WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-center interference effects

  1. Role of the recoil effect in two-center interference in X-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Liu, X.-J.; Pruemper, G.; Lischke, T.; Tanaka, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Minkov, I.; Kimberg, V.; Gel'mukhanov, F.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectra of the N 2 molecule are studied both experimentally and theoretically in the extended energy region up to 1 keV. The ratio of the photoionization cross sections for the gerade and ungerade core levels displays a modulation in the high energy region caused by the two-center interference, as predicted by Cohen and Fano (CF) in 1966. The physical background of this CF effect is the same as in Young's double-slit experiment. We have found that the interference pattern deviates significantly from the CF prediction. The origin of such a breakdown of the CF formula is the scattering of the photoelectron inside the molecule and the momentum transfer from the emitted fast photoelectron to the nuclei. Usually the recoil effect is small. We show that the electron recoil strongly affects the two-center interference pattern. Both stationary and dynamical aspects of the recoil effect shed light on the role of the momentum exchange in the two-center interference

  2. Two-center interference effects in (e, 2e) ionization of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakazu; Nakajima, Isao; Satoh, Hironori; Watanabe, Noboru; Jones, Darryl; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in understanding quantum mechanical interference effects in molecular ionization. Since this interference appears as a consequence of coherent electron emission from the different molecular centers, it should depend strongly on the nature of the ionized molecular orbital. Such molecular orbital patterns can be investigated by means of binary (e, 2e) spectroscopy, which is a kinematically-complete electron-impact ionization experiment performed under the high-energy Bethe ridge conditions. In this study, two-center interference effects in the (e, 2e) cross sections of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer are demonstrated with a high-statistics experiment, in order to elucidate the relationship between molecular orbital patterns and the interference structure. It is shown that the two-center interference is highly sensitive to the phase, spatial pattern, symmetry of constituent atomic orbital, and chemical bonding nature of the molecular orbital. This work was partially supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (S) (No. 20225001) and for Young Scientists (B) (No. 21750005) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  3. Two center electron emission in collisions of fast ions with H, and H2: Interplay between interference and Compton profile effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Kadhane, U.R.; Fainstein, P.D.; Tribedi, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Young type interference effect has been studied in case of particle induced ionization of H 2 . Oscillations are derived by comparing the measured DDCS for H 2 with the calculated DDCS for H. The effect of the Compton profiles of H 2 and H on the interference structure is also studied. A theoretical model based on molecular distorted wave calculation explains the experimental results qualitatively

  4. Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Xin, G. G.; Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    When electrons tunnel through a barrier formed by the strong laser field and the two-center potential of a diatomic molecule, a double-slit-like interference can occur. However, this interference effect can not be probed directly right now, as it is strongly coupled with other dynamical processes during tunneling. Here, we show numerically and analytically that orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields are capable of resolving the interference effect in tunneling, while leaving clear footprints of this effect in photoelectron momentum distributions. Moreover, this effect can be manipulated by changing the relative field strength of OTC fields.

  5. Excitation two-center interference and the orbital geometry in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaran, T.; Augstein, B. B.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

    2011-01-01

    We address the influence of the molecular orbital geometry and of the molecular alignment with respect to the laser-field polarization on laser-induced nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules for different molecular species, namely N 2 and Li 2 . We focus on the recollision excitation with subsequent tunneling ionization (RESI) mechanism, in which the first electron, upon return, promotes the second electron to an excited state, from where it subsequently tunnels. We assume that both electrons are initially in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and that the second electron is excited to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). We show that the electron-momentum distributions exhibit interference maxima and minima due to the electron emission at spatially separated centers. We provide generalized analytical expressions for such maxima or minima, which take into account s-p mixing and the orbital geometry. The patterns caused by the two-center interference are sharpest for vanishing alignment angle and get washed out as this parameter increases. Apart from that, there exist features due to the geometry of the LUMO, which may be observed for a wide range of alignment angles. Such features manifest themselves as the suppression of probability density in specific momentum regions due to the shape of the LUMO wave function, or as an overall decrease in the RESI yield due to the presence of nodal planes.

  6. The intention interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Kantner, Justin; Dixon, Roger A; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Intentions have been shown to be more accessible (e.g., more quickly and accurately recalled) compared to other sorts of to-be-remembered information; a result termed an intention superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993). In the current study, we demonstrate an intention interference effect (IIE) in which color-naming performance in a Stroop task was slower for words belonging to an intention that participants had to remember to carry out (Do-the-Task condition) versus an intention that did not have to be executed (Ignore-the-Task condition). In previous work (e.g., Cohen et al., 2005), having a prospective intention in mind was confounded with carrying a memory load. In Experiment 1, we added a digit-retention task to control for effects of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the memory confound in a new way, by comparing intention-related and control words within each trial. Results from both Experiments 1 and 2 revealed an IIE suggesting that interference is very specific to the intention, not just to a memory load.

  7. Time and interference: Effects on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Marta; Palladino, Paola

    2016-05-01

    This study tested predictions from the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model with a classical verbal working memory (WM) task, where target and non-target information interfere strongly with each other. Different predictions can be formulated according to the dominant perspectives (TBRS and interference hypothesis) on the role of inhibitory control in WM task performance. Here, we aimed to trace the activation of irrelevant information, examining priming effects in a lexical decision task immediately following WM recall. Results indicate the roles of both time and interference constraints in determining task performance. In particular, the role of time available seemed crucial at the highest WM loads (i.e., 3 and 4 memoranda). These were also associated with a higher activation of no-longer-relevant information but, in this case, independently from time available for processing. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Interference effects of categorization on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-05-01

    Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural mechanisms of interference control in working memory: effects of interference expectancy and fluid intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Burgess

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical aspect of executive control is the ability to limit the adverse effects of interference. Previous studies have shown activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex after the onset of interference, suggesting that interference may be resolved in a reactive manner. However, we suggest that interference control may also operate in a proactive manner to prevent effects of interference. The current study investigated the temporal dynamics of interference control by varying two factors - interference expectancy and fluid intelligence (gF - that could influence whether interference control operates proactively versus reactively.A modified version of the recent negatives task was utilized. Interference expectancy was manipulated across task blocks by changing the proportion of recent negative (interference trials versus recent positive (facilitation trials. Furthermore, we explored whether gF affected the tendency to utilize specific interference control mechanisms. When interference expectancy was low, activity in lateral prefrontal cortex replicated prior results showing a reactive control pattern (i.e., interference-sensitivity during probe period. In contrast, when interference expectancy was high, bilateral prefrontal cortex activation was more indicative of proactive control mechanisms (interference-related effects prior to the probe period. Additional results suggested that the proactive control pattern was more evident in high gF individuals, whereas the reactive control pattern was more evident in low gF individuals.The results suggest the presence of two neural mechanisms of interference control, with the differential expression of these mechanisms modulated by both experimental (e.g., expectancy effects and individual difference (e.g., gF factors.

  10. The Cost of Learning: Interference Effects in Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin P.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning often affects future learning and memory for previously learned information by exerting either facilitation or interference effects. Several theoretical accounts of interference effects have been proposed, each making different developmental predictions. This research examines interference effects across development, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms of interference and of memory development. Preschool-aged children and adults participated in a three-phased associative learning paradigm containing stimuli that were either unique or repeated across phases. Both age groups demonstrated interference effects, but only for repeated items. Whereas proactive interference effects were comparable across age groups, retroactive interference reached catastrophic-like levels in children. Additionally, retroactive interference increased in adults when contextual differences between phases were minimized (Experiment 2), and decreased in adults who were more successful at encoding repeated pairs of stimuli during a training phase (Experiment 3). These results are discussed with respect to theories of memory and memory development. PMID:25688907

  11. Quantum interference effects in nanostructured Au

    CERN Document Server

    Pratumpong, P; Evans, S D; Johnson, S; Howson, M A

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the magnetoresistance and temperature dependence of the resistivity for nanostructured Au produced by chemical means. The magnetoresistance was typical of highly disordered metals exhibiting quantum interference effects. We fitted the data and were able to determine the spin-orbit scattering relaxation time to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s and we found the inelastic scattering time at 10 K to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 1 s. The inelastic scattering rate varied as T sup 3 between 4 and 20 K, which is typical for electron-phonon scattering in disordered metals.

  12. Coherent interference effects in SIEM and CBED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The coherent convergent incident beam produced by the field emission gun of a STEM instrument allows the observation of a number of unusual interference effects in the shadow images (SIEM) and convergent beam diffraction (CBED) patterns visible on the detector plane. Shadow images of thin crystals display the electron Ronchigrams having a form sensitive to the defocus and aberrations of the objective lens. For large crystal lattice spacings the Ronchigrams show characteristic ellipses of low contrast. CBED patterns of thin crystal show symmetries and intensities which vary with the position of the incident beam within the unit cell. Discontinuities in the specimen such as the edges of crystals show striking Fresnel diffraction effects in SIEM. In CBED patterns they give rise to the splitting of diffraction spots. If the incident beam is parallel to a smooth face of a small crystal the potential field outside the crystal gives rise to strong refraction effects. (orig.)

  13. Study on index system of GPS interference effect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zeng, Fangling; Zhao, Yuan; Zeng, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation interference effect evaluation is the key technology to break through the research of Navigation countermeasure. To evaluate accurately the interference degree and Anti-jamming ability of GPS receiver, this text based on the existing research results of Navigation interference effect evaluation, build the index system of GPS receiver effectiveness evaluation from four levels of signal acquisition, tracking, demodulation and positioning/timing and establish the model for each index. These indexes can accurately and quantitatively describe the interference effect at all levels.

  14. Interference effects in double ionization of spatially aligned hydrogen molecules by fast highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, A.L.; Alnaser, A.S.; Tanis, J.A.; Wells, E.; Osipov, T.; Carnes, K.D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C.L.; McGuire, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cross sections differential in target orientation angle were measured for 19 MeV F 8+ +D 2 collisions. Multihit position-sensitive detectors were used to isolate the double-ionization channel and determine a posteriori the full momentum vectors of both ejected D + fragments. A strong dependence of the double ionization cross section on the angle between the incident ion direction and the target molecular axis is observed with a ≅3.5:1 enhancement for molecules aligned perpendicular to the projectile axis. This clear asymmetry is attributed to interference effects, analogous to Young's two-slit experiment, arising from coherent contributions to the ionization from both atomic centers. The data are compared to a simple scattering model based on two center interference

  15. Inertial and interference effects in optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstens, W; Smith, D Y

    2015-01-01

    Interference between free-space and material components of the displacement current plays a key role in determining optical properties. This is illustrated by an analogy between the Lorentz optical model and a-c circuits. Phase shifts in material-polarization currents, which are inertial, relative to the non-inertial vacuum-polarization current cause interference in the total displacement current and, hence, variation in E-M wave propagation. If the displacement-current is reversed, forward propagation is inhibited yielding the semimetallic reflectivity exhibited by intrinsic silicon. Complete cancellation involves material currents offsetting free-space currents to form current-loops that correspond to plasmons. (paper)

  16. Acoustic and semantic interference effects in words and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, M; Pellegrino, J W

    1977-05-01

    Interference effects for pictures and words were investigated using a probe-recall task. Word stimuli showed acoustic interference effects for items at the end of the list and semantic interference effects for items at the beginning of the list, similar to results of Kintsch and Buschke (1969). Picture stimuli showed large semantic interference effects at all list positions with smaller acoustic interference effects. The results were related to latency data on picture-word processing and interpreted in terms of the differential order, probability, and/or speed of access to acoustic and semantic levels of processing. A levels of processing explanation of picture-word retention differences was related to dual coding theory. Both theoretical positions converge on an explanation of picture-word retention differences as a function of the relative capacity for semantic or associative processing.

  17. Evolution of direct mechanisms with incident energy from the Coulomb-barrier to relativistic energies. - Two-center effects in nucleon transfer between nuclei. - Signatures of nucleon promotion in heavy ion reactions at barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertzen, W. von; Voit, H.; Imanishi, B.

    1988-10-01

    This report contains a review article considering the evolution of direct mechanisms with incident energy in heavy ion reactions and two theoretical articles concerning two-center effects in transfer reactions between heavy ions and the nucleon promotion in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  18. Proactive interference effects on sentence production

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, VICTOR S.; FIRATO, CARLA E.

    2002-01-01

    Proactive interference refers to recall difficulties caused by prior similar memory-related processing. Information-processing approaches to sentence production predict that retrievability affects sentence form: Speakers may word sentences so that material that is difficult to retrieve is spoken later. In this experiment, speakers produced sentence structures that could include an optional that, thereby delaying the mention of a subsequent noun phrase. This subsequent noun phrase was either (...

  19. Stroop-interference effect in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the conflict processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we conducted the classical Stroop task by recording event-related potentials. Although the reaction time was overall slower for PTSD patients than healthy age-matched control group, the Stroop-interference effect of reaction time did not differ between the two groups. Compared with normal controls, the interference effects of N 2 and N 450 components were larger and the interference effect of slow potential component disappeared in PTSD. These data indicated the dysfunction of conflict processing in individuals with PTSD.

  20. Interference effects in negative ion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, I.; Morales, A.; de Urquijo, J.; Cisneros, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents recent data on differential cross sections for H - formation from collisions of H + and H 0 with Ar in the energy range 1.0 to 4 keV. Experimental data exhibit a sharp maximum at 0 0 scattering angle as well as an oscillatory structure. The functional form and scaling properties strongly indicate that there is a glory maximum which occurs when the classical deflection function changes over from attractive to repulsive at some finite impact parameter. The oscillations are predicted by the Bessel function and may be said to arise from interference of the contributions from the two branches of the deflection function near to a glory

  1. Interference effects in MSSM Higgs searches at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elina [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Complex parameters in the MSSM lead to mixing and interference between the two heavier neutral CP-even and CP-odd Higgs states. These effects can become very large in the case of almost degenerate states. In a CP-violating benchmark scenario, we investigate phenomenological implications of such interferences in view of the LHC searches for heavy Higgs bosons decaying to a pair of τ-leptons and produced in gluon fusion and in association with b-quarks. Strongly destructive effects leave parameter regions unconstrained that would be regarded as excluded if no interference terms were taken into account.

  2. Interference effects in learning similar sequences of discrete movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijker, J.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Beek, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine proactive and retroactive interference effects in learning two similar sequences of discrete movements. In each experiment, the participants in the experimental group practiced two movement sequences on consecutive days (1 on each day, order

  3. Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.G.G.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas; Hussein, M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Barbosa, A.L.R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAEADTec/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Ensino a Distancia. Pos-Graduacao em Fisica Aplicada

    2014-07-01

    For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)

  4. Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Hussein, M.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)

  5. Interference scattering effects on intermediate resonance absorption at operating temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.

    1975-01-01

    Resonance integrals may be accurately calculated using the intermediate resonance (IR) approximation. Results are summarized for the case of an absorber with given potential scattering cross sections and interference scattering parameter admixed with a non absorbing moderator of given cross section and located in a narrow resonance moderating medium. From the form of the IR solutions, it is possible to make some general observations about effects of interference scattering on resonance absorption. 2 figures

  6. Interference effect on annealing temperature of A and E centers in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, P. H.; Tanaka, T.

    1971-01-01

    The significance of recent experimental observations on the annealing defects in n-type silicon has been examined. The observed anomalous annealing temperatures of A and E centers and their impurity concentration dependence are explained by an interference between the two centers.

  7. Assessing effects of cholera vaccination in the presence of interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Hudgens, Michael G; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Clemens, John D; Ali, Mohammad; Emch, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    Interference occurs when the treatment of one person affects the outcome of another. For example, in infectious diseases, whether one individual is vaccinated may affect whether another individual becomes infected or develops disease. Quantifying such indirect (or spillover) effects of vaccination could have important public health or policy implications. In this article we use recently developed inverse-probability weighted (IPW) estimators of treatment effects in the presence of interference to analyze an individually-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cholera vaccination that targeted 121,982 individuals in Matlab, Bangladesh. Because these IPW estimators have not been employed previously, a simulation study was also conducted to assess the empirical behavior of the estimators in settings similar to the cholera vaccine trial. Simulation study results demonstrate the IPW estimators can yield unbiased estimates of the direct, indirect, total, and overall effects of vaccination when there is interference provided the untestable no unmeasured confounders assumption holds and the group-level propensity score model is correctly specified. Application of the IPW estimators to the cholera vaccine trial indicates the presence of interference. For example, the IPW estimates suggest on average 5.29 fewer cases of cholera per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 2.61, 7.96) will occur among unvaccinated individuals within neighborhoods with 60% vaccine coverage compared to neighborhoods with 32% coverage. Our analysis also demonstrates how not accounting for interference can render misleading conclusions about the public health utility of vaccination. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of M1-transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregudov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study is the calculation of interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of the (γ, e) reaction. Two channels of the inelastic (γ, e) reaction are considered: resonance gamma radiation absorption by nucleus accompanied by internal conversion and photo absorption by atomic electrons. The case of M1 nuclear transition multipolarity is considered. The expression for angular dependence coefficients of interference member is obtained. General expression for (γ, e) reaction cross section is obtained in a long-wave approximation for the case when the specimen is placed in longitudinal magnetic field involving superfine nuclear level splitting. The results of disperse amplitudes calculation for 93 Kr, 119 Sn, 129 I, 149 Sm, 151 Eu, 169 Tm, 183 W, 193 Ir, 197 Au nuclei are verified. The calculations show that maximum interference effect in the (γ, e) reaction should be expected for 169 Tm isotope [ru

  9. Interference and memory capacity effects in memristive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiz, John; Chang, Ting; Du, Chao; Lu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Short-term memory implies the existence of a capacity limit beyond which memory cannot be securely formed and retained. The underlying mechanisms are believed to be two primary factors: decay and interference. Here, we demonstrate through both simulation and experiment that the memory capacity effect can be implemented in a parallel memristor circuit, where decay and interference are achieved by the inherent ion diffusion in the device and the competition for current supply in the circuit, respectively. This study suggests it is possible to emulate high-level biological behaviors with memristor circuits and will stimulate continued studies on memristor-based neuromorphic circuits.

  10. Temperature effects on quantum interference in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    A number of experiments have demonstrated that destructive quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular junctions lead to very low conductances even at room temperature. On the other hand, another recent experiment showed increasing conductance with temperature which was attributed to decoheren...

  11. Interference effects in new physics processes at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elina

    2015-09-01

    Interference effects between nearly mass-degenerate particles are addressed in this thesis, comprising higher-order calculations, a modelindependent method to calculate interference terms efficiently and a phenomenological application to current Higgs searches at the LHC. Predictions of cross sections and decay widths can be severely affected by interference terms between quasi-degenerate states arising in models beyond the Standard Model. We formulate a generalisation of the narrow-width approximation (NWA) which allows for a consistent treatment of such effects by factorising the interference term into on-shell matrix elements of the production and decay parts, optionally further approximated as simple interference weight factors, incorporating oneloop and real corrections in a UV- and IR-finite way. We apply the generalised NWA to interfering MSSM Higgs bosons in the process χ 0 4 →χ 0 1 Φ→χ 0 1 τ + τ - , Φ=h, H and achieve an agreement of better than 1% with the unfactorised three-body decay of the neutralino χ 0 4 at NLO. Further, we derive the approximation of the full propagator matrix of the three neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in terms of Breit- Wigner propagators and on-shell wave-function normalisation factors Z. This is found to accurately reproduce the full mixing properties also in the case of complex MSSM parameters. Moreover, it enables the implementation of the total width at the highest available order. Using the Breit-Wigner and Z-factor formalism, we calculate CP-violating interference effects of the neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in the process b anti b→h 1,2,3 →τ +τ - , induced by the phase φ A t . We find a very significant, destructive interference between h 2 and h 3 , particularly for large μ. As a consequence, a considerable parameter region in the complex M mod+ h scenario, which would appear to be ruled out if this interference were neglected, actually escapes the current exclusion bounds from the LHC.

  12. Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, Marcello

    2012-09-14

    In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.

  13. Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.

  14. Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.

  15. An interference account of the missing-VP effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eBader

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentences with doubly center-embedded relative clauses in which a verb phrase (VP is missing are sometimes perceived as grammatical, thus giving rise to an illusion of grammaticality. In this paper, we provide a new account of why missing-VP sentences, which are both complex and ungrammatical, lead to an illusion of grammaticality, the so-called missing-VP effect. We propose that the missing-VP effect in particular, and processing difficulties with multiply center-embedded clauses more generally, are best understood as resulting from interference during cue-based retrieval. When processing a sentence with double center-embedding, a retrieval error due to interference can cause the verb of an embedded clause to be erroneously attached into a higher clause. This can lead to an illusion of grammaticality in the case of missing-VP sentences and to processing complexity in the case of complete sentences with double center-embedding. Evidence for an interference account of the missing-VP effect comes from experiments that have investigated the missing-VP effect in German using a speeded grammaticality judgments procedure. We review this evidence and then present two new experiments that show that the missing VP effect can be found in German also with less restricting procedures. One experiment was a questionnaire study which required grammaticality judgments from participants but without imposing any time constraints. The second experiment used a self-paced reading procedure and did not require any judgments. Both experiments confirm the prior findings of missing-VP effects in German and also show that the missing-VP effect is subject to a primacy effect as known from the memory literature. Based on this evidence, we argue that an account of missing-VP effects in terms of interference during cue-based retrieval is superior to accounts in terms of limited memory resources or in terms of experience with embedded structures.

  16. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Binaural Interference and the Effects of Age and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoi, Bruna S S; Bentler, Ruth A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of binaural interference, defined here as poorer speech recognition with both ears than with the better ear alone, is well documented. Studies have suggested that its prevalence may be higher in the elderly population. However, no study to date has explored binaural interference in groups of younger and older adults in conditions that favor binaural processing (i.e., in spatially separated noise). Also, the effects of hearing loss have not been studied. To examine binaural interference through speech perception tests, in groups of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal hearing for their age, and older adults with hearing loss. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-three participants with symmetric thresholds were recruited from the University of Iowa community. Participants were grouped as follows: younger with normal hearing (18-28 yr, n = 12), older with normal hearing for their age (73-87 yr, n = 9), and older with hearing loss (78-94 yr, n = 12). Prior noise exposure was ruled out. The Connected Speech Test (CST) and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered to all participants bilaterally, and to each ear separately. Test materials were presented in the sound field with speech at 0° azimuth and the noise at 180°. The Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) was administered to all participants through earphones. Hearing aids were not used during testing. Group results were compared with repeated measures and one-way analysis of variances, as appropriate. Within-subject analyses using pre-established critical differences for each test were also performed. The HINT revealed no effect of condition (individual ear versus bilateral presentation) using group analysis, although within-subject analysis showed that 27% of the participants had binaural interference (18% had binaural advantage). On the CST, there was significant binaural advantage across all groups with group data analysis, as well as for 12% of the participants at each of the two

  20. Tuning the thermal conductance of molecular junctions with interference effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, J. C.; Cuevas, J. C.; Pauly, F.

    2017-12-01

    We present an ab initio study of the role of interference effects in the thermal conductance of single-molecule junctions. To be precise, using a first-principles transport method based on density functional theory, we analyze the coherent phonon transport in single-molecule junctions made of several benzene and oligo(phenylene ethynylene) derivatives. We show that the thermal conductance of these junctions can be tuned via the inclusion of substituents, which induces destructive interference effects and results in a decrease of the thermal conductance with respect to the unmodified molecules. In particular, we demonstrate that these interference effects manifest as antiresonances in the phonon transmission, whose energy positions can be tuned by varying the mass of the substituents. Our work provides clear strategies for the heat management in molecular junctions and, more generally, in nanostructured metal-organic hybrid systems, which are important to determine how these systems can function as efficient energy-conversion devices such as thermoelectric generators and refrigerators.

  1. Interference effect in the resonant emission of a semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassabois, G.; Bogani, F.; Triques, A. L.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph.

    2001-07-01

    We present a phenomenological description of the coherent emission from a semiconductor microcavity in the strong-coupling regime. We consider two main contributions which are calculated in the framework of the semiclassical approach of the linear dispersion theory: reflectivity corresponds to the response of a uniform microcavity while resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) arises from disorder. Our simulations are compared to experimental results obtained at normal incidence in a backscattering geometry by means of cw spectroscopy and interferometric correlation with subpicosecond resolution. In this geometry, a fair agreement is reached assuming interferences between the two aforementioned contributions. This interference effect gives evidence of the drastic modification of the RRS emission pattern of the embedded quantum well induced by the Fabry-Pérot cavity.

  2. Quantum interference effects in a cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Uzma; Ficek, Z

    2003-01-01

    We consider the effect of quantum interference on population distribution and photon statistics of a cavity field interacting with dressed states of a strongly driven three-level atom. We analyse three coupling configurations of the cavity field to the driven atom, with the cavity frequency tuned to the outer Rabi sideband, the inner Rabi sideband and the central frequency of the 'singly dressed' three-level atom. The quantum doubly dressed states for each configuration are identified and the population distribution and photon statistics are interpreted in terms of transitions among these dressed states and their populations. We find that the population distribution depends strongly on quantum interference and the cavity damping. For the cavity field tuned to the outer or inner Rabi sidebands the cavity damping induces transitions between the dressed states which are forbidden for the ordinary spontaneous emission. Moreover, we find that in the case of the cavity field coupled to the inner Rabi sideband the population distribution is almost Poissonian with a large average number of photons that can be controlled by quantum interference. This system can be considered as a one-atom dressed-state laser with controlled intensity

  3. Pomeron-Odderon interference effects in electroproduction of two pions

    CERN Document Server

    Hägler, P; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V

    2002-01-01

    We study Pomeron-Odderon interference effects giving rise to charge and single-spin asymmetries in diffractive electroproduction of a pi sup + pi sup - pair. We calculate these asymmetries, originating from both longitudinal and transverse polarizations of the virtual photon, in the framework of QCD and in the Born approximation, in a kinematical domain accessible to HERA experiments. We predict a sizable charge asymmetry with a characteristic dependence on the invariant mass of the pi sup + pi sup - pair, which makes this observable very important for establishing the magnitude of the Odderon exchange in hard processes. The single-spin asymmetry turns out to be rather small. We briefly discuss future improvements of our calculations and their possible effects on the results. (orig.)

  4. Interference Effects in Bimanual Coordination Are Independent of Movement Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Sarah; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneously executed limb movements interfere with each other. Whereas the interference between discrete movements is examined mostly from a cognitive perspective, that between rhythmic movements is studied mainly from a dynamical systems perspective. As the tools and concepts developed by both communities are limited in their applicability to…

  5. Interference Effects in Strong-Field Dissociative Ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Lun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2015-01-01

    with simple energy conservation arguments. We explain the structures as interferences between wave packets released during different optical cycles, and during the same optical cycle, respectively. Both inter- and intracycle interference structures are clearly visible in the joint energy spectra. The shapes...

  6. The effects of trait impulsivity on proactive and reactive interference control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Chen, Yan; Chen, Antao; Zhang, Fenghua; Xu, Fuming; Wang, Baoxi

    2018-02-01

    The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore whether self-reported trait impulsivity in healthy individuals might be differentially related to proactive and reactive interference control. Participants with high and low impulsivity (HI and LI, respectively) performed a modified version of the prime-target interference task. Proactive interference control was induced in the mostly incongruent (MI) context and reactive interference control was induced in the mostly congruent (MC) context. Although the behavioral data revealed no difference between HI and LI individuals in terms of the interference effects (incongruent - congruent) under both contexts, the ERP results showed that impulsivity has a different influence on the interference effects under different task contexts. In the MC context, the interference effects on the medial frontal negativity (MFN) and the negative sustained potential (N-SP) were greater, while that on the positive sustained potential (P-SP) were smaller in the HI compared to those in the LI group. This suggests that high levels of impulsivity might be associated with a reduced efficiency of the processes supporting reactive control to resolve interference when interference is not expected. In contrast, the three ERP indices (MFN, P-SP, and N-SP) of interference processing in the MI context were insensitive to variations in impulsivity. This suggests that HI individuals might be as effective as LI individuals in recruiting proactive control for sustained active maintenance of task goals to anticipate and prevent interference throughout the experimental blocks where interference occurs frequently. In conclusion, these results indicate that impulsivity has a more negative influence on reactive interference control than on proactive interference control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of proactive interference on non-verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Nee, Derek E; Nelson, Eric; Senger, Thea; Jonides, John; Malapani, Chara

    2017-02-01

    Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of PI in visual WM using both objects with high and low nameability. Using a Directed-Forgetting paradigm, we varied discriminability between WM items on two dimensions, one verbal (high-nameability vs. low-nameability objects) and one perceptual (colored vs. gray objects). As in previous studies using verbal material, effects of PI were found with object stimuli, even after controlling for verbal labels being used (i.e., low-nameability condition). We also found that the addition of distinctive features (color, verbal label) increased performance in rejecting intrusion probes, most likely through an increase in discriminability between content-context bindings in WM.

  8. Low-intensity interference effects and hidden-variable theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-05-11

    The double-slit interference experiment and other similar experiments in the low-intensity limit (that is, one photon in the apparatus at a time) are examined in the spirit of Bell's work from the point of view of hidden-variable theories. It is found that there exists a class of hidden-variable theories which disagrees with quantum mechanics for a certain type of interference experiment. A manufactured conceptualization of this class, which is a particle view of interference, is described. An experiment, which appears to be feasible, is proposed to examine this disagreement.

  9. Coherent interference effects and squeezed light generation in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kenan

    My Ph.D. dissertation is on the fundamental effects in optomechanical systems (OMS) and their important applications. The OMS are based on the possibility of the mechanical motion produced by few photons incident on the mechanical device. This dissertation presents several applications of the OMS in the area of storage of light in long-lived phonons, single mode optomechanical Ramsey interferometry, and generation of large amount of squeezing in the output radiation. The long-lived phonons can be monitored and controlled via optical means as was experimentally demonstrated. To show this, I develop the theory of transient electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For further applications like state transfer, especially over very different frequency regimes, I consider double-cavity OMS, where the two cavities can correspond to different spectral domains, yet the state transfer is possible via phonons. The state transfer is based on a new effect, electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), where one uses a second control field from the other cavity to produce an absorption peak inside the EIT window. All these involve the interference of various path ways via which a final state is reached. The following chapter shows how Fano-like interference can arise in OMS. A Fano asymmetry parameter for OMS was defined. The last two chapters deal with the question if OMS can be efficient generators of squeezed light. I show by blue and red tuning the two cavities in a double-cavity OMS, one can generate effectively a two-mode parametric interaction which yields two-mode squeezed output with the squeezing magnitude of the order of 10dB. This requires a bath temperature of 10mK. Such temperatures obtained by using Helium dilution refrigerator are routinely used with superconducting OMS. The major part of this dissertation is devoted to the dispersive optomechanical interaction. However, the interaction can also be dissipative, where the mechanical displacement modulates

  10. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Yeung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.

  11. Magnetophotorefractive effect and interference filters in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam-Hansen, C.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental photorefractive and photovoltaic properties of iron-doped lithium niobate crystals. Experimental observations of a strong magnetic field effect on the energy coupling and grating formation in a vectorial interaction scheme are presented. To the author's knowledge these are the first reported results in the field. It is shown that an enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of 60% is possible by applying even a moderate magnetic field of 0.23 T. A new theoretical model of the magnetophotorefractive effect in the vectorial interaction scheme is presented. It describes the space-charge field formation, two-wave mixing and grating formation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field. Good agreement with the experimental results and the first measurement of nondiagonal components of the magnetophotovoltaic tensor are reported. A theoretical model for the temperature properties of photorefractive interference filters with subangstrom bandwidths are presented and compared favourably with experimental investigations. A novel method for determining the spectral response of these filters from a combined thermal and angular response measurements is described. (au) 9 tabs., 30 ills., 84 refs

  12. Phases, quantum interferences and effective vector meson masses in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyeur, M.

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the prospects for observing the mass of {rho}- and {omega}-mesons around nuclear matter density by studying their coherent photoproduction in nuclear targets and subsequent in-medium decay into e{sup +}e{sup -}pairs. The quantum interference of {rho} and {omega}-mesons in the e{sup +}e{sup -}channel and the interference between Bethe-Heitler pairs and dielectrons from vector meson decays are of particular interest. (author). 21 refs.

  13. Interference effects in the nonlinear charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, D.; Batistic, I.; Bjelis, A.

    1987-12-01

    The main features of the nonlinear charge density wave transport in the external dc-ac field are shown to be the natural consequences of resonant phase slip diffusion. This process is treated numerically within the time dependent Landau-Ginzburg model, developed by Gor'kov. The resonances in the ac field are manifested as Shapiro steps in I-V characteristics, present at all rational ratios of internal frequency of current oscillations and external ac frequency. The origin of Shapiro steps, as well as their forms and heights, are cosidered in detail. In particular, it is shown that close to resonances the phase slip voltage acquires a highly nonsinusoidal modulation which leads to the appearance of low frequency and satellite peaks in the Fourier spectrum. Taking into account the interference of adjacent phase slips and the segment or domain structure of physical samples, we interpret the finite width of steps, side wings, synchronization, incomplete and complete mode locking and some other effects observed in numerous experiments on NbSe 3 and other CDW materials. (author). 36 refs, 12 figs

  14. The Locus of the Gratton Effect in Picture-Word Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik

    Between-trial effects in Stroop-like interference tasks are linked to differences in the amount of cognitive control. Trials following an incongruent trial show less interference, an effect suggested to result from the increased control caused by the incongruent previous trial (known as the Gratton

  15. The effect of scattering interference term on the practical width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins do Amaral, C.; Martinez, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The practical width Γ p has an important application in the characterization of the resonance type for the calculation of neutron average cross sections. Previous treatments ignore the interference term χζ,x for the Doppler broadening function in the practical width calculation. In the present paper, a rational approximation for the χζ,x function is derived, using a modified asymptotic Pade method. A new approximation for Γ p is obtained. The results which are presented here provide evidence that the practical width as a function of temperature varies considerably with the inclusion of the interference term χζ,x

  16. [Construction and selection of effective mouse Smad6 recombinant lenti-virus interference vectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Qi, Mengchun; Deng, Jiupeng; Liu, Gang; Chen, Huaiqing

    2010-10-01

    This experiment was designed to construct mouse Smad6 recombinant RNA interference vectors and determine their interference effects on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Three recombinant Smad6 RNA interference vectors were constructed by molecular clone techniques with a lenti-virus vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the correctness of recombinant vectors was verified by DNA sequencing. Mouse BMSCs were used for transfection experiments and BMP-2 was in use for osteogenic induction of MSCs. The transfection efficiency of recombinant vectors was examined by Laser confocal scanning microscope and the interference effect of recombinant vectors on Smad6 gene expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Three Smad6 recombinant RNA interference vectors were successfully constructed and their correctness was proved by DNA sequencing. After transfection, GFPs were effectively expressed in MSCs and all of three recombinant vectors gained high transfection efficiency (> 95%). Both real-time PCR and Western blot examination indicated that among three recombinant vectors, No. 2 Svector had the best interference effect and the interference effect was nearly 91% at protein level. In conclusion, Mouse recombinant Smad6 RNA interference (RNAi) vector was successfully constructed and it provided an effective tool for further studies on BMP signal pathways.

  17. In-Band Interference Effects on UTRA LTE Uplink Resource Block Allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the impact of in-band interference on the uplink multiple access of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, long term evolution (UTRA LTE). In- band and out-of-band interference arise as a result of transmitter imperfections. Out-of- band, or adjacent channel, interference can......, and when the interfering signal is received at higher power spectral density (PSD). The effect of frequency offset and different PSD level from the UE interferers to a victim UE is studied. The impact on different UE resource block size allocation is also investigated. The results are obtained from an LTE...

  18. The Effect of Spatial Interference Correlation and Jamming on Secrecy in Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2017-06-02

    Recent studies on secure wireless communication have shed light on a scenario where interference has a desirable impact on network performance. Particularly, assuming independent interference-power fluctuations at the eavesdropper and the receiver, opportunistic secure-information transfer can occur on the legitimate-link. However, interference is spatially correlated due to the common set of interfering sources, which may diminish the opportunistic-secure-spectrum-access (OSSA) probability. We study and quantify the effect of spatial interference correlation on OSSA in cellular-networks and investigate the potential of full-duplex jamming (FDJ) solutions. The results highlight the scenarios where FDJ improves OSSA performance.

  19. The Effect of Spatial Interference Correlation and Jamming on Secrecy in Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Elsawy, Hesham; Haenggi, Martin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on secure wireless communication have shed light on a scenario where interference has a desirable impact on network performance. Particularly, assuming independent interference-power fluctuations at the eavesdropper and the receiver, opportunistic secure-information transfer can occur on the legitimate-link. However, interference is spatially correlated due to the common set of interfering sources, which may diminish the opportunistic-secure-spectrum-access (OSSA) probability. We study and quantify the effect of spatial interference correlation on OSSA in cellular-networks and investigate the potential of full-duplex jamming (FDJ) solutions. The results highlight the scenarios where FDJ improves OSSA performance.

  20. Effect of the Critical Period of Weed Interference on Optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was carried out at the National Root Crop Research Institute experimental farm to determine the critical period of weed interference and magnitude of yield loss caused by weed on turmeric in 2008 and 2009 cropping season. Turmeric was subjected to 13 weeding regimes using randomized complete block ...

  1. Contextual Interference Effects in Learning Three Badminton Serves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Sinah; Magill, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to validate results obtained in laboratory research. Thirty female students learned three badminton serves in either a low, mixed, or high interference practice schedule and were given a retention and transfer test. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  2. Environmental conditions and intraspecific interference: unexpected effects of turbidity on pike (Esox lucius) foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P.A.; Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren

    2009-01-01

    on pike foraging alone or among conspecifics in different levels of water turbidity, we expected high turbidity to decrease the perceived risk of intraspecific interactions among pike, and thereby decrease the strength of interference, as turbidity would decrease the visual contact between individuals...... and act as a refuge from behavioural interactions. The results show that this is not the case, but suggest that interference is induced instead of reduced in high turbidity. Per capita foraging rates do not differ between pike foraging alone or in groups in our clear and moderately turbid treatments......, indicating no effect of interference. As high turbidity enhances prey consumption for pike individuals foraging alone, but does not have this effect for pike in groups, high turbidity induces the relative interference effect. We suggest that future evaluations of the stabilizing effects of interference...

  3. Effects of pelvic rotation and needle angle on pubic arch interference during transperineal prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincher, Sandra A.; Kim, Robert Y.; Ezekiel, Mark P.; Zinsli, Tom; Fiveash, John B.; Raben, David A.; Bueschen, Anton J.; Urban, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Pubic arch interference due to an enlarged prostate gland or a narrow pubic arch is often a limiting factor in adequate prostate coverage during transperineal brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of both pelvic rotation and needle angles on pubic arch interference using CT-based 3-D information. Methods and Materials: Seven patients had CT imaging in both supine and lithotomy positions and 3-D treatment planning was performed with three needle angles (20 downward, 0, 20 upward). The pubic arch interference was then measured and comparisons were made for each needle trajectory and pelvic position. Results: Increasing pelvic rotation from supine to lithotomy position shows less pubic arch interference. Directing the needle tip upward shows less pubic arch interference in both supine and lithotomy positions when compared to needle tips directed downward. Conclusions: Both pelvic position and needle angles are important factors influencing pubic arch interference. Preplanning CT-based 3-D information may assist for individualized treatment planning in patients with a significant bony interference, thus avoiding pubic arch interference during implantation

  4. Effects of context on visuomotor interference depends on the perspective of observed actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bortoletto

    Full Text Available Visuomotor interference occurs when the execution of an action is facilitated by the concurrent observation of the same action and hindered by the concurrent observation of a different action. There is evidence that visuomotor interference can be modulated top-down by higher cognitive functions, depending on whether own performed actions or observed actions are selectively attended. Here, we studied whether these effects of cognitive context on visuomotor interference are also dependent on the point-of-view of the observed action. We employed a delayed go/no-go task known to induce visuomotor interference. Static images of hand gestures in either egocentric or allocentric perspective were presented as "go" stimuli after participants were pre-cued to prepare either a matching (congruent or non-matching (incongruent action. Participants performed this task in two different cognitive contexts: In one, they focused on the visual image of the hand gesture shown as the go stimulus (image context, whereas in the other they focused on the hand gesture they performed (action context. We analyzed reaction times to initiate the prepared action upon presentation of the gesture image and found evidence of visuomotor interference in both contexts and for both perspectives. Strikingly, results show that the effect of cognitive context on visuomotor interference also depends on the perspective of observed actions. When focusing on own-actions, visuomotor interference was significantly less for gesture images in allocentric perspective than in egocentric perspective; when focusing on observed actions, visuomotor interference was present regardless of the perspective of the gesture image. Overall these data suggest that visuomotor interference may be modulated by higher cognitive processes, so that when we are specifically attending to our own actions, images depicting others' actions (allocentric perspective have much less interference on our own actions.

  5. Experimental research for γ-ray interference threshold effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Chen Xiangyue; Nie Xin; Xiang Hui; Guo Xiaoqiang; Mao Congguang; Cheng Jianping; Ni Jianping

    2007-01-01

    The high electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor using optical-fiber to transmit signal can restrain electromagnetic interference. The Compton electrons scattered by γ-ray irradiated from nuclear explosion or nuclear explosion simulator can generate high EMP, γ-ray can penetrate the shielding box and irradiate the integrated circuit directly. The γ-ray irradiation effect includes interference, latch up and burn out, these will make the measurement result unbelievable. In this paper, the experimental method researching the γ-ray irradiation effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor on Qiangguang-I accelerator is introduced. The γ-ray dose rate interference threshold is 2 x 10 6 Gy/s. (authors)

  6. The effect of experimental stress and experimental occlusal interference on masseteric EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, F D; Bichajian, C; Tira, D E; Lundeen, H C; Mahan, P E; Nicholas, B V

    1989-01-01

    This experiment attempted to study the separate and combined effects of occlusal interference and transient stress on masseteric activity among eight nonclinical human subjects. Before each of two sessions, subjects were fitted with an occlusal interference or an occlusally inert (control) molar clasp. During each session they viewed horrific and idyllic videotapes while masseter EMG was recorded bilaterally. Electrodermal measures validated that the horrific videotapes were stressful. Studies showed that the occlusal variable worked less well. The EMG was elevated contralateral to both clasps and during videotape viewing. The EMG effects from videotape viewing were relatively pronounced without the occlusal interference. Research implications are discussed.

