous volcanic and plutonic bodies of the Apuseni Mts. (Romania) that belong to the Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenic Belt, also called the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie belt. The samples define a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline differentiation trend that can be predicted by a three-step fractional crystallization process which probably took place in upper crustal magma chambers. Published experimental data indicate that the parent magma (Mg# = 0.47) of the Apuseni Mts. trend could have been produced by the lower crustal differentiation of a primary (in equilibrium with a mantle source) magma. The Late Cretaceous magmatic rocks of the Apuseni Mts. and Banat display overlapping major and trace element trends except that Sr is slightly lower and Ga is higher in the Apuseni Mts. parent magma. This difference can be accounted for by fractionating plagioclase-bearing (Apuseni Mts.) or amphibole-bearing (Banat) cumulates during the lower crustal differentiation of the primary magma to the composition of the parent magma of both trends. This, together with results obtained on the Late Cretaceous igneous rocks from the Timok area in Eastern Serbia, further suggests variation of the water content of the primary magma along and across the belt. The Apuseni Mts. versus the Banat samples display different isotopic compositions that likely resulted from the assimilation of two distinct crustal contaminants, in agreement with their emplacement in two separate mega-units of Alpine Europe.

  7. Determination of metallothioneins by fluorescence and resonance light scattering strategies based on ciprofloxacin–Cu(II) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu [College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Wang, Yong-Sheng, E-mail: yongsheng.w@tom.com [College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Xue, Jin-Hua; Yang, Hui-Xian; Li, Qiu; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Jia-Cheng; Yin, Ji-Cheng; Wang, Yong-Song [College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Xiao, Xi-Lin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Based on ciprofloxacin (CIP)–Cu(II) system, the novel methods for the detection of metallothioneins (MTs) have been developed by fluorescence (FL) and resonance light scattering (RLS) strategies. The FL strategy avoids the label and derivatization steps in common methods, while the RLS strategy can be applied for determining bio-macromolecules and small molecules without native fluorescence. The response signals linearly correlated with the concentration of MTs over the ranges of 1.03×10{sup −8}–1.23×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} for FL, and of 2.56×10{sup −7}–1.54×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} for RLS. The limits of detection (LOD) are 3.1×10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} for FL and 7.68×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for RLS. This study represents the comparison of these two methods using the same CIP–Cu{sup 2+}–MTs system. They not only allow practical application for MTs detection but also serve as a potential choice for the operators according to their concrete needs. In addition, the mechanisms for FL and RLS enhancement of the system were also discussed. -- Highlights: ► Determination of MTs was developed based on CIP–Cu(II) system by FL and RLS strategies. ► FL strategy provides lower limit of detection and wider linear range, and avoids the label and derivatization steps. ► RLS strategy can be applied for determining bio-macromolecules and small molecules. ► The mechanism of interaction of MTs with CIP–Cu(II) chelate was discussed.

  8. An Unusual Endovascular Therapeutic Approach for a Rare Case of May-Thurner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrian; Masha, Luke; Peerbhai, Shareez

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: May-Thurner syndrome secondary to left common iliac artery aneurysm Symptoms: Left lower extremity edema • left lower extremity erythema • left lower extremity pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of the infra-renal abdominal aorta aneurysm and right common iliac artery aneurysm Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: The etiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may pose a significant diagnostic challenge because truly reversible causes of DVT are rare. In this regard, known pelvic anatomic abnormalities such as aortic and iliac aneurysms should be seriously considered as a complicating factor in patients presenting with acute DVT so as not to miss a potentially curable etiology of May-Thurner syndrome (MTS). Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a known abdominal aortic aneurysm and bilateral iliac artery aneurysms who presented with an acute DVT. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed increased dilation of his aneurysmal disease with new resultant compression of the left iliac vein representing acquired MTS. The patient underwent endovascular aneurysm repair of the infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm and right common iliac artery aneurysm with a Gore Excluder endoprosthesis in lieu of venous stenting, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusions: Infra-renal aortic and iliac aneurysms causing MTS are extremely rare, and patients at risk for MTS through these mechanisms do not fit the classical demographics associated with this syndrome. Furthermore, this is the first case described in which MTS was treated by addressing the aneurysm through an endoprosthetic approach instead of venous stenting, which is the conventional intervention for MTS. PMID:28260745