  7. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0003 TR-2016-0003 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRONIC QUANTUM INTERFERENCE , PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITY, PHOTONIC BAND...EDGE EFFECTS FOR OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION Shawn-Yu Lin Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 8th Street Troy, New York 12180 26 Jan 2016 Final Report...2014 – 11 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference , Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects

  8. Chemical binding effects in resonance - potential interference scattering for harmonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwaifi, A.; Summerfield, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The neutron scattering cross section which is the quantity directly measured in experiments is given by the absolute square of the scattering amplitude. For energies near a resonance, this yields three terms: potential, resonant and interference. In this paper we deal with the interference neutron scattering cross section which is written in terms of a three-point correlation function. This function is calculated for the ideal gas and harmonic crystal models. For short collision times, the interference result for harmonic crystals is the same as the ideal gas but it has an effective temperature. This is the same effective temperature as was previously found for absorption and pure resonant processes. Therefore, the interference scattering cross section can be treated in the same way as resonant scattering and absorption are treated using an ideal gas result with the usual effective temperature. (author)

  9. Interference shake-up effects in the resonant Auger decay of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, B.M.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Petrov, I.D.; Demekhin, Ph.V.; Schartner, K.-H.; Ehresmann, A.; Schmoranzer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Parameters of the resonant 4p 4p -3dε-bar Auger effect (RA) following the 3d-n p (n=5,6) excitation in Kr were calculated with taking into account the interference between several resonant and direct non-resonant transition amplitudes. For the first time all individual lines of the extended RA spectrum which comprises both the 4p 4 ( 1 D) 5p and the 4p 4 ( 1 D) 6p groups of final ionic states were considered. It was revealed that each group contains individual lines where the interference contributions have different signs thus providing a weak interference effect on the average over the whole group. Interference effects are found to be more pronounced in the angular distribution of the RA products

  10. Changing room cues reduces the effects of proactive interference in Clark's Nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jody L; Kamil, Alan C; Webbink, Kate E

    2013-04-01

    To determine what factors are important for minimizing interference effects in spatial memory, Clark's Nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana were tested for their spatial memory for two serial lists of locations per day. In this experiment two unique landmark sets were either different between List 1 and List 2 or the same. We found that Nutcrackers were most susceptible to interference when the landmark sets were the same. This study suggests that repeatedly testing animal memory in the same room, with the same cues, can hamper recall due to interference.

  11. Viking telecommunication effects of GEOS satellite interference based on testing at the Madrid deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, F. V.; Kent, S. S.; Galvez, J. L.; Luaces, B. G.; Pasero, G. R.; Urech, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    In support of the ongoing NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) effort to understand and control possible interference between missions, testing was conducted at the Madrid Deep Space Station from July 1975 to February 1976 to characterize the effect on Viking 1975 telecommunication link performance of Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOS) downlink signals. The prime use of the data was to develop a capability to predict GEOS interference effects for evaluation of Viking 1975 mission impacts and possible temporary GEOS shutdown. Also, the data would serve as a basis for assessment of the GEOS impact on missions other than Viking as well as for more general interference applications. Performances of the reference receiver, telemetry, and planetary ranging were measured in the presence of various types of GEOS-related interference, including an unmodulated GEOS carrier and simulation of the actual spectrum by an ESA-supplied GEOS suitcase model.

  12. The effect of an occlusal interference on the masticatory system. An experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randow, K; Carlsson, K; Edlund, J; Oberg, T

    1976-01-01

    An experimental short term study on the effect of an occlusal interference on the path of closure of the mandible was carried out on 8 persons. The interference consisted of a gold inlay placed unilaterally in one of the mandibular first molars. Clinical and electromyographic studies revealed functional disturbances or pain in all subjects. The masticatory musculature was tender to palpation and showed coordinational disturbances; the TMJ showed tenderness to palpation, clicking and irregular movements and the interfering teeth periodontal tenderness.

  13. Friction coefficient and effective interference at the implant-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Niklas B; Morlock, Michael M; Bishop, Nicholas E

    2015-09-18

    Although the contact pressure increases during implantation of a wedge-shaped implant, friction coefficients tend to be measured under constant contact pressure, as endorsed in standard procedures. Abrasion and plastic deformation of the bone during implantation are rarely reported, although they define the effective interference, by reducing the nominal interference between implant and bone cavity. In this study radial forces were analysed during simulated implantation and explantation of angled porous and polished implant surfaces against trabecular bone specimens, to determine the corresponding friction coefficients. Permanent deformation was also analysed to determine the effective interference after implantation. For the most porous surface tested, the friction coefficient initially increased with increasing normal contact stress during implantation and then decreased at higher contact stresses. For a less porous surface, the friction coefficient increased continually with normal contact stress during implantation but did not reach the peak magnitude measured for the rougher surface. Friction coefficients for the polished surface were independent of normal contact stress and much lower than for the porous surfaces. Friction coefficients were slightly lower for pull-out than for push-in for the porous surfaces but not for the polished surface. The effective interference was as little as 30% of the nominal interference for the porous surfaces. The determined variation in friction coefficient with radial contact force, as well as the loss of interference during implantation will enable a more accurate representation of implant press-fitting for simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Le; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin; Yue, Yong; Zhang, Jinjin; Yu, Miao; Li, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference. In this work, four-beam laser interference was used to pattern single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of surface structures, and the number of laser pulses was applied to the process in air. By controlling the parameters of laser irradiation, different shapes of silicon structures were fabricated. The results were obtained with the single laser fluence of 354 mJ/cm 2 , 495 mJ/cm 2 , and 637 mJ/cm 2 , the pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, the laser exposure pulses of 30, 100, and 300, the laser wavelength of 1064 nm, and the pulse duration of 7–9 ns. The effects of the heat transfer and the radiation of laser interference plasma on silicon wafer surfaces were investigated. The equations of heat flow and radiation effects of laser plasma of interfering patterns in a four-beam laser interference distribution were proposed to describe their impacts on silicon wafer surfaces. The experimental results have shown that the laser fluence has to be properly selected for the fabrication of well-defined surface structures in a four-beam laser interference process. Laser interference patterns can directly fabricate different shape structures for their corresponding applications

  15. Effect of interference of capillary length on evaporation at meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Shu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kawara, Zensaku

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the experimental results on the evaporation characteristics of meniscus in various geometrical configurations which enable to vary a perimeter of liquid-vapor interface and a meniscus curvature were obtained, and the main factor in evaporation process was clarified. As the experimental conditions, the perimeter was adjusted from 1mm to 100mm order, and the curvature from the inverse of capillary length, κ( 0.4mm-1) , to about 10mm-1 . Measuring devices for evaporation rate, which consisted of a test section on an electric balance, was set to a reduced pressure environment for making the purified water in the test section evaporate. There is no heater in the test section and system was set to be isolated from outside environment. It was found that the evaporation rate and flux could be organized by the perimeter if the curvature is constant at κ. On the other hand, when the curvature is larger than κ, it was found that the curvature is the dominant factor in the evaporation process. It can be considered that an interference of capillary length is a key to understand these results.

  16. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  17. Interference effects of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons with a generalised narrow-width approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elina

    2014-11-01

    Mixing effects in the MSSM Higgs sector can give rise to a sizeable interference between the neutral Higgs bosons. On the other hand, factorising a more complicated process into production and decay parts by means of the narrow-width approximation (NWA) simplifies the calculation. The standard NWA, however, does not account for interference terms. Therefore, we introduce a generalisation of the NWA (gNWA) which allows for a consistent treatment of interference effects between nearly mass-degenerate particles. Furthermore, we apply the gNWA at the tree and 1-loop level to an example process where the neutral Higgs bosons h and H are produced in the decay of a heavy neutralino and subsequently decay into a fermion pair. The h-H propagator mixing is found to agree well with the approximation of Breit-Wigner propagators times finite wave-function normalisation factors, both leading to a significant interference contribution. The factorisation of the interference term based on on-shell matrix elements reproduces the full interference result within a precision of better than 1% for the considered process. The gNWA also enables the inclusion of contributions beyond the 1-loop order into the most precise prediction.

  18. IETS and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....

  19. Effects of experimental occlusal interference on body posture: an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, I; Gatto, M R; Bartolucci, M L; Bortolotti, F; Alessandri Bonetti, G; Michelotti, A

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between dental occlusion and body posture both among people and in scientific literature. The aim of the present longitudinal study is to investigate the effects of an experimental occlusal interference on body posture by means of a force platform and an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis. An occlusal interference of a 0- to 2-mm-thick glass composite was prepared to disturb the intercuspal position while not creating interference during lateral or protrusive mandibular excursions. Frontal and sagittal kinematic parameters, dynamic gait measurements and superficial electromyographic (SEMG) activity of head and neck muscles were performed on 12 healthy subjects. Measurements were taken 10 days before the application of the occlusal interference, and then immediately before the application, the day after it, and at a distance of 7 and 14 days under four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of this study show that an occlusal interference does not modify significantly over time static and dynamic parameters of body posture under different exteroceptive conditions. It has a minimal influence only on the frontal kinematic parameters related to mandibular position, and it induces a transient increase of the activity of masticatory muscles. In this study, the experimental occlusal interference did not significantly influence the body posture during a 14-day follow-up period. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. No effect of experimental occlusal interferences on pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and temporalis muscles in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, A; Farella, M; Steenks, M H; Gallo, L M; Palla, S

    2006-04-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interferences may lead to pain and tenderness of the masticatory muscles. Tender jaw muscles are more sensitive to pressure pain, as assessed by means of pressure algometry. We tested the effects of occlusal interferences on the pressure pain threshold of the jaw muscles by means of a double-blind randomized crossover experiment carried out on 11 young healthy females. Golden strips were glued either to an occlusal contact area (active interference) or to the vestibular surface of the same tooth (dummy interference) and left for 8 d each. Pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were assessed under interference-free, dummy-interference and active-interference conditions. The results indicated that the application of an active occlusal interference, as used in this study, did not influence significantly the pressure pain thresholds of these muscles in healthy individuals.

  1. Impact of CP-violating interference effects on MSSM Higgs searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elina

    2017-05-01

    Interference and mixing effects between neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM with complex parameters are shown to have a significant impact on the interpretation of LHC searches for additional Higgs bosons. Complex MSSM parameters introduce mixing between the CP-even and CP-odd Higgs states and generate CP-violating interference terms. Both effects are enhanced in the case of almost degenerate states. Employing as an example an extension of a frequently used benchmark scenario by a non-zero phase φ A t , the interference contributions are obtained for the production of neutral Higgs bosons in gluon-fusion and in association with b-quarks followed by the decay into a pair of τ-leptons. While the resonant mixing increases the individual cross sections for the two heavy Higgs bosons h 2 and h 3 , strongly destructive interference effects between the contributions involving h 2 and h 3 leave a considerable parameter region unexcluded that would appear to be ruled out if the interference effects were neglected.

  2. Impact of CP-violating interference effects on MSSM Higgs searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elina [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Weiglein, Georg [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Interference and mixing effects between neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM with complex parameters are shown to have a significant impact on the interpretation of LHC searches for additional Higgs bosons. Complex MSSM parameters introduce mixing between the CP-even and CP-odd Higgs states h, H, A into the mass eigenstates h{sub 1}, h{sub 2}, h{sub 3} and generate CP-violating interference terms. Both effects are enhanced in the case of almost degenerate states. Employing as an example an extension of a frequently used benchmark scenario by a non-zero phase φ{sub A{sub t}}, the interference contributions are obtained for the production of neutral Higgs bosons in gluon-fusion and in association with b-quarks followed by the decay into a pair of τ-leptons. While the resonant mixing increases the individual cross sections for the two heavy Higgs bosons h{sub 2} and h{sub 3}, strongly destructive interference effects between the contributions involving h{sub 2} and h{sub 3} leave a considerable parameter region unexcluded that would appear to be ruled out if the interference effects were neglected. (orig.)

  3. Impact of CP-violating interference effects on MSSM Higgs searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elina [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Interference and mixing effects between neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM with complex parameters are shown to have a significant impact on the interpretation of LHC searches for additional Higgs bosons. Complex MSSM parameters introduce mixing between the CP-even and CP-odd Higgs states and generate CP-violating interference terms. Both effects are enhanced in the case of almost degenerate states. Employing as an example an extension of a frequently used benchmark scenario by a non-zero phase φ{sub A{sub t}}, the interference contributions are obtained for the production of neutral Higgs bosons in gluon-fusion and in association with b-quarks followed by the decay into a pair of τ-leptons. While the resonant mixing increases the individual cross sections for the two heavy Higgs bosons h{sub 2} and h{sub 3}, strongly destructive interference effects between the contributions involving h{sub 2} and h{sub 3} leave a considerable parameter region unexcluded that would appear to be ruled out if the interference effects were neglected.

  4. Impact of CP-violating interference effects on MSSM Higgs searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elina; Weiglein, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Interference and mixing effects between neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM with complex parameters are shown to have a significant impact on the interpretation of LHC searches for additional Higgs bosons. Complex MSSM parameters introduce mixing between the CP-even and CP-odd Higgs states h, H, A into the mass eigenstates h_1, h_2, h_3 and generate CP-violating interference terms. Both effects are enhanced in the case of almost degenerate states. Employing as an example an extension of a frequently used benchmark scenario by a non-zero phase φ _{A_t}, the interference contributions are obtained for the production of neutral Higgs bosons in gluon-fusion and in association with b-quarks followed by the decay into a pair of τ -leptons. While the resonant mixing increases the individual cross sections for the two heavy Higgs bosons h_2 and h_3, strongly destructive interference effects between the contributions involving h_2 and h_3 leave a considerable parameter region unexcluded that would appear to be ruled out if the interference effects were neglected.

  5. Interference effects of two scalar boson propagators on the LHC search for the singlet fermion DM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P., E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr; Li, Jinmian, E-mail: jmli@kias.re.kr

    2017-02-10

    A gauge invariant UV-completion for singlet fermion DM interacting with the standard model (SM) particles involves a new singlet scalar. Therefore the model contains two scalar mediators, mixtures of the SM Higgs boson and a singlet scalar boson. Collider phenomenology of the interference effect between these two scalar propagators is studied in this work. This interference effect can be either constructive or destructive in the DM production cross section depending on both singlet scalar and DM masses, and it will soften the final state jets in the full mass region. Applying the CMS mono-jet search to our model, we find the interference effect plays a very important role in the DM search sensitivity, and the DM production cross section of our model is more than one order of magnitude below the LHC sensitivity at current stage.

  6. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of

  7. The Ranschburg Effect: Tests of the Guessing-Bias and Proactive Interference Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael F.; Schwartz, Marian

    1977-01-01

    The guessing-bias and proactive interference hypotheses of the Ranschburg Effect were investigated by giving three groups different instructions as to guessing during recall. Results failed to support the prediction that the effect should be reduced or eliminated on shift trials. Neither hypothesis received significant support. (CHK)

  8. The Relationship between Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects: Statistical Artifacts, Baselines, and a Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between interference and facilitation effects in the Stroop task is poorly understood yet central to its implications. At question is the modal view that they arise from a single mechanism--the congruency of color and word. Two developments have challenged that view: (a) the belief that facilitation effects are fractionally small…

  9. Quantum interference effects at room temperature in OPV-based single-molecule junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arroyo, Carlos R.; Frisenda, Riccardo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    Interference effects on charge transport through an individual molecule can lead to a notable modulation and suppression on its conductance. In this letter, we report the observation of quantum interference effects occurring at room temperature in single-molecule junctions based on oligo(3......)-phenylenevinylene (OPV3) derivatives, in which the central benzene ring is coupled to either para- or meta-positions. Using the break-junction technique, we find that the conductance for a single meta-OPV3 molecule wired between gold electrodes is one order of magnitude smaller than that of a para-OPV3 molecule...

  10. Two-center Coulomb problem with Calogero interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakobyan, T., E-mail: tigran.hakobyan@ysu.am; Nersessian, A., E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Armenia Tomsk Polytechnic University, Yerevan State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    We show that the Calogero-type perturbation preserves the integrability and partial separation of variables for the Stark–Coulomb and two-center Coulomb problems, and present the explicit expressions of their constants of motion. We reveal that this perturbation preserves the spectra of initial systems, but leads to the change of degree of degeneracy.

  11. Quantum chaos in the two-center shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milek, B; Noerenberg, W; Rozmej, P [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung m.b.H., Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-11-01

    Within an axially symmetric two-center shell model single-particle levels with {Omega}=1/2 are analyzed with respect to their level-spacing distributions and avoided level crossings as functions of the shape parameters. Only for shapes sufficiently far from any additional symmetry, ideal Wigner distributions are found as signature for quantum chaos. (orig.).

  12. Quantum chaos in the two-center shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milek, B; Noerenberg, W; Rozmej, P

    1989-03-01

    Within an axially symmetric two-center shell model single-particle levels with ..cap omega.. = 1/2 are analyzed with respect to their level-spacing distributions and avoided level crossings as functions of the shape parameters. Only for shapes sufficiently far from any additional symmetry, ideal Wigner distributions are found as signature for quantum chaos.

  13. Sleep and memory consolidation: motor performance and proactive interference effects in sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borragán, Guillermo; Urbain, Charline; Schmitz, Rémy; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    That post-training sleep supports the consolidation of sequential motor skills remains debated. Performance improvement and sensitivity to proactive interference are both putative measures of long-term memory consolidation. We tested sleep-dependent memory consolidation for visuo-motor sequence learning using a proactive interference paradigm. Thirty-three young adults were trained on sequence A on Day 1, then had Regular Sleep (RS) or were Sleep Deprived (SD) on the night after learning. After two recovery nights, they were tested on the same sequence A, then had to learn a novel, potentially competing sequence B. We hypothesized that proactive interference effects on sequence B due to the prior learning of sequence A would be higher in the RS condition, considering that proactive interference is an indirect marker of the robustness of sequence A, which should be better consolidated over post-training sleep. Results highlighted sleep-dependent improvement for sequence A, with faster RTs overnight for RS participants only. Moreover, the beneficial impact of sleep was specific to the consolidation of motor but not sequential skills. Proactive interference effects on learning a new material at Day 4 were similar between RS and SD participants. These results suggest that post-training sleep contributes to optimizing motor but not sequential components of performance in visuo-motor sequence learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Articulatory In-Out Effect Resists Oral Motor Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Berit; Topolinski, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    People prefer words with inward directed consonantal patterns (e.g., MENIKA) compared to outward patterns (KENIMA), because inward (outward) articulation movements resemble positive (negative) mouth actions such as swallowing (spitting). This effect might rely on covert articulation simulations, or subvocalizations, since it occurs also under…

  15. Novel interference effects and a new quantum phase in mesoscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mesoscopic systems have provided an opportunity to study quantum effects beyond the ... tance [2], normal electron persistent currents [3], non-local current and voltage relations .... If both Б½ and Б¾ are positive or flow in the same direction of the potential drop then the ..... Fermi distribution function ¼(¯) = (1 + exp[(¯ - ) М]).

  16. Analysis of some interference effects in a transonic wind tunnel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lombardi, G

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available tended to disappear when longitudinal stability and lift-dependent drag were analyzed as a function of lift characteristics. The drag rise Mach number evaluation seems be fully free from blockage effects. The dimensions of the tested larger model can...

  17. Effects of Sm addition on electromagnetic interference shielding property of Mg-Zn-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chubin [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China); Pan, Fusheng; Chen, Xianhua [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Luo, Ning [Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of Sm-containing magnesium alloys in the 30-1500 MHz testing frequency range was investigated by coaxial cable method. The results demonstrated that Mg-3Zn alloys displayed the best electromagnetic shielding property. When 0.5 wt% of Zr was added for crystal grain refinement, the shielding effectiveness (SE) was apparently reduced. The addition of the rare earth element Sm in ZK magnesium alloys can improve the electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys. The main reason for the differences in electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys was the change in conductivity. The addition of Zr in Mg-Zn alloys can refine the grains and consequently improve the grain boundary area significantly. Therefore, the number of irregularly arranged atoms at the grain boundaries increased, decreasing the conductivity of magnesium alloys and leading to a decrease in the electromagnetic interference shielding. Following the Sm addition, the Mg-Zn-Sm phase was precipitated at the grain boundaries and in cores. The precipitation of Sm-containing rare earth phases could consume the solid-soluted Zn atoms within the Mg, resulting in an increase in electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding improvement. (orig.)

  18. Interference fit effect on holed single plates loaded with tension-tension stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Croccolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of interference fit coupling on the fatigue strength of holed plates. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Axial fatigue tests have been carried out on holed specimens made of high performance steel (1075MPa of Ultimate strength and 990MPa of Yield strength with or without a pin, made of the same material, press fitted into their central hole. Three different conditions have been investigated: free hole specimens, specimens with 0.6% of nominal specific interference and specimens with 2% of nominal specific interference. The experimental stress-life (S–N curves pointed out an increased fatigue life of the interference fit specimens compared with the free hole ones. The numerical investigation was performed in order to analyse the stress fields by applying an elastic plastic 2D simulation with a commercial Finite Element software. The stress history and distribution along the contact interference of the fitted samples indicates a significant reduction of the local stress range due to the externally applied loading (remote stress since a residual and compressive stress field is generated by the pin insertion.

  19. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  20. Demodulation Radio Frequency Interference Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutu, Yue-Hong

    A series of investigations have been carried out to determine RFI effects in analog circuits using monolithic integrated operational amplifiers (op amps) as active devices. The specific RFI effect investigated is how amplitude-modulated (AM) RF signals are demodulated in op amp circuits to produce undesired low frequency responses at AM-modulation frequency. The undesired demodulation responses were shown to be characterized by a second-order nonlinear transfer function. Four representative op amp types investigated were the 741 bipolar op amp, the LM10 bipolar op amp, the LF355 JFET-Bipolar op amp, and the CA081 MOS-Bipolar op amp. Two op amp circuits were investigated. The first circuit was a noninverting unity voltage gain buffer circuit. The second circuit was an inverting op amp configuration. In the second circuit, the investigation includes the effects of an RFI suppression capacitor in the feedback path. Approximately 30 units of each op amp type were tested to determine the statistical variations of RFI demodulation effects in the two op amp circuits. The Nonlinear Circuit Analysis Program, NCAP, was used to simulate the demodulation RFI response. In the simulation, the op amp was replaced with its incremental macromodel. Values of macromodel parameters were obtained from previous investigations and manufacturer's data sheets. Some key results of this work are: (1) The RFI demodulation effects are 10 to 20 dB lower in CA081 and LF355 FET-bipolar op amp than in 741 and LM10 bipolar op amp except above 40 MHz where the LM10 RFI response begins to approach that of CA081. (2) The experimental mean values for 30 741 op amps show that RFI demodulation responses in the inverting amplifier with a 27 pF feedback capacitor were suppressed from 10 to 35 dB over the RF frequency range 0.1 to 150 MHz except at 0.15 MHz where only 3.5 dB suppression was observed. (3) The NCAP program can predict RFI demodulation responses in 741 and LF355 unity gain buffer circuits

  1. Interference Effects in the Optical Second Harmonic Generation from Ultrathin Alkali Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2000-01-01

    Interference effects are shown to strongly modulate the transmission second harmonic signal (fundamental wavelength 1067 nm) from rough alkali island films grown on insulating substrates if one varies the angle of incidence. Depending on growth conditions and substrate thickness, the measured...... second harmonic dependencies can be interpreted in terms of interference between frontside and rearside adsorbed islands or by taking into account the morphology of the adsorbed alkali islands. By the use of different polarization combinations of both pump and reflected second harmonic wave we obtain...... accurate values of the ratios of the relevant nonlinear optical coefficients....

  2. Signal-background interference effects for gg→H→W+W- beyond leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Caola, Fabrizio; Melnikov, Kirill; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    We study the effect of QCD corrections to the gg → H → W + W - signal-background interference at the LHC for a heavy Higgs boson. We construct a soft-collinear approximation to the NLO and NNLO corrections for the background process, which is exactly known only at LO. We estimate its accuracy by constructing and comparing the same approximation to the exact result for the signal process, which is known up to NNLO, and we conclude that we can describe the signal-background interference to better than O(10%) accuracy. We show that our result implies that, in practice, a fairly good approximation to higher-order QCD corrections to the interference may also be obtained by rescaling the known LO result by a K-factor computed using the signal process.

  3. Hydrolyzed collagen interferes with in vitro photoprotective effectiveness of sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela D'Almeida Peres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The chronological skin aging is a progressive and natural process with genetic and physiological changes. However, ultraviolet (UV radiation may accelerate the oxidative stress, generating carcinogenesis and photoaging. Natural compounds and their applications are considered a trend in the cosmetic market. The protein-based film-forming compounds play an important role, once it collaborates for the better distribution of sunscreens on the skin. Here we investigated the in vitro photoprotective effectiveness of sunscreens containing the hydrolyzed collagen associated with UVA, UVB and/or inorganic filters. Sunscreens were developed with octocrylene (7.5%, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone (3.0% and/or titanium dioxide (5.0%, associated or not with the hydrolyzed collagen (3.0%. In vitro photoprotective effectiveness was determined in a Labsphere(r UV2000S by the establishment of the sun protection factor (SPF and critical wavelength (nm values. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics were also assayed. The hydrolyzed collagen subjectively improved the formulation sensory characteristics. However, this bioactive compound led to a decrease of the SPF values of the photoprotective formulations containing octocrylene alone and octocrylene + butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane + TiO2. This inadequate interaction may be considered during the development of new sunscreens intended to contain protein-based components.

  4. Effects of experimental occlusal interferences in individuals reporting different levels of wake-time parafunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, Ambra; Cioffi, Iacopo; Landino, Donatella; Galeone, Carlotta; Farella, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the effects of an experimental occlusal interference differ between individuals reporting a high or low frequency of wake-time oral parafunctions. Study participants reporting very high (HFP group; n = 10) or very low (LFP group; n = 10) levels of oral parafunctions were selected by means of a questionnaire administered to 200 medical students. The selected participants wore an experimental occlusal interference in a single-blind longitudinal study, which comprised different occlusal conditions: interference free (IFC) and active occlusal interference (AIC). Assessments included clinical examination, measurements of nonfunctional tooth contacts, state and trait anxiety, and visual analog scale scores for occlusal discomfort, masticatory muscle pain, and headache. Data were analyzed by repeated measures twoway analysis of variance on ranked data, followed by calculation of within- and between-group differences using Friedman tests and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. During AIC, the frequency of nonfunctional tooth contacts significantly decreased in both groups (median [interquartile range, IQR]: in HFP from 55.3% [60.0%] to 31.1% [33.5%], P = .03; in LFP from 31.8% [32.4%] to 14.0% [22.8%], P interference caused more occlusal discomfort in the HFP group than in the LFP group (P = .02) and was associated with a significant increase of masticatory muscle pain (P = .05) and headache (P = .04) only in the HFP group. The application of an experimental occlusal interference has a different effect in individuals reporting a high or low frequency of oral parafunctions.

  5. Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms: nitrogen as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Hua, Wu; Jian-Min, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms are considered based on the coherent scattering of the ionized electrons by the two nuclei when their separation is less than or comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the ionized electrons. As an example, the single atomic nitrogen ionization cross section and the total cross sections of two nitrogen atoms with coherently added photoionization amplitudes are calculated from the threshold to about 60 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) of the photon energy. The photoionization cross sections of atomic nitrogen are obtained by using the close-coupling R-matrix method. In the calculation 19 states are included. The ionization energy of the atomic nitrogen and the photoionization cross sections agree well with the experimental results. Based on the R-matrix results of atomic nitrogen, the interference effects between two neighbouring nitrogen atoms are obtained. It is shown that the interference effects are considerable when electrons are ionized just above the threshold, even for the separations between the two atoms are larger than two times of the bond length of N 2 molecules. Therefore, in hot and dense samples, effects caused by the coherent interference between the neighbours are expected to be observable for the total photoionization cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  6. Differential effects of non-informative vision and visual interference on haptic spatial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volcic, Robert; Van Rheede, Joram J.; Postma, Albert; Kappers, Astrid M L

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-informative vision and visual interference upon haptic spatial processing, which supposedly derives from an interaction between an allocentric and egocentric reference frame. To this end, a haptic parallelity task served as baseline

  7. Emotional Facilitation Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Task: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baolin; Xin, Shuai; Jin, Zhixing; Hu, Yu; Li, Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to verify the emotional facilitation effect in the picture-word interference task using event-related potentials. Twenty-one healthy subjects were asked to categorize the emotional valences of pictures accompanied by emotionally congruent, either centrally or laterally positioned Chinese words. For both the foveal and…

  8. Interference Effects on the Recall of Pictures, Printed Words and Spoken Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Bruning, Roger H.

    Thirty college undergraduates participated in a study of the effects of acoustic and visual interference on the recall of word and picture triads in both short-term and long-term memory. The subjects were presented 24 triads of monosyllabic nouns representing all of the possible combinations of presentation types: pictures, printed words, and…

  9. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P; Nesterov, Alexander I; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T

    2017-01-01

    We analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the "damaging" and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In our model, both damaging and "dissipative" charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimic the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. These equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.

  10. [The effect of an experimental occlusal interference on the masticatory cycle recorded by electromagnetic pantography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, J N; Yardin, M

    1991-06-01

    The effects of occlusal interference on masticatory cycles have been studied in twenty nine volunteers with complete natural dentition, using an electromagnetic pantograph (Sirognatograph, Siemens A.G.). After a one week recall, a decrease in speed motion was noted and the range of cycles in the horizontal plane had been altered.

  11. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic H2+ show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented.

  12. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2015-01-01

    We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic H2+ show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented. PMID:26798785

  13. Exploring the effect of sleep and reduced interference on different forms of declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Monika; Pawlizki, Annedore; Köck, Corinna; Gais, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have found that sleep benefits declarative memory consolidation. However, fundamental questions on the specifics of this effect remain topics of discussion. It is not clear which forms of memory are affected by sleep and whether this beneficial effect is partly mediated by passive protection against interference. Moreover, a putative correlation between the structure of sleep and its memory-enhancing effects is still being discussed. In three experiments, we tested whether sleep differentially affects various forms of declarative memory. We varied verbal content (verbal/nonverbal), item type (single/associate), and recall mode (recall/recognition, cued/free recall) to examine the effect of sleep on specific memory subtypes. We compared within-subject differences in memory consolidation between intervals including sleep, active wakefulness, or quiet meditation, which reduced external as well as internal interference and rehearsal. Forty healthy adults aged 18-30 y, and 17 healthy adults aged 24-55 y with extensive meditation experience participated in the experiments. All types of memory were enhanced by sleep if the sample size provided sufficient statistical power. Smaller sample sizes showed an effect of sleep if a combined measure of different declarative memory scales was used. In a condition with reduced external and internal interference, performance was equal to one with high interference. Here, memory consolidation was significantly lower than in a sleep condition. We found no correlation between sleep structure and memory consolidation. Sleep does not preferentially consolidate a specific kind of declarative memory, but consistently promotes overall declarative memory formation. This effect is not mediated by reduced interference. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Effect of Plant Density and Weed Interference on Yield and Yied Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weed control is an essential part of all crop production systems. Weeds reduce yields by competing with crops for water, nutrients, and sunlight. Weeds also directly reduce profits by hindering harvest operations, lowering crop quality, and producing chemicals which are harmful to crop plants. Plant density is an efficient management tool for maximizing grain yield by increasing the capture of solar radiation within the canopy, which can significantly affect development of crop-weed association. The response of yield and yield components to weed competition varies by crop and weeds species and weeds interference duration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of weed interference periods and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of plant density and weeds interference on weeds traits, yield and yield components of sorghum (Var. Saravan, an experiment was conducted as in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in South Khorasan province during year of 2013. Experimental treatments consisted of three plant density (10, 20 and 30 plants m-2 and four weeds interference (weed free until end of growth season, interference until 6-8 leaf stage, interference until stage of panicle emergence, interference until end of growth season. Measuring traits included the panicle length, number of panicle per plant, number of panicle per m2, number of seed per panicle, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, number and weight of weeds per m2. Weed sampling in each plot have done manually from a square meter and different weed species counted and oven dried at 72 °C for 48 hours. MSTAT-C statistical software used for data analysis and means compared with Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion Results showed that

  15. Landau damping effects on collision-induced quantum interference in electron-hole plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa-Min, Kim; Young-Dae, Jung

    2007-01-01

    The Landau damping effects on the quantum interference in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Born method and the total spin states are considered to obtain the scattering cross-section by using the effective screened potential model. It is found that the Landau damping effects enhance the scattering cross-section, especially, near the scattering angle θ L = π/4. (authors)

  16. Landau damping effects on collision-induced quantum interference in electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa-Min, Kim [Daegu Univ. Catholic, Dept. of Electronics Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Young-Dae, Jung [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The Landau damping effects on the quantum interference in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Born method and the total spin states are considered to obtain the scattering cross-section by using the effective screened potential model. It is found that the Landau damping effects enhance the scattering cross-section, especially, near the scattering angle {theta}{sub L} = {pi}/4. (authors)

  17. Mug shot exposure prior to lineup identification: interference, transference, and commitment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, J E; Lindsay, R C; Hammond, R; Dupuis, P

    2001-12-01

    The effects of viewing mug shots on subsequent identification performance are as yet unclear. Two experiments used a live staged-crime paradigm to determine if interpolated eyewitness exposure to mug shots caused interference, unconscious transference, or commitment effects influencing subsequent lineup accuracy. Experiment 1 (N = 104) tested interference effects. Similar correct decision rates were obtained for the mug shot and no mug shot groups from both perpetrator-present and absent lineups. Experiment 2 (N = 132) tested for commitment and transference effects. Results showed that the commitment group made significantly more incorrect identifications than either the control or the transference group, which had similar false-identification rates. Commitment effects present a serious threat to identification accuracy from lineups following mug shot searches.

  18. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  19. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the magnetic field variation on the spin wave interference in a magnetic cross junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balynskiy, M.; Chiang, H.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Balandin, A. A.; Khitun, A.

    2018-05-01

    This article reports results of the investigation of the effect of the external magnetic field variation on the spin wave interference in a magnetic cross junction. The experiments were performed using a micrometer scale Y3Fe5O12 cross structure with a set of micro-antennas fabricated on the edges of the cross arms. Two of the antennas were used for the spin wave excitation while a third antenna was used for detecting the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. It was found that a small variation of the bias magnetic field may result in a significant change of the output inductive voltage. The effect is most prominent under the destructive interference condition. The maximum response exceeds 30 dB per 0.1 Oe at room temperature. It takes a relatively small bias magnetic field variation of about 1 Oe to drive the system from the destructive to the constructive interference conditions. The switching is accompanied by a significant, up to 50 dB, change in the output voltage. The obtained results demonstrate a feasibility of the efficient spin wave interference control by an external magnetic field, which may be utilized for engineering novel type of magnetometers and magnonic logic devices.

  1. The modulating effect of education on semantic interference during healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paolieri

    Full Text Available Aging has traditionally been related to impairments in name retrieval. These impairments have usually been explained by a phonological transmission deficit hypothesis or by an inhibitory deficit hypothesis. This decline can, however, be modulated by the educational level of the sample. This study analyzed the possible role of these approaches in explaining both object and face naming impairments during aging. Older adults with low and high educational level and young adults with high educational level were asked to repeatedly name objects or famous people using the semantic-blocking paradigm. We compared naming when exemplars were presented in a semantically homogeneous or in a semantically heterogeneous context. Results revealed significantly slower rates of both face and object naming in the homogeneous context (i.e., semantic interference, with a stronger effect for face naming. Interestingly, the group of older adults with a lower educational level showed an increased semantic interference effect during face naming. These findings suggest the joint work of the two mechanisms proposed to explain age-related naming difficulties, i.e., the inhibitory deficit and the transmission deficit hypothesis. Therefore, the stronger vulnerability to semantic interference in the lower educated older adult sample would possibly point to a failure in the inhibitory mechanisms in charge of interference resolution, as proposed by the inhibitory deficit hypothesis. In addition, the fact that this interference effect was mainly restricted to face naming and not to object naming would be consistent with the increased age-related difficulties during proper name retrieval, as suggested by the transmission deficit hypothesis.

  2. The modulating effect of education on semantic interference during healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolieri, Daniela; Marful, Alejandra; Morales, Luis; Bajo, María Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Aging has traditionally been related to impairments in name retrieval. These impairments have usually been explained by a phonological transmission deficit hypothesis or by an inhibitory deficit hypothesis. This decline can, however, be modulated by the educational level of the sample. This study analyzed the possible role of these approaches in explaining both object and face naming impairments during aging. Older adults with low and high educational level and young adults with high educational level were asked to repeatedly name objects or famous people using the semantic-blocking paradigm. We compared naming when exemplars were presented in a semantically homogeneous or in a semantically heterogeneous context. Results revealed significantly slower rates of both face and object naming in the homogeneous context (i.e., semantic interference), with a stronger effect for face naming. Interestingly, the group of older adults with a lower educational level showed an increased semantic interference effect during face naming. These findings suggest the joint work of the two mechanisms proposed to explain age-related naming difficulties, i.e., the inhibitory deficit and the transmission deficit hypothesis. Therefore, the stronger vulnerability to semantic interference in the lower educated older adult sample would possibly point to a failure in the inhibitory mechanisms in charge of interference resolution, as proposed by the inhibitory deficit hypothesis. In addition, the fact that this interference effect was mainly restricted to face naming and not to object naming would be consistent with the increased age-related difficulties during proper name retrieval, as suggested by the transmission deficit hypothesis.

  3. Effects of multi-photon interferences from internally generated fields in strongly resonant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lu; Payne, Marvin G.; Garrett, William R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies of various nonlinear optical phenomena, strong resonant features in the atomic or molecular response to multi-photon driven processes have been used to greatly enhance the visibility of otherwise weak higher-order processes. However, there are well defined circumstances where a multi-photon-resonant response of a target system leads to the generation of one or more new electromagnetic fields that can drastically change the overall system response from what would be expected from the imposed laser fields alone. New effects can occur and dominate some aspects of the nonlinear optical response because of the constructive or destructive interference between transition amplitudes along multiple excitation pathways between a given set of optically coupled states, where one of the pathways involve internally generated field(s). Under destructive interference some resonant enhancements can become completely canceled (suppressed). This review focuses on the class of optical interference effects associated with internally generated fields, that have been found to be capable of influencing a very significant number of basic physical phenomena in gas or vapor phase systems. It provides a historical overview of experimental and theoretical developments and a modern understanding of the underlying physics and its various manifestations that include: suppression of multi-photon excitation processes, suppression of stimulated emissions (Raman, hyper-Raman, and optically pumped stimulated emissions), saturation of parametric wave-mixing, pressure and beam-geometry dependent shifting of multi-photon-resonant absorption lines, and the suppression of Autler-Townes splitting and ac-stark shifts. Additionally, optical interference effects in some modern contexts, such as achieving multi-photon induced transparency, establishing single-photon self-interference based induced transparency, and generating entangled single photon states, are reviewed

  4. The effect of electromagnetic interference from mobile communication on the performance of intensive care ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R P; Conway, D H

    2005-08-01

    Electromagnetic interference produced by wireless communication can affect medical devices and hospital policies exist to address this risk. During the transfer of ventilated patients, these policies may be compromised by essential communication between base and receiving hospitals. Local wireless networks (e.g. Bluetooth) may reduce the 'spaghetti syndrome' of wires and cables seen on intensive care units, but also generate electromagnetic interference. The aim of this study was to investigate these effects on displayed and actual ventilator performance. Five ventilators were tested: Drager Oxylog 2000, BREAS LTV-1000, Respironics BiPAP VISION, Puritan Bennett 7200 and 840. Electromagnetic interference was generated by three devices: Simoco 8020 radio handset, Nokia 7210 and Nokia 6230 mobile phone, Nokia 6230 communicating via Bluetooth with a Palm Tungsten T Personal Digital Assistant. We followed the American National Standard Recommended Practice for On-Site, Ad Hoc Testing (ANSI C63) for electromagnetic interference. We used a ventilator tester, to simulate healthy adult lungs and measure ventilator performance. The communication device under test was moved in towards each ventilator from a distance of 1 m in six axes. Alarms or error codes on the ventilator were recorded, as was ventilator performance. All ventilators tested, except for the Respironics VISION, showed a display error when subjected to electromagnetic interference from the Nokia phones and Simoco radio. Ventilator performance was only affected by the radio which caused the Puritan Bennett 840 to stop functioning completely. The transfer ventilators' performance were not affected by radio or mobile phone, although the mobile phone did trigger a low-power alarm. Effects on intensive care ventilators included display reset, with the ventilator restoring normal display function within 2 s, and low-power/low-pressure alarms. Bluetooth transmission had no effect on the function of all the

  5. Are precues effective in proactively controlling taboo interference during speech production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine K; Abrams, Lise; Hsi, Lisa R; Watkins, Emily C

    2018-02-07

    This research investigated whether precues engage proactive control to reduce emotional interference during speech production. A picture-word interference task required participants to name target pictures accompanied by taboo, negative, or neutral distractors. Proactive control was manipulated by presenting precues that signalled the type of distractor that would appear on the next trial. Experiment 1 included one block of trials with precues and one without, whereas Experiment 2 mixed precued and uncued trials. Consistent with previous research, picture naming was slowed in both experiments when distractors were taboo or negative compared to neutral, with the greatest slowing effect when distractors were taboo. Evidence that precues engaged proactive control to reduce interference from taboo (but not negative) distractors was found in Experiment 1. In contrast, mixing precued trials in Experiment 2 resulted in no taboo cueing benefit. These results suggest that item-level proactive control can be engaged under certain conditions to reduce taboo interference during speech production, findings that help to refine a role for cognitive control of distraction during speech production.

  6. Quantum interference effects on the intensity of the G modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huy Nam; Blancon, Jean-Christophe Robert; Arenal, Raul

    2017-01-01

    The effects of quantum interferences on the excitation dependence of the intensity of G modes have been investigated on single-walled carbon nanotubes [Duque et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 117404 (2012)]. In this work, by combining optical absorption spectroscopy and Raman scattering on individual index identified double-walled carbon nanotubes, we examine the experimental excitation dependence of the intensity of longitudinal optical and transverse optical G modes of the constituent inner and outer single-walled carbon nanotubes. The observed striking dependencies are understood in terms of quantum interference effects. Considering such effects, the excitation dependence of the different components of the G modes permit to unambiguously assign each of them as originating from the longitudinal or transverse G modes of inner and outer tubes.

  7. The Effect of Aging on the Dynamics of Reactive and Proactive Cognitive Control of Response Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Zhang, Baoqiang; Wang, Baoxi; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Zhujing

    2016-01-01

    A prime-target interference task was used to investigate the effects of cognitive aging on reactive and proactive control after eliminating frequency confounds and feature repetitions from the cognitive control measures. We used distributional analyses to explore the dynamics of the two control functions by distinguishing the strength of incorrect response capture and the efficiency of suppression control. For reactive control, within-trial conflict control and between-trial conflict adaption were analyzed. The statistical analysis showed that there were no reliable between-trial conflict adaption effects for either young or older adults. For within-trial conflict control, the results revealed that older adults showed larger interference effects on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that the decline mainly stemmed from inefficient suppression rather than from stronger incorrect responses. For proactive control, older adults showed comparable proactive conflict resolution to young adults on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that older adults were as effective as younger adults in adjusting their responses based on congruency proportion information to minimize automatic response capture and actively suppress the direct response activation. The results suggest that older adults were less proficient at suppressing interference after conflict was detected but can anticipate and prevent inference in response to congruency proportion manipulation. These results challenge earlier views that older adults have selective deficits in proactive control but intact reactive control.

  8. The effect of aging on the dynamics of reactive and proactive cognitive control of response interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A prime-target interference task was used to investigate the effects of cognitive aging on reactive and proactive control in which frequency confounds and feature repetitions were eliminated from the cognitive control measures. We used distributional analyses to explore the dynamics of the two control functions by distinguishing the strength of incorrect response capture and the efficiency of suppression control. For reactive control, within-trial conflict control and between-trial conflict adaption were analyzed. The statistical analysis showed that there were no reliable between-trial conflict adaption effects for both young and older adults. For within-trial conflict control, the results revealed that older adults showed larger interference effects on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that the decline mainly stemmed from inefficient suppression rather than from stronger incorrect responses. For proactive control, older adults showed comparable proactive conflict resolution than young adults on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed older adults were as effective as younger adults in adjusting their responses to minimize automatic response capture and actively suppress the direct response activation based on congruency proportion information. The results suggest that older adults were less proficient at suppressing interference after conflict was detected but can anticipate and prevent inference in response to congruency proportion manipulation. The results challenge earlier views that older adults have selective deficits in proactive control but are spared in reactive control.

  9. Analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, William H , Jr

    1952-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling stability derivatives of complete airplane configurations is made by calculating the angularity of the air stream at the vertical tail due to rolling and determining the resulting forces and moments. Some of the important factors which affect the resultant angularity on the vertical tail are wing aspect ratio and sweepback, vertical-tail span, and considerations associated with angle of attack and airplane geometry. Some calculated sidewash results for a limited range of plan forms and vertical-tail sizes are presented. Equations taking into account the sidewash results are given for determining the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives. Comparisons of estimated and experimental results indicate that a consideration of wing interference effects improves the estimated values of the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives and that fair agreement with available experimental data is obtained.

  10. Classical two-split interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Daniel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyabe, S [LBNL; Rescigno, T N [LBNL; Mccurdy, C W [LBNL; Morales, F [MADRID, SPAIN; Martin, F [MADRID, SPAIN

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a thorough theoretical study of one photon double ionization of H{sub 2}. They suggest that interference effects reported in one photon ionization will be reproducible in the case of double ionization when one of the photons carriers most of the available energy and the other electron is not observed. These calculations reproduce recent double photoionization experiments of H{sub 2}.

  11. No effect of experimental occlusal interferences on pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and temporalis muscles in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelotti, A; Farella, M; Steenks, MH; Gallo, LM; Palla, S

    It has been suggested that occlusal interferences may lead to pain and tenderness of the masticatory muscles. Tender jaw muscles are more sensitive to pressure pain, as assessed by means of pressure algometry. We tested the effects of occlusal interferences on the pressure pain threshold of the jaw

  12. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory.

  13. The protective effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on the interference of procedural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, J S; Chen, J; Riechman, S; Roig, M; Wright, D L

    2018-04-10

    Numerous studies have reported a positive impact of acute exercise for procedural skill memory. Previous work has revealed this effect, but these findings are confounded by a potential contribution of a night of sleep to the reported exercise-mediated reduction in interference. Thus, it remains unclear if exposure to a brief bout of exercise can provide protection to a newly acquired motor memory. The primary objective of the present study was to examine if a single bout of moderate-intensity cardiovascular exercise after practice of a novel motor sequence reduces the susceptibility to retroactive interference. To address this shortcoming, 17 individuals in a control condition practiced a novel motor sequence that was followed by test after a 6-h wake-filled interval. A separate group of 17 individuals experienced practice with an interfering motor sequence 45 min after practice with the original sequence and were then administered test trials 6 h later. One additional group of 12 participants was exposed to an acute bout of exercise immediately after practice with the original motor sequence but prior to practice with the interfering motor sequence and the subsequent test. In comparison with the control condition, increased response times were revealed during the 6-h test for the individuals that were exposed to interference. The introduction of an acute bout of exercise between the practice of the two motor sequences produced a reduction in interference from practice with the second task at the time of test, however, this effect was not statistically significant. These data reinforce the hypothesis that while there may be a contribution from exercise to post-practice consolidation of procedural skills which is independent of sleep, sleep may interact with exercise to strengthen the effects of the latter on procedural memory.

  14. Two-centre interference effects on the Thomas two-step scattering mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adivi, E Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    The charge transfer process in the collision of fast protons with hydrogen molecules is theoretically investigated using the second-order Born approximation with correct boundary conditions. In addition to two first-order terms, the present calculations include the three second-order terms which correspond to the Thomas two-step scattering mechanisms. The interference effects, due to the scattering of the particles from two atomic centres, on the electron capture differential cross sections vary significantly with the orientation of the molecule and with the impact energy. After the averaging over all molecular orientations the interference patterns disappear but the Thomas peak becomes more pronounced. These patterns are also apparent in the differential cross sections as a function of the angle between the molecular axis and the incident beam direction. The integrated cross sections are calculated and the results are compared with available experimental data.

  15. Shielding effectiveness of a unit of neuro physiology against electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febles Santana, V.; Miguel Bilbao, S. de; Lubary Rodriguez, C. S.; Melian del Castillo, M. R.; Herraz Gomez, J. G.; Ramos Gonzalez, V.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    During construction of the new building Ambulatory Activity in the Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC), was designed and implemented the shield in the form of Faraday cage, five rooms adjacent to the Unit of Neuro physiology, located at the northeast corner 3C plant of the building, in order to sufficiently attenuate radio signals present in the medium and thus enable correct functionality of electro medical equipment free of artifacts caused by external electromagnetic fields. The experience held, once finished the work and commissioning the unit, is that interference is undesirable in some cases even hinder the proper development of medical diagnostic studies. Therefore, technical staff of the Engineering Branch of HUC, initiated a program of measures to determine the effectiveness of the Faraday cage constructed, checking the attenuation levels achieved for frequencies of interest and, if necessary, the deficiencies identified in the design and execution of it, and proposed improvements to minimize interference problems exist.

  16. The effect of speed-accuracy strategy on response interference control in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, S A; van den Wildenberg, W P M; Ridderinkhof, K R; Bashore, T R; Powell, V D; Manning, C A; Wooten, G F

    2009-07-01

    Studies that used conflict paradigms such as the Eriksen Flanker task show that many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have pronounced difficulty resolving the conflict that arises from the simultaneous activation of mutually exclusive responses. This finding fits well with contemporary views that postulate a key role for the basal ganglia in action selection. The present experiment aims to specify the cognitive processes that underlie action selection deficits among PD patients in the context of variations in speed-accuracy strategy. PD patients (n=28) and healthy controls (n=17) performed an arrow version of the flanker task under task instructions that either emphasized speed or accuracy of responses. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy rates decreased with speed compared to accuracy instructions, although to a lesser extent for the PD group. Differences in flanker interference effects among PD and healthy controls depended on speed-accuracy strategy. Compared to the healthy controls, PD patients showed larger flanker interference effects under speed stress. RT distribution analyses suggested that PD patients have greater difficulty suppressing incorrect response activation when pressing for speed. These initial findings point to an important interaction between strategic and computational aspects of interference control in accounting for cognitive impairments of PD. The results are also compatible with recent brain imaging studies that demonstrate basal ganglia activity to co-vary with speed-accuracy adjustments.

  17. Modulating effect of COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism on interference resolution during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspar, Mathieu; Dideberg, Vinciane; Bours, Vincent; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2015-04-01

    Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates underlying inhibitory processes and updating in working memory (WM). In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we administered a modified version of the Sternberg probe recency task (Sternberg, 1966) to 43 young healthy volunteers, varying the level of interference across successive items. The task was divided into two parts (high vs. low interference) to induce either proactive or reactive control processes. The participants were separated into three groups according to their COMT Val(158)Met genotype [Val/Val (VV); Val/Met (VM); Met/Met (MM)]. The general aim of the study was to determine whether COMT polymorphism has a modulating effect on the neural substrates of interference resolution during WM processing. Results indicate that interfering trials were associated with greater involvement of frontal cortices (bilateral medial frontal gyrus, left precentral and superior frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus) in VV homozygous subjects (by comparison to Met allele carriers) only in the proactive condition of the task. In addition, analysis of peristimulus haemodynamic responses (PSTH) revealed that the genotype-related difference observed in the left SFG was specifically driven by a larger increase in activity from the storage to the recognition phase of the interfering trials in VV homozygous subjects. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on inhibitory processes during a WM task, with an advantage for Met allele carriers. Interestingly, this impact on frontal areas is present only when the level of interference is high, and especially during the transition from storage to recognition in the left superior frontal gyrus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coulomb and nuclear components of the breakup, their interference and effect on the fusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P R S; Lubian, J; Canto, L F; Otomar, D R; Hussein, M S

    2015-01-01

    We discuss reaction mechanisms involving weakly bound nuclei, at near barrier energies, and the couplings between different reaction channels. This paper may be thought as a brief description of state of the art of this field, particularly on breakup reactions and their influence on the fusion cross section. Recent experimental and theoretical results are presented, including the interference between Coulomb and nuclear components of the breakup and the systematics so far reached on the static effects due to the characteristic of weakly bound nuclei, especially halo-nuclei and the dynamic effects of the breakup coupling on the fusion cross section. (paper)

  19. Investigation of electromagnetic interference effects by ESD simulator on test parameters of tunneling magnetic recording heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruesubthaworn, A., E-mail: anankr@kku.ac.th [KKU-Seagate Cooperation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A. [KKU-Seagate Cooperation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Mewes, T.; Mewes, C.K.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) has been an important issue in the manufacturing processes of hard disk drive. It can also generate electromagnetic interference (EMI) which could possibly damage magnetic recording heads. The aims of this work are to measure the EMI from ESD events and to examine the effects of EMI on the heads. The discharge current and the EMI generated by an ESD simulator were experimentally measured. Also, the EMI was applied to the heads to determine if this can cause changes of head parameters. Our results show that the discharge current waveform is consistent with the theoretical waveform of the IEC ESD standard. Additionally, we found that the EMI applied due to ESD at distances greater than 2 cm does not have any significant effect on the head parameters. Hence, further detailed experiments are proposed to evaluate the EMI effects on recording head parameters in order to improve the measurement methodologies to prevent the degradation of the heads performance and to increase the robustness of the heads. - Highlights: • The electrostatic discharge (ESD) has been an important issue for the hard disk drive. • The electromagnetic interference (EMI) radiated by ESD IEC 61000-4-2 was focused. • Effects of the EMI on the magnetic recording head were examined. • The change of parameters of the writer and reader due to the EMI was measured. • The EMI could not cause any significant affectation on the writer and reader.

  20. Classical two-slit interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Daniel A.; Miyabe, Shungo; Rescigno, Thomas N; McCurdy, C. William; Morales, Felipe; Martin, Fernando

    2008-07-06

    Recent experiments on double photoionization of H$_2$ with photon energies between 160 and 240 eV have revealed body-frame angular distributions that suggest classical two-slit interference effects may be present when one electron carries most of the available energy and the second electron is not observed. We report precise quantum mechanical calculations that reproduce the experimental findings. They reveal that the interpretation in terms of classical diffraction is only appropriate atsubstantially higher photon energies. At the energies considered in the experiment we offer an alternative explanation based on the mixing of two non-diffractive contributions by circularly polarized light.

  1. Effects of optical interference and annealing on the performance of poly (3-hexylthiophene): fullerene based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Long, You; Chun-Fu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of optical interference and annealing on the performance of P3HT:PCBM based organic solar cells are studied in detail. Due to the optical interference effect, short circuit current density (J SC ) shows obvious oscillatory behaviour with the variation of active layer thickness. With the help of the simulated results, the devices are optimized around the first two optical interference peaks. It is found that the optimized thicknesses are 80 and 208 nm. The study on the effect of annealing on the performance indicates that post-annealing is more favourable than pre-annealing. Based on post-annealing, different annealing temperatures are tested. The optimized annealing condition is 160° C for 10 min in a nitrogen atmosphere. The device shows that the open circuit voltage V OC achieves about 0.65V and the power conversion efficiency is as high as 4.0 % around the second interference peak

  2. Interference and problem size effect in multiplication fact solving: Individual differences in brain activations and arithmetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Vogel, Stephan E; Reishofer, Gernot; Hassler, Eva; Koschutnig, Karl; De Smedt, Bert; Grabner, Roland H

    2018-05-15

    In the development of math ability, a large variability of performance in solving simple arithmetic problems is observed and has not found a compelling explanation yet. One robust effect in simple multiplication facts is the problem size effect, indicating better performance for small problems compared to large ones. Recently, behavioral studies brought to light another effect in multiplication facts, the interference effect. That is, high interfering problems (receiving more proactive interference from previously learned problems) are more difficult to retrieve than low interfering problems (in terms of physical feature overlap, namely the digits, De Visscher and Noël, 2014). At the behavioral level, the sensitivity to the interference effect is shown to explain individual differences in the performance of solving multiplications in children as well as in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the individual differences in multiplication ability in relation to the neural interference effect and the neural problem size effect. To that end, we used a paradigm developed by De Visscher, Berens, et al. (2015) that contrasts the interference effect and the problem size effect in a multiplication verification task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. Forty-two healthy adults, who showed high variability in an arithmetic fluency test, participated in our fMRI study. In order to control for the general reasoning level, the IQ was taken into account in the individual differences analyses. Our findings revealed a neural interference effect linked to individual differences in multiplication in the left inferior frontal gyrus, while controlling for the IQ. This interference effect in the left inferior frontal gyrus showed a negative relation with individual differences in arithmetic fluency, indicating a higher interference effect for low performers compared to high performers. This region is suggested in the literature to be

  3. Event-by-event simulation of nonclassical effects in two-photon interference experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Delina, M.; Raedt, H. De

    2012-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model for second-order intensity interference phenomena is discussed. It is shown that both the visibility V = 1/2 predicted for two-photon interference experiments with two independent sources and the visibility V = 1 predicted for two-photon interference experiments with a

  4. Effects of visual and verbal interference tasks on olfactory memory: the role of task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, J M; Leslie, J C

    1996-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that visual and verbal suppression tasks interfere with olfactory memory in a manner which is partially consistent with a dual coding interpretation. However, it has been suggested that total task complexity rather than modality specificity of the suppression tasks might account for the observed pattern of results. This study addressed the issue of whether or not the level of difficulty and complexity of suppression tasks could explain the apparent modality effects noted in earlier experiments. A total of 608 participants were each allocated to one of 19 experimental conditions involving interference tasks which varied suppression type (visual or verbal), nature of complexity (single, double or mixed) and level of difficulty (easy, optimal or difficult) and presented with 13 target odours. Either recognition of the odours or free recall of the odour names was tested on one occasion, either within 15 minutes of presentation or one week later. Both recognition and recall performance showed an overall effect for suppression nature, suppression level and time of testing with no effect for suppression type. The results lend only limited support to Paivio's (1986) dual coding theory, but have a number of characteristics which suggest that an adequate account of olfactory memory may be broadly similar to current theories of face and object recognition. All of these phenomena might be dealt with by an appropriately modified version of dual coding theory.

  5. Trapping interference effects of arsenic, antimony and bismuth hydrides in collection of selenium hydride within iridium-modified transversally-heated graphite tube atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furdikova, Zuzana [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 118, CZ-61200 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, CZ-60200, Brno (Czech Republic); Docekal, Bohumil [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, CZ-60200, Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: docekal@iach.cz

    2009-04-15

    Interference effects of co-generated hydrides of arsenic, antimony and bismuth on trapping behavior of selenium hydride (analyte) within an iridium-modified, transversely heated graphite tube atomizer (THGA) were investigated. A twin-channel hydride generation system was used for independent separate generation and introduction of analyte and interferent hydrides, i.e. in a simultaneous and/or sequential analyte-interferent and interferent-analyte mode of operation. The influence of the analyte and modifier mass, interferent amount, trapping temperature and composition of the gaseous phase was studied. A simple approach for the elimination of mutual interference effects by modification of the gaseous phase with oxygen in a substoichiometric ratio to chemically generated hydrogen is proposed and the suppression of these interference effects is demonstrated. A hypothesis on the mechanism of trapping and mutual interference effects is drawn.

  6. The Effects of Interference Suppression by a Reconfigurable Structure at DSSS-DPSK Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dimitrijevic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show the performances of DSSS-DPSK receiver where the interference rejection circuit is reconfigurable and is using ksi-structure. The results will be shown for the case of packet, as well as for the continuous QPSK interference. The results show that the proposed reconfiguration circuit, in case of packet QPSK interference, significantly decreases the error probability, compared to the system using only ksi-structure. Also, in case of continuous interference, the reconfigurable structure has equally good performance, regardless of interference power and its bitrate.

  7. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio I Arroyo

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain. Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the

  8. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Antonio I; Pueyo, Yolanda; Giner, M Luz; Foronda, Ana; Sanchez-Navarrete, Pedro; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain). Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community) beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC) to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic) and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the significance of

  9. Computation of aerodynamic interference effects on oscillating airfoils with controls in ventilated subsonic wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, J. A.; Golberg, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Lift interference effects are discussed based on Bland's (1968) integral equation. A mathematical existence theory is utilized for which convergence of the numerical method has been proved for general (square-integrable) downwashes. Airloads are computed using orthogonal airfoil polynomial pairs in conjunction with a collocation method which is numerically equivalent to Galerkin's method and complex least squares. Convergence exhibits exponentially decreasing error with the number n of collocation points for smooth downwashes, whereas errors are proportional to 1/n for discontinuous downwashes. The latter can be reduced to 1/n to the m+1 power with mth-order Richardson extrapolation (by using m = 2, hundredfold error reductions were obtained with only a 13% increase of computer time). Numerical results are presented showing acoustic resonance, as well as the effect of Mach number, ventilation, height-to-chord ratio, and mode shape on wind-tunnel interference. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained in steady flow, and good agreement is obtained for unsteady flow.

  10. Modeling age differences in effects of pair repetition and proactive interference using a single parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph D W; Overman, Amy A

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we apply the REM model (Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997) to age differences in associative memory. Using Criss and Shiffrin's (2005) associative version of REM, we show that in a task with pairs repeated across 2 study lists, older adults' reduced benefit of pair repetition can be produced by a general reduction in the diagnosticity of information stored in memory. This reduction can be modeled similarly well by reducing the overall distinctiveness of memory features, or by reducing the accuracy of memory encoding. We report a new experiment in which pairs are repeated across 3 study lists and extend the model accordingly. Finally, we extend the model to previously reported data using the same task paradigm, in which the use of a high-association strategy introduced proactive interference effects in young adults but not older adults. Reducing the diagnosticity of information in memory also reduces the proactive interference effect. Taken together, the modeling and empirical results reported here are consistent with the claim that some age differences that appear to be specific to associative information can be produced via general degradation of information stored in memory. The REM model provides a useful framework for examining age differences in memory as well as harmonizing seemingly conflicting prior modeling approaches for the associative deficit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kellermann, Thilo; Bude, Daniela; Niessen, Thomas; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus; Reske, Martina

    2010-10-18

    Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S) and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol) odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  12. Interference effect as resonance killer of newly observed charmoniumlike states Y(4320) and Y(4390)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dian-Yong [Southeast University, School of Physics, Nanjing (China); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou (China); Matsuki, Takayuki [Tokyo Kasei University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Theoretical Research Division, Saitama (Japan)

    2018-02-15

    In this letter, we decode the newly observed charmoniumlike states, Y(4320) and Y(4390), by introducing interference effect between ψ(4160) and ψ(4415), which plays a role of resonance killer for Y(4320) and Y(4390). It means that two newly reported charmoniumlike states are not genuine resonances, according to which we can naturally explain why two well-established charmonia ψ(4160) and ψ(4415) are missing in the cross sections of e{sup +}e{sup -} → π{sup +}π{sup -}J/ψ and π{sup +}π{sup -}h{sub c} simultaneously. To well describe the detailed data of these cross sections around √(s) = 4.2 GeV, our study further illustrates that a charmoniumlike structure Y(4220) must be introduced. As a charmonium, Y(4220) should dominantly decay into its open-charm channel e{sup +}e{sup -} → D{sup 0}π{sup +}D{sup *-}, which provides an extra support to ψ(4S) assignment to Y(4220). In fact, this interference effect introduced to explain Y(4320) and Y(4390) gives a typical example of non-resonant explanations to the observed XYZ states, which should be paid more attention especially before identifying the observed XYZ states as genuine resonances. (orig.)

  13. Effect of working side interferences on mandibular movement in bruxers and non-bruxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Y Y; Syu, J Z

    1995-02-01

    The effect of working interference on 13 bruxers and 14 non-bruxers was studied by applying a metal overlay on the buccal cusps of the adjacent upper premolar and molar. The pattern and velocity of cyclic movement during gum chewing before and after overlay insertion were observed. EMG of the temporalis and masseter muscles were recorded bilaterally during the chewing movement. It was found that after insertion, one of the non-bruxers complained of pain in the muscles, while such a complaint was not found in bruxers. Bruxing habit was reported to be less or eliminated in 44% of the bruxers, but no non-bruxers became bruxers. The closing velocity was more often decreased immediately after overlay insertion, and the closing path near the occlusal phase was significantly narrower, with patterns of over-extension and avoidance before reaching the occlusal phase. The delayed effects were a more vertically oriented chewing cycle without over-extended closing movement, and an unretarded chewing velocity. It was concluded that within the experimental period a working side interference was tolerable in most of the subjects studied with or without a bruxing habit.

  14. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nießen Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Results Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. Conclusions The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  15. Interference, confinement and non Franck-Condon effects in photoionization of H{sub 2} molecules at high photon energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; MartIn, F [Departamento de Quimica, C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fojon, O, E-mail: jorge@phys.au.d, E-mail: ofojon@fceia.unr.edu.a, E-mail: fernando.martin@uam.e [Institute de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    We study in detail photoionization of H{sub 2} molecules by high energy photons. Bound and continuum states are accurately evaluated by using B-spline basis functions. The usual Franck-Condon behavior is not followed when the molecule is parallel to the polarization direction. The origin of this anomaly is related to interference effects. Moreover, it is shown that at these high photon energies, the nuclear asymmetry parameter exhibits a reminiscence of these interference patterns.

  16. Interference effects on guided Cherenkov emission in silicon from perpendicular, oblique, and parallel boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard, M.; Yurtsever, A.; Muller, D. A.

    2010-05-01

    Waveguide electromagnetic modes excited by swift electrons traversing Si slabs at normal and oblique incidence are analyzed using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy and interpreted using a local dielectric theory that includes relativistic effects. At normal incidence, sharp spectral features in the visible/near-infrared optical domain are directly assigned to p -polarized modes. When the specimen is tilted, s -polarized modes, which are completely absent at normal incidence, become visible in the loss spectra. In the tilted configuration, the dispersion of p -polarized modes is also modified. For tilt angles higher than ˜50° , Cherenkov radiation, the phenomenon responsible for the excitation of waveguide modes, is expected to partially escape the silicon slab and the influence of this effect on experimental measurements is discussed. Finally, we find evidence for an interference effect at parallel Si/SiO2 interfaces, as well as a delocalized excitation of guided Cherenkov modes.

  17. Interference effects on guided Cherenkov emission in silicon from perpendicular, oblique, and parallel boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couillard, M.; Yurtsever, A.; Muller, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Waveguide electromagnetic modes excited by swift electrons traversing Si slabs at normal and oblique incidence are analyzed using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy and interpreted using a local dielectric theory that includes relativistic effects. At normal incidence, sharp spectral features in the visible/near-infrared optical domain are directly assigned to p-polarized modes. When the specimen is tilted, s-polarized modes, which are completely absent at normal incidence, become visible in the loss spectra. In the tilted configuration, the dispersion of p-polarized modes is also modified. For tilt angles higher than ∼50 deg. Cherenkov radiation, the phenomenon responsible for the excitation of waveguide modes, is expected to partially escape the silicon slab and the influence of this effect on experimental measurements is discussed. Finally, we find evidence for an interference effect at parallel Si/SiO 2 interfaces, as well as a delocalized excitation of guided Cherenkov modes.

  18. Herpin effective media resonant underlayers and resonant overlayer designs for ultra-high NA interference lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Levi; Blaikie, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    Dielectric waveguide resonant underlayers are employed in ultra-high NA interference photolithography to effectively double the depth of field. Generally a single high refractive index waveguiding layer is employed. Here multilayer Herpin effective medium methods are explored to develop equivalent multilayer waveguiding layers. Herpin equivalent resonant underlayers are shown to be suitable replacements provided at least one layer within the Herpin trilayer supports propagating fields. In addition, a method of increasing the intensity incident upon the photoresist using resonant overlayers is also developed. This method is shown to greatly enhance the intensity within the photoresist making the use of thicker, safer, non-absorbing, low refractive index matching liquids potentially suitable for large-scale applications.

  19. Weak-electromagnetic interference effects in the production of hadrons in electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    A framework for a systematic study of the weak-electromagnetic interference effects in the production of hadrons in e - e + collisions is presented and, in the case of the inclusive processes, the predictions of the quark-parton model are given. The approach to the calculation of these effects in e - e + H + X, where H is a pseudoscalar meson, a spin-1/2 baryon, or a vector meson, consists of setting down a general formula for the appropriate transition probability in terms of structure functions whose form is delimited by symmetry considerations. The quark-parton model is then used to express the structure functions in terms of the quark couplings and fragmentation probabilities. In this fashion the forward-backward asymmetry A/sub H/ and longitudinal polarization P/sub H/ are calculated in terms of the vector (a/sub q/) and axial-vector (b/sub q/) weak-neutral-current couplings of the quarks composing H, their electric charges Q/sub q/, and their (q → H) fragmentation probabilities. Using a theoretical argument for hadrons containing one heavy c,b,...quark, and SU(3) symmetry for hadrons composed of light u,d,s quarks, A/sub H/ is expressed in terms of b/sub q/ and Q/sub q/ only. In similar fashion, some relations between the various P/sub H/, independent of the fragmentation probabilities, are obtained. The results are discussed in detail for the strange and charmed hadrons.The exclusive processes e - e + → M anti M and e - e + → MV, where M is a pseudoscalar meson and V is a vector meson, are also discussed and the possibility of observing the weak-electromagnetic interference effects when M and V contain the t quark is noted

  20. Interference shake-up effects in the resonant Auger decay of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, B.M.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Petrov, I.D.; Demekhin, Ph.V.; Schartner, K.-H.; Ehresmann, A.; Schmoranzer, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently it was shown that the resonant Auger effect (RA) has a complex multiple-pathway character. In particular, the intensities, I, of the two groups of lines in the RA spectrum of Kr corresponding to the 4p 4 ( 1 D)5pLSJ and the 4p 4 ( 1 D)6pLSJ final ionic states were measured as functions of the exciting-photon energy, E, at the two close-lying 3d -1 3/2 5p and 3d -1 5/2 6p resonance states. The experimental results were qualitatively interpreted within the frame of the two-levels model in which each group of the final ionic states was approximated as a single one. It was demonstrated that for both cases the I(E) dependence cannot be fitted as a sum of two Lorentzian curves corresponding to distinguishable transitions via the isolated 3d -1 3/2 5p or 3d -1 5/2 6p resonances. However, within the restrictions of the model, it was not possible to determine unambiguously the significance of each of the interfering partial resonant amplitudes as well as the direct non-resonant one. In the present work, for the first time, the ab initio calculation of the RA characteristics for each individual line of the Kr RA spectrum was performed with taking into account the interference between many resonant and direct non-resonant transition amplitudes. It was shown that in each of the above groups there is a line(or lines) for which the sign (destructive or constructive) of the interference of the partial amplitude is opposite to that one estimated in the two-levels model. This means that the studied RA decay is more complex than was suggested in. It is theoretically predicted that the interference effects would be more pronounced in the angular distribution of the products of the RA photoionization of which future measurements are desirable

  1. Radio Frequency Interference: The Study of Rain Effect on Radio Signal Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of radio waves received by radio telescopes is always not subject to human control. In the millimetre band, the propagation of the electromagnetic waves is severely affected by rain rate, dust particle size and drop size in the terms of attenuation, noise and depolarization. At the frequency above 10 GHz, the absorption and scattering by rain cause a reduction in the transmitted signal amplitude which will lead to the reducing of the availability, reliability and performance on the communications link. In this study, the rain effect on radio signal has been investigated. Spectrum analyzer and weather stations were used to obtain the RFI level and rain rate data respectively. The radio frequency interference (RFI) pattern due to rain factor was determined. This will benefit radio astronomer in managing sites for radio observation for radio astronomy purposes. (author)

  2. Working memory in healthy aging and in Parkinson's disease: evidence of interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Pischedda, Doris; Cherubini, Paolo; Mapelli, Daniela; Tamburin, Stefano; Burigo, Michele

    2017-05-01

    Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy. Interestingly, PD patients responded faster and were equally accurate compared to a matched control group. Taken together, findings confirm the existence of similar mechanisms for orienting attention inwards to WM contents or outwards to perceptual stimuli, and suggest the suitability of our task to assess WM functioning in both healthy aging and PD.

  3. Multiple-path Quantum Interference Effects in a Double-Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate quantum interference effects in a double-Aharonov-Bohm (AB interferometer consisting of five quantum dots sandwiched between two metallic electrodes in the case of symmetric dot-electrode couplings by the use of the Green’s function equation of motion method. The analytical expression for the linear conductance at zero temperature is derived to interpret numerical results. A three-peak structure in the linear conductance spectrum may evolve into a double-peak structure, and two Fano dips (zero conductance points may appear in the quantum system when the energy levels of quantum dots in arms are not aligned with one another. The AB oscillation for the magnetic flux threading the double-AB interferometer is also investigated in this paper. Our results show the period of AB oscillation can be converted from 2π to π by controlling the difference of the magnetic fluxes threading the two quantum rings.

  4. Polarization splitter based on interference effects in all-solid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dong; Guan, Chunying; Yuan, Libo

    2010-07-01

    We propose a novel kind of polarization splitter in all-solid photonic crystal fibers based on the mode interference effects. Both the full-vector finite-element method and the semi-vector three-dimensional beam propagation method are employed to design and analyze the characteristics of the splitter. Numerical simulations show that x-polarized and y-polarized modes are split entirely along with 6.8 mm long propagation. An extinction ratio of more than 20 dB and a crosstalk of less than -20 dB are obtained within the wavelength range of 1.541-1.556 microm. The extinction ratio and the crosstalk at 1.55 microm are 28.9 and -29.0 dB for x polarization, while the extinction ratio and the crosstalk at 1.55 microm are 29.9 and -29.8 dB for y polarization, respectively.

  5. Quantum interference effect in electron tunneling through a quantum-dot-ring spin valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing-Min; Zhao, Jia; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Peng, Ya-Jing; Chi, Feng

    2011-03-28

    Spin-dependent transport through a quantum-dot (QD) ring coupled to ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations is studied theoretically. Tunneling current, current spin polarization and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) as functions of the bias voltage and the direct coupling strength between the two leads are analyzed by the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. It is shown that the magnitudes of these quantities are sensitive to the relative angle between the leads' magnetic moments and the quantum interference effect originated from the inter-lead coupling. We pay particular attention on the Coulomb blockade regime and find the relative current magnitudes of different magnetization angles can be reversed by tuning the inter-lead coupling strength, resulting in sign change of the TMR. For large enough inter-lead coupling strength, the current spin polarizations for parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations will approach to unit and zero, respectively.PACS numbers:

  6. Quantum interference effect in electron tunneling through a quantum-dot-ring spin valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing-Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spin-dependent transport through a quantum-dot (QD ring coupled to ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations is studied theoretically. Tunneling current, current spin polarization and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR as functions of the bias voltage and the direct coupling strength between the two leads are analyzed by the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. It is shown that the magnitudes of these quantities are sensitive to the relative angle between the leads' magnetic moments and the quantum interference effect originated from the inter-lead coupling. We pay particular attention on the Coulomb blockade regime and find the relative current magnitudes of different magnetization angles can be reversed by tuning the inter-lead coupling strength, resulting in sign change of the TMR. For large enough inter-lead coupling strength, the current spin polarizations for parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations will approach to unit and zero, respectively. PACS numbers:

  7. Bb4l event generator, interferences and off-shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Peyruchat, Leo Paul

    2017-01-01

    Proton-proton collisions happening in LHC create lots of data. To understand the underlying physics behind these events, the real data must be compared to simulated events. A new generator,called the bb4l model, is able to simulate collisions happening in LHC with new interesting features regarding process creating two W bosons and two b quarks. One of them is that it takes interferences between different processes into account. Such effects have always been neglected in the case of top pair or single top production, but with the increasing sensitivity of the detectors it is becoming important to know precisely their amplitude. The goal of this study is to separate events generated with bb4l into different categories, and then to look at many variables and look for differences between categories.

  8. Spectroscopy of systems of two identical atoms: effects of quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.A.; Yudson, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Several effects of quantum interference in spectroscopy of a system of two atoms are discussed. (i) In the system of spatially separated atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) geometry (a single-mode waveguide or photon crystal), a (meta)stable excited entangled state can be formed, its decay being very sensitive to the distance between the atoms and to perturbations which cause a difference between their resonance frequencies. (ii) In a system of closely located atoms in 3D space, the extreme sensitivity of absorption and fluorescence spectra to the direction of the applied magnetic field is demonstrated. These theoretical predictions can be useful for the quantum information processing and ultrasensitive measurements.

  9. Interference Effects on the Recall of Pictures, Printed Words, and Spoken Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Bruning, Roger H.

    1982-01-01

    Nouns were presented in triads as pictures, printed words, or spoken words and followed by various types of interference. Measures of short- and long-term memory were obtained. In short-term memory, pictorial superiority occurred with acoustic, and visual and acoustic, but not visual interference. Long-term memory showed superior recall for…

  10. The Effect of Colour-Word Interference on Children's Memory for Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliet, Gineva M.

    The Stroop color-word test involves a conflict situation in which subjects are asked to say aloud the ink color used to print a color word on a card. Interference occurs when the ink color is in conflict with the color word, such as 'red' printed in green ink. On the other hand, little interference occurs when asked to name the color words…

  11. Control-rod interference effects observed during reactor physics experiments with nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru; Sakai, Tomohiro.

    1993-01-01

    The control rods in the reactor of the nuclear ship MUTSU are classified into four groups: groups G1 and G2 are located in the central part of the core, while groups G3 and G4 are in the peripheral zone of the core. Several types of mutual interference effects among these control-rod groups were observed during reactor physics experiments with this reactor. During normal hot operations, positive shadowing was dominant between the G1 and G2 groups; the degree of the shadowing effect of one rod group depended on the position of the other rod group. Both positive and negative shadowing effects occurred between an inner rod group (G1 or G2) and an outer group (G3 or G4) depending on the three-dimensional arrangement of the control rods. The rod worths of G1 and G2 increased as a result of slight core burnup, about 1,400 MWd/t, mainly due to the decrease in shadowing effects resulting from a change in control-rod pattern. A three-dimensional diffusion calculation with internal control-rod boundary conditions has proved to be useful for analyzing these various interaction effects. (author)

  12. Mediating and moderating effects of work-home interference upon farm stresses and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar Jo; Quirk, Frances

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated whether work-home (WHI) or home-work interference (HWI) explained or affected the strength of the relationship between farmers' stresses and reported psychological distress. Distribution of questionnaire package; included Work-Home Conflict Scale, Farm Stress Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Participants recruited via advertising in newsletters and newspapers, and distribution through businesses and meetings. The majority of farmers (N = 51, male = 45, female = 5) were recruited from the one district. Farmers were individuals who identified their occupation as a farm owner, farm manager, or farm hand. It was predicted farmers would report higher levels of WHI than HWI; time, a determinant of interference, would mediate the relationship between farmers' stresses and psychological distress; WHI and HWI would moderate farmers' stresses and their psychological distress; overall reported level of psychological distress would be in normal to mild range because of positive general economic conditions. Farmers reported significantly higher levels of WHI than HWI (M = 3.21, M = 2.76, P stresses and psychological distress, particularly anxiety. WHI, time and strain, determinants of WHI mediated personal finances and subcomponents of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression). Time-based HWI mediated personal finances and stress. No moderating effects were found for WHI (r = -0.02, P = 0.882) or HWI (r = 0.15, P = 0.306). Farmers of this specific sample presented a unique work-home interface. Limitations include the small sample size, recruitment methods, and culturally irrelevant measures as well as only assessing work-related stresses. Future research should aim to develop measures appropriate for farmers of Australia.

  13. Interference with work in fibromyalgia - effect of treatment with pregabalin and relation to pain response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallier Ernst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials in chronic pain often collect information about interference with work as answers to component questions of commonly used questionnaires but these data are not normally analysed separately. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from four large trials of pregabalin for fibromyalgia lasting 8-14 weeks. We analysed data on interference with work, inferred from answers to component questions of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Short Form 36 Health Survey, Sheehan Disability Scale, and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, including "How many days in the past week did you miss work, including housework, because of fibromyalgia?" from FIQ. Analyses were performed according to randomised treatment group (pregabalin 150-600 mg daily or placebo, pain improvement (0-10 numerical pain rating scale scores at trial beginning vs. end, and end of trial pain state (100 mm visual analogue pain scale [VAS]. Results Comparing treatment group average outcomes revealed modest improvement over the duration of the trials, more so with active treatment than with placebo. For the 'work missed' question from FIQ the change for patients on placebo was from 2.2 (standard deviation [SD] 2.3 days of work lost per week at trial beginning to 1.9 (SD 2.1 days lost at trial end (p /= 50% pain improvement and from 1.9 (SD 2.2 days to 0.73 (SD 1.4 days (p /= 50% pain improvement and a pain score Conclusions Effective pain treatment goes along with benefit regarding work. A reduction in time off work >1 day per week can be achieved in patients with good pain responses.

  14. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jadeera P G; Lay, Brendan; Razman, Rizal

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect was not supported when practicing several skills in combination when the sports skills were assessed in a closed skill environment.There appeared to be some support for the contextual interference effect when sports skills were assessed in an open skill environment, which were similar to a real game situation.A game-based training schedule can be used as an alternative

  15. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-04-07

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations. Subjects performed a ballistic training and then the HIIT either before (HIIT_before) or after (HIIT_after) practicing an interfering accuracy task (AT). The control group (No_HIIT) did not participate in the HIIT but rested instead. Performance in the ballistic task (BT) was tested before and after the ballistic training, after the exercise and practice of the AT and 24h later. After ballistic training, all groups showed comparable increases in performance in the trained and untrained limb. Despite the practice of the AT, HIIT_before maintained their BT performance after the high-intensity interval training whereas HIIT_after (trend) & No_HIIT showed prominent interference effects. After 24h, HIIT_before still did not show any interference effects but further improved ballistic motor performance. HIIT_after counteracted the interference resulting in a comparable BT performance after 24h than directly after the ballistic training while No_HIIT had a significantly lower BT performance in the retention test. The results were similar in the trained and untrained limb. The current results imply that a single session of cardiovascular exercise can prevent motor interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere. Overall learning was best, and interference least, when HIIT was performed before the interfering motor task. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parasitic effects in superconducting quantum interference device-based radiation comb generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosisio, R., E-mail: riccardo.bosisio@nano.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Solinas, P., E-mail: paolo.solinas@spin.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-12-07

    We study several parasitic effects on the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. This system can be used as a radiation generator similarly to what is done in optics and metrology, and allows one to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. First we take into account how the assumption of a finite loop geometrical inductance and junction capacitance in each SQUID may alter the operation of the devices. Then, we estimate the effect of imperfections in the fabrication of an array of SQUIDs, which is an unavoidable source of errors in practical situations. We show that the role of the junction capacitance is, in general, negligible, whereas the geometrical inductance has a beneficial effect on the performance of the device. The errors on the areas and junction resistance asymmetries may deteriorate the performance, but their effect can be limited to a large extent by a suitable choice of fabrication parameters.

  17. Radiation enhancement effect of RNA interference for HIF-1α on the transplant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Ruimei; Sun Xindong; Zhao Hanxi; Yan Qingxia; Huang Guangwu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine and explore the radiation enhancement of RNA interference for HIF-1α on the transplant tumor using polycationic polyethylenimine (PEI), as a new kind of gene vector. Methods: SPCA-1 nude mouse model was used. 160 nude mice bearing SPCA-1 were randomly divided into 4 treated groups and 1 control groups, each group had 32 mice. The expression of HIF-1α was studied by immunohistochemical method after RNA interference for HIF-1α. The differences of the volume, weight, survival time of the transplant tumor were studied among the simple radiation group, the simple RNA interference for HIF- 1α group and the combination of radiation and RNA interference for HIF-1α. Results: The expression of HIF-1α was decreased after RNA interference for HIF-1α. RNA interference for HIF-1α combined with radiation decreased the volume, weight of the transplant tumor, and prolonged its survival time period significantly than other methods. Conclusions: RNA interference targeting HIF-1α might enhance the radiosensitivity of the transplant tumor using PEI as a new kind of gene vector in vitro. (authors)

  18. Is the phonological similarity effect in working memory due to proactive interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-04-12

    Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment attributable to phonological similarity. Although this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory (STM) task. We use the method of serial reconstruction to test this in an experiment contrasting the standard paradigm in which successive sequences are drawn from the same set of phonologically similar or dissimilar words and one in which the vowel sound on which similarity is based is switched from trial to trial, a manipulation analogous to that producing release from PI in the Peterson task. A substantial similarity effect occurs under both conditions although there is a small advantage from switching across similar sequences. There is, however, no evidence for the suggestion that the similarity effect will be absent from the very first sequence tested. Our results support the within-sequence similarity rather than a between-list PI interpretation. Reasons for the contrast with the classic Peterson short-term forgetting task are briefly discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Fabrication and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polymeric composites filled with silver-coated microorganism cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Mingming, E-mail: lan_mingming@163.com [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Hu, Yanyan; Yuan, Liming [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, helical silver-coated Spirulina cells were used as conductive fillers for the fabrication of polymeric composites. The morphology and composition of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The densities of silver-coated Spirulina cells were measured using the standard Archimedes method with distilled water. The electrical resistivity was measured by four-probe technique using ammeter and voltmeter whereas electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness was measured by four-port method using vector network analyzer and coaxial-airline sample holder. The results showed that the silver-coated Spirulina cells with different coating thickness were lightweight fillers compared to the other typical conductive particles. The polymeric composites could achieve good conductivity at the lower content of silver-coated Spirulina cells owing to their helical shape. The shielding effectiveness of polymeric composites had a strong dependence on their conductivity. At the coating thickness of 0.96 μm and the content of 40 vol%, the shielding effectiveness could reach above 74.3 dB in entire test wave band.