  9. Diagnosis of Malignancy of Adult Mediastinal Tumors by Conventional and Transesophageal Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei Zhou; Hong-Wei Wang; Nan-Nan Liu; Jing-Jing Li; Wei Yuan; Rui Zhao; Liang-Bi Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a well-established method for detecting and diagnosing heart tumors.In contrast,its role in assessing the presence,growth and evidence of malignant tumors originating from mediastinal sites remains unclear.The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic impact of TEE and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for determining the localization,growth and malignancy of adult mediastinal tumors (MTs).Methods:In a prospective and investigator-blinded study,we evaluated 144 consecutive patients with MT lesions to assess the diagnostic impact of TEE and TTE for detecting the presence of tumors spreading both inside and outside of the heart and for determining infiltration and invasion using pathological examination results as a reference.Results:All tumor lesions were diagnosed and carefully evaluated by biopsy.Biopsy revealed malignant tumors in 79 patients and benign tumors in 65 patients.When compared to histological findings,TEE predicted malignancy from the presence of tumors spreading both inside and outside of the heart and from infiltration and invasion in 49/79 patients (62.0%).TTE predicted malignancy in only 8/79 patients (10.1%,P < 0.005).TEE visualized tumor lesions in 130 patients (90.3%) while the TTE visualized tumor lesions in 110 patients (76.4%) and was less effective at detecting MT lesions (P < 0.001).TTE and TEE could detect anterior MTs and adequately verified MTs (P > 0.05);TEE detected medium MTs better than TTE (P < 0.001).Conclusions:TEE is effective and superior to TTE for predicting the localization and growth of MTs as well as for accessing evidence of tumor malignancy.TTE and TEE were able to detect anterior MTs;TEE was able to detect medium MT better than TTE.

  10. Natriuresis and diuretic hormone synergism in R. prolixus upper Malpighian tubules is inhibited by the anti-diuretic hormone, RhoprCAPA-α2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V; Naikkhwah, Wida; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Insects contain an array of hormones that coordinate the actions of the excretory system to achieve osmotic and ionic balance. In the hematophagous insect, Rhodnius prolixus, two diuretic hormones have been identified, serotonin (5HT) and a corticotropin releasing factor-related peptide (RhoprDH), and both lead to an increase in fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs). However, only 5HT activates reabsorption by the lower MTs to recover K(+) and Cl(-). An anti-diuretic hormone (RhoprCAPA-α2) is believed to coordinate the cessation of the rapid diuresis following blood meal engorgement. However, the role of RhoprCAPA-α2 on fluid secretion by MTs stimulated by RhoprDH was previously unknown. Here we demonstrate that, unlike the inhibitory effect on 5HT-stimulated secretion by MTs, RhoprCAPA-α2 does not inhibit secretion stimulated by RhoprDH although it does abolish the synergism that occurs between the two diuretic hormones. In addition, we show that the natriuresis elicited by either diuretic hormone is reduced by RhoprCAPA-α2. Using electrophysiological tools, we investigate the possible mechanism by which this complex regulatory pathway is achieved. Analysis of the pH of secreted fluid as well as the triphasic response in transepithelial potential in MTs treated with diuretic hormones, suggests that RhoprCAPA-α2 does not inhibit the V-type H(+) ATPase. Taken together, these results indicate that RhoprCAPA-α2 functions to reduce the rapid diuresis following blood feeding, and in addition, it inhibits the natriuresis associated with diuretic hormone stimulated MTs. This may reflect an important regulatory mechanism related to the slow diuresis that occurs as the K(+)-rich blood cells are digested.

  11. An extended corona attached to metaphase kinetochores of the green alga Oedogonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett-Heaps, J D; Carpenter, J

    1993-04-01

    Mitotic cells of the green alga Oedogonium were treated with the anti-microtubule agent oryzalin (1.0-0.1 microM) for 5 to 10 min. Within 5 min treatment of living cells, metaphase spindles became spherical with disorganized chromosomes, and anaphase spindles collapsed. At lower concentrations, the effects were slower, and partial recovery was observed about 10 to 20 min after the drug was washed out. Following breakdown of the spindle, considerable disorganized activity detected by time-lapse continued within the nucleus, isolated from the cytoplasm by its intact nuclear membrane. Under the electron microscope, spindle microtubules (MTs) were absent in oryzalin-treated cells. Paired metaphase kinetochores displayed an array of fine filamentous material extended, usually straight, about 3 microns into the nucleoplasm. In cells recovering from oryzalin treatment, MTs became associated with kinetochores in the usual manner. However, this filamentous array, the "extended corona" (EC), was almost undetectable, even when the MTs were short and poorly organized. The EC is appreciably larger by metaphase than the corona of prophase chromosomes and so it may assemble during early mitosis. Fine filaments interspersed with kinetochore MTs have been described in carefully fixed cells of this alga (M.J. Schibler, J.D. Pickett-Heaps, Eur. J. Cell Biol. 22, 687-698 (1980)). The EC apparently represents a less organized form of this material remaining after its scaffold of MTs has been removed. These fibers appear involved in MT capture upon spindle recovery from anti-MT drugs. They could function during prometaphase and even anaphase movement along spindle MTs.