  20. Evaluation of Wall Interference Effects in a Two-Dimensional Transonic Wind Tunnel by Subsonic Linear Theory,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    tests were conducted on two geometrica lly similar models of each of two aerofoil sections -—t he NA CA 00/ 2 and the BGK- 1 sections -and covered a...and slotted-wall tes t sections are corrected for wind tunnel wall interference efJ~cts by the application of classical linearized theory. For the...solid wall results , these corrections appear to produce data which are very close to being free of the effects of interference. In the case of

  1. The effects of a single intercuspal interference on electromyographic characteristics of human masticatory muscles during maximal voluntary teeth clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Colombo, A; Schmitz, J H

    1999-07-01

    In 13 healthy subjects (eight men and five women, mean age, 22 years), an aluminum intercuspal interference (height, 0.25 mm) was placed on the maxillary right first premolar to study its effect on the contractile symmetry of the right and left masseter and anterior temporalis muscles when measured through a Percentage Overlapping Coefficient (POC), derived from surface electromyographic recordings of maximum voluntary teeth clenching. Additionally, and to estimate the potential of the experimental intercuspal interference to induce lateral displacement of the mandible, a Torque Coefficient (TC) was derived from surface electromyographic recordings. The conclusion was that the experimental occlusal interference gave rise to asymmetric contractile activity in the studied mandibular elevator muscles as well as a potential to displace the mandible in a lateral direction.

  2. Signal-background interference effects for gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} beyond leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Caola, Fabrizio; Melnikov, Kirill [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Forte, Stefano [Univ. di Milano, Sezione di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Univ. di Genova, Sezione di Genova (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    We study the effect of QCD corrections to the gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} signal-background interference at the LHC for a heavy Higgs boson. We construct a soft-collinear approximation to the NLO and NNLO corrections for the background process, which is exactly known only at LO. We estimate its accuracy by constructing and comparing the same approximation to the exact result for the signal process, which is known up to NNLO, and we conclude that we can describe the signal-background interference to better than O(10%) accuracy. We show that our result implies that, in practice, a fairly good approximation to higher-order QCD corrections to the interference may also be obtained by rescaling the known LO result by a K-factor computed using the signal process.

  3. Analysis of the Effect of Radio Frequency Interference on Repeat Track Airborne InSAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Bin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The SAR system operating at low frequency is susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI from television station, radio station, and some other civil electronic facilities. The presence of RFI degrades the SAR image quality, and obscures the targets in the scene. Furthermore, RFI can cause interferometric phase error in repeat track InSAR system. In order to analyze the effect of RFI on interferometric phase of InSAR, real measured RFI signal are added on cone simulated SAR echoes. The imaging and interferometric processing results of both the RFI-contaminated and raw data are given. The effect of real measured RFI signal on repeat track InSAR system is analyzed. Finally, the imaging and interferometric processing results of both with and without RFI suppressed of the P band airborne repeat track InSAR real data are presented, which demonstrates the efficiency of the RFI suppression method in terms of decreasing the interferometric phase errors caused by RFI.

  4. A wavelength-tunable fiber laser using a novel filter based on a compound interference effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Lou, Shuqin; Su, Wei; Han, Bolin; Shen, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using a novel filter which is formed from a 2  ×  2 3 dB multimode coupler incorporating a segment of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF). By using the filter with 2.1 m lengths of PMF in a ring fiber laser, a stable single wavelength lasing is obtained experimentally. Its 3 dB bandwidth is less than 0.0147 nm and the side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is higher than 58.91 dB. Experimental results demonstrate that mode competition can be effectively suppressed and the SMSR can be improved due to the compound interference effect aroused by the novel filter. Meanwhile the stability of the output lasing can be enhanced. By appropriately adjusting the polarization controllers (PCs), the output lasing wavelength can be tuned from 1563.51 to 1568.21 nm. This fiber laser has the advantage of a simple structure and stable operation at room temperature.

  5. Combined effects of 60Co dose and high frequency interferences on a discrete bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doridant, A.; Raoult, J.; Jarrix, S.; Blain, A.; Dusseau, L.; Hoffmann, P.; Chatry, N.; Calvel, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns bipolar transistors subject to a double aggression: dose irradiation and high-frequency interference. The electromagnetic interference is injected in a contactless way in the near-field zone around the device. Parameters of the interference are power and frequency, the latter largely out of band of operation of the transistors. The output voltage of the transistor exhibits changes, due to rectification and to some extent to current crowding. The importance of the base bias set-up for the type of change occurring in voltage is displayed. After irradiation with a 60 Co source, the voltage output will change under electromagnetic interference but sometimes in an opposite way as initially measured. The impact of the irradiation with respect to electromagnetic susceptibility is highlighted from a physical point of view. Finally preliminary results of simulation for susceptibility prediction are given and a discussion is given on the limits of the transistor model used. (authors)

  6. Effects of phase change on reflection in phase-measuring interference microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois , Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    International audience; We show by analytical and numerical calculations that the phase change on reflection that occurs in interference microscopy is almost independent of the numerical aperture of the objective. The shift of the microscope interferogram response due to the phase change on reflection, however, increases with the numerical aperture. Measurements of the interferogram shift are made with a Linnik interference microscope equipped with various numerical-aperture objectives and ar...

  7. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  8. Elementary Statistical Models for Vector Collision-Sequence Interference Effects with Poisson-Distributed Collision Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper (Lewis, 2008) a class of models suitable for application to collision-sequence interference was introduced. In these models velocities are assumed to be completely randomized in each collision. The distribution of velocities was assumed to be Gaussian. The integrated induced dipole moment μk, for vector interference, or the scalar modulation μk, for scalar interference, was assumed to be a function of the impulse (integrated force) fk, or its magnitude fk, experienced by the molecule in a collision. For most of (Lewis, 2008) it was assumed that μk fk and μk fk, but it proved to be possible to extend the models, so that the magnitude of the induced dipole moment is equal to an arbitrary power or sum of powers of the intermolecular force. This allows estimates of the in filling of the interference dip by the dis proportionality of the induced dipole moment and force. One particular such model, using data from (Herman and Lewis, 2006), leads to the most realistic estimate for the in filling of the vector interference dip yet obtained. In (Lewis, 2008) the drastic assumption was made that collision times occurred at equal intervals. In the present paper that assumption is removed: the collision times are taken to form a Poisson process. This is much more realistic than the equal-intervals assumption. The interference dip is found to be a Lorentzian in this model

  9. Theory of the effect of odd-photon destructive interference on optical shifts in resonantly enhanced multiphoton excitation and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.; Deng, L.; Garrett, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    We present a theory for two- and three-photon excitation, optical shifting, and four-wave mixing when a first laser is tuned onto, or near, a two-photon resonance and a second much more intense laser is tuned near or on resonance between the two-photon resonance and a second excited state. When the second excited state has a dipole-allowed transition back to the ground state and the concentration is sufficiently high, a destructive interference is produced between three-photon coupling of the ground state and the second excited state and one-photon coupling between the same states by the internally generated four-wave mixing field. This interference leads to several striking effects. For instance, as the onset of the interference occurs, the optical shifts in the two-photon resonance excitation line shape become smaller in copropagating geometry so that the line shapes for multiphoton ionization enhanced by the two-photon resonance eventually become unaffected by the second laser. In the same range of concentrations the four-wave mixing field evolves to a concentration-independent intensity. With counterpropagating laser beams the line shape exhibits normal optical shifts like those observed for both copropagating and counterpropagating laser beams at very low concentrations. The theoretical work presented here extends our earlier works by including the effect of laser bandwidth and by removing the restriction of having the second laser be tuned far from three-photon resonance. In this way we have now included, as a special case, the effect of both laser bandwidth and interference on laser-induced transparency. Unlike other effects related to odd-photon destructive interference, the effect of a broad bandwidth is to bring about the predicted effects at much lower concentrations. Studies in rubidium show good agreement between theory and experiment for both ionization line shapes and four-wave mixing intensity as a function of concentration. copyright 1998 The

  10. Personal medical electronic devices and walk-through metal detector security systems: assessing electromagnetic interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guag, Joshua; Addissie, Bisrat; Witters, Donald

    2017-03-20

    There have been concerns that Electromagnetic security systems such as walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) can potentially cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in certain active medical devices including implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable neurostimulators. Incidents of EMI between WTMDs and active medical devices also known as personal medical electronic devices (PMED) continue to be reported. This paper reports on emission measurements of sample WTMDs and testing of 20 PMEDs in a WTMD simulation system. Magnetic fields from sample WTMD systems were characterized for emissions and exposure of certain PMEDs. A WTMD simulator system designed and evaluated by FDA in previous studies was used to mimic the PMED exposures to the waveform from sample WTMDs. The simulation system allows for controlled PMED exposure enabling careful study with adjustable magnetic field strengths and exposure duration, and provides flexibility for PMED exposure at elevated levels in order to study EMI effects on the PMED. The PMED samples consisted of six implantable cardiac pacemakers, six implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), five implantable neurostimulators, and three insulin pumps. Each PMED was exposed in the simulator to the sample WTMD waveforms using methods based on appropriate consensus test standards for each of the device type. Testing the sample PMEDs using the WTMD simulator revealed EMI effects on two implantable pacemakers and one implantable neurostimulator for exposure field strength comparable to actual WTMD field strength. The observed effects were transient and the PMEDs returned to pre-exposure operation within a few seconds after removal from the simulated WTMD exposure fields. No EMI was observed for the sample ICDs or insulin pumps. The findings are consistent with earlier studies where certain sample PMEDs exhibited EMI effects. Clinical implications were not addressed in this study. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential PMED

  11. Correcting for interference effects in the photoluminescence of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Max Hilaire; Siebentritt, Susanne [Laboratory for Photovoltaics, Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, University of Luxembourg, 4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Bissig, Benjamin; Reinhard, Patrick; Buecheler, Stephan [Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstr. 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Jackson, Philip [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) measurements are performed on high-quality Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films with the intention of investigating their electronic structure. Due to the nature of the CIGS absorbers, notably their smooth surface and a graded band gap, the measured PL spectra are distorted by interference effects, limiting thus the information that one can gain. Here we show that, by varying the entrance angle of the laser light and the detection angle of the emitted PL, we are able to correct for interference effects. As a result, we receive interference-free PL spectra that enable us to determine quantities such as band gap energies and quasi-Fermi level splittings (QFLS). Furthermore, we show that it is possible to measure the QFLS even without correcting for interference effects and we compare the QFLS to the open circuit voltage for a particular sample. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  13. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations.Subjects performed a ballistic trainin...

  14. The componential processing of fractions in adults and children: effects of stimuli variability and contextual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Qiaochu; Gabriel, Florence C; Szücs, Dénes

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that people have a strong tendency to compare fractions based on constituent numerators or denominators. This is called componential processing. This study explored whether componential processing was preferred in tasks involving high stimuli variability and high contextual interference, when fractions could be compared based either on the holistic values of fractions or on their denominators. Here, stimuli variability referred to the fact that fractions were not monotonous but diversiform. Contextual interference referred to the fact that the processing of fractions was interfered by other stimuli. To our ends, three tasks were used. In Task 1, participants compared a standard fraction 1/5 to unit fractions. This task was used as a low stimuli variability and low contextual interference task. In Task 2 stimuli variability was increased by mixing unit and non-unit fractions. In Task 3, high contextual interference was created by incorporating decimals into fractions. The RT results showed that the processing patterns of fractions were very similar for adults and children. In task 1 and task 3, only componential processing was utilzied. In contrast, both holistic processing and componential processing were utilized in task 2. These results suggest that, if individuals are presented with the opportunity to perform componential processing, both adults and children will tend to do so, even if they are faced with high variability of fractions or high contextual interference.

  15. Effects of vaccination against paratuberculosis on tuberculosis in goats: diagnostic interferences and cross-protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez de Val Bernat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most countries carrying out campaigns of bovine tuberculosis (TB eradication impose a ban on the use of mycobacterial vaccines in cattle. However, vaccination against paratuberculosis (PTB in goats is often allowed even when its effect on TB diagnosis has not been fully evaluated. To address this issue, goat kids previously vaccinated against PTB were experimentally infected with TB. Results Evaluation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ secretion induced by avian and bovine tuberculins (PPD showed a predominant avian PPD-biased response in the vaccinated group from week 4 post-vaccination onward. Although 60% of the animals were bovine reactors at week 14, avian PPD-biased responses returned at week 16. After challenge with M. caprae, the IFN-γ responses radically changed to show predominant bovine PPD-biased responses from week 18 onward. In addition, cross-reactions with bovine PPD that had been observed in the vaccinated group at week 14 were reduced when using the M. tuberculosis complex-specific antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3615c as new DIVA (differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals reagents, which further maintained sensitivity post-challenge. Ninety percent of the animals reacted positively to the tuberculin cervical comparative intradermal test performed at 12 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, post-mortem analysis showed reductions in tuberculous lesions and bacterial burden in some vaccinated animals, particularly expressed in terms of the degree of extrapulmonary dissemination of TB infection. Conclusions Our results suggest a degree of interference of PTB vaccination with current TB diagnostics that can be fully mitigated when using new DIVA reagents. A partial protective effect associated with vaccination was also observed in some vaccinated animals.

  16. The interference effects of non-rotated versus counter-rotated trials in visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinder, Mark R; Walk, Laura; Woolley, Daniel G; Riek, Stephan; Carson, Richard G

    2007-07-01

    An isometric torque-production task was used to investigate interference and retention in adaptation to multiple visuomotor environments. Subjects produced isometric flexion-extension and pronation-supination elbow torques to move a cursor to acquire targets as quickly as possible. Adaptation to a 30 degrees counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation (task A), was followed by a period of rest (control), trials with no rotation (task B0), or trials with a 60 degrees clockwise (CW) rotation (task B60). For all groups, retention of task A was assessed 5 h later. With initial training, all groups reduced the angular deviation of cursor paths early in the movements, indicating feedforward adaptation. For the control group, performance at commencement of the retest was significantly better than that at the beginning of the initial learning. For the B0 group, performance in the retest of task A was not dissimilar to that at the start of the initial learning, while for the B60 group retest performance in task A was markedly worse than initially observed. Our results indicate that close juxtaposition of two visuomotor environments precludes improved retest performance in the initial environment. Data for the B60 group, specifically larger angular errors upon retest compared with initial exposures, are consistent with the presence of anterograde interference. Furthermore, full interference occurred even when the visuomotor environment encountered in the second task was not rotated (B0). This latter novel result differs from those obtained for force field learning, where interference does not occur when task B does not impose perturbing forces, i.e., when B consists of a null field (Brashers-Krug et al., Nature 382:252-255, 1996). The results are consistent with recent proposals suggesting different interference mechanisms for visuomotor (kinematic) compared to force field (dynamic) adaptations, and have implications for the use of washout trials when studying interference between

  17. Effects of layer nanodefects on the light transmission by optical elements with multilayer interference coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekeshgazyi, Yi.V.; Syidenko, T.S.; Mitsa, O.V.; Barna, P.; Kyikyineshyi, O.Ye.

    2011-01-01

    The light transmission properties of optical elements with multilayer interference coatings have been studied. The reduction of transmittance maxima for optical elements with coating containing defects is found to be stronger for larger refractive indices of the substances that the defects are made of. The shape of transmittance curves is found to substantially depend on the defect dimensions along the direction of light propagation and the defect arrangement in the layer bulk. The results obtained are necessary for the developing of a technology aimed at manufacturing the optical elements with multilayer interference coatings for laser facilities and optical lenses.

  18. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaire, Mégane; Fraize, Nicolas; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Parmentier, Régis; Marighetto, Aline; Salin, Paul Antoine; Malleret, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM). The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI) (HIWM task), or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task). Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be transferred and stored

  19. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mégane Missaire

    Full Text Available A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM. The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI (HIWM task, or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task. Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be

  20. Study the effects of varying interference upon the optical properties of turbid samples using NIR spatial light modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Oren; Fanrazi-Kahana, Michal; Meitav, Omri; Pinhasi, Gad A.; Abookasis, David

    2018-03-01

    Optical properties of biological tissues are valuable diagnostic parameters which can provide necessary information regarding tissue state during disease pathogenesis and therapy. However, different sources of interference, such as temperature changes may modify these properties, introducing confounding factors and artifacts to data, consequently skewing their interpretation and misinforming clinical decision-making. In the current study, we apply spatial light modulation, a type of diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique, to monitor the variation in optical properties of highly scattering turbid media in the presence varying levels of the following sources of interference: scattering concentration, temperature, and pressure. Spatial near-infrared (NIR) light modulation is a wide-field, non-contact emerging optical imaging platform capable of separating the effects of tissue scattering from those of absorption, thereby accurately estimating both parameters. With this technique, periodic NIR illumination patterns at alternately low and high spatial frequencies, at six discrete wavelengths between 690 to 970 nm, were sequentially projected upon the medium while a CCD camera collects the diffusely reflected light. Data analysis based assumptions is then performed off-line to recover the medium's optical properties. We conducted a series of experiments demonstrating the changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of commercially available fresh milk and chicken breast tissue under different interference conditions. In addition, information on the refractive index was study under increased pressure. This work demonstrates the utility of NIR spatial light modulation to detect varying sources of interference upon the optical properties of biological samples.

  1. Material-specific retroactive interference effects of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition in a nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Nicolette S; Diakoumakos, Jessica V; Sinclair, Erin R; Crowe, Simon F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated proactive and retroactive interference effects between the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using the flexible approach, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). One hundred and eighty nonclinical participants were assigned to a four (visual interference, verbal interference, visual and verbal interference, vs. no interference) by two (retroactive vs. proactive) between-subjects design. The administration order of the tests was counterbalanced (i.e., administration of the WAIS-IV prior to the WMS-IV, and the WAIS-IV administered during the delay interval of the WMS-IV). The WAIS-IV produced significant retroactive interference effects on the WMS-IV; however, no proactive interference effect was observed. The retroactive interference effect was dependent on material specificity. The results indicate that material presented within the delay of the WMS-IV can have a significant effect on subsequent delayed recall. Clinicians should carefully consider the effects associated with carry-over effects of these tests when using them in combination.

  2. D-lactic acid interferes with the effects of platelet activating factor on bovine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, P; Conejeros, I; Carretta, M D; Concha, C; Jara, E; Tadich, N; Hidalgo, M A; Burgos, R A

    2011-11-15

    D-lactic acidosis occurs in ruminants, such as cattle, with acute ruminal acidosis caused by ingestion of excessive amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates. Affected animals show clinical signs similar to those of septic shock, as well as acute laminitis and liver abscesses. It has been proposed that the inflammatory response and susceptibility to infection could both be caused by the inhibition of phagocytic mechanisms. To determine the effects of d-lactic acid on bovine neutrophil functions, we pretreated cells with different concentrations of D-lactic acid and measured intracellular pH using 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and calcium flux using FLUO-3 AM-loaded neutrophils. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using a luminol chemiluminescence assay, and MMP-9/gelatinase-B granule release was measured by zymography. CD11b and CD62L/l-selectin expression, changes in cell shape, superoxide anion production, phagocytosis of Escherichia coli-Texas red bioparticles, and apoptosis were all measured using flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated that D-lactic acid reduced ROS production, CD11b upregulation and MMP-9 release in bovine neutrophils treated with 100 nM platelet-activating factor (PAF). D-lactic acid induced MMP-9 release and, at higher concentrations, upregulated CD11b expression, decrease L-selectin expression, and induces late apoptosis. We concluded that D-lactic acid can interfere with neutrophil functions induced by PAF, leading to reduced innate immune responses during bacterial infections. Moreover, the increase of MMP-9 release and CD11b expression induced by 10mM D-lactic acid could promote an nonspecific neutrophil-dependent inflammatory reaction in cattle with acute ruminal acidosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Small Interference RNA Targeting TLR4 Gene Effectively Attenuates Pulmonary Inflammation in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was to investigate the feasibility of adenovirus-mediated small interference RNA (siRNA targeting Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 gene in ameliorating lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury (ALI. Methods. In vitro, alveolar macrophages (AMs were treated with Ad-siTLR4 and Ad-EFGP, respectively, for 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h, and then with LPS (100 ng/mL for 2 h, and the function and expression of TLR4 were evaluated. In vivo, rats received intratracheal injection of 300 μL of normal saline (control group, 300 μL of Ad-EGFP (Ad-EGFP group, or 300 μL of Ad-siTLR4 (Ad-siTLR4 group and then were intravenously treated with LPS (50 mg/kg to induce ALI. Results. Ad-siTLR4 treatment significantly reduced TLR4 expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines following LPS treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Significant alleviation of tissue edema, microvascular protein leakage, and neutrophil infiltration was observed in the AdsiTLR4-treated animals. Conclusion. TLR4 plays a critical role in LPS-induced ALI, and transfection of Ad-siTLR4 can effectively downregulate TLR4 expression in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by alleviation of LPS-induced lung injury. These findings suggest that TLR4 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of ALI and RNA interfering targeting TLR4 expression represents a therapeutic strategy.

  4. Simulations of interference effects in gated two-dimensional ballistic electron systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pichugin, K.N.; Sadreev, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    We present detailed simulations addressing recent electronic interference experiments,where a metallic gate is used to locally modify the Fermi wavelength of the charge carriers. Our numerical calculations are based on a solution of the one-particle Schrodinger equation for a realistic model of t...

  5. Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…

  6. Effects of Word Recognition Training in a Picture-Word Interference Task: Automaticity vs. Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    First and second graders were taught to recognize a set of written words either more accurately or more rapidly. Both before and after word training, they named pictures printed with and without these words as distractors. Of interest was whether training would enhance or diminish the interference created by these words in the picture naming task.…

  7. Effect of target-masker similarity on across-ear interference in a dichotic cocktail-party listening task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas S; Simpson, Brian D

    2007-09-01

    Similarity between the target and masking voices is known to have a strong influence on performance in monaural and binaural selective attention tasks, but little is known about the role it might play in dichotic listening tasks with a target signal and one masking voice in the one ear and a second independent masking voice in the opposite ear. This experiment examined performance in a dichotic listening task with a target talker in one ear and same-talker, same-sex, or different-sex maskers in both the target and the unattended ears. The results indicate that listeners were most susceptible to across-ear interference with a different-sex within-ear masker and least susceptible with a same-talker within-ear masker, suggesting that the amount of across-ear interference cannot be predicted from the difficulty of selectively attending to the within-ear masking voice. The results also show that the amount of across-ear interference consistently increases when the across-ear masking voice is more similar to the target speech than the within-ear masking voice is, but that no corresponding decline in across-ear interference occurs when the across-ear voice is less similar to the target than the within-ear voice. These results are consistent with an "integrated strategy" model of speech perception where the listener chooses a segregation strategy based on the characteristics of the masker present in the target ear and the amount of across-ear interference is determined by the extent to which this strategy can also effectively be used to suppress the masker in the unattended ear.

  8. On Symmetries of Extremal Black Holes with One and Two Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the Attractor Mechanism, we review the appearance of groups of type E7 as generalized electric-magnetic duality symmetries in locally supersymmetric theories of gravity, with particular emphasis on the symplectic structure of fluxes in the background of extremal black hole solutions, with one or two centers. In the latter case, the role of an "horizontal" symmetry SL(2,R) is elucidated by presenting a set of two-centered relations governing the structure of two-centered invariant polynomials.

  9. Inelastic processes and interference effects during the interaction of positronium with ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eseev, M. K., E-mail: m_eseev@mail.ru; Matveev, V. I., E-mail: matveev.victor@pomorsu.ru [Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The excitation, breakup, and reradiation during the interaction of a positronium atom with ultrashort electromagnetic pulses are considered. The probabilities of inelastic processes and reradiation spectra have been obtained. The interference between the amplitudes of the photon emission by the electron and positron is shown to contribute noticeably to the reradiation spectra. The developed approach is applicable for describing the interaction of positronium with ultrashort pulses of attosecond or shorter duration.

  10. Interferences between Sphagnum and vascular plants: effects on plant community structure and peat formation

    OpenAIRE

    Malmer, Nils; Albinsson, C; Svensson, B M; Wallén, Bo

    2003-01-01

    The interference between vascular plants and peat mosses with respect to nitrogen and phosphorus was studied in a fertilization experiment and with respect to competition for light in a removal experiment in poor fens with either soligenous or topogenous hydrology using Narthecium ossifragum (L.) Huds. and three species of Sphagnum sect. Sphagnum as targets. Adding fertilizer either on the moss surface or below it confirmed the hypotheses of an asymmetric competition for nutrients, viz. that ...

  11. Combined Effect of Random Transmit Power Control and Inter-Path Interference Cancellation on DS-CDMA Packet Mobile Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Eisuke; Ito, Haruki; Wang, Zhisen; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    In mobile communication systems, high speed packet data services are demanded. In the high speed data transmission, throughput degrades severely due to severe inter-path interference (IPI). Recently, we proposed a random transmit power control (TPC) to increase the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications. In this paper, we apply IPI cancellation in addition to the random TPC. We derive the numerical expression of the received signal-to-interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) and introduce IPI cancellation factor. We also derive the numerical expression of system throughput when IPI is cancelled ideally to compare with the Monte Carlo numerically evaluated system throughput. Then we evaluate, by Monte-Carlo numerical computation method, the combined effect of random TPC and IPI cancellation on the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications.

  12. Strong-field ionization of xenon dimers: The effect of two-equivalent-center interference and of driving ionic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Feng, T.; Raabe, N.; Rottke, H.

    2018-02-01

    Strong-field ionization (SFI) of the homonuclear noble gas dimer Xe2 is investigated and compared with SFI of the Xe atom and of the ArXe heteronuclear dimer by using ultrashort Ti:sapphire laser pulses and photoelectron momentum spectroscopy. The large separation of the two nuclei of the dimer allows the study of two-equivalent-center interference effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. Comparing the experimental results with a new model calculation, which is based on the strong-field approximation, actually reveals the influence of interference. Moreover, the comparison indicates that the presence of closely spaced gerade and ungerade electronic state pairs of the Xe2 + ion at the Xe2 ionization threshold, which are strongly dipole coupled, affects the photoelectron momentum distribution.

  13. Effect of the moment-of-inertia variation on Coulomb-nuclear interference in heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Inopin, E.V.; Chekanov, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of moment-of-inertia (MI) variation on probabilities of the Coulomb excitation of nucleus rotational states (RS) is investigated. The calculation is performed in the generalized quasiclassical approximation. Cillisions with an aimed parameter equal to 0 and recording of scattered ion at angles close to 180 deg were considered. Effect of MI dependence on angular momentum (AM) on the RS Coulomb excitation probability in the 86 Kr+ 238 U process at 400 MeV 86 Kr has been studied. For small AMs (I < 10), when the MI variation can be neglected, the Coulomb-nuclear interference leads to a marked shift of RS excitation probability maxima. However, with increasing transferred AM the convergence of probabilities conditioned with mutual compensation of phases shift related to the MI variation and Coulomb-nucleus interference, is noted. It is also noted that correct parameters of deformed nuclei extracted from experiments on the Coulomb excitation of high-spin states can be obtained only during simultaneous accountancy of both the Coulomb-nuclear interference and the MI variation of excited nuclei

  14. Naming and categorizing objects: task differences modulate the polarity of semantic effects in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantsch, Ansgar; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Mädebach, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm is a prominent tool for studying lexical retrieval during speech production. When participants name the pictures, interference from semantically related distractor words has regularly been shown. By contrast, when participants categorize the pictures, facilitation from semantically related distractors has typically been found. In the extant studies, however, differences in the task instructions (naming vs. categorizing) were confounded with the response level: While responses in naming were typically located at the basic level (e.g., "dog"), responses were located at the superordinate level in categorization (e.g., "animal"). The present study avoided this confound by having participants respond at the basic level in both naming and categorization, using the same pictures, distractors, and verbal responses. Our findings confirm the polarity reversal of the semantic effects--that is, semantic interference in naming, and semantic facilitation in categorization. These findings show that the polarity reversal of the semantic effect is indeed due to the different tasks and is not an artifact of the different response levels used in previous studies. Implications for current models of language production are discussed.

  15. The Effect of H2O2 Interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal During Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most oxidants in AOPs. By H2O2 dissociation, hydroxyl radical with a standard oxidation potential of 2.7 is produced. It is reported H2O¬ residual in AOPs has been led to interference in chemical oxygen demand (COD test and it is able to hinder biological treatment of waste water. Because of high mixed organic load of solid waste leachate, this study investigated effect of H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. In this study effect of parameters such as pH (3,5,7,12, H2O2 dose (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 mol l-1, and time reaction(10,20,30,40,50,60 min evaluated on H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. Optimum pH and concentration were 3 and 0.02 moll-1 respectively. With increasing reaction time, COD removal was increased. The false COD obtained between 0.49mg per 1mg of H2O2. The average of COD removal by H2O2 for 60 min was 6.57%. Also reaction rate of this process was 0.0029 min-1. The presence of H2O2 leads to overestimation of COD values after reaction time because it consumes the oxidation agent. The extent of H2O2 interference in COD analysis was proportional to the remaining H2O2 concentration at the moment of sampling.

  16. Interference and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Causal inference with interference is a rapidly growing area. The literature has begun to relax the "no-interference" assumption that the treatment received by one individual does not affect the outcomes of other individuals. In this paper we briefly review the literature on causal inference in the presence of interference when treatments have been randomized. We then consider settings in which causal effects in the presence of interference are not identified, either because randomization alone does not suffice for identification, or because treatment is not randomized and there may be unmeasured confounders of the treatment-outcome relationship. We develop sensitivity analysis techniques for these settings. We describe several sensitivity analysis techniques for the infectiousness effect which, in a vaccine trial, captures the effect of the vaccine of one person on protecting a second person from infection even if the first is infected. We also develop two sensitivity analysis techniques for causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding which generalize analogous techniques when interference is absent. These two techniques for unmeasured confounding are compared and contrasted.

  17. A model of human motor sequence learning explains facilitation and interference effects based on spike-timing dependent plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects. At present it is unclear what the underlying neural mechanism are that give rise to these diverse findings. Here we show that a recently developed recurrent neural network model readily reproduces this diverse set of findings. The self-organizing recurrent neural network (SORN model is a network of recurrently connected threshold units that combines a simplified form of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP with homeostatic plasticity mechanisms ensuring network stability, namely intrinsic plasticity (IP and synaptic normalization (SN. When trained on sequence learning tasks modeled after recent experiments we find that it reproduces the full range of interference, facilitation, and transfer effects. We show how these effects are rooted in the network's changing internal representation of the different sequences across learning and how they depend on an interaction of training schedule and task similarity. Furthermore, since learning in the model is based on fundamental neuronal plasticity mechanisms, the model reveals how these plasticity mechanisms are ultimately responsible for the network's sequence learning abilities. In particular, we find that all three plasticity mechanisms are essential for the network to learn effective internal models of the different training sequences. This ability to form effective internal models is also the basis for the observed interference and facilitation effects. This suggests that

  18. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of structural magnetic resonance imaging data in a two-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalavi, Sima; Simmons, Andrew; Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Barker, Gareth J; Reinders, AAT Simone

    2012-01-01

    Multi-center magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies present an opportunity to advance research by pooling data. However, brain measurements derived from MR-images are susceptible to differences in MR-sequence parameters. It is therefore necessary to determine whether there is an interaction between the sequence parameters and the effect of interest, and to minimise any such interaction by careful choice of acquisition parameters. As an exemplar of the issues involved in multi-center studies, we present data from a study in which we aimed to optimize a set of volumetric MRI-protocols to define a protocol giving data that are consistent and reproducible across two centers and over time. Optimization was achieved based on data quality and quantitative measures, in our case using FreeSurfer and Voxel Based Morphometry approaches. Our approach consisted of a series of five comparisons. Firstly, a single-center dataset was collected, using a range of candidate pulse-sequences and parameters chosen on the basis of previous literature. Based on initial results, a number of minor changes were implemented to optimize the pulse-sequences, and a second single-center dataset was collected. FreeSurfer data quality measures were compared between datasets in order to determine the best performing sequence(s), which were taken forward to the next stage of testing. We subsequently acquired short-term and long-term two-center reproducibility data, and quantitative measures were again assessed to determine the protocol with the highest reproducibility across centers. Effects of a scanner software and hardware upgrade on the reproducibility of the protocols at one of the centers were also evaluated. Assessing the quality measures from the first two datasets allowed us to define artefact-free protocols, all with high image quality as assessed by FreeSurfer. Comparing the quantitative test and retest measures, we found high within-center reproducibility for all protocols, but lower

  19. Effects of environmental and clinical interferents on the host capture efficiency of immobilized bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Daniel V; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-03-25

    Bacteriophage-functionalized surfaces are a new class of advanced functional material and have been demonstrated to be applicable for use as antimicrobial surfaces in medical applications (e.g., indwelling medical devices or wound dressings) or as biosensors for bacterial capture and detection. However, the complex composition of many real life samples (e.g., blood, natural waters, etc.) can potentially interfere with the interaction of phage and its bacterial host, leading to a decline in the efficiency of the phage-functionalized surface. In this study, the bacterial capture efficiency of two model phage-functionalized surfaces was assessed in the presence of potential environmental and biomedical interferents. The two phage-bacteria systems used in this study are PRD1 with Salmonella Typhimurium and T4 with Escherichia coli. The potential interferents tested included humic and fulvic acids, natural groundwater, colloidal latex microspheres, host extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), albumin, fibrinogen, and human serum. EPS and human serum decreased the host capture efficiency for immobilized PRD1 and T4, and also impaired the infectivity of the nonimmobilized (planktonic) phage. Interestingly, humic and fulvic acids reduced the capture efficiency of T4-functionalized surfaces, even though they did not lead to inactivation of the suspended virions. Neither humic nor fulvic acids affected the capture efficiency of PRD1. These findings demonstrate the inadequacy of traditional phage selection methods (i.e., infectivity of suspended phage toward its host in clean buffer) for designing advanced functional materials and further highlight the importance of taking into account the environmental conditions in which the immobilized phage is expected to function.

  20. Effect of electrocardiogram interference on cortico-cortical connectivity analysis and a possible solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, R B; Kota, Srinivas; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; du Plessis, Adre

    2016-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are often contaminated by the electrocardiogram (ECG) interference, which affects quantitative characterization of EEG. We propose null-coherence, a frequency-based approach, to attenuate the ECG interference in EEG using simultaneously recorded ECG as a reference signal. After validating the proposed approach using numerically simulated data, we apply this approach to EEG recorded from six newborns receiving therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. We compare our approach with an independent component analysis (ICA), a previously proposed approach to attenuate ECG artifacts in the EEG signal. The power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the ECG attenuated EEG was compared against the power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the raw EEG. The null-coherence approach attenuated the ECG contamination without leaving any residual of the ECG in the EEG. We show that the null-coherence approach performs better than ICA in attenuating the ECG contamination without enhancing cortico-cortical connectivity. Our analysis suggests that using ICA to remove ECG contamination from the EEG suffers from redistribution problems, whereas the null-coherence approach does not. We show that both the null-coherence and ICA approaches attenuate the ECG contamination. However, the EEG obtained after ICA cleaning displayed higher cortico-cortical connectivity compared with that obtained using the null-coherence approach. This suggests that null-coherence is superior to ICA in attenuating the ECG interference in EEG for cortico-cortical connectivity analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Age on Short-Term Memory Loss due to Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Alisha Berkauzer

    2011-01-01

    This project focused on how proactive interference affects the short-term memory of people based on their age. The goal was to find the prime age for learning information and storing it in one's memory. Seven people from ages fifteen to forty were tested individually, using a set color pattern, in order to see how well each individual could remember the different color patterns as difficulty of the pattern increased. The obtained data was fitted by the polynomial regression. The “fitted...

  2. Interference effects on quantum light group velocity in cavity induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilam, Asaf; Thanopulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of a quantized probe field in a dense medium composed of three-level Λ-type systems under cavity electromagnetically induced transparency conditions. We treat the medium as composed of collective states of the three-level systems while the light-medium interaction occurs within clusters of such collective states depending on the photon number state of the probe field. We observe slower group velocity for lower photon number input probe field only under conditions of no interference between different clusters of collective states in the system. (paper)

  3. Interference effects in Auger spectra at the 3d9np resonances in Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, B M; Demekhin, Ph V; Sukhorukov, V L; Ehresmann, A; Schmoranzer, H

    2003-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for the population of the Kr II 4p 4 np states when the exciting-photon energy corresponds to the first four 3d 9 np resonances were calculated beyond the two-step model for the first time. Good agreement between computed and measured photoionization cross sections proves the importance of taking into account the interference between different resonance channels in understanding the dynamics of the Auger decay of the Kr I 3d 9 np resonances. (letter to the editor)

  4. Proximity effect bilayer nano superconducting quantum interference devices for millikelvin magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blois, A., E-mail: a.blois@ucl.ac.uk; Rozhko, S.; Romans, E. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London (UCL), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Hao, L.; Gallop, J. C. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) incorporating thin film nanobridges as weak links have sensitivities approaching that required for single spin detection at 4.2 K. However, due to thermal hysteresis they are difficult to operate at much lower temperatures which hinder their application to many quantum measurements. To overcome this, we have developed nanoscale SQUIDs made from titanium-gold proximity bilayers. We show that their electrical properties are consistent with a theoretical model developed for heat flow in bilayers and demonstrate that they enable magnetic measurements to be made on a sample at system temperatures down to 60 mK.

  5. Interference in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Interfering factors are evident in both limited reagent (radioimmunoassay) and excess reagent (immunometric assay) technologies and should be suspected whenever there is a discrepancy between analytical results and clinical findings in the investigation of particular diseases. The overall effect of interference in immunoassay is analytical bias in result, either positive or negative of variable magnitude. The interference maybe caused by a wide spectrum of factors from poor sample collection and handling to physiological factors e.g. lipaemia, heparin treatment, binding protein abnormalities, autoimmunity and drug treatments. The range of interfering factors is extensive and difficult to discuss effectively in a short review

  6. Interference effects during the reradiation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by polyatomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, D. N.; Matveev, V. I., E-mail: mezon98@mail.ru [Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    A theory of the reradiation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by arbitrary polyatomic systems of isolated complex atoms has been developed. The technique used allows the spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and photon momenta in reradiation processes to be accurately taken into account. The angular distributions of the reradiation spectra have been obtained for an arbitrary number of atoms in the system. The processes of interference between the photon emission amplitudes are shown to give rise to characteristic “diffraction” maxima. We consider one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional rectangular lattices as examples as well as planar and cylindrical structures as models of planar nanosystems and nanotubes.

  7. The Effects of Age on Short-Term Memory Loss due to Proactive Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha Berkauzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project focused on how proactive interference affects the short-term memory of people based on their age. The goal was to find the prime age for learning information and storing it in one's memory. Seven people from ages fifteen to forty were tested individually, using a set color pattern, in order to see how well each individual could remember the different color patterns as difficulty of the pattern increased. The obtained data was fitted by the polynomial regression. The “fitted” curve shows that as age increases, the individual's performance in memorizing the more difficult patterns decreases. Also, the peaked level of memory performance was found to be 24 for our experimental data.

  8. Interference effects in Bragg-case synchrotron section topography of elastically bent silicon implanted crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    White-beam synchrotron section topography was applied to a silicon crystal implanted with 4.8 MeV α-particles elastically bent with the radius of curvature close to 100 m. A number of section patterns corresponding to different reflections was analysed. It was found that the section pattern in the bent sample was drastically different from those observed in a flat sample. The difference consists in the occurrence of the sets of additional interference fringes covering a long distance up to several millimetres behind the main diffraction maximum. It was possible to reproduce some characteristic features of the fringes both in the implanted and non-implanted region by numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equation

  9. Global effects of the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway on the transcriptional landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Germano; Hoersch, Sebastian; O'Keeffe, Sean; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Grishok, Alla

    2014-04-01

    Argonaute proteins and their small RNA cofactors short interfering RNAs are known to inhibit gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Argonaute CSR-1 binds thousands of endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) that are antisense to germline transcripts. However, its role in gene expression regulation remains controversial. Here we used genome-wide profiling of nascent RNA transcripts and found that the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway promoted sense-oriented RNA polymerase II transcription. Moreover, a loss of CSR-1 function resulted in global increase in antisense transcription and ectopic transcription of silent chromatin domains, which led to reduced chromatin incorporation of centromere-specific histone H3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the CSR-1 pathway helps maintain the directionality of active transcription, thereby propagating the distinction between transcriptionally active and silent genomic regions.

  10. Multidimensional and interference effects in atom trapping by a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukics, A; Domokos, P; Ritsch, H

    2004-01-01

    We study the trapping of a driven two-level atom in a strongly coupled single-mode cavity field. The cavity can significantly enhance the cooling in the direction perpendicular to the cavity axis and thus the standard Doppler-cooling scheme together with a transverse high-finesse resonator yields long trapping times up to the range of seconds. By the addition of a weak cavity pump, trapping can be achieved in the direction of the cavity axis as well. The system is sensitive to the relative phase of the atomic and cavity pumps due to the interference of the fields injected and scattered into the cavity mode. Variation of the phase difference leads to a switching between two possible trap positions along the cavity axis

  11. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDéry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a continuous recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as similar. Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as similar. Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as similar, while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

  12. Interference with work in fibromyalgia - effect of treatment with pregabalin and relation to pain response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical trials in chronic pain often collect information about interference with work as answers to component questions of commonly used questionnaires but these data are not normally analysed separately. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from four large trials of pregabalin for fibromyalgia lasting 8-14 weeks. We analysed data on interference with work, inferred from answers to component questions of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form 36 Health Survey, Sheehan Disability Scale, and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, including "How many days in the past week did you miss work, including housework, because of fibromyalgia?" from FIQ. Analyses were performed according to randomised treatment group (pregabalin 150-600 mg daily or placebo), pain improvement (0-10 numerical pain rating scale scores at trial beginning vs. end), and end of trial pain state (100 mm visual analogue pain scale [VAS]). Results Comparing treatment group average outcomes revealed modest improvement over the duration of the trials, more so with active treatment than with placebo. For the 'work missed' question from FIQ the change for patients on placebo was from 2.2 (standard deviation [SD] 2.3) days of work lost per week at trial beginning to 1.9 (SD 2.1) days lost at trial end (p /= 50% pain improvement and from 1.9 (SD 2.2) days to 0.73 (SD 1.4) days (p /= 50% pain improvement and a pain score 1 day per week can be achieved in patients with good pain responses. PMID:21639874

  13. Investigation of spectral interference effects on determination of uranium concentration in phosphate ore by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachari, Ayoob H.; Jalali, Fatemeh; Alahyarizadeh, Ghasem [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Engineering Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of spectral interferences on determination of the uranium concentration in phosphate ore were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Eleven high intensity emission lines including four lines recommended by ICP-OES apparatus were chosen to determine the uranium concentration. The ore samples were collected from phosphate acid producing industry in the south of Iran. Three different acid combinations [(HNO{sub 3}:HCl:HF-2:6:2), (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HF-3:3:3), (HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:HF-4:2:2)] used in microwave digestion method to explore the spectral interference effects in different solvent environments. The results showed that the trusty uranium concentration, obtained in the 367.007 nm, 386.592 nm, 389.036 nm and 409.014 nm by second acid digestion method which were 0.665 ppm, 0.972 ppm, 0.670 ppm and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Although the line of 409.014 nm was reported as the best line for determining of the uranium concentration in several literatures, the results showed that this line has a significant spectral interference with vanadium in some ores which should be considered in determining of the uranium concentration. Spectral interference effects of some elements which have high concentrations in the phosphate ore including Ca, Fe, Mg, Pb, V, Mn, and Ti on the line intensities were also investigated. Results indicated that the chosen elements affect emission intensities of all of 11 lines. They also indicated that the line of 409.014 nm provides a trusty precision in the determination of the uranium concentration in the ore sample with low vanadium concentration (at least, U/V ratio of 1:5). Results show that the line of 409.014 nm provides acceptable precision with some corrections in comparison with other selected lines. For instance in high concentrations of other elements including Fe and Ti in the ore samples, strong influences on the line intensities of the 367.007 nm (by Fe

  14. A new method for solving the two-center problem with relativistic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Gizzatkulov, M.Ch.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been proposed for the solution of the two-center problem with realistic potentials. It consists of two steps: first, a separable approximation to the single particle potentials is made and then the two-center problem with these separable potentials is solved exactly. The only approximations are introduced at the first stage in a well controllable way. As an example, we have calculated the single-particle energies and wave functions in the field of two 16 O like the Woods-Saxon potentials as functions of their distance R

  15. Short-Term Sensorimotor Effects of Experimental Occlusal Interferences on the Wake-Time Masseter Muscle Activity of Females with Masticatory Muscle Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iacopo; Farella, Mauro; Festa, Paola; Martina, Roberto; Palla, Sandro; Michelotti, Ambrosina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the application of an acute alteration of the occlusion (ie, interference) on the habitual masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity of females with temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related muscular pain during wakefulness. Seven female volunteers with masticatory myofascial pain participated in a crossover randomized clinical trial. Gold foils were glued on an occlusal contact area (active occlusal interference, AI) or on the vestibular surface of the same molar (dummy interference, DI) and left for 8 days. The masseter electromyogram was recorded during wakefulness in the natural environment by portable recorders under interference-free, dummy-interference, and active-interference conditions. The number, amplitude, and duration of EMG signal fractions with amplitudes above 10% of the maximum voluntary contraction (activity periods, APs) were computed in all experimental conditions. Muscle pain, headache, and perceived stress were each assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS), and an algometer was used to assess masseter and temporalis pressure pain thresholds. Data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance. The frequency and duration of the recorded APs did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions (P>.05), but a small and significant reduction of the EMG mean amplitude of the APs occurred with AI (P.05). An active occlusal interference in female volunteers with masticatory muscle pain had little influence on the masseter EMG activity pattern during wakefulness and did not affect the pressure tenderness of the masseter and temporalis.

  16. An investigation of the effects of interference speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodico, Dana M.; Torres, Rendell R.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Hunter, Claudia

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of interference speech and the built acoustical environment on human performance, and the possibility of designing spaces to architecturally meet the acoustical goals of office and classroom environments. The effects of room size, geometry, and acoustical parameters on human performance are studied through human subject testing. Three experiments are used to investigate the effects of distracting background speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose under constrained laboratory conditions. Short-term memory performance is rated within four different acoustical spaces and five background noise levels, as well as a quiet condition. The presentation will cover research methods, results, and possibilities for furthering this research. [Work supported by the Program in Architectural Acoustics, School of Architecture, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

  17. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  18. Differential Effects of Emotional Information on Interference Task Performance across the Life Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley M LaMonica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While functioning in multiple domains declines with age, emotional regulation appears to remain preserved in older adults. The Emotion Inhibition (Emotional Stroop Test requires participants to name the ink color in which neutrally- and emotionally-valenced words are printed. It was employed in the current investigation as a measure of affective regulation in the context of an interference task in relation to age. Results demonstrated that while participants ranging from 20 to 50 years of age performed significantly worse on the emotion Stroop Inhibition relative to the neutral Stroop Inhibition condition, subjects over 60 years of age displayed the converse of this pattern, performing better on the emotion than the neutral condition, suggesting that they are less affected by the emotional impact of the positive and negative words used in the former condition. This pattern of age-related change in the ability to manage emotion may be related to blunting of affective signaling in limbic structures or, at the psychological level, focusing on emotional regulation.

  19. Highly Sensitive Liquid Core Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Fuentes-Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on a liquid-core multimode interference device is demonstrated. The advantage of such structure is that the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC of the liquid is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of silica and this, combined with the fact that the TOC of silica and the liquid have opposite signs, provides a liquid-core multimode fiber (MMF highly sensitive to temperature. Since the refractive index of the liquid can be easily modified, this allows us to control the modal properties of the liquid-core MMF at will and the sensor sensitivity can be easily tuned by selecting the refractive index of the liquid in the core of the device. The maximum sensitivity measured in our experiments is 20 nm/°C in the low-temperature regime up to 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this is the largest sensitivity reported for fiber-based MMI temperature sensors.

  20. Calculation of two-center one-electron molecular integrals with STOs. [BICEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, J.F.; Lopez, R.; Paniagua, M.; Ramirez, G. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1991-05-01

    A program for the calculation of two-center one-electron integrals (overlap, nuclear attraction and kinetic energy) between real Slater-type orbitals (STOs) is reported. The integrals are obtained by recursion over simple auxiliary matrices, whose elements are calculated in terms of further auxiliary functions evaluated in a quick and accurate way. (orig.).

  1. Calculation of two-center one-electron molecular integrals with STOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, J.F.; Lopez, R.; Paniagua, M.; Ramirez, G.

    1991-01-01

    A program for the calculation of two-center one-electron integrals (overlap, nuclear attraction and kinetic energy) between real Slater-type orbitals (STOs) is reported. The integrals are obtained by recursion over simple auxiliary matrices, whose elements are calculated in terms of further auxiliary functions evaluated in a quick and accurate way. (orig.)

  2. OWL: A code for the two-center shell model with spherical Woods-Saxon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2018-03-01

    A Fortran-90 code for solving the two-center nuclear shell model problem is presented. The model is based on two spherical Woods-Saxon potentials and the potential separable expansion method. It describes the single-particle motion in low-energy nuclear collisions, and is useful for characterizing a broad range of phenomena from fusion to nuclear molecular structures.

  3. Estimating the relevance of world disturbances to explain savings, interference and long-term motor adaptation effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that motor adaptation is the result of multiple, perhaps linear processes each with distinct time scales. While these models are consistent with some motor phenomena, they can neither explain the relatively fast re-adaptation after a long washout period, nor savings on a subsequent day. Here we examined if these effects can be explained if we assume that the CNS stores and retrieves movement parameters based on their possible relevance. We formalize this idea with a model that infers not only the sources of potential motor errors, but also their relevance to the current motor circumstances. In our model adaptation is the process of re-estimating parameters that represent the body and the world. The likelihood of a world parameter being relevant is then based on the mismatch between an observed movement and that predicted when not compensating for the estimated world disturbance. As such, adapting to large motor errors in a laboratory setting should alert subjects that disturbances are being imposed on them, even after motor performance has returned to baseline. Estimates of this external disturbance should be relevant both now and in future laboratory settings. Estimated properties of our bodies on the other hand should always be relevant. Our model demonstrates savings, interference, spontaneous rebound and differences between adaptation to sudden and gradual disturbances. We suggest that many issues concerning savings and interference can be understood when adaptation is conditioned on the relevance of parameters.

  4. Dual-Task Interference: The Effects of Verbal Cognitive Tasks on Upright Postural Stability in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dual-task interference has previously been demonstrated to have a significant effect on postural control among individuals with Parkinson's disease, the impact of speech complexity on postural control has not been demonstrated using quantitative biomechanical measures. The postural stability of twelve participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and twelve healthy age-matched controls was evaluated under three conditions: (1 without a secondary task, (2 performing a rote repetition task and (3 generating a monologue. Results suggested a significant effect of cognitive load on biomechanical parameters of postural stability. Although both groups increased their postural excursion, individuals with Parkinson's disease demonstrated significantly reduced excursion as compared with that of healthy age-matched controls. This suggests that participants with Parkinson's disease may be overconstraining their postural adjustments in order to focus attention on the cognitive tasks without losing their balance. Ironically, this overconstraint may place the participant at greater risk for a fall.

  5. An accumulator model of semantic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik

    To explain latency effects in picture-word interference tasks, cognitive models need to account for both interference and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) effects. As opposed to most models of picture-word interference, which model the time course during the task in a ballistic manner, the RACE model

  6. Rainbows, supernumerary rainbows and interference effects in the angular scattering of chemical reactions: an investigation using Heisenberg's S matrix programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao; Xiahou, Chengkui; Connor, J N L

    2018-01-03

    In earlier research, we have demonstrated that broad "hidden" rainbows can occur in the product differential cross sections (DCSs) of state-to-state chemical reactions. Here we ask the question: can pronounced and localized rainbows, rather than broad hidden ones, occur in reactive DCSs? Further motivation comes from recent measurements by H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2016, 120, 6712, of a "bulge" in a reactive DCS, which they conjecture is a rainbow. Our theoretical approach uses a "weak" version of Heisenberg's scattering matrix program (wHSMP) introduced by X. Shan and J. N. L. Connor, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 8392. This wHSMP uses four general physical principles for chemical reactions to suggest simple parameterized forms for the S matrix; it does not employ a potential energy surface. We use a parameterization in which the modulus of the S matrix is a smooth-step function of the total angular momentum quantum number, J, and (importantly) its phase is a cubic polynomial in J. We demonstrate for a Legendre partial wave series (PWS) the existence of pronounced rainbows, supernumerary rainbows, and other interference effects, in reactive DCSs. We find that reactive rainbows can be more complicated in their structure than the familiar rainbows of elastic scattering. We also analyse the angular scattering using Nearside-Farside (NF) PWS theory and NF PWS Local Angular Momentum (LAM) theory, including resummations of the PWS. In addition, we apply full and NF asymptotic (semiclassical) rainbow theories to the PWS - in particular, the uniform Airy and transitional Airy approximations for the farside scattering. This lets us prove that structure in the DCSs are indeed rainbows, supernumerary rainbows as well as other interference effects.

  7. Elimination of ionic interference effects in the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Defrawy, M.M.M.; Posta, J.; Beck, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with work on the catalytic effect of ruthenium complexes, new compounds were prepared. Atomic absorption spectrometry (a.a.s.) was to be used for their analysis. The standard methods could not be applied to the complexes studied, therefore the effect of cyanide ions for elimination of interfering effects has been studied, because of the great stability of cyanide complexes. (Auth.)

  8. Numerical evaluation of two-center integrals over Slater type orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, S. A., E-mail: slaykurt@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Natural Sciences Institute, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139, Samsun (Turkey); Yükçü, N., E-mail: nyukcu@gmail.com [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Adıyaman University, 02040, Adıyaman (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Slater Type Orbitals (STOs) which one of the types of exponential type orbitals (ETOs) are used usually as basis functions in the multicenter molecular integrals to better understand physical and chemical properties of matter. In this work, we develop algorithms for two-center overlap and two-center two-electron hybrid and Coulomb integrals which are calculated with help of translation method for STOs and some auxiliary functions by V. Magnasco’s group. We use Mathematica programming language to produce algorithms for these calculations. Numerical results for some quantum numbers are presented in the tables. Consequently, we compare our obtained numerical results with the other known literature results and other details of evaluation method are discussed.

  9. Numerical evaluation of two-center integrals over Slater type orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, S. A.; Yükçü, N.

    2016-01-01

    Slater Type Orbitals (STOs) which one of the types of exponential type orbitals (ETOs) are used usually as basis functions in the multicenter molecular integrals to better understand physical and chemical properties of matter. In this work, we develop algorithms for two-center overlap and two-center two-electron hybrid and Coulomb integrals which are calculated with help of translation method for STOs and some auxiliary functions by V. Magnasco’s group. We use Mathematica programming language to produce algorithms for these calculations. Numerical results for some quantum numbers are presented in the tables. Consequently, we compare our obtained numerical results with the other known literature results and other details of evaluation method are discussed.

  10. A two-center-oscillator-basis as an alternative set for heavy ion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, V.; Reinhard, P.G.; Drechsel, D.

    1977-01-01

    The two-center-oscillator-basis, which is constructed from harmonic oscillator wave functions developing about two different centers, suffers from numerical problems at small center separations due to the overcompleteness of the set. In order to overcome these problems we admix higer oscillator wave functions before the orthogonalization, or antisymmetrization resp. This yields a numerically stable basis set at each center separation. The results obtained for the potential energy suface are comparable with the results of more elaborate models. (orig.) [de

  11. Intrinsic and environmental effects on the interference properties of a high-performance quantum dot single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardt, Stefan; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara

    2018-01-01

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of the interference properties of a single-photon source based on a In(Ga)As quantum dot embedded in a quasiplanar GaAs microcavity. Using resonant laser excitation with a pulse separation of 2 ns, we find near-perfect interference of the emitt...... in excitonic Rabi oscillations....

  12. Interference control in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential Stroop effects for colour-naming versus counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Uebel, H.; Banaschewski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in interference control are ascribed to patients suffering from ADHD by a number of cognitive theories. However, previous research using the Stroop Colour Word Interference Task has demonstrated mixed results that may be explained by methodological issues (e.g., possible impact of colour

  13. Interference of a synthetic C18 juvenile hormone with mammalian cells in vitro, I. Effects on growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Z M; Laskowska-Bozek, H; Jastreboff, P

    1978-01-01

    Some of structural and functional analogs of juvenile hormones are now under field examinations as growth inhibitors of some pest-insect populations. So far however very little is known about the possible interference of these compounds with mammalian cells or organisms. In this research the interference of a synthetic preparation of the insect C18 juvenile hormone with mouse embryo fibroblasts (ME-cells) and mouse cells of an established line (L-cells) was studied. Aliquots of juvenile hormone solution or those of the solvent (DMSO plus ethanol, 9:1) were included into the culture medium and after defined times of contact the cells were tested for their morphology, pattern of growth, proliferation rate and viability. The data for the parameters under examination were evaluated by means of the analysis of variance and checked by the Tuckey test. The sensitivity of ME-cells and L-cells to the agent tested was compared by means of the analysis of variance of the data for mitotic indices of these cells and by evaluation of the number of dead cells in cultures under the particular conditions of the experiments. The main findings can be summarized as follows: 1. Cells of both types are evidently more sensitive to juvenile hormone than to the solvent. 2. ME-cells are more sensitive to both agents than are L-cells. 3. The concentrations of the hormone in the medium required to evoked the cytocidal effect on the mouse cells similarly as those affecting some insect non-target cells were far above concentrations found in insect blood, but they were of the same order of magnitude as those used in physiological experiments with insect organs in vitro.

  14. Behaviourally mediated indirect effects : interference competition increases predation mortality in foraging redshanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderman, J; Lind, J; Cresswell, W

    The effect of competition for a limiting resource on the population dynamics of competitors is usually assumed to operate directly through starvation, yet may also affect survival indirectly through behaviourally mediated effects that affect risk of predation. Thus, competition can affect more than

  15. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of MgO−Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-07

    Dec 7, 2017 ... Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), ... communications systems operating in the gigahertz (GHz) ... EMI shielding effectiveness of MAS glass–ceramic system.

  16. Ligand field and interference effects in L-edge X-ray Raman scattering of MnF{sub 2} and CoF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, J.; Herrera P, G. M.; Olalde V, P. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Ederer, D. L.; Schuler, T. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present experimental results for x-ray absorption and resonant emission at the L-edge of the transition metal in MnF{sub 2} and CoF{sub 2}. The emission data are corrected for self-absorption. The data are compared with calculations in both the free-ion approximation and with the effect of the ligand field of D{sub 4h} symmetry included. The results of the calculations take into account interference terms in the Kramers-Heisenberg expression. We obtain very good agreement between experiment and theory for both x-ray absorption and resonant emission in the two compounds. The inclusion of the ligand field is important to achieve such agreement. However, the results of the calculation that does not take into account the interference terms are in better agreement with experiment, indicating that the model used probably overestimates the importance of interference effects. (Author)

  17. Investigation on bandgap, diffraction, interference, and refraction effects of photonic crystal structure in GaN/InGaN LEDs for light extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Saroj Kanta; Adhikari, Sonachand; Pal, Suchandan

    2014-06-20

    In this paper, we have made a clear differentiation among bandgap, diffraction, interference, and refraction effects in photonic crystal structures (PhCs). For observing bandgap, diffraction, and refraction effects, PhCs are considered on the top p-GaN surface of light emitting diodes (LEDs), whereas for interference effect, hole type PhCs are considered to be embedded within n-GaN layer of LED. From analysis, it is observed that at a particular lattice periodicity, for which bandgap lies within the wavelength of interest shows a significant light extraction due to inhibition of guided mode. Beyond a certain periodicity, diffraction effect starts dominating and light extraction improves further. The interference effect is observed in embedded photonic crystal LEDs, where depth of etching supports constructive interference of outward light waves. We have also shed light on refraction effects exhibited by the PhCs and whether negative refraction properties of PhCs may be useful in case of LED light extraction.

  18. Interference effects from coexisting fatty acids on elaidic acid separation by fractionating crystallization: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Bjerring, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating...

  19. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadeera P.G. Cheong, Brendan Lay, Rizal Razman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect.

  20. Cost-effective, compact and high-speed integrable multi-mode interference modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, Daan; Yao, Weiming; Cardarelli, Simone; Mink, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the modulation performance of this wave-guide device shows great potential when combined with a single-mode laser on a monolithic optical chip. On the basis of the reversed-bias electro-optic effect, modulation speeds surmounting 25 Gbit/s with 10 dB extinction ratio are

  1. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kellermann, Thilo; Bude, Daniela; Nie?en, Thomas; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus; Reske, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on i...

  2. Effects of Larval Nutrition on Wolbachia-Based Dengue Virus Interference in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Elise A; Hugo, Leon E; Lu, Guangjin; Smith, David D; Kay, Brian H

    2016-07-01

    In order to assess the broad-scale applicability of field releases of Wolbachia for the biological control of insect-transmitted diseases, we determined the relationship between the larval diet of Aedes aegypti L. mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia strains and their susceptibility to dengue virus (DENV) infection via intrathoracic injection and oral inoculation. Larvae were reared on diets that varied in the quantity of food which had the effect of modifying development time and adult body size. Wolbachia wMel infection was associated with highly significant reductions in dengue serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection rates of between 80 and 97.5% following intrathoracic injection of adults emerging from three diet levels. Reductions were 100% in two diet level treatments following oral inoculation. Similarly, wMelPop infection was associated with highly significant reductions in DENV-2 infection rates of between 95 and 100% for intrathoracic injection and 97.5 and 100% for oral inoculation across diet level treatments. Larval diet level had no significant effect on DENV-2 infection rates in the presence of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes that were intrathoracically injected with the virus. This indicates that the effectiveness of Wolbachia on vector competence disruption within Ae. aegypti is unlikely to be compromised by variable larval nutrition in field settings. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics: Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. Evaluate the ability of hexavalent chrome free pretreated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals, and maintain that seal while being subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Assess the performance of trivalent chromium pretreatments against a known control hexavalent chrome pretreatment before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. It is known that environmental testing causes a decrease in shielding effectiveness when hexavalent chrome pretreatments are used (Alodine 1200s). Need to determine how shielding effectiveness will be affected with the use of hexavalent chrome free pretreatments. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings. The formation of corrosion will be evaluated between the mating surfaces and gasket to assess the corrosion resistant properties of the pretreatments, comparing the hexavalent control to the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments.

  4. [Nickel exposure to A549 cell damage and L-ascorbic acid interference effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Wang, Yue; Dan, Han; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Wenhan; Pan, Yulin; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-05-01

    Studying different concentrations of nickel smelting smoke subjects of human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) carcinogenic effects, discusses the influence of L-ascorbic acid protection. The A549 cells were divided into experimental and L-ascorbic acid in the intervention group. Plus exposure group concentration of nickel refining dusts were formulated 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml suspension, the intervention group on the basis of the added exposure group containing L-ascorbic acid (100 mmol/L), contact 24 h. Detection of cell viability by MTT assay. When the test substance concentration select 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml experiment for internal Flou-3 fluorescent probe to detect cell Ca²⁺ concentration, within DCFH-DA detect intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) content, real-time quantitative PCR (real time, in the RT-PCR) was used to detect cell HIF-1α gene expression. With the increase of concentration, subjects increased cell growth inhibition rate, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration increases, ROS content increased, HIF-1α gene expression increased, differences were statistically significant (P nickel exposure damage to cells. With subjects following exposure to nickel concentration increased, its effect on A549 cell damage increases, L-ascorbic acid cell damage caused by nickel has certain protective effect.

  5. Resonant parametric interference effect in spontaneous bremsstrahlung of an electron in the field of a nucleus and two pulsed laser waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed', A. A.; Padusenko, E. A.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Dubov, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung in the field of two moderately strong pulsed laser waves in the case of incommensurate frequencies is theoretically studied under resonant conditions. The process is studied in detail in a special kinematic region, where stimulated processes with correlated emission and absorption of photons of the first and second waves become predominant (parametric interference effect). The availability of this region is caused by interference of the first and second laser waves. The correspondence between the emission angle and the final-electron energy is established in this interference kinematic. In this case, the cross-sectional properties are determined by the multiphoton quantum interference parameter, which is proportional to the product of intensities of the first and second waves. The resonant differential cross section of electron-nucleus spontaneous bremsstrahlung with simultaneous registration of both emission angles of the spontaneous photon and the scattered electron can exceed by four or five orders of magnitude the corresponding cross section in the absence of an external field. It was shown for nonrelativistic electrons that the resonant cross section of the studied process in the field of two pulsed laser waves within the interference region in two order of magnitude may exceed corresponding cross sections at other scattering kinematics. The obtained results may be experimentally verified, for example, by scientific facilities at sources of pulsed laser radiation (such as SLAC, FAIR, XFEL, ELI).

  6. Final Test Report: Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    The test results for Salt Spray Resistance, Static Heat and Humidity and Marine Environment can be found in Sections 3.1.3.3, 3.1.4.3 and 3.1.5.3 respectively. In summary, both the Metalast TCP and SurTec 650 Type 2 conversion coatings perform very similar to the incumbent Type 1 conversion coating against both 6061 and 5052 aluminum under all three test conditions. Significant prior work was performed to select the aluminum and conversion coating included within this test cycle; Reference - NASA GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Final Pretreatments Test Report Task Order: NNH12AA45D September 01, 2013. As illustrated in the data, the 6061 aluminum panels SLIGHTLY out-performed the 5052 aluminum panels. Individual shielding effectiveness graphs for each panel are included within Appendix C and D. One other notable effect found during review of the data is that the Test Panels exposed to B117 Salt Fog reduced in shielding effectiveness significantly more than the Marine Environment Test Panels. The shielding effectiveness of the Marine Test Panels was approximately 20dB higher than the Test Panels that underwent B117 Salt Fog Exposure. The intent of this evaluation was not to maximize shielding effectiveness values. The same Parker Chomerics Cho-Seal 6503 gasket material was used for all panels with aluminum and conversion coating variants. A typical EMI gasket design for corrosive environments would be done quite differently. The intent was to execute a test that would provide the best possible evaluation of different aluminum materials and conversion coatings in corrosive environments. The test program achieved this intent. The fact that the two aluminums and two Type II conversion coatings performed similar to the incumbent Type 1 conversion coating is a positive outcome. It was desired to have an outcome that further differentiation the performance of two aluminum types and two conversion coating types but this could not be extracted by the test

  7. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie Appliquée, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Maqdasy, Salwan [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are not only

  8. Phonological inconsistency in word naming: Determinants of the interference effect between languages

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, E.M.G.; Sandra, D.M.J.; Martensen, H.E.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch-English participants named words and nonwords having a between-language phonologically inconsistent rime, e.g., GREED and PREED, and control words with a language-typical rime, e.g., GROAN, in a monolingual stimulus list or in a mixed list containing Dutch words. Inconsistent items had longer latencies and more errors than typical items in the mixed lists but not in the pure list. The consistency effect depended on word frequency, but not on language membership, lexicality, or instructi...

  9. Developmental Dyscalculia and Automatic Magnitudes Processing: Investigating Interference Effects between Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hili Eidlin-Levy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between numbers and other magnitudes has been extensively investigated in the scientific literature. Here, the objectives were to examine whether two continuous magnitudes, area and perimeter, are automatically processed and whether adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD are deficient in their ability to automatically process one or both of these magnitudes. Fifty-seven students (30 with DD and 27 with typical development performed a novel Stroop-like task requiring estimation of one aspect (area or perimeter while ignoring the other. In order to track possible changes in automaticity due to practice, we measured performance after initial and continuous exposure to stimuli. Similar to previous findings, current results show a significant group × congruency interaction, evident beyond exposure level or magnitude type. That is, the DD group systematically showed larger Stroop effects. However, analysis of each exposure period showed that during initial exposure to stimuli the DD group showed larger Stroop effects in the perimeter and not in the area task. In contrast, during continuous exposure to stimuli no triple interaction was evident. It is concluded that both magnitudes are automatically processed. Nevertheless, individuals with DD are deficient in inhibiting irrelevant magnitude information in general and, specifically, struggle to inhibit salient area information after initial exposure to a perimeter comparison task. Accordingly, the findings support the assumption that DD involves a deficiency in multiple cognitive components, which include domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions.

  10. Earthquake experience interference effects in a modified Stroop task: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Tu, Shen; Tian, Fang; Su, Yanhua; Luo, Yuejia

    2010-05-03

    The effects of the modified Stroop task on ERP were investigated in 20 subjects who had experienced the Sichuan earthquake and a matched control group. ERP data showed that Incongruent stimuli elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N300-450) than did Congruent stimuli between 300 and 450 ms post-stimulus in the earthquake group but not found in the control group, and the N300-450 might reflect conflict monitor (the information of color and meaning do not match) in the early phase of perception identification due to their sensitivity to the external stimulus. Then, Incongruent stimuli elicited a more negative ERP deflection than did Congruent stimuli between 450 and 650 ms post-stimulus in both the groups. Dipole source analysis showed that the N450-650 was mainly generated in the ACC contributed to this effect in the control group, which might be related to monitor and conflict resolution. However, in the earthquake group, the N450-650 was generated in the thalamus, which might be involved in inhibiting and compensating of the ACC which may be related to conflict resolution process. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental Dyscalculia and Automatic Magnitudes Processing: Investigating Interference Effects between Area and Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin-Levy, Hili; Rubinsten, Orly

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between numbers and other magnitudes has been extensively investigated in the scientific literature. Here, the objectives were to examine whether two continuous magnitudes, area and perimeter, are automatically processed and whether adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD) are deficient in their ability to automatically process one or both of these magnitudes. Fifty-seven students (30 with DD and 27 with typical development) performed a novel Stroop-like task requiring estimation of one aspect (area or perimeter) while ignoring the other. In order to track possible changes in automaticity due to practice, we measured performance after initial and continuous exposure to stimuli. Similar to previous findings, current results show a significant group × congruency interaction, evident beyond exposure level or magnitude type. That is, the DD group systematically showed larger Stroop effects. However, analysis of each exposure period showed that during initial exposure to stimuli the DD group showed larger Stroop effects in the perimeter and not in the area task. In contrast, during continuous exposure to stimuli no triple interaction was evident. It is concluded that both magnitudes are automatically processed. Nevertheless, individuals with DD are deficient in inhibiting irrelevant magnitude information in general and, specifically, struggle to inhibit salient area information after initial exposure to a perimeter comparison task. Accordingly, the findings support the assumption that DD involves a deficiency in multiple cognitive components, which include domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions.

  12. Splitting efficiency and interference effects in a Cooper pair splitter based on a triple quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Kacper; Rudziński, Wojciech; Weymann, Ireneusz

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically study the spin-resolved subgap transport properties of a Cooper pair splitter based on a triple quantum dot attached to superconducting and ferromagnetic leads. Using the Keldysh Green's function formalism, we analyze the dependence of the Andreev conductance, Cooper pair splitting efficiency, and tunnel magnetoresistance on the gate and bias voltages applied to the system. We show that the system's transport properties are strongly affected by spin dependence of tunneling processes and quantum interference between different local and nonlocal Andreev reflections. We also study the effects of finite hopping between the side quantum dots on the Andreev current. This allows for identifying the optimal conditions for enhancing the Cooper pair splitting efficiency of the device. We find that the splitting efficiency exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the degree of spin polarization of the leads and the magnitude and type of hopping between the dots. An almost perfect splitting efficiency is predicted in the nonlinear response regime when the energies of the side quantum dots are tuned to the energies of the corresponding Andreev bound states. In addition, we analyzed features of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for a wide range of the gate and bias voltages, as well as for different model parameters, finding the corresponding sign changes of the TMR in certain transport regimes. The mechanisms leading to these effects are thoroughly discussed.

  13. Zero-point energies in the two-center shell model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The zero-point energy (ZPE) contained in the potential-energy surface of a two-center shell model (TCSM) is evaluated. In extension of previous work, the author uses here the full TCSM with l.s force, smoothing and asymmetry. The results show a critical dependence on the height of the potential barrier between the centers. The ZPE turns out to be non-negligible along the fission path for 236 U, and even more so for lighter systems. It is negligible for surface quadrupole motion and it is just on the fringe of being negligible for motion along the asymmetry coordinate. (Auth.)

  14. Zero-point energies in the two-center shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    The zero-point energies (ZPE) contained in the potential-energy surfaces (PES) of a two-center shell model are evaluated. For the c.m. motion of the system as a whole the kinetic ZPE was found to be negligible, whereas it varies appreciably for the rotational and oscillation modes (about 5-9MeV). For the latter two modes the ZPE also depends sensitively on the changing pairing structure, which can induce strong local fluctuations, particularly in light nuclei. The potential ZPE is very small for heavy nuclei, but might just become important in light nuclei. (Auth.)

  15. Discrete spectrum of the two-center problem of p bar He+ atomcule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, D.V.; Puzynin, I.V.; Vinitskij, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    A discrete spectrum of the two-center Coulomb problem of p bar He + system is studied. For solving this problem the finite-difference scheme of the 4th-order and the continuous analog of Newton's method are applied. The algorithm for calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with optimization of the parameter of the fractional-rational transformation of the quasiradial variable to a finite interval is developed. The specific behaviour of the solutions in a vicinity of the united and separated atoms is discussed

  16. An Effective Channel Allocation Scheme to Reduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference for WMN Backhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Ismaili, I.A.; Khuhawar, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Two folded work presents channel allocation scheme sustaining channel orthogonality and channel spacing to reduce CCI (Co-Channel Interference) and ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) for inter flow of an intra-flow link. Proposed scheme as a part of radio resource allocation is applied on infrastructure based backhaul of wireless mesh network using directional antennas. The proposed approach is applied separately on 2.4 and 5GHz bands. Interference of connectivity graph is modelled by strongly connected directed graph and greedy algorithms are used for channel allocation. We have used OPNET Modeller suite to simulate network models for this research. The proposed arrangement reduces the channel interference and increases system throughput. In this research, the influence of channel is computed in terms of network throughput and delay. (author)

  17. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics; Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this testing is to determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. This project will evaluate the ability of coated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals. Testing will assess performance of the trivalent chromium coatings against the known control hexavalent chromium MIL-DTL-5541 Type I Class 3 before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings.

  18. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    OpenAIRE

    ?uhadar, Serap; K?seo?lu, Mehmet; ?inpolat, Yasemin; Bu?dayc?, G?ler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods: Base...

  19. Search for sp-interference effect in emission of prompt neutrons of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U fission by thermal polarized neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyan, G V; Pavlov, V S; Fedorov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the experiment for the search of the sp-interference effect in the distribution of the prompt neutrons of the sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U fission by thermal polarized neutrons are presented. The experiment is carried out on the polarized neutrons beam of the MIFI reactor. The scheme of the installation and the flight time spectrum are presented

  20. Compact and broadband directional coupling and demultiplexing in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhihong; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Han, Zhanghua

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically, numerically, and experimentally demonstrate that a directional coupling function can be realized with a wide bandwidth (greater than 200 nm) in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect. The functional size of the structure...

  1. Effect of mutual interference on the ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to attack and parasitize pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during ...

  2. Effects of electromagnetic shielding cases for semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters on preventing electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Saze, Takuya; Mori, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Performance of electromagnetic shielding cases for preventing malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs) caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a digital cellular telephone (cell phone) and a card reader of access control system were analyzed. The cases were handcrafted by using cloth of activated carbon fiber, polyester film laminated metal, and two kinds of metal netting. Five kinds of SEPDs put in the cases were exposed to the high frequency electromagnetic fields for 50 sec or 1 min. The cases prevented perfectly the malfunction due to the cell phone. The cases shortened distances required to prevent the malfunction due to the card reader, but did not prevent the malfunction. The electromagnetic immunity level of SEPD inserted in the cases increased from greater than 11.2 to greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and from 1.1 to greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. The maximum of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of each case was greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. (author)

  3. The Geomorphic System and the Effects of Human Interference at Gold Coast Beach in Tainan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The Gold Coast beach in Tainan, Taiwan, located between Anping harbor and Ur-Jen river mouth, is the subject of this study, which characterizes the beach's geomorphic system through the analysis of information such as sediment grain size, mineral composition, and periodic measurements of morphological changes of the beach. Based upon such characterizations, further analysis is conducted on the effects that human activities of the last 15 years have upon the geomorphic changes within the Gold Coast beach. The study shows that the median grain size of the Gold Coast beach's sediment is medium sand. The mineral composition includes mainly slate fragments and quartz grains, with small amounts of feldspar, sandstone and shell fragments. Based on a comprehensive study of the longshore distribution of beach sediment size and mineral composition of southwestern coast of Taiwan, as well as, the long-term, monitored data of waves, tides, and currents in this region, we conclude that the main process responsible for the sand accumulation at Gold Coast beach is the prevailing longshore sand transport from south to north. The southern breakwater of Anping harbor plays a role in intercepting the longshore transport sand and helps form the beach. Since the Ur-Jen river flows through a mudstone region, the suspended sediment plume during the flood season does not provide much sediment source to the sandy beach. A monthly beach profile survey project conducted between the years 1999 to 2000 revealed that the beach elevation and width had experienced an obvious seasonal change. The beach widened during the winter, but narrowed in the summer due to typhoon wave erosion. When the subaerial beach was eroded, a submerged longshore bar that was oriented almost parallel to the shoreline had formed at a distance about 400-600 meter away. With this observation, we can conclude that beach morphology is also influenced by various seasonal wave actions that affect onshore and offshore sand

  4. The effects of ionizing radiation on eight cardiac pacemakers and the influence of electromagnetic interference from two linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venselaar, J.L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Eight cardiac pacemakers were irradiated in a cobalt-60 beam. Two out of six demand-type pacemakers showed an alarming decrease in pulse repetition frequency when irradiated to dose levels that are used in radiotherapy. Two modern programmable pacemakers showed a failure at a dose of 97 and 147 Gy, respectively. The dose levels at which these failures occurred were low enough to recommend that cardiac pacemakers should always be kept outside the radiation beam. The signals induced by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from two linear accelerators were measured using a simulation model of a pacemaker. In the laboratory, 22 modern-type pacemakers were tested with these signals to determine the sensitivity for the electromagnetic fields in the treatment rooms. It was observed that an inhibition of one pacemaker pulse was to be expected on one of the two linear accelerators when switching the machine on and off. No permanent effects were found. These findings resulted in the recommendation in our department not to use this treatment machine for radiation therapy of pacemaker-bearing patients. (orig.)

  5. RNA interference targeting cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase exerts anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woo Suk; Park, Kwon Moo; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2012-08-01

    A metabolic abnormality in lipid biosynthesis is frequently associated with obesity and hyperlipidemia. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) is an essential reducing equivalent for numerous enzymes required in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) has been proposed as a key enzyme for supplying cytosolic NADPH. We report here that knockdown of IDPc expression by Ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference (RNAi) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Attenuated IDPc expression by IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a reduction of differentiation and triglyceride level and adipogenic protein expression as well as suppression of glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes. In addition, the attenuation of Nox activity and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied with knockdown of IDPc was associated with inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The loss of body weight and the reduction of triglyceride level were also observed in diet-induced obese mice transduced with IDPc short-hairpin (shRNA). Taken together, the inhibiting effect of RNAi targeting IDPc on adipogenesis and lipid biosynthesis is considered to be of therapeutic value in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitave and qualitative interferences of pentoxifillyne on hepatic Schistosoma mansoni granulomas: effects on extracellular matrix and eosinophil population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Reis

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells and eosinophils actively participate in tissue repair and are prominent components of Schistosoma mansoni granulomas. Since pentoxifillyne (PTX is an immunomodulatory and antifibrotic substance, we aimed to characterize, by morphological techniques, the effect of this drug on fibrosis developed inside murine hepatic schistosomal granulomatous reaction, beyond the quantification of eosinophil and mast cell populations. The drug (1 mg/100 g animal weight was administrated from 35 to 90 days post-infection, when the animals were killed. The intragranulomatous interstitial collagen network was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the number of eosinophils and mast cells was quantified and the results were validated by t-student test. Treatment did not interfere on the granuloma evolution but caused a significant decrease in the total and involutive number of hepatic granulomas (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectivelly, and in the intragranulomatous accumulation of eosinophils (p = 0.0001. Otherwise, the number of mast cells was not significantly altered (p = 0.9; however, it was positively correlated with the number of granulomatous structures (r = 0.955. In conclusion, PTX does not affect development and collagen deposition in S. mansoni murine granuloma, but decreases the intragranulomatous eosinophil accumulation possibly due to its immunomodulatory capability, interfering in cellular recruitment and/or differentiation.

  7. Stroop interference and reverse Stroop interference as potential measures of cognitive ability during exposure to stress

    OpenAIRE

    景山, 望; 箱田, 裕司; Kageyama, Nozomu; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Stroop interference and reverse-Stroop interference are one of the easiest and most powerful effects to demonstrate in a classroom. Therefore, they have been studied not only through basic research in the laboratory but also through applied research in extreme environments. First, we reviewed studies tha investigated Stroop interference and reverse-Stroop interference as hallmark measures of selective at attention and conflict resolution. Second, we reviewed studies that examined the effects ...

  8. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of microcellular polyimide/in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Yu, Zhi; Wu, Peng; Zou, Huawei; Liu, Pengbo

    2018-03-01

    A simple and effective method was adopted to fabricate microcellular polyimide (PI)/reduced graphene oxide (GO)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites. Firstly, microcellular poly (amic acid) (PAA)/GO/MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared through solvent evaporation induced phase separation. In this process, PAA and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) co-dissolved in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) underwent phase separation with DMAc evaporating, and DBP microdomains were formed in continuous PAA phase. Subsequently, PAA was thermally imidized and simultaneously GO was in situ reduced. After DBP was removed, the microcellular PI/reduced GO (RGO)/MWCNTs nanocomposites were finally obtained. When the initial filler loading was 8 wt%, the electrical conductivity of microcellular PI/RGO, PI/MWCNTs and PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposites were 0.05, 0.02 and 1.87 S·m-1, respectively, and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of microcellular PI/RGO, PI/MWCNTs and PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposites were 13.7-15.1, 13.0-14.3 and 16.6-18.2 dB, respectively. The synergistic effect between RGO and MWCNTs enhanced both the electrical conductivity and EMI shielding performance of the microcellular PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposites. The dominating EMI shielding mechanism for these materials was microwave absorption. While the initial loading of GO and MWCNT was 8 wt%, the microcellular PI/RGO/MWCNTs nanocomposite (500 μm thickness) had extremely high specific EMI SE value of 755-823 dB·cm2·g-1. Its thermal stability was also obviously improved, the 5% weight loss temperature in nitrogen was 548 °C. In addition, it also possessed a high Young's modulus of 789 MPa.

  9. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  10. A study of the Gaussian overlap approach in the two-center shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.

    1976-01-01

    The Gaussian overlap approach (GOA) to the generator coordinate method (GCM) is carried through up to fourth order in the derivatives. By diagonalizing the norm overlap, a collective Schroedinger equation is obtained. The potential therein contains the usual potential energy surface (PES) plus correction terms, which subtract the zero-point energies (ZPE) is the PES. The formalism is applied to BCS states obtained from a two-center shell model (TCSM). To understand the crucial role of the pairing contributions in the GOA a schematic picture, the multi-level model, is constructed. An explicit numerical study of the convergence of the GOA is given for the TCSM, with the result that the GOA seems to be justified for medium and heavy nuclei but critical for light nuclei. (Auth.)

  11. The breakdown of vinyl ethers as a two-center synchronous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidova, T. S.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2009-11-01

    The experimental data on the molecular decomposition of vinyl ethers of various structures to alkanes and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in the gas phase were analyzed using the method of intersecting parabolas. The enthalpies and kinetic parameters of decomposition were calculated for 17 reactions. The breakdown of ethers is a two-center concerted reaction characterized by a very high classical potential barrier to the thermally neutral reaction (180-190 kJ/mol). The kinetic parameters (activation energies and rate constants) of back reactions of the formation of vinyl ethers in the addition of aldehydes or ketones to alkanes were calculated using the method of intersecting parabolas. The factors that influenced the activation energy of the decomposition and formation of ethers were discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of several vinyl ether decomposition reactions were performed. Ether formation reactions were compared with the formation of unsaturated alcohols as competitive reactions, which can occur in the interaction of carbonyl compounds with alkenes.