  12. A multiple time stepping algorithm for efficient multiscale modeling of platelets flowing in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3-4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations.

  13. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Xin Chan

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters (MTs facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT. Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%. Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely

  14. Synthesis of mesoporous TS-1 using a hybrid SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel for catalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung-Tae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong [Research Center for Green Catalysis, Division of Green Chemistry and Engineering Research, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 107, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Wha-Seung, E-mail: whasahn@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Meso-TS-1 catalyst was synthesized using a SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel with an organosilane precursor. ► Hierarchical pore structure was confirmed by characterization of the materials. ► Catalytic activity was tested using oxidative desulfurization of the model sulfur compounds. ► Meso-TS-1 demonstrated significantly improved catalytic activity than TS-1. -- Abstract: Mesoporous TS-1 (M-TS-1) was synthesized using a hybrid SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel combined with an organosilane precursor. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement. M-TS-1, prepared in 2 days, showed high crystallinity and the best textural properties among the samples. The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms of M-TS-1 exhibited a hysteresis loop at pressure higher than P/P{sub 0} = 0.4, clearly indicating the existence of mesopores. M-TS-1 has significantly larger mesopore volume (0.48 cm{sup 3}/g) than that of conventional TS-1 (0.07 cm{sup 3}/g), and showed a narrow peak centered at ca. 6.3 nm. In the oxidative desulfurization reaction, M-TS-1 was more active than conventional TS-1 at the same Ti-loading; M-TS-1 produced a dibenzothiophene (DBT) conversion of 96%, whereas conventional TS-1 produced a final DBT conversion of 5.6% after a reaction time of 180 min. Oxidative desulfurization over TS-1 was influenced both by electron density and steric hindrance in the sulfur compounds tested.

  15. Use of an aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay to measure viability and proliferation of lymphokine-dependent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, T M; McCubrey, J A; Owen, T C

    1993-01-04

    A new tetrazolium compound, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3- carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt), has recently been described which in the presence of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) is reduced by living cells to yield a formazan product that can be assayed colorimetrically. An important advantage of MTS/PMS over other tetrazolium dyes (e.g., MTT) is the aqueous solubility of the reduced formazan product which eliminates the need for detergent solubilization or organic solvent extraction steps. Its advantages over XTT/PMS, another tetrazolium which yields a water-soluble formazan product, include the absorbance range of color produced (515-580 nm as opposed to 450 nm), the rapidity of color development, and the storage stability of the MTS/PMS reagent solution. In the present study, MTS/PMS was used to assay viability and proliferation of the IL-2-dependent HT-2 and CTLL-2 cell lines and the IL-3-dependent FDC-P1 and FL5.12 cell lines. With each cell line, the amount of formazan product was time-dependent and proportional to the number of viable cells. Furthermore, with both HT-2 and CTLL-2 cells it was found that cultures could be simultaneously labeled with MTS/PMS and [3H]thymidine, with relatively little effect of the dye on uptake of the latter. This feature was further capitalized upon in studies with FDC-P1 cells, in which the co-addition of MTS/PMS and [3H]thymidine was used to distinguish between cell viability and proliferation.

  16. Bioreactor activated graft material for early implant fixation in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek Henriksen, Susan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    . The superficial part was used for mechanical testing and micro-CT scanning, and the profound part for histomorphometry. Push-out tests were performed on an 858 Bionix MTS hydraulic materials testing machine (MTS Systems Corporation, USA). Shear mechanical properties between implant and newly generated bone were......: No significant differences regarding failure energy (kJ/m2, p=0.44) or ultimate shear strength (MPa, p=0.17) could be seen. Shear stiffness (MPa) was significantly higher for the allograft group (p=0.04). Group 2: No significant differences regarding failure energy (p=0.11) or shear stiffness (p=0.52) could...

  17. Metal release in metallothioneins induced by nitric oxide: X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, Elena; Martín-Gago, José A; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2004-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins that include metal ions in thiolate clusters. The capability of metallothioneins to bind different metals has suggested their use as biosensors for different elements. We study here the interaction of nitric oxide with rat liver MTs by using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. We univocally show that the presence of NO induces the release of Zn atoms from the MT structure to the solution. Zn ions transform in the presence of NO from a tetrahedral four-fold coordinated environment in the MT into a regular octahedral six-fold coordinated state, with interatomic distances compatible with those of Zn solvated in water.