  12. Efficient bounding schemes for the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with removal times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidri, Lotfi; Gharbi, Anis; Louly, Mohamed Aly

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines and removal times. The job removal time is the required duration to remove it from a machine after its processing. The objective is to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan). A heuristic and a lower bound are proposed for this NP-Hard problem. These procedures are based on the optimal solution of the parallel machine scheduling problem with release dates and delivery times. The heuristic is composed of two phases. The first one is a constructive phase in which an initial feasible solution is provided, while the second phase is an improvement one. Intensive computational experiments have been conducted to confirm the good performance of the proposed procedures.

  13. [Inhibitory effect of RNA interference targeting GFI-1 on the proliferation of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia NT1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Liu, H; Lin, Z H; Qian, J; Xu, X R

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of RNA interference targeting GFI-1 on growth and proliferation of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML) NT1 cells. NT1 cells were transfected with PBS and liposome complex (vehicle group), scrambled siRNA and liposome complex (negative control, NC group), and GFI-1 siRNA and liposome complex (GFI-1 siRNA group), respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to examine the expression levels of GFI-1 mRNA and protein, respectively. The proliferation abilities of NT1 cells of the three groups were evaluated by MTT assay. The cell cycle in cells of the three groups was analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, nude mouse xenograft model was used to detect the tumor formation ability in the three group cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that the expression level of GFI-1 mRNA in GFI-1 siRNA group was significantly lower than those of NC group and vehicle group [(0.367±0.017) vs. (0.918±0.006) and (1.010±0.005), respectively, (PNT1 cells in the GFI-1 siRNA group (0.667±0.059) was significantly lower than those of the NC group (1.096±0.049) and vehicle group (1.193±0.064, P=0.023). Flow cytometry data showed that sub-G1 and G0/G1 phase proportions of the GFI-1 siRNA group were significantly higher than those of the NC and vehicle groups [sub-G1: (8.2±2.5)% vs. (1.9±1.3)% and (2.0±3.6)%, respectively, (PNT1 cells, which may provide a new therapeutic target for atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  14. The effects of intervening interference on working memory for sound location as a function of inter-comparison interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Dennis T; Hamilton, Traci R; Grossmann, Aurora J

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the effects of inter-comparison interval duration and intervening interference on auditory working memory (AWM) for auditory location. Interaural phase differences were used to produce localization cues for tonal stimuli and the difference limen for interaural phase difference (DL-IPD) specified as the equivalent angle of incidence between two sound sources was measured in five different conditions. These conditions consisted of three different inter-comparison intervals [300 ms (short), 5000 ms (medium), and 15,000 ms (long)], the medium and long of which were presented both in the presence and absence of intervening tones. The presence of intervening stimuli within the medium and long inter-comparison intervals produced a significant increase in the DL-IPD compared to the medium and long inter-comparison intervals condition without intervening tones. The result obtained in the condition with a short inter-comparison interval was roughly equivalent to that obtained for the medium inter-comparison interval without intervening tones. These results suggest that the ability to retain information about the location of a sound within AWM decays slowly; however, the presence of intervening sounds readily disrupts the retention process. Overall, the results suggest that the temporal decay of information within AWM regarding the location of a sound from a listener's environment is so gradual that it can be maintained in trace memory for tens of seconds in the absence of intervening acoustic signals. Conversely, the presence of intervening sounds within the retention interval may facilitate the use of context memory, even for shorter retention intervals, resulting in a less detailed, but relevant representation of the location that is resistant to further degradation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Event-related potentials and oscillatory brain responses associated with semantic and Stroop-like interference effects in overt naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meij, R. van der

    2012-01-01

    Picture–word interference is a widely employed paradigm to investigate lexical access in word production: Speakers name pictures while trying to ignore superimposed distractor words. The distractor can be congruent to the picture (pictured cat, word cat), categorically related (pictured cat, word

  16. Motivational Interference in School-Leisure Conflict and Learning Outcomes: The Differential Effects of Two Value Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Marta, Elena; Fries, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that students' value orientations are connected to their experience of motivational interference in a conflict between a school- and a leisure-related activity as well as to school marks as indicators of learning outcomes. In a self-report study with Italian adolescents (N = 433; M = 14.5 years) using a school-leisure conflict…

  17. Worktime demands and work-family interference: Does worktime control buffer the adverse effects of high demands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether worktime control buffered the impact of worktime demands on work-family interference (WFI), using data from 2,377 workers from various sectors of industry in The Netherlands. We distinguished among three types of worktime demands: time spent on work according to one's

  18. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific Stroop Interference and on Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, Andre; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cedric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation.…

  19. Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on biomass and essential oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanis, Anestis; Lykas, Christos; Liava, Vasiliki; Bezou, Anna; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71-92%, 63-74% and 86-95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth. Considering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of Weed Interference on Yield and Agronomical Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum in Different Plant Density under Birjand Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baradaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran is among the countries with a climate appropriate for growing a wide range of herbs, and can be a great source of producing and exporting plants. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum is one of the oldest plant and it is an annual herbaceous plant of the Fabaceae family (Fabaceae which are dry, brown or reddish-yellow to gray to over 5.3 mm. Seeds of this plant are used as a spice and its leaves are used as a vegetable. Among the most important factors in farming, it is important to use appropriate planting density. Therefore, if all the necessary conditions, including the right, but density is inappropriate, it will not get the optimum yield per unit area. The effective management of weeds increase the performance of weed management practices, reduce weed population and the costs associated with it over time. Weeds compete with crops for a variety of sources such as light, water and minerals. Given that the best time weeding the weeds and the most appropriate density of fenugreek is not much information available, this study aimed to determine the appropriate density of weed infested and fenugreek was used. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of weed interference and appropriate density of fenugreek, a field trial was conducted in research farm of Birjand Islamic Azad University during the spring of year 2011. The experiment was a factorial based on randomized complete block design. The treatments were fenugreek density at 10, 20 and 40 plants m-2 and weed interference in five levels included weed-free to maturity, 20, 40 and 60 days after emergence, and no weeding. Fenugreek seeds (spherical, brown of pure seed before planting desert of preparation and sterilization by benomyl and then do planting trees and irrigation was done immediately. Irrigation was applied every seven days. During the study, pests and diseases were completely controlled. Weed control was done manually in three stages. Traits such as

  1. Post-task Effects on EEG Brain Activity Differ for Various Differential Learning and Contextual Interference Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Henz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has shown superior learning rates in variable practice compared to repetitive practice. More specifically, this has been demonstrated in the contextual interference (CI and in the differential learning (DL approach that are both representatives of variable practice. Behavioral studies have indicate different learning processes in CI and DL. Aim of the present study was to examine immediate post-task effects on electroencephalographic (EEG brain activation patterns after CI and DL protocols that reveal underlying neural processes at the early stage of motor consolidation. Additionally, we tested two DL protocols (gradual DL, chaotic DL to examine the effect of different degrees of stochastic fluctuations within the DL approach with a low degree of fluctuations in gradual DL and a high degree of fluctuations in chaotic DL. Twenty-two subjects performed badminton serves according to three variable practice protocols (CI, gradual DL, chaotic DL, and a repetitive learning protocol in a within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG activity was measured before, and immediately after each 20-min practice session from 19 electrodes. Results showed distinguishable neural processes after CI, DL, and repetitive learning. Increases in EEG theta and alpha power were obtained in somatosensory regions (electrodes P3, P7, Pz, P4, P8 in both DL conditions compared to CI, and repetitive learning. Increases in theta and alpha activity in motor areas (electrodes C3, Cz, C4 were found after chaotic DL compared to gradual DL, and CI. Anterior areas (electrodes F3, F7, Fz, F4, F8 showed increased activity in the beta and gamma bands after CI. Alpha activity was increased in occipital areas (electrodes O1, O2 after repetitive learning. Post-task EEG brain activation patterns suggest that DL stimulates the somatosensory and motor system, and engages more regions of the cortex than repetitive learning due to a tighter stimulation of the motor and

  2. Investigation of trapping interference effects of arsenic, antimony and bismuth in collection of selenium hydride within an iridium-modified THGA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušovská, Zuzana; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s143-s144 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) G6/919/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hydride generation * hydride trapping * mutual interference effects Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  3. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  4. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  5. Proactive Interference in Human Predictive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Leyre; Ortega, Nuria; Matute, Helena

    2002-01-01

    The impairment in responding to a secondly trained association because of the prior training of another (i.e., proactive interference) is a well-established effect in human and animal research, and it has been demonstrated in many paradigms. However, learning theories have been concerned with proactive interference only when the competing stimuli have been presented in compound at some moment of the training phase. In this experiment we investigated the possibility of proactive interference b...

  6. Electron quantum interferences and universal conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, A.; Pichard, J.L.

    1988-05-01

    Quantum interferences yield corrections to the classical ohmic behaviour predicted by Boltzmann theory in electronic transport: for instance the well-known ''weak localization'' effects. Furthermore, very recently, quantum interference effects have been proved to be responsible for statistically different phenomena, associated with Universal Conductance Fluctuations and observed on very small devices [fr

  7. Analytical Study of Ventilated Wind Tunnel Boundary Interference on V/ STOL Models Including Wake Curvature and Decay Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    ol the abstract entered In Block 30. II dlllerent from Report) IB. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Available in DDC 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revetee...Stream. " UTME TP 6808, June 1968. 20. Davis, D. D. , Jr. and Moore, Dewey . "Analytical Study of Blockage- and Lift-Interference...The variables N and NM must be right justified in their fields, and punched without a decimal point. The variables XLAM, UE, DO, BO, XMIN, and

  8. Vibrational interference effects in x-ray emission of a model water dimer: implications for the interpretation of the liquid spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, M P; Pettersson, L G M; Nilsson, A

    2011-01-28

    We apply the Kramers-Heisenberg formula to a model water dimer to discuss vibrational interference in the x-ray emission spectrum of the donor molecule for which the core-ionized potential energy surface is dissociative but bounded by the accepting molecule. A long core-hole lifetime leads to decay from Zundel-like, fully delocalized vibrational states in the intermediate potential without involvement of a specific dissociated component. Comparison is made to a model with an unbound intermediate state allowing dissociation to infinity which gives a sharp, fully dissociated feature, and a broad molecular peak at long core-hole life time. The implications of the vibrational interference effect on the liquid water spectrum are discussed and it is proposed that this mainly gives rise to an isotope-dependent asymmetrical broadening of the lone pair peak.

  9. Measurable position-sensitive wide-angle interference effects of single photons radiated by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor Varro

    2014-01-01

    Single-photon wide-angle interference phenomena have been studied theoretically for glass-diamond-oil (air) layered structures. As a single optical radiator, one NV-center has been assumed close to the upper surface of a diamond plate, and it was represented by a Hertzian dipole of arbitrary orientation. It has been shown that the far-field interference pattern (of 3/5 or 100% visibility) is sensitive to the vertical position of the NV-center, to that extent that ∼2 nm difference in distance from the upper surface of the diamond results in ∼0.01 degree shift of the pattern, which should be a measurable effect. (author)

  10. Shielding effectiveness of a unit of neuro physiology against electromagnetic interference; Eficacia del apantallamiento de una unidad de neurofisiologia frente a interferencias electromagneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febles Santana, V.; Miguel Bilbao, S. de; Lubary Rodriguez, C. S.; Melian del Castillo, M. R.; Herraz Gomez, J. G.; Ramos Gonzalez, V.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    During construction of the new building Ambulatory Activity in the Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC), was designed and implemented the shield in the form of Faraday cage, five rooms adjacent to the Unit of Neuro physiology, located at the northeast corner 3C plant of the building, in order to sufficiently attenuate radio signals present in the medium and thus enable correct functionality of electro medical equipment free of artifacts caused by external electromagnetic fields. The experience held, once finished the work and commissioning the unit, is that interference is undesirable in some cases even hinder the proper development of medical diagnostic studies. Therefore, technical staff of the Engineering Branch of HUC, initiated a program of measures to determine the effectiveness of the Faraday cage constructed, checking the attenuation levels achieved for frequencies of interest and, if necessary, the deficiencies identified in the design and execution of it, and proposed improvements to minimize interference problems exist.

  11. Study of Effectiveness of Human Factors Engineering Interference in Cumulative Trauma Disorders Rate Decreasing in the Tehran South Health Center 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisepehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to now accomplished many investigations about cumulative trauma disorders (CTD accession. For the most part sitting pattern and unsuitable task posture has been specified reason of these complications. In the publicized stats from a foreign source ambit of 44 percent of people who worked with computer has been afflict to the CTD's. The aim of this paper is to find and measurement of CTD and ergonomic intervention and investigation rate of this intervention's effect in the Tehran south health center. This center use paperless system. Methods: In this research Nordic questionnaire distribute between 68 persons of the center to determine CTD's. By technical expert inspection specified reason of complications. Observantly to state methods reason which create more severity and frequency CTD's has been recognized and interference with human factors engineering. For the more efficiency of interference Anthropometry has been used for all of Work stations and for any person designed a significant posture. Results: results that obtained before interference indicate that were CTD's complications at more of employees which 90 percent of them suffered of up spine pain. Also 27.4 percent of them had shoulder pain and 20.4 percent had neck pain. After the interference these measures decreased. And complaint of employee decreased 40.8 percent to up spine pain. Also for the shoulder pain it reached to 22 and neck pain 17.6 percent. With state test identified that there are significant difference between CTD after and before of intervention (p<0.005. Conclusion: Being unsuitable task posture is main cause of CTD's in the Work stations. We can prevent to increasing these complications in the work place by simple approach like adjustment in the desk and chair height, correct performance working training and doing simple exercise.

  12. Dark Matter Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We study different patterns of interference in WIMP-nuclei elastic scattering that can accommodate the DAMA and CoGeNT experiments via an isospin violating ratio $f_n/f_p=-0.71$. We study interference between the following pairs of mediators: Z and Z', Z' and Higgs, and two Higgs fields. We show ...

  13. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control.

  14. The Effect of Rician Fading and Partial-Band Interference on Noise- Normalized Fast Frequency-Hopped MFSK Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    FSK 16. PmCI coot 17. SECURITY CLASSWsAI1OW IL SICUURW CLA$SIICATION SECURITY CLASSIICATION 20. LIMIATION Of ABSTRACT CW REPOW ? OF TiNS PAU OF ...hop k of a symbol when partial-band interference is present is obtained from (11) and the linear transformation of random variables given by (3) as...from (13) and the transformation of random variables indicated by (9) as [16] fzwjm(zwik) = f cTak!X. (Xmk, = ZmkOkI17) f~(0,kdo . -- (,.U(zk’ )fE2

  15. Thiazides and Osteoporotic Spinal Fractures: A Suspected Linkage Investigated by Means of a Two-Center, Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Di Biase, Giuseppina; Noutsias, Michel

    2017-11-01

    An alleged association of chronic use of thiazide diuretics with an increased risk of bone fragility fractures has been highlighted by a relatively recent prospective cohort study. However, the concept that thiazides exert a beneficial effect on osteoporosis is still a predominant view. This effect would be mediated by the decrease in renal clearance of calcium ions, a pharmacological feature recognized for a long time now to this class of drugs, as opposed to the increase in calcium urinary excretion attributed instead to loop diuretics, i.e. furosemide and similar drugs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to attempt to clarify whether regular use of thiazide diuretics as antihypertensive therapeutics is associated with a significantly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in female patients aged 65 or over. In this two-center retrospective study, we followed up a cohort of female patients with (n = 80) and without (n = 158) thiazide-induced hyponatremia. A total of 48 osteoporotic fractures were recorded during a median follow-up period of 57.5 months. By means of univariate regression analysis, an association was found between thiazide-induced hyponatremia and increased risk of vertebral fractures (odds ratio (OR): 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.755 - 15.39; P fractures. No association of a history of thiazide-induced hyponatremia and risk of fracture was noticeable in the final model. Because thiazide-induced hyponatremia was associated with spinal fractures in univariate but not multivariate analysis, a possible explanation is that hyponatremia may be a confounder of the relation between body mass and spinal fractures. Indeed, reduced body mass especially among elderly women with small body build may confer heightened risk of thiazide-induced hyponatremia because of decreased bone sodium available for exchange with the serum sodium. Thus, occurrence of hyponatremia could only serve as an indirect surrogate marker for osteoporosis risk.

  16. Effect of quantum interference on the optical properties of a three-level V-type atomic system beyond the two-photon resonance condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, S M; Safari, L; Mahmoudi, M [Physics Department, Zanjan University, PO Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M, E-mail: sahrai@tabrizu.ac.i [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-08-28

    The effect of quantum interference on the optical properties of a pumped-probe three-level V-type atomic system is investigated. The probe absorption, dispersion, group index and optical bistability beyond the two-photon resonance condition are discussed. It is found that the optical properties of a medium in the frequency of the probe field, in general, are phase independent. The phase dependence arises from a scattering of the coupling field into the probe field at a frequency which in general differs from the probe field frequency. It is demonstrated that beyond the two-photon resonance condition the phase sensitivity of the medium will disappear.

  17. Interference effects in angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation from Relativistic Heavy Ions crossing a radiator: Influence of absorption and slowing-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiks, E.I.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.

    2015-07-15

    Theoretical analysis and representative calculations of angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation (XTR) by Relativistic Heavy Ions (RHI) crossing a radiator are presented taking into account both XTR absorption and RHI slowing-down. The calculations are performed for RHI energies of GSI, FAIR, CERN SPS and LHC and demonstrate the influence of XTR photon absorption as well as RHI slowing-down in a radiator on the appearance/disappearance of interference effects in both angular and spectral distributions of XTR.

  18. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...... with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking....... Interestingly, the same result was observed using backward masking. In a follow-up experiment, where we assessed observer’s visual awareness using single-trial visibility ratings, we demonstrated that these ultra-fast responses were actually linked to subsequent reported visibility. Taken together...

  19. Interference Effects Redress over Power-Efficient Wireless-Friendly Mesh Networks for Ubiquitous Sensor Communications across Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jose; Marrero, Domingo; Macías, Elsa; Mena, Vicente; Suárez, Álvaro

    2017-07-21

    Ubiquitous sensing allows smart cities to take control of many parameters (e.g., road traffic, air or noise pollution levels, etc.). An inexpensive Wireless Mesh Network can be used as an efficient way to transport sensed data. When that mesh is autonomously powered (e.g., solar powered), it constitutes an ideal portable network system which can be deployed when needed. Nevertheless, its power consumption must be restrained to extend its operational cycle and for preserving the environment. To this end, our strategy fosters wireless interface deactivation among nodes which do not participate in any route. As we show, this contributes to a significant power saving for the mesh. Furthermore, our strategy is wireless-friendly, meaning that it gives priority to deactivation of nodes receiving (and also causing) interferences from (to) the rest of the smart city. We also show that a routing protocol can adapt to this strategy in which certain nodes deactivate their own wireless interfaces.

  20. Optimal interference code based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye; Chen, Qian; Hu, Xiaobo; Cao, Ercong; Qian, Weixian; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of pseudo-random code, by the case of m sequence. Depending on the description of coding theory, we introduce the jamming methods. We simulate the interference effect or probability model by the means of MATLAB to consolidate. In accordance with the length of decoding time the adversary spends, we find out the optimal formula and optimal coefficients based on machine learning, then we get the new optimal interference code. First, when it comes to the phase of recognition, this study judges the effect of interference by the way of simulating the length of time over the decoding period of laser seeker. Then, we use laser active deception jamming simulate interference process in the tracking phase in the next block. In this study we choose the method of laser active deception jamming. In order to improve the performance of the interference, this paper simulates the model by MATLAB software. We find out the least number of pulse intervals which must be received, then we can make the conclusion that the precise interval number of the laser pointer for m sequence encoding. In order to find the shortest space, we make the choice of the greatest common divisor method. Then, combining with the coding regularity that has been found before, we restore pulse interval of pseudo-random code, which has been already received. Finally, we can control the time period of laser interference, get the optimal interference code, and also increase the probability of interference as well.

  1. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact

  2. Neural congruency effects in the multi-source interference task vanish in healthy youth after controlling for conditional differences in mean RT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Kim

    Full Text Available According to the conflict monitoring model of cognitive control, reaction time (RT in distracter interference tasks (e.g., the Stroop task is a more precise index of response conflict than stimulus congruency (incongruent vs. congruent. The model therefore predicts that RT should be a reliable predictor of activity in regions of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC that are posited to detect response conflict. In particular, pMFC activity should be (a greater in slow-RT than in fast-RT trials within a given task condition (e.g., congruent and (b equivalent in RT-matched trials from different conditions (i.e., congruent and incongruent trials. Both of these effects have been observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of adults. However, neither effect was observed in a recent study of healthy youth, suggesting that (a the model does not accurately describe the relationship between RT and pMFC activity in this population or (b the recent study was characterized by high variability due to a relatively small sample size. To distinguish between these possibilities, we asked a relatively large group of healthy youth (n = 28 to perform a distracter interference task - the multi-source interference task (MSIT - while we recorded their brain activity with functional MRI. In this relatively large sample, both of the model's predictions were confirmed. We conclude that the model accurately describes the relationship between pMFC activity and RT in healthy youth, but that additional research is needed to determine whether processes unrelated to response conflict contribute to this relationship.

  3. Collision-induced destructive quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sun Zhenrong; Zhang Shi'an; Ding Liang'en; Wang Zugeng

    2005-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on the collision-induced destructive quantum interference of two-colour two-photon transitions in an open rhomb-type five-level system with a widely separated doublet by the density matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced decay rates, the ratio of the transition dipole moments and the energy separation of the doublet on the interference are analysed. It is shown that a narrow dip appears in the excitation spectrum due to the collision-induced destructive interference, and that the narrow interference dip still exists even when the collision broadening is comparable to the energy separation of the doublet. The physical origin of the collision-induced destructive quantum interference is analysed in the dressed-atom picture

  4. Effect of a relative phase of waves constituting the initial perturbation and the wave interference on the dynamics of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Arun; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2017-07-01

    While it is a common wisdom that initial conditions influence the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the research in this area is focused primarily on the effects of the wavelength and amplitude of the interface perturbation. The information has hitherto largely ignored the influences on RMI dynamics of the relative phase of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation and the interference of the perturbation waves. In this work we systematically study the influence of the relative phase and the interference of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation on a strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface separating ideal fluids with contrast densities. We apply group theory analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations. For verification and validation of the simulations, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed with rigorous zeroth-order, linear, and nonlinear theories as well as with gas dynamics experiments achieving good agreement. For a sample case of a two-wave (two-mode) initial perturbation we select the first-wave amplitude enabling the maximum initial growth rate of the RMI and we vary the second-wave amplitude from 1% to 100% of the first-wave amplitude. We also vary the relative phase of the first and second waves and consider the in-phase, the antiphase and the random-phase cases. We find that the relative phase and the interference of waves are important factors of RMI dynamics influencing qualitatively and quantitatively the symmetry, morphology, and growth rate of the Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface, as well as the order and disorder in strong-shock-driven RMI.

  5. Abstract ID: 176 Geant4 implementation of inter-atomic interference effect in small-angle coherent X-ray scattering for materials of medical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, Gianfranco; Cardarelli, Paolo; Contillo, Adriano; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Advanced applications of digital mammography such as dual-energy and tomosynthesis require multiple exposures and thus deliver higher dose compared to standard mammograms. A straightforward manner to reduce patient dose without affecting image quality would be removal of the anti-scatter grid, provided that the involved reconstruction algorithms are able to take the scatter figure into account [1]. Monte Carlo simulations are very well suited for the calculation of X-ray scatter distribution and can be used to integrate such information within the reconstruction software. Geant4 is an open source C++ particle tracking code widely used in several physical fields, including medical physics [2,3]. However, the coherent scattering cross section used by the standard Geant4 code does not take into account the influence of molecular interference. According to the independent atomic scattering approximation (the so-called free-atom model), coherent radiation is indistinguishable from primary radiation because its angular distribution is peaked in the forward direction. Since interference effects occur between x-rays scattered by neighbouring atoms in matter, it was shown experimentally that the scatter distribution is affected by the molecular structure of the target, even in amorphous materials. The most important consequence is that the coherent scatter distribution is not peaked in the forward direction, and the position of the maximum is strongly material-dependent [4]. In this contribution, we present the implementation of a method to take into account inter-atomic interference in small-angle coherent scattering in Geant4, including a dedicated data set of suitable molecular form factor values for several materials of clinical interest. Furthermore, we present scatter images of simple geometric phantoms in which the Rayleigh contribution is rigorously evaluated. Copyright © 2017.

  6. [Expression of Jagged1 mRNA in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and effect of RNA interference of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G Y; Gao, Z H; Li, L; Song, T T; Sheng, X G

    2016-06-25

    To investigate the expression of Jagged1 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and the effect of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice. (1) Forty-eight cases of ovarian cancer and 30 cases of patients with benign epithelial ovarian tumor in the Henan Province Xinxiang Central Hospital during Feb. 2011 to Mar. 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1 and the downstream target genes Hes1, Hey1 were analyzed by using realtime PCR method. (2) The ovarian cancer xenograft models in nude mice were constructed by injecting SKOV3 cells in axillary subcutaneouswere. The nude mice were randomly divided into Jagged1 interference group, blank plasmid group and control group. Each group had 10 mice. They were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-siRNA-Jagged1, blank plasmid pDC3.1 and phosphate buffer, respectively. The tumor volumes and tumor masses were measured 14 days after transfection and the inhibition rate was calculated. The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues after transfection in each group was detected by using realtime PCR technique and the relative protein expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues was detected by utilizing western blot method. (1) The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in ovarian cancer tissues were higher than benign ovarian tumor tissues, the differences were statistically significant (Ptissues of nude micein Jagged1 interference group were lower than that in the other two groups, the differences were statistically significant (Ptissues of nude mice among the three groups (P>0.05). Jagged1 is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Jagged1 gene interference in xenograft tumor can inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth and improve tumor suppressor rate, which probably play roles by inhibiting Notch1 signaling pathway.

  7. Minimizing the effects of oxygen interference on l-lactate sensors by a single amino acid mutation in Aerococcus viridansl-lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraka, Kentaro; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Lin, Chi-En; Tsugawa, Wakako; Asano, Ryutaro; La Belle, Jeffrey T; Sode, Koji

    2018-04-30

    l-lactate biosensors employing l-lactate oxidase (LOx) have been developed mainly to measure l-lactate concentration for clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and the food industry. Some l-lactate biosensors employ artificial electron mediators, but these can negatively impact the detection of l-lactate by competing with the primary electron acceptor: molecular oxygen. In this paper, a strategic approach to engineering an AvLOx that minimizes the effects of oxygen interference on sensor strips was reported. First, we predicted an oxygen access pathway in Aerococcus viridans LOx (AvLOx) based on its crystal structure. This was subsequently blocked by a bulky amino acid substitution. The resulting Ala96Leu mutant showed a drastic reduction in oxidase activity using molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor and a small increase in dehydrogenase activity employing an artificial electron acceptor. Secondly, the Ala96Leu mutant was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode using glutaraldehyde cross-linking method. Amperometric analysis was performed with potassium ferricyanide as an electron mediator under argon or atmospheric conditions. Under argon condition, the response current increased linearly from 0.05 to 0.5mM l-lactate for both wild-type and Ala96Leu. However, under atmospheric conditions, the response of wild-type AvLOx electrode was suppressed by 9-12% due to oxygen interference. The Ala96Leu mutant maintained 56-69% of the response current at the same l-lactate level and minimized the relative bias error to -19% from -49% of wild-type. This study provided significant insight into the enzymatic reaction mechanism of AvLOx and presented a novel approach to minimize oxygen interference in sensor applications, which will enable accurate detection of l-lactate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of the quasiparticle-pair interference current on thermal fluctuations in weakly coupled superconductors and on the operation of rf-biased SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    Careful studies of the effect of thermal fluctuations on the I-V characteristics of two different types of weakly coupled superconductors were made. Measurements on externally shunted, oxide-barrier tunnel junctions were found to be in complete quantitative agreement with a theory due to Ambegaokar and Halperin in the limit of β/sub c/ identical with 2eI/sub c/C/sigma 0 2 h much less than 1 where the theory is valid. Similar measurements in the region of β/sub c/ approximately equal to 1 were found to be in qualitative agreement with a theory due to Kurkijarvi and Ambegaokar. Assuming the Ambegaokar and Halperin theory is applicable, measurements on Notarys-Nercereau normal metal underlay weak links indicate the presence of a phase-dependent conductivity predicted by B. D. Josephson in 1962. The magnitude of this conductivity was found to be in agreement with that predicted by theory, however, the sign of the conductivity was found to be in disagreement. A study of the operating characteristics of rf-biased thin-film superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) has also been made and a set of performance parameters developed to optimize the behavior of these devices. The behavior of these SQUIDs has been compared with a theory due to Hansma in order to look for the effect of the phase-dependent quasiparticle-pair interference current. The me []surements were found to be qualitatively different than predicted by Hansma's theory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  9. Nuclear-plus-interference-scattering effect on the energy deposition of multi-MeV protons in a dense Be plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Fu, Zhenguo; He, Bin; Hu, Zehua; Zhang, Ping

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear plus interference scattering (NIS) effect on the stopping power of hot dense beryllium (Be) plasma for multi-MeV protons is theoretically investigated by using the generalized Brown-Preston-Singleton (BPS) model, in which a NIS term is taken into account. The analytical formula of the NIS term is detailedly derived. By using this formula, the density and temperature dependence of the NIS effect is numerically studied, and the results show that the NIS effect becomes more and more important with increasing the plasma temperature or density. Different from the cases of protons traveling through the deuterium-tritium plasmas, for a Be plasma, a prominent oscillation valley structure is observed in the NIS term when the proton's energy is close to E_{p}=7MeV. Furthermore, the penetration distance is remarkably reduced when the NIS term is considered.

  10. Off-shell effects in Higgs decays to heavy gauge bosons and signal-background interference in Higgs decays to photons at a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebler, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    We discuss off-shell contributions in Higgs decays to heavy gauge bosons H→VV (*) with V element of {Z,W} for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson for both dominant production processes e + e - →ZH→ZVV (*) and e + e - ν anti νH→ν anti νVV (*) at a (linear) e + e - collider. Dependent on the centre-of-mass energy off-shell effects are sizable and important for the understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. Moreover we shortly investigate the effects of the signal-background interference in H→γγ decays for the Higgsstrahlung initiated process e + e - →Zγγ, where we report a similar shift in the invariant mass peak of the two photons as found for the LHC. For both effects we discuss the sensitivity to the total Higgs width.

  11. The effect of feature-based attention on flanker interference processing: An fMRI-constrained source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Julia; Herrmann, Manfred; Galashan, Daniela

    2018-01-25

    The present study examined whether feature-based cueing affects early or late stages of flanker conflict processing using EEG and fMRI. Feature cues either directed participants' attention to the upcoming colour of the target or were neutral. Validity-specific modulations during interference processing were investigated using the N200 event-related potential (ERP) component and BOLD signal differences. Additionally, both data sets were integrated using an fMRI-constrained source analysis. Finally, the results were compared with a previous study in which spatial instead of feature-based cueing was applied to an otherwise identical flanker task. Feature-based and spatial attention recruited a common fronto-parietal network during conflict processing. Irrespective of attention type (feature-based; spatial), this network responded to focussed attention (valid cueing) as well as context updating (invalid cueing), hinting at domain-general mechanisms. However, spatially and non-spatially directed attention also demonstrated domain-specific activation patterns for conflict processing that were observable in distinct EEG and fMRI data patterns as well as in the respective source analyses. Conflict-specific activity in visual brain regions was comparable between both attention types. We assume that the distinction between spatially and non-spatially directed attention types primarily applies to temporal differences (domain-specific dynamics) between signals originating in the same brain regions (domain-general localization).

  12. Experimental Investigations of Cochannel Interference Reduction Effect at High Elevation Base Station Using Beam Tilt and Orthogonal Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuta Uwano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of cochannel interference (CCI generated in a mixed cell architecture in microcellular systems. In this type of microcellular systems in which both microcells and macrocells coexist in the same geographical urban area, the base station antennas mounted on the rooftops of buildings to cover wide circular radio zones suffer severe CCI from the surrounding low base stations. A dielectric-loaded slotted-cylinder antenna (DSCA is applied to horizontally polarized omnidirectional array antennas in a height-diversity configuration with the high gain of 8 dBi, which is comparable to that of a collinear antenna, to reduce the CCI. The measurements conducted in a suburban area clarify the reduction in the CCI for three techniques. The beam-tilt technique reduces the CCI level by approximately 10 dB for both collinear antennas and the DSCA array antennas. The use of horizontal polarization reduces the CCI level by approximately 13 dB for the DSCA array antennas with and without beam tilt. The combination of the beam tilt and horizontal polarization or the DSCA array antennas with beam tilt significantly reduces the CCI level by approximately 23 dB.

  13. Dual-task interference effects on cross-modal numerical order and sound intensity judgments: the more the louder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alards-Tomalin, Doug; Walker, Alexander C; Nepon, Hillary; Leboe-McGowan, Launa C

    2017-09-01

    In the current study, cross-task interactions between number order and sound intensity judgments were assessed using a dual-task paradigm. Participants first categorized numerical sequences composed of Arabic digits as either ordered (ascending, descending) or non-ordered. Following each number sequence, participants then had to judge the intensity level of a target sound. Experiment 1 emphasized processing the two tasks independently (serial processing), while Experiments 2 and 3 emphasized processing the two tasks simultaneously (parallel processing). Cross-task interference occurred only when the task required parallel processing and was specific to ascending numerical sequences, which led to a higher proportion of louder sound intensity judgments. In Experiment 4 we examined whether this unidirectional interaction was the result of participants misattributing enhanced processing fluency experienced on ascending sequences as indicating a louder target sound. The unidirectional finding could not be entirely attributed to misattributed processing fluency, and may also be connected to experientially derived conceptual associations between ascending number sequences and greater magnitude, consistent with conceptual mapping theory.

  14. Effect of capacitive feedback on the characteristics of direct current superconducting quantum interference device coupled to a multiturn input coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minotani, T.; Enpuku, K.; Kuroki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Distortion of voltage versus flux (V endash Φ) relation of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) coupled to a multiturn input coil is studied. First, resonant behavior of the coupled SQUID due to the so-called input coil resonance is clarified. It is shown that large rf noise flux is produced by the input coil resonance. This rf flux is added to the SQUID, and results in large rf voltage across the SQUID. In the case where parasitic capacitance exists between the input coil and the ground of the SQUID, this rf voltage produces the rf flux again, i.e., a feedback loop for the rf flux is formed. Taking into account this capacitive feedback, we study the V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. Numerical simulation shows that the V endash Φ relation is distorted considerably by the feedback mechanism. The simulation result explains well the experimental V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. The combination of the input coil resonance with the capacitive feedback is the most likely mechanism for the distorted V endash Φ curve of the coupled SQUID. The condition for occurrence of the distorted V endash Φ curve due to the capacitive feedback is also obtained, and methods to prevent degradation are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Binaural Interference: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Silman, Shlomo; Silverman, Carol; Emmer, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference with speech recognition has been debated for two decades. Research has taken one of two avenues; group studies or case reports. In group studies, a sample of the elderly population is tested on speech recognition under three conditions; binaural, monaural right and monaural left. The aim is to determine the percent of the sample in which the expected outcome (binaural score-better-than-either-monaural score) is reversed (i.e., one of the monaural scores is better than the binaural score). This outcome has been commonly used to define binaural interference. The object of group studies is to answer the "how many" question, what is the prevalence of binaural interference in the sample. In case reports the binaural interference conclusion suggested by the speech recognition tests is not accepted until it has been corroborated by other independent diagnostic audiological measures. The aim is to attempt to determine the basis for the findings, to answer the "why" question. This article is at once tutorial, editorial and a case report. We argue that it is time to accept the reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference, to eschew group statistical approaches in search of an answer to the "how many" question, and to focus on individual case reports in search of an answer to the "why" question. American Academy of Audiology.

  16. Interference contrast in multi-source few photon optics

    OpenAIRE

    Laskowski, Wieslaw; Wiesniak, Marcin; Zukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed; Weinfurter, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Many recent experiments employ several parametric down conversion (PDC) sources to get multiphoton interference. Such interference has applications in quantum information. We study here how effects due to photon statistics, misalignment, and partial distinguishability of the PDC pairs originating from different sources may lower the interference contrast in the multiphoton experiments.

  17. Biokinetics of radioiodine (125I) during pre and post-natal development and the interference with the induction of developmental effects in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konermann, G.

    1992-01-01

    On day 13 post-conception, pregnant mice were injected with equal activities of either 125 I-sodium iodide or 5-( 125 I)-iodo-2-deoxyuridine in order to study the biokinetic behaviour in relation to the induction of developmental long-term damage to the brain. Brain weight, cortex diameters and alignment of cortical neurons were more affected by 125 I-IUdR (37-231 kBq.g -1 ) than by 125 I-NaI, consistent with decay sites within the DNA or mainly extranuclear sites, respectively. Dose calculations according to the MIRD scheme gave underestimates of the radiotoxicity, especially for the DNA bound 125 I. This is consistent with pronounced RBE effects derived from in vitro studies. The transfer of these RBE effects to the developing brain is, however, limited by the complex interference between the manifestation and compensation of damage within the prolonged response chains. (author)

  18. Biokinetics of radioiodine ( sup 125 I) during pre and post-natal development and the interference with the induction of developmental effects in the mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konermann, G. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1992-01-01

    On day 13 post-conception, pregnant mice were injected with equal activities of either {sup 125}I-sodium iodide or 5-({sup 125}I)-iodo-2-deoxyuridine in order to study the biokinetic behaviour in relation to the induction of developmental long-term damage to the brain. Brain weight, cortex diameters and alignment of cortical neurons were more affected by {sup 125}I-IUdR (37-231 kBq.g{sup -1}) than by {sup 125}I-NaI, consistent with decay sites within the DNA or mainly extranuclear sites, respectively. Dose calculations according to the MIRD scheme gave underestimates of the radiotoxicity, especially for the DNA bound {sup 125}I. This is consistent with pronounced RBE effects derived from in vitro studies. The transfer of these RBE effects to the developing brain is, however, limited by the complex interference between the manifestation and compensation of damage within the prolonged response chains. (author).

  19. Two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odate, Satoru; Wang Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We have observed two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated two-photon quantum interference patterns, which show the transition from nonsubwavelength interference fringes to the general subwavelength interference. At the same time, a photon bunching effect was also shown by a postselection. The |1, 1> state with a single photon in a mode corresponding to each arm of the interferometer was exclusively postselected by using path difference between two arms

  20. A Two-Center Randomized Trial of an Additional Early Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Nebie, Eric; Schoeps, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Besides protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels. Methods: Children aged 4-7 months in two rural health and demographic surveillance sites in Burki...

  1. Effective and specific in planta RNAi in cyst nematodes: expression interference of four parasitism genes reduces parasitic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Anoop S; Maier, Tom R; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Cyst nematodes are highly evolved sedentary plant endoparasites that use parasitism proteins injected through the stylet into host tissues to successfully parasitize plants. These secretory proteins likely are essential for parasitism as they are involved in a variety of parasitic events leading to the establishment of specialized feeding cells required by the nematode to obtain nourishment. With the advent of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and the demonstration of host-induced gene silencing in parasites, a new strategy to control pests and pathogens has become available, particularly in root-knot nematodes. Plant host-induced silencing of cyst nematode genes so far has had only limited success but similarly should disrupt the parasitic cycle and render the host plant resistant. Additional in planta RNAi data for cyst nematodes are being provided by targeting four parasitism genes through host-induced RNAi gene silencing in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, which is a host for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Here it is reported that mRNA abundances of targeted nematode genes were specifically reduced in nematodes feeding on plants expressing corresponding RNAi constructs. Furthermore, this host-induced RNAi of all four nematode parasitism genes led to a reduction in the number of mature nematode females. Although no complete resistance was observed, the reduction of developing females ranged from 23% to 64% in different RNAi lines. These observations demonstrate the relevance of the targeted parasitism genes during the nematode life cycle and, potentially more importantly, suggest that a viable level of resistance in crop plants may be accomplished in the future using this technology against cyst nematodes.

  2. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide by contamination of compressed air: physiologic effects and interference with intended nitric oxide inhalation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, A; Loop, T; Mols, G; Geiger, K

    1999-10-01

    Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether unintentional nitric oxide inhalation by contamination of compressed air influences arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance and interferes with the therapeutic use of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide concentrations in the compressed air of a university hospital were measured continuously by chemiluminescence during two periods (4 and 2 weeks). The effects of unintended nitric oxide inhalation on arterial oxygen tension (n = 15) and on pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 9) were measured in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome by changing the source of compressed air of the ventilator from the hospital's central gas supply to a nitric oxide-free gas tank containing compressed air. In five of these patients, the effects of an additional inhalation of 5 ppm nitric oxide were evaluated. During working days, compressed air of the hospital's central gas supply contained clinically effective nitric oxide concentrations (> 80 parts per billion) during 40% of the time. Change to gas tank-supplied nitric oxide-free compressed air decreased the arterial oxygen tension by 10% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 13%. The addition of 5 ppm nitric oxide had a minimal effect on arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance when added to hospital-supplied compressed air but improved both when added to tank-supplied compressed air. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide increases arterial oxygen tension and decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unintended nitric oxide inhalation interferes with the

  3. Ground-state inversion method applied to calculation of molecular photoionization cross-sections by atomic extrapolation: Interference effects at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, P.R.; Nordholm, S.; Hush, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-state inversion method, which we have previously developed for the calculation of atomic cross-sections, is applied to the calculation of molecular photoionization cross-sections. These are obtained as a weighted sum of atomic subshell cross-sections plus multi-centre interference terms. The atomic cross-sections are calculated directly for the atomic functions which when summed over centre and symmetry yield the molecular orbital wave function. The use of the ground-state inversion method for this allows the effect of the molecular environment on the atomic cross-sections to be calculated. Multi-centre terms are estimated on the basis of an effective plane-wave expression for this contribution to the total cross-section. Finally the method is applied to the range of photon energies from 0 to 44 eV where atomic extrapolation procedures have not previously been tested. Results obtained for H 2 , N 2 and CO show good agreement with experiment, particularly when interference effects and effects of the molecular environment on the atomic cross-sections are included. The accuracy is very much better than that of previous plane-wave and orthogonalized plane-wave methods, and can stand comparison with that of recent more sophisticated approaches. It is a feature of the method that calculation of cross-sections either of atoms or of large molecules requires very little computer time, provided that good quality wave functions are available, and it is then of considerable potential practical interest for photoelectorn spectroscopy. (orig.)

  4. Effects of High Frequency Repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation on Gambling Reinforcement, Delay Discounting, and Stroop Interference in Men with Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Martin; Cho, Sang Soo; Parlee, Jennifer; Jacobs, Mark; Li, Crystal; Boileau, Isabelle; Strafella, Antonio

    Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce cravings and improve cognitive function in substance dependent individuals. Whether these benefits extend to individuals with pathological gambling (PG) is unclear. High-frequency rTMS of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the right dorsolateral PFC can reduce impulsive choice in healthy volunteers. This study aimed to assess the effects of these two protocols on gambling reinforcement and related responses in otherwise healthy men with PG. Participants (n = 9) underwent active or sham treatments at weekly intervals in a repeated-measures, Latin square design. Subjective and physiological responses were assessed before and after a 15-min slot machine game on each session. Delay discounting and Stroop tasks measured post-game impulsive choice and attentional control. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for winnings on the slot machine under each treatment, found that rTMS reduced the post-game increase in Desire to Gamble; cTBS reduced amphetamine-like effects, and decreased diastolic blood pressure. Treatment had no significant univariate effects on bet size or speed of play in the game; however, a multivariate effect for the two indices suggested that treatment decreased behavioral activation. Neither treatment reduced impulsive choice, while both treatments increased Stroop interference. rTMS and cTBS can reduce gambling reinforcement in non-comorbid men with PG. Separate processes appear to mediate gambling reinforcement and betting behavior as against delay discounting and Stroop interference. Interventions that modify risky as opposed to temporal aspects of decision making may better predict therapeutic response in PG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Tillmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  6. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  7. Interference in the processing of adjunct control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eParker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the memory operations used in language comprehension has revealed a selective profile of interference effects during memory retrieval. Dependencies such as subject-verb agreement show strong facilitatory interference effects from structurally inappropriate but feature-matching distractors, leading to illusions of grammaticality (Dillon, Mishler, Sloggett, & Phillips, 2013; Pearlmutter, Garnsey, & Bock, 1999; Wagers, Lau, & Phillips, 2009. In contrast, dependencies involving reflexive anaphors are generally immune to interference effects (Dillon et al., 2013; Sturt, 2003; Xiang, Dillon, & Phillips, 2009. This contrast has led to the proposal that all anaphors that are subject to structural constraints are immune to facilitatory interference. Here we use an animacy manipulation to examine whether adjunct control dependencies, which involve an interpreted anaphoric relation between a null subject and its licensor, are also immune to facilitatory interference effects. Our results show reliable facilitatory interference in the processing of adjunct control dependencies, which challenges the generalization that anaphoric dependencies as a class are immune to such effects. To account for the contrast between adjunct control and reflexive dependencies, we suggest that variability within anaphora could reflect either an inherent primacy of animacy cues in retrieval processes, or differential degrees of match between potential licensors and the retrieval probe.

  8. Two-Center Evaluation of Disinfectant Efficacy against Ebola Virus in Clinical and Laboratory Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie J.; Eastaugh, Lin; Filone, Claire Marie; Freeburger, Denise; Herzog, Artemas; Lever, M. Stephen; Miller, David M.; Mitzel, Dana; Noah, James W.; Reddick-Elick, Mary S.; Reese, Amy; Schuit, Michael; Wlazlowski, Carly B.; Hevey, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) in body fluids poses risk for virus transmission. However, there are limited experimental data for such matrices on the disinfectant efficacy against EBOV. We evaluated the effectiveness of disinfectants against EBOV in blood on surfaces. Only 5% peracetic acid consistently reduced EBOV titers in dried blood to the assay limit of quantification. PMID:29261093

  9. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  10. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Smolenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As power systems develop to incorporate renewable energy sources, the delivery systems may be disrupted by the changes involved. The grid’s technology and management must be developed to form Smart Grids between consumers, suppliers and producers. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids considers the specific side effects related to electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the application of these Smart Grids. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids presents specific EMI conducted phenomena as well as effective methods to filter and handle them once identified. After introduction to Smart Grids, the following sections cover dedicated methods for EMI reduction and potential avenues for future development including chapters dedicated to: •potential system services, •descriptions of the EMI spectra shaping methods, •methods of interference voltage compensation, and theoretical analysis of experimental results.  By focusing on these key aspects, Conducted El...

  11. Quadrupole effects in core and valence photoelectron emission from crystalline germanium measured via a spatially modulated x-ray interference field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.J.; Woicik, J.C.; Pianetta, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Cooper, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Near a crystal x-ray Bragg reflection, the incident and reflected x-ray beams that travel with opposite wave vectors create an x-ray standing-wave (XSW) interference field. The quadrupole (and higher order nondipole) contributions to the photoelectron emission matrix element differ for these two beams due to their different wave vectors. By monitoring the angle-resolved photoelectron yield as a function of photon energy near the (11-1) Bragg back-reflection condition of crystalline Ge, we measure the contribution of nondipole effects to Ge 3p, Ge 3d, and Ge valence-band (4s and 4p) XSW photoelectron emission. Significant changes due to nondipole emission are measured in both the apparent amplitude and phase of the Ge structure factor relative to the true Ge atomic distribution, and compared to theory

  12. Laser Interference Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Hennessy, Theodore C.

    In this chapter we explain how submicron gratings can be prepared by Laser Interference Lithography (LIL). In this maskless lithography technique, the standing wave pattern that exists at the intersection of two coherent laser beams is used to expose a photosensitive layer. We show how to build the

  13. Kvantová interference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2003), s. 99-103 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : interference * quantum cryptography * quantum computing * quantum teleportation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  14. Cross-limb interference during motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Lauber

    Full Text Available It is well known that following skill learning, improvements in motor performance may transfer to the untrained contralateral limb. It is also well known that retention of a newly learned task A can be degraded when learning a competing task B that takes place directly after learning A. Here we investigate if this interference effect can also be observed in the limb contralateral to the trained one. Therefore, five different groups practiced a ballistic finger flexion task followed by an interfering visuomotor accuracy task with the same limb. Performance in the ballistic task was tested before the training, after the training and in an immediate retention test after the practice of the interference task for both the trained and the untrained hand. After training, subjects showed not only significant learning and interference effects for the trained limb but also for the contralateral untrained limb. Importantly, the interference effect in the untrained limb was dependent on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. These behavioural results of the untrained limb were accompanied by training specific changes in corticospinal excitability, which increased for the hemisphere ipsilateral to the trained hand following ballistic training and decreased during accuracy training of the ipsilateral hand. The results demonstrate that contralateral interference effects may occur, and that interference depends on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. This finding might be particularly relevant for rehabilitation.

  15. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of structural magnetic resonance imaging data in a two-center study

    OpenAIRE

    Chalavi Sima; Simmons Andrew; Dijkstra Hildebrand; Barker Gareth J; Reinders AAT Simone

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Multi-center magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies present an opportunity to advance research by pooling data. However, brain measurements derived from MR-images are susceptible to differences in MR-sequence parameters. It is therefore necessary to determine whether there is an interaction between the sequence parameters and the effect of interest, and to minimise any such interaction by careful choice of acquisition parameters. As an exemplar of the issues involved in ...

  16. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  17. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  18. Codebook-based interference alignment for uplink MIMO interference channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a codebook-based interference alignment (IA) scheme in the constant multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) interference channel especially for the uplink scenario. In our proposed scheme, we assume cooperation among base stations (BSs) through reliable backhaul links so that global channel knowledge is available for all BSs, which enables BS to compute the transmit precoder and inform its quantized index to the associated user via limited rate feedback link.We present an upper bound on the rate loss of the proposed scheme and derive the scaling law of the feedback load tomaintain a constant rate loss relative to IA with perfect channel knowledge. Considering the impact of overhead due to training, cooperation, and feedback, we address the effective degrees of freedom (DOF) of the proposed scheme and derive the maximization of the effective DOF. From simulation results, we verify our analysis on the scaling law to preserve the multiplexing gain and confirm that the proposed scheme is more effective than the conventional IA scheme in terms of the effective DOF. © 2014 KICS.

  19. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  20. Codebook-based interference alignment for uplink MIMO interference channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Hyun Ho; Park, Kihong; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a codebook-based interference alignment (IA) scheme in the constant multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) interference channel especially for the uplink scenario. In our proposed scheme, we assume cooperation among base

  1. Interference-exact radiative transfer equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Haÿrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Maxwell's equations with stochastic or quantum optical source terms accounting for the quantum nature of light. We show that both the nonlocal wave and local particle features associated with interference and emission of propagating fields in stratified geometries can be fully captured by local damping...... and scattering coefficients derived from the recently introduced quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) framework. In addition to describing the nonlocal optical interference processes as local directionally resolved effects, this allows reformulating the well known and widely used radiative transfer...... equation (RTE) as a physically transparent interference-exact model that extends the useful range of computationally efficient and quantum optically accurate interference-aware optical models from simple structures to full optical devices....

  2. Assessment of life interference in anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapee, Ronald; Thastum, Mikael; Chavira, Denise

    associated with mental disorders arguably the key issue of relevance to both sufferers and therapists. Yet among both childhood and adult disorders the primary focus in terms of assessment and treatment is on symptoms, with far less attention paid to the impact of these symptoms on the sufferer's life....... This imbalance has particularly characterised research on child anxiety where few studies have examined either the impact of anxiety disorders on children's lives or the effects of treatments on life interference. To some extent this lack of attention has come from a lack of well developed measures to assess...... life interference derived from symptoms of anxiety. Broader and more general life interference measures tend to have minimal relevance for children with anxiety disorders. The current paper will describe two measures of life interference that have been developed at the Centre for Emotional Health...

  3. One- and two-center ETF-integrals of first order in relativistic calculation of NMR parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevinsky, R. M.; Temga, T.; Mouattamid, M.; Safouhi, H.

    2010-06-01

    The present work focuses on the analytical and numerical developments of first-order integrals involved in the relativistic calculation of the shielding tensor using exponential-type functions as a basis set of atomic orbitals. For the analytical development, we use the Fourier integral transformation and practical properties of spherical harmonics and the Rayleigh expansion of the plane wavefunctions. The Fourier transforms of the operators were derived in previous work and they are used for analytical development. In both the one- and two-center integrals, Cauchy's residue theorem is used in the final developments of the analytical expressions, which are shown to be accurate to machine precision.

  4. One- and two-center ETF-integrals of first order in relativistic calculation of NMR parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slevinsky, R M; Temga, T; Mouattamid, M; Safouhi, H, E-mail: hassan.safouhi@ualberta.c [Mathematical Section, Campus Saint-Jean, University of Alberta, 8406, 91 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6C 4G9 (Canada)

    2010-06-04

    The present work focuses on the analytical and numerical developments of first-order integrals involved in the relativistic calculation of the shielding tensor using exponential-type functions as a basis set of atomic orbitals. For the analytical development, we use the Fourier integral transformation and practical properties of spherical harmonics and the Rayleigh expansion of the plane wavefunctions. The Fourier transforms of the operators were derived in previous work and they are used for analytical development. In both the one- and two-center integrals, Cauchy's residue theorem is used in the final developments of the analytical expressions, which are shown to be accurate to machine precision.

  5. [An Algorithm to Eliminate Power Frequency Interference in ECG Using Template].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guohua; Li, Jiang; Xu, Yan; Feng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Researching an algorithm to eliminate power frequency interference in ECG. The algorithm first creates power frequency interference template, then, subtracts the template from the original ECG signals, final y, the algorithm gets the ECG signals without interference. Experiment shows the algorithm can eliminate interference effectively and has none side effect to normal signal. It’s efficient and suitable for practice.

  6. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part IV. Mandibular rotations induced by a pliable interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L V; Rassouli, N M

    1995-11-01

    In 12 subjects, a pliable, yet unbreakable, intercuspal interference (aluminum shim onlay splint; uniform height of 0.25 mm) was placed between either the right or left maxillary and mandibular second premolars and first molars. During brief and forceful biting (dynamic chewing stroke of about 20 kg force) the interference emulated a semisoft food bolus, and at the end of biting (subsequent static clenching stroke of about 20 kg force) it emulated a rigid metal interference. During dynamic/static biting, rotational electrognathography measured maximum frontal and horizontal plane torque of the right and left mandibular condyles. Eleven subjects (92%) showed frontal plane upward rotation (mean of 1.0 degree) of the condyle contralateral to the interference, and one subject (8%) showed frontal plane upward rotation (0.4 degree) of the condyle ipsilateral to the interference. Two subjects (17%) showed no horizontal plane rotation; seven subjects (58%) showed backward rotation (mean of 0.4 degree) of the condyle contralateral to the interference; and three subjects (25%) showed backward rotation (mean of 0.3 degree) of the condyle ipsilateral to the interference. It is suggested that, in the presence of an occlusal interference, mastication may have both short- and long-term detrimental effects.

  7. Interference Mitigation in Cognitive Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Alvarez Roig, Victor

    2010-01-01

    , management and optimization can be prohibitive. Instead, self-optimization of an uncoordinated deployment should be considered. Cognitive Radio enabled femtocells are considered to be a promising solution to enable self-optimizing femtocells to effectively manage the inter-cell interference, especially...... in densely deployed femto scenarios. In this paper, two key elements of cognitive femtocells are combined: a power control algorithm and a fully distributed dynamic spectrum allocation method. The resulting solution was evaluated through system-level simulations and compared to the separate algorithms...

  8. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  9. Fabrication of conducting composite sheets using cost-effective graphite flakes and amorphous styrene acrylonitrile for enhanced thermistor, dielectric, and electromagnetic interference shielding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Varij, E-mail: varijpanwarcertain@gmail.com [Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India); Gill, Fateh Singh; Rathi, Vikas; Tewari, V.K. [Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India); Mehra, R.M. [Sharda University, Greater Noida (India); Park, Jong-Oh, E-mail: jop@jnu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sukho, E-mail: shpark12@dgist.ac.kr [Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of strong conducting composite sheets (CCSs) using a simple technique with cost-effective materials is desirable for capacitor, decoupling capacitor, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. Here, we used cost-effective graphite flakes (GFs) as a conducting filler and amorphous poly (styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) as an insulating polymer to fabricate a CCS via a simple mechanical mixing and hot compression molding process in 2.5 h, with the aim to save time and avoid the use of toxic reagents, which are generally used in chemical methods. In the present method, the GFs are connected in diffusively adhere polymer matrix, controlled by temperature and pressure that generate the conduction in the CCSs. The resulting PSAN/GF CCSs were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and hardness tests. The GFs penetrated the interfacial region of PSAN, thus improving the thermistor and dielectric properties (dielectric constant, AC conductivity, and dissipation factor) of the PSAN/GF CCSs. Furthermore, the PSAN/GF CCSs showed enhanced hardness and EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) properties in the X-band frequency range (8.5–12.5 GHz). The percolation theory was implemented to DC and AC conductivity. To detect the transition of the dielectric properties, the dielectric constant of the CCSs was analyzed with increasing volume fraction of GFs in the radio frequency region. The improved dielectric constant, AC conductivity, and dissipation factor of the PSAN/GF CCS, indicated a significant improvement in their EMI shielding properties in the X-band frequency range, which were measured using the waveguide method. The ac conductivity of PSAN/GF CCS shows stable behavior in the higher frequency ranges. The EMISE of PSAN/GF CCS were found to increase with increasing GF content due to the absorbance mechanism. - Highlights: • Enhanced hardness and

  10. Effects of single-feature and dual-feature interference on interference control in children with combined type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%单一和双重干扰源对混合型注意缺陷多动障碍儿童干扰控制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美玲; 杨双

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨单一干扰源和双重干扰源对混合型注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)儿童的干扰控制的影响.方法:对25例符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版( DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的门诊混合型ADHD儿童和25名性别、年龄和智力相匹配的对照组儿童,进行图形Stroop测验,通过操纵图片的颜色和形状特征,设置了单一干扰和双重干扰两种条件,比较两组被试的冲突效应量.结果:在单一干扰条件下,ADHD组的冲突效应量显著大于对照组(P<0.05),而在双重干扰条件下,两组的冲突效应量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:本研究提示,在单一干扰源条件下,混合型ADHD儿童表现出干扰控制缺陷,但在双重干扰源条件下,混合型ADHD儿童的干扰控制表现与正常儿童差异不显著.%Objective: To explore the effects of single-feature and dual-feature interference on interference control in children with the combined type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-C). Methods: Twenty-five children with ADHD-C meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria, and 25 normal control group children matched for age, gender and intelligence were tested with the figure judgment Stroop test They were asked to judge the directions of the images when presented to a pair of images with arrows. Through the control of the color and shape features of pictures, single-feature interference condition and dual-feature interference were set up and the correct rate and response time were analyzed. Results: ADHD group were deficient in single-feature interference condition compared with normal children [(0.15 ±0.03) vs. (0.01 ±0.03), P = 0.001]. No significant difference were observed between ADHD group and control group in dual-feature interference condition [(0.09 ±0.04) vs. (0.01 ±0.04), P =0.093]. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with ADHD-C show a deficit in

  11. Macroscopic quantum interference in the conventional and coherent quantum 1/F effect with negative quantum entropy states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handel, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    The author's recent application of the new Quantum Information Theory Approach (QIT) to Infra Quantum Physics (IQP) explains for the first time the apparent lack of unitarity caused by the entropy increase in the Quantum 1/f Effect (Q1/fE). This allows for a better understanding of the quantum 1/f effect in this paper, showing no resultant entropy increase and therefore no violation of unitarity. This new interpretation involves the concept of von Neumann Quantum Entropy, including the new negative conditional entropy concept for quantum entangled states introduced by QIT. The Q1/fE was applied to many high-tech systems, in particular to ultra small electronic devices. The present paper explains how the additional entropy implied by the Q1/fE arises in spite of the entropy-conserving evolution of the system. On this basis, a general derivation of the conventional and coherent quantum 1/f effect is given. (author)

  12. Fat and fibre interfere with the dramatic effect that nanoemulsified d-limonene has on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté, Javier; Periago, Paula M; Ros-Chumillas, María; Grullón, Coralin; Huertas, Juan Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    The application of d-limonene in form of nanoemulsion has been proved to reduce dramatically the thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in culture media. The present research shows very promising results on the application in food products. The thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was reduced 90 times when 0.5 mM nanoemulsified d-limonene was added to apple juice. This is the biggest reduction in the heat resistance of a microorganism caused by an antimicrobial described ever. However, no effect was found in carrot juice. A carrot juice system was prepared in an attempt to unravel which juice constituents were responsible for the lack of effect. When fat and fibre were not included in the carrot juice system formulation, the thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was, again, dramatically reduced in presence of nanoemulsified d-limonene, so these components were shown to interfere with the effect. Once this interaction with food constituents becomes solved, the addition of nanoemulsified antimicrobials would allow to reduce greatly the intensity of the thermal treatments currently applied in the food processing industry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Interference between Maintenance and Processing in Working Memory: The Effect of Item-Distractor Similarity in Complex Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual…

  14. Experimental study and effect of particulate interference on the microhardness, wear and microstructural properties of ternary doped coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayomi, O. S. I., E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Popoola, A. P. I. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Joseph, O. O.; Inegbenebor, A. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Canaanland, Ota (Nigeria); Olukanni, D. O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2016-07-25

    This paper studies effects of the composite particle infringement of ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on zinc rich ternary based coating. The corrosion-degradation property in 3.5% NaCl was investigatedusing polarization technique. The structural characteristics of the multilayer produce coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The mechanical response of the coated samples was studied using a diamond base Dura –Scan) micro-hardness tester and a MTR-300 dry abrasive wear tester. The combined effect of the coatings gave highly-improved performance on microhardness, corrosion and wear damage. This also implies that protection of wind-energy structures in marine environments can be achieved by composite strengthening capacity.

  15. A comparison of the effectiveness of 6S and SMAC in correcting for atmospheric interference of meteosat second generation images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Fensholt, R.; Rasmussen, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric perturbations are a large source of uncertainty in remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface. This paper explores the effectiveness of the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in reducing the effects of these perturbations in images of the African Continent gathered...... by the Spinning Enhanced Visible & InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In order to examine the accuracy of the SMAC we compare its results to those computed by the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV1.1), a highly accurate radiative transfer code......, for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. We find that the SMAC does not offer a high level of accuracy under many sets of atmospheric conditions with under 20% of observations in channels 1 and 2 providing a relative error of less than 10% when compared to 6SV1.1. Those observations involving medium...

  16. Investigation of Interference Models for RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linchao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reader-to-reader collision in an RFID system is a challenging problem for communications technology. In order to model the interference between RFID readers, different interference models have been proposed, mainly based on two approaches: single and additive interference. The former only considers the interference from one reader within a certain range, whereas the latter takes into account the sum of all of the simultaneous interferences in order to emulate a more realistic behavior. Although the difference between the two approaches has been theoretically analyzed in previous research, their effects on the estimated performance of the reader-to-reader anti-collision protocols have not yet been investigated. In this paper, the influence of the interference model on the anti-collision protocols is studied by simulating a representative state-of-the-art protocol. The results presented in this paper highlight that the use of additive models, although more computationally intensive, is mandatory to improve the performance of anti-collision protocols.

  17. Interference effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the right frontal cortex and adrenergic system on conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Soltanpour, Reyhaneh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrabian, Shahram; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-11-01

    The effects of pharmacological interventions on fear memory have widely been studied, but there are very few studies about the effects of brain electrical stimulation on fear memory function. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether anodal/cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right frontal cortex would modify propranolol-induced contextual and auditory fear memory deficits, before or after training. The adult NMRI male mice were randomly assigned into three groups: the sham group, the anodal tDCS group, and the cathodal tDCS group. Fear memories were evaluated using a classical fear conditioning apparatus. While the anodal stimulation did not affect fear retrieval, post-training cathodal stimulation improved fear memory retrieval. Regardless of when propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) was administered, it impaired fear memory retrieval. However, when anodal stimulation and propranolol were applied prior to the training, contextual fear memory retrieval was increased and auditory fear memory was reversed. An enhanced contextual retrieval was also observed when propranolol was administered prior to the training and stimulation occurred after the training. Only when the stimulation occurred prior to the training and propranolol was administered after the training was there a selective improvement in contextual fear memory retrieval, leaving the auditory fear memory retrieval impaired. Interestingly, cathodal stimulation improved the effects of propranolol on auditory fear memory only when it occurred prior to the training. The results highlight possible improving effects for anodal/cathodal tDCS on propranolol-induced deficits on fear memories. The timing of the interventions related to the specific phases of memory formation is important in modulating fear behaviors.

  18. A proposal for the measurement of graphical statistics effectiveness: Does it enhance or interfere with statistical reasoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus, M; Penna, M P; Peró-Cebollero, M; Guàrdia-Olmos, J

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined students' difficulties in understanding some notions related to statistical problems. Some authors observed that the presentation of distinct visual representations could increase statistical reasoning, supporting the principle of graphical facilitation. But other researchers disagree with this viewpoint, emphasising the impediments related to the use of illustrations that could overcharge the cognitive system with insignificant data. In this work we aim at comparing the probabilistic statistical reasoning regarding two different formats of problem presentations: graphical and verbal-numerical. We have conceived and presented five pairs of homologous simple problems in the verbal numerical and graphical format to 311 undergraduate Psychology students (n=156 in Italy and n=155 in Spain) without statistical expertise. The purpose of our work was to evaluate the effect of graphical facilitation in probabilistic statistical reasoning. Every undergraduate has solved each pair of problems in two formats in different problem presentation orders and sequences. Data analyses have highlighted that the effect of graphical facilitation is infrequent in psychology undergraduates. This effect is related to many factors (as knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and anxiety); moreover it might be considered the resultant of interaction between individual and task characteristics

  19. Interference of WEB 2086 and BN 52021 with Paf-induced effects on guinea-pig trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelleschi, S.; Renzi, D.; Ledda, F.; Giotti, A.; Fantozzi, R.; Brink, C.; Benveniste, J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The thienotriazolodiazepine WEB 2086 and the gingkolide BN52021 have been evaluated as antagonists of Paf-acether (Paf) by studying their effects on Paf-induced relaxation and Paf-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in histamine-contracted guinea-pig tracheal preparations. 2. Relaxation induced by Paf 4 microM in histamine-contracted guinea-pig tracheal preparations was 39.67 +/- 3.5% (n = 30). At the same concentration, Paf significantly increased PGE2 production from histamine-con...

  20. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with abundant prey. The effects of non-homogenous distributions and degree of spatial overlap between prey and predators on the per capita predation rate were studied by means of a stage-specific predation model that averages the predation rates over all the local populations inhabiting the individual leaves. The empirical predation rates were compared with predictions assuming random predator search and/or an even distribution of prey. The analysis clearly shows that the ability of the predators to search non-randomly increases their predation rate. On the other hand, the prey may gain if it adopts a more even distribution when its density is low and a more patchy distribution when density increases. Mutual interference between searching predators reduces the predation rate, but the effect is negligible. The stage-specific functional response model was compared with two simpler models without explicit stage structure. Both unstructured models yielded predictions that were quite similar to those of the stage-structured model.

  1. AC conductivity, magnetic and shielding effectiveness studies on polyaniline embedded Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles for electromagnetic interference suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusiddesh, M.; Madhu, B. J.; Shankaramurthy, G. J.

    2018-05-01

    Electrically conducting Polyaniline (PANI)/Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanocomposites are synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Structural studies on the synthesized samples have been carried out using X-ray diffraction technique, Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Frequency dependent ac conductivity studies on the prepared samples revealed that conductivity of the composite is high compared to Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Further, both the samples exhibited hysteresis behavior under the applied magnetic field. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of both the samples decreases with increase in the applied frequency in the studied frequency range. Maximum shielding effectiveness (SE) of 31.49 dB and 62.84 dB were obtained for Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles and PANI/Co0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanocomposites respectively in the studied frequency range. Observed higher EMI shielding in the composites was attributed to its high electrical conductivity.

  2. Effect of RF Interference on the Security-Reliability Trade-off Analysis of Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Salhab, Anas; Zummo, Salam; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) cochannel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser mixed RF/free-space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling under eavesdropping attack is studied. The considered

  3. A study of interference effects in Na(3S,3P)-Ne, Ar scattering experiments at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F.T.M. van den.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents measurements of differential cross sections for the scattering of Na-atoms in the ground-state and first excited-state by the rare gas atoms Ne and Ar. The scattering experiments were performed in a crossed-beam apparatus built and tested by van Deventer et al. The unique high angular-resolution (0.1 0 ) of this beam-scattering apparatus permits us (i) to remove the discrepancies that still exist between the various X 2 Σ- and A 2 PI-potential curves for Na-Ar and Na-Ne reported up to now, (ii) to obtain detailed information on the B 2 Σ-potentials for these systems and (iii) to demonstrate the necessity of taking into account the spin-uncoupling effects, in the interpretation of the experimental Na-Ne scattering patterns. (Auth.)

  4. Short-term visual deprivation reduces interference effects of task-irrelevant facial expressions on affective prosody judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eFengler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested that neuroplasticity can be triggered by short-term visual deprivation in healthy adults. Specifically, these studies have provided evidence that visual deprivation reversibly affects basic perceptual abilities. The present study investigated the long-lasting effects of short-term visual deprivation on emotion perception. To this aim, we visually deprived a group of young healthy adults, age-matched with a group of non-deprived controls, for 3 hours and tested them before and after visual deprivation (i.e., after 8 h on average and at 4 week follow-up on an audio-visual (i.e., faces and voices emotion discrimination task. To observe changes at the level of basic perceptual skills, we additionally employed a simple audio-visual (i.e., tone bursts and light flashes discrimination task and two unimodal (one auditory and one visual perceptual threshold measures. During the 3 h period, both groups performed a series of auditory tasks. To exclude the possibility that changes in emotion discrimination may emerge as a consequence of the exposure to auditory stimulation during the 3 h stay in the dark, we visually deprived an additional group of age-matched participants who concurrently performed unrelated (i.e., tactile tasks to the later tested abilities. The two visually deprived groups showed enhanced affective prosodic discrimination abilities in the context of incongruent facial expressions following the period of visual deprivation; this effect was partially maintained until follow-up. By contrast, no changes were observed in affective facial expression discrimination and in the basic perception tasks in any group. These findings suggest that short-term visual deprivation per se triggers a reweighting of visual and auditory emotional cues, which seem to possibly prevail for longer durations.

  5. Interference effects in inclusive charge-exchange p+p→n+X and n+p→p+X reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Ratis, Yu.L.; Korovin, P.P.; Strokovskij, E.A.; Vaagen, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The formalism of Feynman diagrams to describe charge-exchange reactions p+p→n+X and n+p→p+X on a free proton target taking into account spectator and decay modes in the π+ρ+g'-model have used. It is shown that the interference between these modes depends on the set of vertex function parameters used. It is also shown that the constructive interference of the Δ + and Δ 0 -isobars is important. 22 refs.; 10 figs

  6. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  7. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  8. Exogenous sample contamination. Sources and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, Michael P

    2016-12-01

    Clinical laboratory medicine is involved in the vast majority of patient care pathways. It has been estimated that pathology results inform 60-70% of critical patient care decisions. The primary goal of the laboratory is to produce precise and accurate results which reflect the true situation in vivo. It is not surprising that interference occurs in laboratory analysis given the complexity of some of the assays used to perform them. Interference is defined as "the effect of a substance upon any step in the determination of the concentration or catalytic activity of the metabolite". Exogenous interferences are defined as those that derive from outside of the body and are therefore not normally found in a specimen and can cause either a positive or negative bias in analytical results. Interferences in analysis can come from various sources and can be classified as endogenous or exogenous. Exogenous substances could be introduced at any point in the sample journey. The laboratory must take responsibility for the quality of results produced. It has a responsibility to have processes in place to identify and minimise the occurrence and effect contamination and interference. To do this well the laboratory needs to work with clinicians and manufacturers. Failure to identify an erroneous result could have an impact on patient care, patient safety and also on hospital budgets. However it is not always easy to recognise interferences. This review summarises the types and sources of exogenous interference and some steps to minimise the impact they have. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-Target Effects of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP-Derived Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP Used in Honey Bee RNA Interference (RNAi Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis M. F. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference has been frequently applied to modulate gene function in organisms where the production and maintenance of mutants is challenging, as in our model of study, the honey bee, Apis mellifera. A green fluorescent protein (GFP-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP is currently commonly used as control in honey bee RNAi experiments, since its gene does not exist in the A. mellifera genome. Although dsRNA-GFP is not expected to trigger RNAi responses in treated bees, undesirable effects on gene expression, pigmentation or developmental timing are often observed. Here, we performed three independent experiments using microarrays to examine the effect of dsRNA-GFP treatment (introduced by feeding on global gene expression patterns in developing worker bees. Our data revealed that the expression of nearly 1,400 genes was altered in response to dsRNA-GFP, representing around 10% of known honey bee genes. Expression changes appear to be the result of both direct off-target effects and indirect downstream secondary effects; indeed, there were several instances of sequence similarity between putative siRNAs generated from the dsRNA-GFP construct and genes whose expression levels were altered. In general, the affected genes are involved in important developmental and metabolic processes associated with RNA processing and transport, hormone metabolism, immunity, response to external stimulus and to stress. These results suggest that multiple dsRNA controls should be employed in RNAi studies in honey bees. Furthermore, any RNAi studies involving these genes affected by dsRNA-GFP in our studies should use a different dsRNA control.

  10. Non-Target Effects of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Derived Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) Used in Honey Bee RNA Interference (RNAi) Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Francis M F; Aleixo, Aline C; Barchuk, Angel R; Bomtorin, Ana D; Grozinger, Christina M; Simões, Zilá L P

    2013-01-04

    RNA interference has been frequently applied to modulate gene function in organisms where the production and maintenance of mutants is challenging, as in our model of study, the honey bee, Apis mellifera. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) is currently commonly used as control in honey bee RNAi experiments, since its gene does not exist in the A. mellifera genome. Although dsRNA-GFP is not expected to trigger RNAi responses in treated bees, undesirable effects on gene expression, pigmentation or developmental timing are often observed. Here, we performed three independent experiments using microarrays to examine the effect of dsRNA-GFP treatment (introduced by feeding) on global gene expression patterns in developing worker bees. Our data revealed that the expression of nearly 1,400 genes was altered in response to dsRNA-GFP, representing around 10% of known honey bee genes. Expression changes appear to be the result of both direct off-target effects and indirect downstream secondary effects; indeed, there were several instances of sequence similarity between putative siRNAs generated from the dsRNA-GFP construct and genes whose expression levels were altered. In general, the affected genes are involved in important developmental and metabolic processes associated with RNA processing and transport, hormone metabolism, immunity, response to external stimulus and to stress. These results suggest that multiple dsRNA controls should be employed in RNAi studies in honey bees. Furthermore, any RNAi studies involving these genes affected by dsRNA-GFP in our studies should use a different dsRNA control.

  11. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, K; Dorrepaal, E; Draijer, N; de Ruiter, M B; Elzinga, B M; van Balkom, A J; Smit, J H; Veltman, D J

    2012-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that treatment can normalize these activation patterns. At baseline, we compared classic and emotional Stroop performance and blood oxygenation level-dependent responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of 29 child abuse-related complex PTSD patients with 22 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls. In 16 of these patients, we studied treatment effects of psycho-educational and cognitive behavioural stabilizing group treatment (experimental treatment; EXP) added to treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU only, and correlations with clinical improvement. At baseline, complex PTSD patients showed a trend for increased left anterior insula and dorsal ACC activation in the classic Stroop task. Only EXP patients showed decreased dorsal ACC and left anterior insula activation after treatment. In the emotional Stroop contrasts, clinical improvement was associated with decreased dorsal ACC activation and decreased left anterior insula activation. We found further evidence that successful treatment in child abuse-related complex PTSD is associated with functional changes in the ACC and insula, which may be due to improved selective attention and lower emotional arousal, indicating greater cognitive control over PTSD symptoms.

  12. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  13. Beamforming design with proactive interference cancelation in MISO interference channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tian, Yafei; Yang, Chenyang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we design coordinated beamforming at base stations (BSs) to facilitate interference cancelation at users in interference networks, where each BS is equipped with multiple antennas and each user is with a single antenna. By assuming that each user can select the best decoding strategy to mitigate the interference, either canceling the interference after decoding when it is strong or treating it as noise when it is weak, we optimize the beamforming vectors that maximize the sum rate for the networks under different interference scenarios and find the solutions of beamforming with closed-form expressions. The inherent design principles are then analyzed, and the performance gain over passive interference cancelation is demonstrated through simulations in heterogeneous cellular networks.

  14. Dependency-dependent interference: NPI interference, agreement attraction, and global pragmatic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eXiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous psycholinguistics studies have shown that when forming a long distance dependency in online processing, the parser sometimes accepts a sentence even though the required grammatical constraints are only partially met. A mechanistic account of how such errors arise sheds light on both the underlying linguistic representations involved and the processing mechanisms that put such representations together. In the current study, we contrast the NPI (negative polarity items interference effect, as shown by the acceptance of an ungrammatical sentence like The bills that democratic senators have voted for will ever become law, with the well-known phenomenon of agreement attraction (The key to the cabinets are…. On the surface, these two types of errors look alike and thereby can be explained as being driven by the same source: similarity based memory interference. However, we argue that the linguistic representations involved in NPI licensing are substantially different from those of subject-verb agreement, and therefore the interference effects in each domain potentially arise from distinct sources. In particular, we show that NPI interference at least partially arises from pragmatic inferences. In a self-paced reading study with an acceptability judgment task, we showed NPI interference was modulated by participants’ general pragmatic communicative skills, as quantified by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen 2001, especially in offline tasks. Participants with more autistic traits were actually less prone to the NPI interference effect than those with fewer autistic traits. This result contrasted with agreement attraction conditions, which were not influenced by individual pragmatic skill differences. We also show that different NPI licensors have distinct interference profiles. We discuss two kinds of interference effects for NPI licensing: memory-retrieval based and pragmatically triggered.

  15. Application and research of artificial water mist on photoelectric interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuejun; Ren, Baolin

    2018-04-01

    Water mist is a new type of photoelectric interfering material. It can exert a strong interference and shielding effect on infrared light, laser and radar wave through scattering, reflection, refraction and absorption. Based on this, this paper illustrates the application of an artificial high pressure water mist technology in infrared interference system. First, the operating principle of the infrared interference system is introduced. Next, the design principle of self-excited rotary vortex nozzle, the key part of the system, is elaborated. Then, the calculation of the main control parameters of the system is clarified. In the end, the paper verifies interference and shielding effect of the system by experiment. Experiment shows that the interference system can significantly reduce infrared signature of the target, featuring excellent infrared interference performance and high practical value.

  16. Probing two-centre interference in molecular high harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vozzi, C; Calegari, F; Benedetti, E; Berlasso, R; Sansone, G; Stagira, S; Nisoli, M; Altucci, C; Velotta, R; Torres, R; Heesel, E; Kajumba, N; Marangos, J P

    2006-01-01

    Two-centre interference in the recombination step of molecular high harmonic generation (HHG) has been probed in CO 2 and O 2 . We report the order dependence of characteristic enhancements or suppressions of high harmonic production in aligned samples of both molecules. In CO 2 , a robust destructive interference was seen consistent with the known separation of the oxygen atoms that are active in HHG. In O 2 , a harmonic enhancement was found indicating constructive interference. A good agreement was found with a simple two-centre interference model that includes the angular distribution function of the sample. The effective momentum of the electron wave was determined from the spectral position of these interferences. Ellipticity-dependent studies in CO 2 clearly show how the destructive interference can be 'switched off' by increasing the degree of ellipticity and thus shifting the effective resonance condition

  17. Interference effects with surface plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Nikolay Victorovich

    2008-01-01

    A surface plasmon is a purely two-dimensional electromagnetic excitation bound to the interface between metal and dielectric and quickly decaying away from it. A surface plasmon is able to concentrate light on sub-wavelength scales – a feature that is attractive for nano-photonics and integrated

  18. Intersystem Interference Reduction for Overlaid HAPS-Terrestrial CDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeng-Ji; Wang, Wei-Ting; Li, Mingfu; Shiung, David; Ferng, Huei-Wen

    In this letter, we propose that directional antennas, combined with power management, be incorporated to reduce intersystem interference in a shared band overlaid high altitude platform station (HAPS)-terrestrial code division multiple access (CDMA) system. To eliminate the HAPS to terrestrial interference, the HAPS is accessed only via directional antennas under the proposed scheme. By doing so, the uplink power to the HAPS can accordingly be increased, so that the terrestrial to HAPS interference is also effectively suppressed.

  19. Interference of Spin-2 Self-Dual Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilha, Anderson; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects of interference between the self-dual and anti self-dual massive modes of the linearized Einstein-Chern-Simons topological gravity. The dual models to be used in the interference process are carefully analyzed with special emphasis on their propagating spectrum. We identify the opposite dual aspects, necessary for the application of the interference formalism on this model. The soldered theory so obtained displays explicitly massive modes of the Proca type. It may also be...

  20. Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n?=?2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space a...

  1. Graphene quantum interference photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  2. Substation electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felic, G.; Shihab, S.

    1997-01-01

    The electric and magnetic transients in high voltage substations were studied. The electric field measurements were carried out in a 66 kV switchyard of a 500/220/66 kV substation in Melbourne, Australia. The measured waveforms make up a database to be used for reference in the testing of substation control and protection equipment. The objective of this study was to characterize the radiated interference caused by the operation of disconnect switches and circuit breakers. Disconnect switch transients can be a serious hazard for substations because the slow moving contacts during opening and closing can result in arcing events of several seconds duration. Circuit breaker transients were considered to be less hazardous. Transient magnetic fields of at least several tens of A/m can occur during the energization of the capacitor bank. Substation electronic equipment should be tested and protected against the coupling of these transients in order to avoid breakdowns. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Synthesis of MoS2-reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jagdees; Singh, Ashwani Kumar; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Singh, Kedar

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a facile two step hydrothermal process for the synthesis of MoS2-reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 (MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4) nanocomposite and its application as an excellent electromagnetic interference shielding material. Characterization tools like; scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy were used to confirm the formation of nanocomposite and found that spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles are well dispersed over MoS2-rGO composite with average particle size ∼25–30 nm was confirmed by TEM. Structural characterization done by XRD was found inconsistent with the known lattice parameter of MoS2 nanosheet, reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was evaluated and found to be an excellent EMI shielding material in X-band range (8.0–12.0 GHz). MoS2-rGO composite shows poor shielding capacity (SET ∼ 3.81 dB) in entire range as compared to MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite (SET ∼ 8.27 dB). It is due to interfacial polarization in the presence of EM field. The result indicates that MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite provide a new stage for the next generation in high-performance EM wave absorption and EMI shielding effectiveness.

  4. Effect of Different Planting Methods of Onion (Allium cepa L. and Nitrogen Rate on Onion Growth Pattern under Interference with Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karimi Arpnahy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human always has looked for improving food production through increasing crops yield. In this path, weeds through competition with crop for environmental factors and inputs have reduced the quantity and quality of crop products. Competition for nitrogen absorption not only is the most common form of intra-specific competition amongst crop plants, but also is the most popular form of inter-specific competition in the system of weed-crop interference. Therefore, understanding the method of nitrogen absorption and its allocation in competing plants, will be a key tool to improve weed management strategies. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of sowing method and nitrogen rate on the growth pattern of onion under interference with purple nutsedge, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of University of Birjand in 2013. The first factor included three sowing methods of onion (seed sowing, onion set and transplanting and the second factor consisted of three levels of nitrogen (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1, equivalent of 25, 50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil that urea fertilizer with a purity of 46% was used for this purpose. Results and Discussion The results of the analysis of variance showed that nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, leaf area index as well as aboveground and bulb dry weights. Furthermore, sowing methods revealed significant effects on plant height, leaf number, leaf area index as well as aboveground and bulb dry weights. Moreover, the interaction between sowing methods and levels of nitrogen had a significant effect on plant height, leaf area index and aboveground dry weight, while it had no significant effect on leaf number and bulb dry weight. The results of the comparisons of the means of onion planting methods and nitrogen levels interactions confirmed that the superiority of the influence of onion set

  5. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  6. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V Berard

    Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  7. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Aaron V; Cain, Matthew S; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  8. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  9. Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-10-01

    One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences, it is therefore necessary to effectively control the secondary interference at the primary receivers. In this paper, a generalized framework for the interference analysis of a cognitive radio network where the different secondary transmitters may transmit with different powers and transmission probabilities, is presented and various applications of this interference model are demonstrated. The findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Interatomic interaction effects on second-order momentum correlations and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of double-well-trapped ultracold fermionic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benedikt B.; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi

    2018-05-01

    Identification and understanding of the evolution of interference patterns in two-particle momentum correlations as a function of the strength of interatomic interactions are important in explorations of the nature of quantum states of trapped particles. Together with the analysis of two-particle spatial correlations, they offer the prospect of uncovering fundamental symmetries and structure of correlated many-body states, as well as opening vistas into potential control and utilization of correlated quantum states as quantum-information resources. With the use of the second-order density matrix constructed via exact diagonalization of the microscopic Hamiltonian, and an analytic Hubbard-type model, we explore here the systematic evolution of characteristic interference patterns in the two-body momentum and spatial correlation maps of two entangled ultracold fermionic atoms in a double well, for the entire attractive- and repulsive-interaction range. We uncover quantum-statistics-governed bunching and antibunching, as well as interaction-dependent interference patterns, in the ground and excited states, and interpret our results in light of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference physics, widely exploited in photon indistinguishability testing and quantum-information science.