  18. Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Jeanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL and medication satisfaction after switching from a stable dose of oral extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH to methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS via a dose-transition schedule in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods In a 4-week, multisite, open-label study, 171 children (164 in the intent-to-treat [ITT] population aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD abruptly switched from a stable dose of oral ER-MPH to MTS nominal dosages of 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg using a predefined dose-transition schedule. Subjects remained on the scheduled dose for the first week, after which the dose was then titrated to an optimal effect. The ADHD Impact Module-Children (AIM-C, a disease-specific validated HRQL survey instrument measuring child and family impact, was used to assess the impact of ADHD symptoms on the lives of children and their families at baseline and study endpoint. Satisfaction with MTS use was assessed via a Medication Satisfaction Survey (MSS at study endpoint. Both the AIM-C and MSS were completed by a caregiver (parent/legally authorized representative. Tolerability was monitored by spontaneous adverse event (AE reporting. Results AIM-C child and family HRQL mean scores were above the median possible score at baseline and were further improved at endpoint across all MTS doses. Similar improvements were noted for behavior, missed doses, worry, and economic impact AIM-C item scores. Overall, 93.8% of caregivers indicated a high level of satisfaction with their child's use of the study medication. The majority of treatment-emergent AEs (> 98% were mild to moderate in intensity, and the most commonly reported AEs included headache, decreased appetite, insomnia, and abdominal pain. Seven subjects discontinued the study due to intolerable AEs (n = 3 and application site reactions (n = 4. Conclusion This study demonstrates that MTS, when carefully

  19. Kinetochore microtubule dynamics and the metaphase-anaphase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Y; Kronebusch, P J; Borisy, G G

    1995-11-01

    We have quantitatively studied the dynamic behavior of kinetochore fiber microtubules (kMTs); both turnover and poleward transport (flux) in metaphase and anaphase mammalian cells by fluorescence photoactivation. Tubulin derivatized with photoactivatable fluorescein was microinjected into prometaphase LLC-PK and PtK1 cells and allowed to incorporate to steady-state. A fluorescent bar was generated across the MTs in a half-spindle of the mitotic cells using laser irradiation and the kinetics of fluorescence redistribution were determined in terms of a double exponential decay process. The movement of the activated zone was also measured along with chromosome movement and spindle elongation. To investigate the possible regulation of MT transport at the metaphase-anaphase transition, we performed double photoactivation analyses on the same spindles as the cell advanced from metaphase to anaphase. We determined values for the turnover of kMTs (t1/2 = 7.1 +/- 2.4 min at 30 degrees C) and demonstrated that the turnover of kMTs in metaphase is approximately an order of magnitude slower than that for non-kMTs. In anaphase, kMTs become dramatically more stable as evidenced by a fivefold increase in the fluorescence redistribution half-time (t1/2 = 37.5 +/- 8.5 min at 30 degrees C). Our results also indicate that MT transport slows abruptly at anaphase onset to one-half the metaphase value. In early anaphase, MT depolymerization at the kinetochore accounted, on average, for 84% of the rate of chromosome movement toward the pole whereas the relative contribution of MT transport and depolymerization at the pole contributed 16%. These properties reflect a dramatic shift in the dynamic behavior of kMTs at the metaphase-anaphase transition. A release-capture model is presented in which the stability of kMTs is increased at the onset of anaphase through a reduction in the probability of MT release from the kinetochore. The reduction in MT transport at the metaphase

  20. Investigations of Photovoltaic Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Nonvolatile Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    GENERAL RAILWAY SIGNAL 15771 REDNILL AVENUE FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR 4747 IRVING BLVD SUITE ATTN R. PRICHARD 464 ELLIS ST ATTN C. SCHNEIDER, ENGR TUSTIN...HEWLETT-PACKARD BOX 3310 100 MARKET ST APT 1 3404 EAST HARMONY RD2U ATTN J. M. KIRSCH , MTS ATTN R. SCHAEFER ATTN L. W. JAMES, MTS FULLERTON, CA 92633...2701 E GRAUWYLER MS 69 ATTN L. J. KLEIN ATTN W. PARK RES ENGR ATTN G. FANCHER CORYDON, IA 50060 ATTN Y. H. TSUC, 410A IRVING , TX 75061 MENIAl PARK, CA