  11. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, K.; Dorrepaal, E.; Draijer, P.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence

  12. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, K.; Dorrepaal, E.; Draijer, N.; de Ruiter, M. B.; Elzinga, B. M.; van Balkom, A. J.; Smit, J. H.; Veltman, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that

  13. The spatial distribution of flocking foragers : disentangling the effects of food availability, interference and conspecific attraction by means of spatial autoregressive modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Eelke O.; Olff, Han; Piersma, Theunis; Robinson, Rob

    Patch choice of foraging animals is typically assumed to depend positively on food availability and negatively on interference while benefits of the co-occurrence of conspecifics tend to be ignored. In this paper we integrate a classical functional response model based on resource availability and

  14. The effect of effort expenditure, job control and work-home arrangements on negative work-home interference in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, D.M.; Blomme, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of job expenditure and job control on negative work-home interference according the Effort-Recovery model. In addition, the role of work-home arrangements, as a measure of home control, is investigated. This study concerns higher educated employees who have been

  15. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined age-related change in proactive interference from previously learned material. The meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that proactive interference decreased with age. The cross-sectional study found that third through sixth graders' and college students' recall was accurate on Trial 1, but became less so over Trials 2…

  16. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  17. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  18. Effects of electromagnetic interference on the functional usage of medical equipment by 2G/3G/4G cellular phones: A revie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy M. Mariappan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the potential use of wireless devices in healthcare domain for a variety of reasons. The most commonly used device is the cellular phone, which emits strong electromagnetic energy affecting thereby the functionality of the vital medical equipment such as ventilators, ECG monitors, cardiac monitors, and defibrillators. This prompted the healthcare concerns to restrict the use of these phones in the proximity of critical and non-critical care medical equipment. Due to the developments made in the design of medical equipment to comply with the EMC standards, the restriction had been slowly laid off. Still, the researchers are concerned about the electromagnetic interference with medical devices by cellular phones in the healthcare domain and recommend for conducting continuous research to study their interaction with medical equipment. This paper overviews the certain investigations carried out in the recent years to study the electromagnetic interference between medical devices and 2G/3G/4G LTE cellular phones. During the initial development of cellular phones, the 2G cellular phones had caused more interference that affects the function and operation of some medical devices. The possibility of interference from 3G cellular phones with medical devices was considerably lower than the 2G phones, but still exists. Furthermore, almost all of the 4G phones have little to no interference with the medical devices. Currently, with the development of the medical devices industry, the current medical devices are designed to operate safely under any conditions of usage. Finally, a careful analysis would require statistics on the frequency of adverse events across the healthcare system, which apparently do not exist.

  19. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K., E-mail: kurt.osterloh@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Bock, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  20. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.; Bock, S.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  1. Communications in interference limited networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book offers means to handle interference as a central problem of operating wireless networks. It investigates centralized and decentralized methods to avoid and handle interference as well as approaches that resolve interference constructively. The latter type of approach tries to solve the joint detection and estimation problem of several data streams that share a common medium. In fact, an exciting insight into the operation of networks is that it may be beneficial, in terms of an overall throughput, to actively create and manage interference. Thus, when handled properly, "mixing" of data in networks becomes a useful tool of operation rather than the nuisance as which it has been treated traditionally. With the development of mobile, robust, ubiquitous, reliable and instantaneous communication being a driving and enabling factor of an information centric economy, the understanding, mitigation and exploitation of interference in networks must be seen as a centrally important task.

  2. An interference model of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lin, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces an interference model of working memory for information in a continuous similarity space, such as the features of visual objects. The model incorporates the following assumptions: (a) Probability of retrieval is determined by the relative activation of each retrieval candidate at the time of retrieval; (b) activation comes from 3 sources in memory: cue-based retrieval using context cues, context-independent memory for relevant contents, and noise; (c) 1 memory object and its context can be held in the focus of attention, where it is represented with higher precision, and partly shielded against interference. The model was fit to data from 4 continuous-reproduction experiments testing working memory for colors or orientations. The experiments involved variations of set size, kind of context cues, precueing, and retro-cueing of the to-be-tested item. The interference model fit the data better than 2 competing models, the Slot-Averaging model and the Variable-Precision resource model. The interference model also fared well in comparison to several new models incorporating alternative theoretical assumptions. The experiments confirm 3 novel predictions of the interference model: (a) Nontargets intrude in recall to the extent that they are close to the target in context space; (b) similarity between target and nontarget features improves recall, and (c) precueing-but not retro-cueing-the target substantially reduces the set-size effect. The success of the interference model shows that working memory for continuous visual information works according to the same principles as working memory for more discrete (e.g., verbal) contents. Data and model codes are available at https://osf.io/wgqd5/. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cells: the effect of combining RNA interference with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or cetuximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a validated therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, current single agent receptor targeting does not achieve a maximal therapeutic effect, and some mutations confer resistance to current available agents. In the current study we have examined, in different NSCLC cell lines, the combined effect of RNA interference targeting the EGFR mRNA, and inactivation of EGFR signaling using different receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs or a monoclonal antibody cetuximab. Methods NSCLC cells (cell lines HCC827, H292, H358, H1650, and H1975 were transfected with EGFR siRNA and/or treated with the TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, and/or with the monoclonal antibody cetuximab. The reduction of EGFR mRNA expression was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The down-regulation of EGFR protein expression was measured by western blot, and the proliferation, viability, caspase3/7 activity, and apoptotic morphology were monitored by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and fluorescence microscopy. The combined effect of EGFR siRNA and different drugs was evaluated using a combination index. Results EGFR-specific siRNA strongly inhibited EGFR protein expression almost equally in all cell lines and inhibited cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in all NSCLC cell lines studied, albeit with a different magnitude. The effects on growth obtained with siRNA was strikingly different from the effects obtained with TKIs. The effects of siRNA probably correlate with the overall oncogenic significance of the receptor, which is only partly inhibited by the TKIs. The cells which showed weak response to TKIs, such as the H1975 cell line containing the T790M resistance mutation, were found to be responsive to siRNA knockdown of EGFR, as were cell lines with downstream TKI resistance mutations. The cell line HCC827, harboring an exon 19 deletion mutation, was more than 10-fold

  4. Proactive Interference in Short-Term Recognition and Recall Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Petrusic, William M.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of study was to (a) compare the rate of increase of proactive interference over the first few trials under recall and recognition memory test conditions, (2) determine the effects of two types of distractors on short-term recognition, and (3) test memory after proactive interference had reached a stable level under each of three test…

  5. Reduced Interference from Memory Testing: A Postretrieval Monitoring Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.; McCain, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    Initial learning can interfere with subsequent learning (proactive interference [PI]), but recent work indicates initial testing can reduce PI. Here, we tested 2 alternative hypotheses of this effect: Does testing reduce PI by constraining retrieval to the target list, or by facilitating a postretrieval monitoring process? Participants first…

  6. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  7. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  8. On the performance of dual-hop systems with multiple antennas: Effects of spatial correlation, keyhole, and co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, taking into account realistic propagation conditions, namely, spatial correlation, keyhole channels, and unequal-power co-channel interference, we investigate the performance of a wireless relay network where all the nodes are equipped with multiple antennas. Considering channel state information assisted amplify-and-forward protocol, we present analytical expressions for the symbol error rate (SER) and outage probability. More specifically, we first derive the SER expressions of a relay system with orthogonal space-time block coding (OSTBC) over correlated/keyhole fading channels. We also analyze the outage probability of interference corrupted relay systems with maximal ratio combing (MRC) at the receiver as well as multiple-input multiple-output MRC (MIMO MRC). Numerical results are given to illustrate and verify the analytical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. On the performance of dual-hop systems with multiple antennas: Effects of spatial correlation, keyhole, and co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Liu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, taking into account realistic propagation conditions, namely, spatial correlation, keyhole channels, and unequal-power co-channel interference, we investigate the performance of a wireless relay network where all the nodes are equipped with multiple antennas. Considering channel state information assisted amplify-and-forward protocol, we present analytical expressions for the symbol error rate (SER) and outage probability. More specifically, we first derive the SER expressions of a relay system with orthogonal space-time block coding (OSTBC) over correlated/keyhole fading channels. We also analyze the outage probability of interference corrupted relay systems with maximal ratio combing (MRC) at the receiver as well as multiple-input multiple-output MRC (MIMO MRC). Numerical results are given to illustrate and verify the analytical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Buffering Effect of Job Resources in the Relationship between Job Demands and Work-to-Private-Life Interference: A Study among Health-Care Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aims at investigating whether and how (1) job demands and job resources are associated with work-to-private-life interference (WLI) and (2) job resources moderate the relationship between job demands and WLI. Methods: Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire from three hospitals in Italy. The sample consisted of 889 health-care workers. Results: All job demands (i.e., quantitative demands, disproportionate patient expectations, and verbal aggressi...

  11. Interference of two photons in parametric down conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.; Hong, C.K.; Ou, Z.Y.; Mandel, L.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical treatment is given of the process in which the two photons produced simultaneously in the parametric frequency splitting of light are allowed to interfere. It is shown that, while there is no interference in the usual sense involving quantities that are of the second order in the field, fourth-order interference effects are present. These may be revealed by measuring the joint probability of detecting two photons at two points x,x' in the interference plane with photoelectric detectors as a function of the separation x-x'. The probability exhibits a cosine modulation with x-x', with visibility that can approach 100%, even though the integration time in the experiment may greatly exceed the reciprocal bandwidth of the photons. The interference effect has a nonclassical origin and implies a violation of local realism in the highly correlated two-photon state

  12. Interference impacts working memory in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aurtenetxe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM. Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

  13. Interference management using direct sequence spread spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference management using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Keywords: DSSS, LTE network; Wi-Fi network; SINR; interference management and interference power.

  14. Optical interference with noncoherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagi, Yoav; Firstenberg, Ofer; Fisher, Amnon; Ron, Amiram

    2003-01-01

    We examine a typical two-source optical interference apparatus consisting of two cavities, a beam splitter, and two detectors. We show that field-field interference occurs even when the cavities are not initially in coherent states but rather in other nonclassical states. However, we find that the visibility of the second-order interference, that is, the expectation values of the detectors' readings, changes from 100%, when the cavities are prepared in coherent states, to zero visibility when they are initially in single Fock states. We calculate the fourth-order interference, and for the latter case find that it corresponds to a case where the currents oscillate with 100% visibility, but with a random phase for every experiment. Finally, we suggest an experimental realization of the apparatus with nonclassical sources

  15. Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.

  16. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  17. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  18. A verification scenario of nuclear plus interference scattering effects using neutron incident angle distribution to the wall in beam-injected deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Shota; Matsuura, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Daisuke; Sawada, Daisuke; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Goto, Takuya; Mitarai, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    A verification scenario of knock-on tail formation in the deuteron distribution function due to nuclear plus interference scattering is presented by observing the incident angle distribution of neutrons in a vacuum vessel. Assuming a knock-on tail created in a "3He-beam-injected deuterium plasma, the incident angle distribution and energy spectra of the neutrons produced by fusion reactions between 1-MeV and thermal deuterons are evaluated. The relation between the neutron incident angle to the vacuum vessel and neutron energy is examined in the case of anisotropic neutron emission due to knock-on tail formation in neutral-beam-injected plasmas. (author)

  19. Two-state vector formalism and quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, F A; Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2016-01-01

    We show that two-state vector formalism (TSVF), applied to quantum systems that make use of delicate interference effects, can lead to paradoxes. We consider a few schemes of nested Mach–Zehnder interferometers that make use of destructive interference. A particular interpretation of TSVF applied to these schemes makes predictions that are contradictory to quantum theory and can not always be verified. Our results suggest that TSVF might not be a suitable tool to describe quantum systems that make use of delicate quantum interference effects. (paper)

  20. Narrow band interference cancelation in OFDM: Astructured maximum likelihood approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sohail, Muhammad Sadiq; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Al-Ghadhban, Samir N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a maximum likelihood (ML) approach to mitigate the effect of narrow band interference (NBI) in a zero padded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ZP-OFDM) system. The NBI is assumed to be time variant and asynchronous

  1. The disruptive effects of methamphetamine on delayed-matching-to-sample performance reflect proactive interference and are reduced by SCH23390.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Anne C; Harrow, Catherine C; Harper, David N

    2015-01-01

    Different drugs produce different patterns of impairment on delayed matching-to-sample tasks. For example, (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces an increase in proactive interference. That is, subjects are less accurate when they are required to make a response different to the one they made on the immediately previous trial. The current study assessed whether methamphetamine also produces this particular pattern of disruption in delayed matching-to-sample performance in rats. Methamphetamine primarily reduced accuracy on trials where the correct response differed from the one made on the previous trial. Thus methamphetamine, like MDMA and other stimulant-based drugs of abuse, increased proactive interference. This impairment was reduced by prior administration of the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH23390. These results further extend a general conclusion that a range of stimulant-based drugs may disrupt working memory function indirectly via a tendency to repeat previously made responses and that this disruption is related to D1 receptor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of semantic information at the sublexical level during handwriting production: Evidence from inhibition effects of Chinese semantic radicals in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Liao, Yuanlan; Chen, Xianzhe

    2017-08-01

    Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, the interval between the onset of the picture and the onset of the interference word). Two questions were addressed: (1) Is it possible that semantic information could be activated in the sublexical level conditions? (2) How are semantic and orthographic information dynamically accessed in word production? Results showed that both orthographic and semantic information were activated under the present picture-word interference paradigm, dynamically under different SOAs, which supported our view that discussions on semantic processes in the writing modality should be extended to the sublexical level. The current findings provide possibility for building new orthography-phonology-semantics models in writing. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of RF Interference on the Security-Reliability Trade-off Analysis of Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) cochannel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser mixed RF/free-space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling under eavesdropping attack is studied. The considered system includes multiple users, one decode-and-forward relay, one destination, and an eavesdropper. In the analysis, the RF/FSO channels follow Nakagami-m/Gamma-Gamma fading models, respectively, with pointing errors on the FSO link. Exact closed-form expression for the system outage probability is derived. Then, an asymptotic expression for the outage probability is obtained at the high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio regime to get more insights on the system performance. Moreover, the obtained results are used to find the optimal transmission power in different turbulence conditions. The secrecy performance is studied in the presence of CCI at both the authorized relay and eavesdropper, where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. The physical layer security performance is enhanced using cooperative jamming models, where new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. Another power allocation optimization problem is formulated to find the optimal transmission and jamming powers. The derived analytical formulas are supported by numerical results to clarify the main contributions of this paper.

  4. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...... was disrupted by subsequent learning of a precision tracking task with the same agonist muscle group, but not by learning involving antagonist muscles or by voluntary agonist contractions that did not require learning. If the competing task was learned with the same agonist muscle group 4 hours following...

  5. WEED INTERFERENCE IN EGGPLANT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ JUNIOR PEREIRA MARQUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth interferes with the growth eggplants and crop yields. To control weeds, the main weed species must be identified in crop growing areas and during weed control periods, as weed species might vary in relation to management practices. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main weed species and determine the periods of weed interference in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli when grown under certain cultural practices, including plant staking and sprout thinning. The experiment was carried out in 2014 using a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 periods of (1 increasing weed control and (2 increasing coexistence of eggplant with weeds from the first day of transplanting (0-14, 0-28, 0-42, 0-56, 0-70, 0-84, 0-98, 0-112, 0-126, 0-140, and up do day 154. Eggplant staking and sprout thinning were performed 42 days after transplanting (DAT. Weed identification and crop yield assessments were performed to determine the Period Before Interference (PBI, Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP, and the Critical Period of Interference Prevention (CPIP. The major weeds found in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli were Eleusine indica, Portulaca oleracea, and Cyperus rotundus. Coexistence between the weed community and the eggplant throughout the entire crop production cycle reduced eggplant fruit yield by 78%. The PBI was 29 DAT and the TPIP was 48 DAT, resulting in 19 days of CPIP.

  6. Invasion-Flowback Processes During Hydraulic Fracturing Well Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzhekhanov, Shaken; He, Kai; Xu, Liang; Lord, Paul; Lozano, Martin; Neeves, Keith; Yin, Xiaolong

    2017-11-01

    Drainage-imbibition cycles that simulate hydraulic fracturing fluid's invasion and flowback during well interference were investigated using NOA81 microfluidic micromodels. Well interference is quite common in unconventional oil and gas fields. It is not unusual for the fracturing fluid injected into a well to be discovered in a nearby well. Normally, the effect of such interference is considered to be negative, as fracturing fluid will be imbibed into the porous rock and block the flow path of hydrocarbons. However, field data show that some interferences are beneficial, and microfluidic experiments presented in this study show that surfactant in the fracturing fluid may be a reason for the observed positive interference. Two fluid drainage-imbibition cycles were conducted in micromodels. The first cycle simulates fracturing of the old well and the second cycle simulates fluid invasion from the new well into the old well's fracture network. The experimental data show that while most such interferences indeed can cause production loss, when the old well's fracturing fluid does not contain surfactant yet the new well's fracturing fluid does, interference can be positive, as the residual water saturation in the porous medium is effectively reduced by surfactants.

  7. Readout of the atomtronic quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Tan, Joel; Theng, Mark; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong-Chuan; Amico, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in ring shaped lattices interrupted by a weak link and pierced by an effective magnetic flux defines the atomic counterpart of the superconducting quantum interference device: the atomtronic quantum interference device (AQUID). In this paper, we report on the detection of current states in the system through a self-heterodyne protocol. Following the original proposal of the NIST and Paris groups, the ring-condensate many-body wave function interferes with a reference condensate expanding from the center of the ring. We focus on the rf AQUID which realizes effective qubit dynamics. Both the Bose-Hubbard and Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics are studied. For the Bose-Hubbard dynamics, we demonstrate that the self-heterodyne protocol can be applied, but higher-order correlations in the evolution of the interfering condensates are measured to readout of the current states of the system. We study how states with macroscopic quantum coherence can be told apart analyzing the noise in the time of flight of the ring condensate.

  8. A Decentralized Receiver in Gaussian Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. Chapman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bounds are developed on the maximum communications rate between a transmitter and a fusion node aided by a cluster of distributed receivers with limited resources for cooperation, all in the presence of an additive Gaussian interferer. The receivers cannot communicate with one another and can only convey processed versions of their observations to the fusion center through a Local Array Network (LAN with limited total throughput. The effectiveness of each bound’s approach for mitigating a strong interferer is assessed over a wide range of channels. It is seen that, if resources are shared effectively, even a simple quantize-and-forward strategy can mitigate an interferer 20 dB stronger than the signal in a diverse range of spatially Ricean channels. Monte-Carlo experiments for the bounds reveal that, while achievable rates are stable when varying the receiver’s observed scattered-path to line-of-sight signal power, the receivers must adapt how they share resources in response to this change. The bounds analyzed are proven to be achievable and are seen to be tight with capacity when LAN resources are either ample or limited.

  9. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K

    2008-07-23

    Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  10. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Hartshorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  11. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  12. Yukmijihwang-tang for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gajin; Park, Jae-Woo; Ko, Seok-Jae; Son, Jihee; Seon, Jongki; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Seulki; Yeo, Inkwon; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung

    2013-09-03

    Xerostomia, a subjective sense of dry mouth, is not generally regarded a disease despite its high prevalence among the elderly, and therefore continues to impair affected patients' quality of life. In traditional Korean medicine, 'Yin-Deficiency' has been implicated in the pathogenesis of xerostomia among the elderly. Yukmijihwang-tang is a famous herbal prescription used to relieve 'Yin-Deficiency', and reportedly has antioxidant effects; therefore, it is postulated that Yukmijihwang-tang can be used to treat xerostomia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, no clinical trial has been conducted on the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia. Thus, we designed a randomized clinical trial to investigate the effects and safety of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia in the elderly. In addition, we will clarify the aforementioned assumption that 'Yin-Deficiency' is the major cause of xerostomia in the elderly by identifying a correlation between xerostomia and 'Yin-Deficiency'. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out at two centers: Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We will recruit 96 subjects aged 60-80 years who have experienced xerostomia for 3 months prior to participation. Subjects who present with score >40 on the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and unstimulated salivary flow rate under 0.3mL/min will be included and the randomization will be carried out by an independent statistician by using a random number creation program. The subjects and all researchers except the statistician will be blinded to the group assignment. Yukmijihwang-tang or placebo will be administered to each group for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is change in the scores for the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and the dry mouth symptom questionnaire from 0 to 8 weeks. It will be assessed whether Yukmijihwang-tang can be used as a new herbal treatment for xerostomia in the elderly by

  13. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects...

  14. 'Quantum interference with slits' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his calculation as if no approximations are employed. We show that he implicitly makes the same approximations found in classical treatments of interference and that no new physics has been introduced. At the same time, some of the quantum mechanical arguments Marcella gives are, at best, misleading.

  15. Parton showers with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations.

  16. Parton showers with quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations

  17. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...

  18. Damage of GABAergic neurons in the medial septum impairs spatial working memory and extinction of active avoidance: effects on proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kevin C H; Jiao, Xilu; Sinha, Swamini; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band (MSDB) are important in spatial learning and memory. On the basis of the excitotoxic damage of GABAergic MSDB neurons, we have recently suggested a role for these neurons in controlling proactive interference. Our study sought to test this hypothesis in different behavioral procedures using a new GABAergic immunotoxin. GABA-transporter-saporin (GAT1-SAP) was administered into the MSDB of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following surgery, rats were trained in a reference memory water maze procedure for 5 days, followed by a working memory (delayed match to position) water maze procedure. Other rats were trained in a lever-press avoidance procedure after intraseptal GAT1-SAP or sham surgery. Intraseptal GAT1-SAP extensively damaged GABAergic neurons while sparing most cholinergic MSDB neurons. Rats treated with GAT1-SAP were not impaired in acquiring a spatial reference memory, learning the location of the escape platform as rapidly as sham rats. In contrast, GAT1-SAP rats were slower than sham rats to learn the platform location in a delayed match to position procedure, in which the platform location was changed every day. Moreover, GAT1-SAP rats returned to previous platform locations more often than sham rats. In the active avoidance procedure, intraseptal GAT1-SAP impaired extinction but not acquisition of the avoidance response. Using a different neurotoxin and behavioral procedures than previous studies, the results of this study paint a similar picture that GABAergic MSDB neurons are important for controlling proactive interference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Fixation strength of biocomposite wedge interference screw in ACL reconstruction: effect of screw length and tunnel/screw ratio. A controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary stability of the graft is essential in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. An optimal method of fixation should be easy to insert and provide great resistance against pull-out forces. A controlled laboratory study was designed to test the primary stability of ACL tendinous grafts in the tibial tunnel. The correlation between resistance to traction forces and the cross-section and length of the screw was studied. Methods The tibial phase of ACL reconstruction was performed in forty porcine tibias using digital flexor tendons of the same animal. An 8 mm tunnel was drilled in each specimen and two looped tendons placed as graft. Specimens were divided in five groups according to the diameter and length of the screw used for fixation. Wedge interference screws were used. Longitudinal traction was applied to the graft with a Servohydraulic Fatigue System. Load and displacement were controlled and analyzed. Results The mean loads to failure for each group were 295,44 N (Group 1; 9 × 23 screw, 564,05 N (Group 2; 9 × 28, 614,95 N (Group 3; 9 × 35, 651,14 N (Group 4; 10 × 28 and 664,99 (Group 5; 10 × 35. No slippage of the graft was observed in groups 3, 4 and 5. There were significant differences in the load to failure among groups (ANOVA/P Conclusions Longer and wider interference screws provide better fixation in tibial ACL graft fixation. Short screws (23 mm do not achieve optimal fixation and should be implanted only with special requirements.

  20. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit selection with co-channel interference suppression in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms are considered. The first algorithm assumes that the receiver eliminates the impact of the strongest subset of interferers, whereas the second algorithm suggests random cancelation of interferers to further reduce processing complexity. The impact of outdated ordering of interferers powers on the efficiency of interference cancelation, and the effect of imperfect prediction of transmit channels for desired user adaptation are investigated. Analytical formulations for various performance measures and comparisons between the performance and processing complexity of different adaptation schemes are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. An update on mobile phones interference with medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashazadeh, A. M.; Aghajani, M.; Nabipour, I.; Assadi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones' electromagnetic interference with medical devices is an important issue for the medical safety of patients who are using life-supporting medical devices. This review mainly focuses on mobile phones' interference with implanted medical devices and with medical equipment located in critical areas of hospitals. A close look at the findings reveals that mobile phones may adversely affect the functioning of medical devices, and the specific effect and the degree of interference depend on the applied technology and the separation distance. According to the studies' findings and the authors' recommendations, besides mitigating interference, using mobile phones at a reasonable distance from medical devices and developing technology standards can lead to their effective use in hospital communication systems. (authors)

  2. An update on mobile phones interference with medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud Pashazadeh, Ali; Aghajani, Mahdi; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2013-10-01

    Mobile phones' electromagnetic interference with medical devices is an important issue for the medical safety of patients who are using life-supporting medical devices. This review mainly focuses on mobile phones' interference with implanted medical devices and with medical equipment located in critical areas of hospitals. A close look at the findings reveals that mobile phones may adversely affect the functioning of medical devices, and the specific effect and the degree of interference depend on the applied technology and the separation distance. According to the studies' findings and the authors' recommendations, besides mitigating interference, using mobile phones at a reasonable distance from medical devices and developing technology standards can lead to their effective use in hospital communication systems.

  3. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  4. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  5. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  6. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Interference from retrieval cues in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Marin, Dario; Del Missier, Fabio; Biasutti, Emanuele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-11-01

    Existing studies on memory interference in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have provided mixed results and it is unknown whether PD patients have problems in overcoming interference from retrieval cues. We investigated this issue by using a part-list cuing paradigm. In this paradigm, after the study of a list of items, the presentation of some of these items as retrieval cues hinders the recall of the remaining ones. We tested PD patients' (n = 19) and control participants' (n = 16) episodic memory in the presence and absence of part-list cues, using initial-letter probes, and following either weak or strong serial associative encoding of list items. Both PD patients and control participants showed a comparable and significant part-list cuing effect after weak associative encoding (13% vs. 12% decrease in retrieval in part-list cuing vs. no part-list cuing -control- conditions in PD patients and control participants, respectively), denoting a similar effect of cue-driven interference in the two populations when a serial retrieval strategy is hard to develop. However, only PD patients showed a significant part-list cuing effect after strong associative encoding (20% vs. 5% decrease in retrieval in patients and controls, respectively). When encoding promotes the development of an effective serial retrieval strategy, the presentation of part-list cues has a specifically disruptive effect in PD patients. This indicates problems in strategic retrieval, probably related to PD patients' increased tendency to rely on external cues. Findings in control conditions suggest that less effective encoding may have contributed to PD patients' memory performance.

  8. Using RNA Interference to Study Protein Function

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Carol D.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference can be extremely useful in determining the function of an endogenously-expressed protein in its normal cellular environment. In this chapter, we describe a method that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down mRNA and protein expression in cultured cells so that the effect of a putative regulatory protein on gene expression can be delineated. Methods of assessing the effectiveness of the siRNA procedure using real time quantitative PCR and Western analysis are also in...

  9. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Villata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference. However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference, an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005 ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP, which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism.

  10. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Sandra; Tabor, Whitney; Franck, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference). However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference), an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005) ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP), which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism. PMID:29403414

  11. An Interference-Aware Traffic-Priority-Based Link Scheduling Algorithm for Interference Mitigation in Multiple Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien T. T. Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.

  12. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for MIMO Interference Channel Networks Based on Interference Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anming Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers power splitting (PS-based simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO interference channel networks where multiple transceiver pairs share the same frequency spectrum. As the PS model is adopted, an individual receiver splits the received signal into two parts for information decoding (ID and energy harvesting (EH, respectively. Aiming to minimize the total transmit power, transmit precoders, receive filters and PS ratios are jointly designed under a predefined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR and EH constraints. The formulated joint transceiver design and power splitting problem is non-convex and thus difficult to solve directly. In order to effectively obtain its solution, the feasibility conditions of the formulated non-convex problem are first analyzed. Based on the analysis, an iterative algorithm is proposed by alternatively optimizing the transmitters together with the power splitting factors and the receivers based on semidefinite programming (SDP relaxation. Moreover, considering the prohibitive computational cost of the SDP for practical applications, a low-complexity suboptimal scheme is proposed by separately designing interference-suppressing transceivers based on interference alignment (IA and optimizing the transmit power allocation together with splitting factors. The transmit power allocation and receive power splitting problem is then recast as a convex optimization problem and solved efficiently. To further reduce the computational complexity, a low-complexity scheme is proposed by calculating the transmit power allocation and receive PS ratios in closed-form. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in achieving SWIPT for MIMO interference channel (IC networks.

  13. Efeito do espaçamento entre fileiras de amendoim rasteiro na interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura Effect of peanut crop row spacing on weed interference in the culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da redução do espaçamento entre fileiras nos períodos de interferência e na produtividade do amendoim rasteiro (Arachis hypogaea. O experimento foi instalado no município de Jaboticabal-SP. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos entre fileiras (80 e 90 cm, divididos em dois grupos. No primeiro, as plantas daninhas foram controladas desde a emergência até 0 (interferência constante, 30, 45, 60, 82, 97 e 112 dias depois. No segundo, as plantas daninhas conviveram com a cultura pelos mesmos períodos do grupo anterior. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área foram Digitaria sp., Xanthium strumarium, Acanthospermum hispidum e Cenchrus echinatus. Para uma perda tolerável de 5% de produtividade, o período crítico de prevenção à interferência foi dos 27 aos 76 e dos 35 aos 96 dias após a emergência para os espaçamentos de 80 e 90 cm, respectivamente; a queda de produtividade das parcelas mantidas com interferência de plantas daninhas em relação àquelas no limpo foi superior a 80%, independentemente do espaçamento.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of reducing the spacing between rows in periods of weed interference and peanut (Arachis hypogaea yield. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, Brazil. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (80 to 90 cm, divided into two groups. In the first group, the weeds were controlled since emergence up to 0 (constant interference, 30, 45, 60, 82, 97 and 112 days. In the second group, the weeds were allowed to grow with the peanut culture during the same periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with treatments in split-plots, with four repetitions. The main weeds in the area were Digitaria sp., Xanthium strumarium, Acanthospermum hispidum and Cenchrus

  14. Evaluation of the Relationship between Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Levels and the Stroop Interference Effect in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Aktaş, Hüseyin; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, impairment in executive functions has been reported in children with ADHD. This study investigated the presence of a relationship between Stroop test scores and BDNF levels in children with ADHD. The study was conducted in the Department of Child Psychiatry at Dicle University. The study included 49 children between 6 and 15 years of age (M/F: 42/7), who were diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV, and who did not receive previous therapy. Similar in terms of age and gender to the ADHD group, 40 children were selected in the control group. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime version was administered to all participants. Parents and teachers were administered Turgay DSM-IV-based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale to measure symptom severity in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD underwent the Stroop test. BDNF levels were evaluated in serum by ELISA. The ADHD and control groups did not differ in terms of BDNF levels. BDNF levels did not differ between ADHD subtypes. There was also no relationship between the Stroop test interference scores and BDNF levels. The findings of the present study are in line with those in studies that demonstrated no significant role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of ADHD.

  15. The interference effects in the alignment and orientation of the Kr II 4p45p states following Kr I 3d9np resonance excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, B M; Petrov, I D; Sukhorukov, V L; Demekhin, Ph V; Zimmermann, B; Mickat, S; Kammer, S; Schartner, K-H; Ehresmann, A; Shutov, Yu A; Schmoranzer, H

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of the alignment parameter A 20 for the Kr II 4p 4 5p(E 1 J 1 ) states following excitation in the Raman regime with the exciting-photon energy passing through the Kr I 3dJ 9 barnpjbar resonances was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Interference between the resonance and direct photoionization channels explains the dependence of A 20 on the excitation energy. Experimentally, A 20 was determined after the analysis of 5p-5s fluorescence decay of the 4p 4 5p(E 1 J 1 ) states excited with monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The band pass of the synchrotron radiation was set to 10 meV which is smaller than the natural width of the 3d 9 np resonances (∼83 meV). Additionally, a strong energy dependence was predicted for the orientation parameter O 10 as well as for the angular distribution parameter of photoelectrons, β e , for several 4p 4 5p(E 1 J 1 ) ionic states

  16. Entanglement detection from interference fringes in atom-photon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Nemoto, Kae; Miniatura, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A measurement scheme of atomic qubits pinned at given positions is studied by analyzing the interference pattern obtained when they emit photons spontaneously. In the case of two qubits, a well-known relation is revisited in which the interference visibility is equal to the concurrence of the state in the infinite spatial separation limit of the qubits. By taking into account the superradiant and subradiant effects, it is shown that a state tomography is possible when the qubit spatial separation is comparable to the wavelength of the atomic transition. In the case of three qubits, the relations between various entanglement measures and the interference visibility are studied, where the visibility is defined from the two-qubit case. A qualitative correspondence among these entanglement relations is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the interference visibility is directly related to the maximal bipartite negativity.

  17. REM sleep rescues learning from interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  18. Facilitation and interference in naming: A consequence of the same learning process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie W; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2017-08-01

    Our success with naming depends on what we have named previously, a phenomenon thought to reflect learning processes. Repeatedly producing the same name facilitates language production (i.e., repetition priming), whereas producing semantically related names hinders subsequent performance (i.e., semantic interference). Semantic interference is found whether naming categorically related items once (continuous naming) or multiple times (blocked cyclic naming). A computational model suggests that the same learning mechanism responsible for facilitation in repetition creates semantic interference in categorical naming (Oppenheim, Dell, & Schwartz, 2010). Accordingly, we tested the predictions that variability in semantic interference is correlated across categorical naming tasks and is caused by learning, as measured by two repetition priming tasks (picture-picture repetition priming, Exp. 1; definition-picture repetition priming, Exp. 2, e.g., Wheeldon & Monsell, 1992). In Experiment 1 (77 subjects) semantic interference and repetition priming effects were robust, but the results revealed no relationship between semantic interference effects across contexts. Critically, learning (picture-picture repetition priming) did not predict semantic interference effects in either task. We replicated these results in Experiment 2 (81 subjects), finding no relationship between semantic interference effects across tasks or between semantic interference effects and learning (definition-picture repetition priming). We conclude that the changes underlying facilitatory and interfering effects inherent to lexical access are the result of distinct learning processes where multiple mechanisms contribute to semantic interference in naming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The beneficial influence of inattention on visual interference in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Mathieu B; Kiang, Michael; Christensen, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with poor spatial attention. However, although this deficit undermines the perception of target information, it may be helpful for ignoring irrelevant inputs. The present study examined whether event-related brain potential (ERP) indices of visual spatial attention predicted the magnitude of the brain response to interference in schizophrenia. ERPs were recorded in 16 schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy control participants who had to indicate whether the target E was global or local in compound letter stimuli. The nontarget could be either highly similar to the target (i.e., a global E composed of local Ss and vice versa) and thus produce more interference, or it could be dissimilar (i.e., a global E composed of local Hs and vice versa) and generate less interference. Both groups' responses were slowed by interference. Voltage amplitudes of the P1, and of ERP interference effects from 300-500 ms after stimulus onset, were significantly smaller in schizophrenia patients than in healthy participants when the target was global. In patients, larger P1 amplitudes were correlated with larger interference effects and with more severe symptoms of attentional deficits and conceptual disorganization. Schizophrenia participants thus exhibited abnormal ERPs to interference despite normal behavioral performance. Schizophrenia patients likely pay less attention to stimuli in general; however, the impact of this impairment on target detection is compensated by relatively greater inattention to irrelevant components of the stimuli, and this explains why they are not more influenced by interference than healthy participants at the behavioral level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  1. Cadmium effects on embryo growth of pea seeds during germination: Investigation of the mechanisms of interference of the heavy metal with protein mobilization-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouani, Khadija; Karmous, Inès; Ostrowski, Maciej; Ferjani, Ezzedine El; Jakubowska, Anna; Chaoui, Abdelilah

    2018-04-16

    This work aims to give more insight into mechanisms of action of cadmium (Cd) on germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. var. douce province), specifically the different ways by which Cd cations may interfere with the principal factors involved during germination process, notably storage proteins mobilization, amino acids freeing and proteolytic activities. Obtained results revealed that the process of hydrolysis of main storage proteins showed a significant disruption, which resulted in the decrease of the release of free amino acids, thus imposing a lack in nitrogen supply of essential nutrients to growing embryo under Cd stress. This hypothesis was evidenced by Cd-induced changes occurring in main purified protein fractions; Albumins, Legumins and Vicilins, during their breakdown. Besides, at enzymatic level, the activities of main proteases responsible for this hydrolysis were altered. Indeed, assays using synthetic substrates and specific protease inhibitors followed by protease activity measurements demonstrated that Cd inhibited drastically the total azocaseinolytic activity (ACA) and activities of different proteolytic classes: cysteine-, aspartic-, serine- and metallo-endopeptidases (EP), leucine- and proline-aminopeptidases (LAP and PAP, respectively), and glycine-carboxypeptidases (Gly-CP). The data here presented may suggest that the vulnerability of the embryonic axes towards Cd toxicity could be explained as a result of eventual disruption of metabolic pathways that affect mobilization of reserves and availability of nutrients. In vitro studies suggest that Cd cations may act either directly on the catalytic sites of the proteolytic enzymes, which may cause their deactivation, or indirectly via the generation of oxidative stress and overproduction of free radicals that can interact with enzymes, by altering their activity and structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Interference of Multiple Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Yuan, Xiaocong; Lin, Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from strongly electromagnetic confinement and enhancement effects, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) hold great promises for tailoring light on micro and nanoscale. By contrast with previous efforts which massively concentrate on localized SPP mode, we investigated the propagating SPPs in this paper. A number of symmetrical gratings on metal surface are employed to excite multiple SPPs. Interestingly, the exotic interfering phenomena have been observed. They show good agreement with free-space interferences and take advantage of precise controllability. These findings will be promising in the applications of optical tweezers and SPP lithography. (paper)

  3. Phasor Measurement Unit under Interference Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Martin, Kenneth E.; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    interference condition scenarios. In the first scenario, noise is added to the PMU input signal. The test runs a sweep of Signalto-Noise Ratios (SNR) and the accuracy versus the noise level is obtained. The second scenario injects multiple harmonics with the input to test the influence on accuracy. The last...... scenario focuses on instrument transformer saturation which leads to a modified waveform injected in the PMU. This test goes through different levels of Current Transformer (CT) saturation and analyzes the effect of saturation on the accuracy of PMUs. The test results show PMU measurements will be degraded...

  4. Image hiding using optical interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Weining

    2010-09-01

    Optical image encryption technology has attracted a lot of attentions due to its large capacitance and fast speed. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are used as encryption keys to encode the images into white noise distribution. Therefore, this kind of methods requires interference technology to record complex amplitude and is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods which employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks are proposed, the hiding process is carried out within a computer using iterative algorithm. But the iterative algorithms are time consumed. All method mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, a new optical image hiding method based on optical interference is proposed. The coherence lights which pass through two phase masks are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are design analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the novelty of the new proposed methods. This method can be expanded for double images hiding.

  5. Carbon nanostructure composite for electromagnetic interference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-30

    based composite materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. With more and more electronic gadgets being used at different frequencies, there is a need for shielding them from one another to avoid interference.

  6. Resonance interference method in lattice physics code stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Khassenov, Azamat; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-01-01

    Newly developed resonance interference model is implemented in the lattice physics code STREAM, and the model shows a significant improvement in computing accurate eigenvalues. Equivalence theory is widely used in production calculations to generate the effective multigroup (MG) cross-sections (XS) for commercial reactors. Although a lot of methods have been developed to enhance the accuracy in computing effective XSs, the current resonance treatment methods still do not have a clear resonance interference model. The conventional resonance interference model simply adds the absorption XSs of resonance isotopes to the background XS. However, the conventional models show non-negligible errors in computing effective XSs and eigenvalues. In this paper, a resonance interference factor (RIF) library method is proposed. This method interpolates the RIFs in a pre-generated RIF library and corrects the effective XS, rather than solving the time consuming slowing down calculation. The RIF library method is verified for homogeneous and heterogeneous problems. The verification results using the proposed method show significant improvements of accuracy in treating the interference effect. (author)

  7. Quantum eraser for three-slit interference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveed Ahmad Shah

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Abstract. It is well known that in a two-slit interference experiment, if the information, on which of the two paths the particle followed, is stored in a quantum path detector, the interference is destroyed. However, in a set-up where this path information is 'erased', the interference can reappear. Such a set-up is ...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1221 - Interference protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection. 27.1221 Section 27... Technical Standards § 27.1221 Interference protection. (a) Interference protection will be afforded to BRS... height benchmark (hbm). (c) Protection for Receiving Antennas not Exceeding the Height Benchmark. Absent...

  9. Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul J; Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between emotions, cognitive interference, concentration disruption and performance in youth sport. In study 1, 150 youth sport athletes (Mage = 13.13 years, s = 1.79) completed measures of emotion, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption for their most recently completed competition. In Study 2, 46 female rhythmic gymnasts (Mage = 10.30 years, s = 1.74) completed measures of emotion immediately before competition, and measures of cognitive interference and concentration disruption immediately after competition. Study 1 showed that anxiety and dejection were associated with more interfering thoughts and greater disruptions in concentration, whereas the effects of anger and happiness on interfering thoughts differed relative to the age of participants. Specifically, anger was associated with more interfering thoughts only in younger athletes and happiness was associated with fewer interfering thoughts only in older athletes. Study 2 showed that emotions experienced before competition were not strongly associated with cognitive interference or concentration disruption, but athletes reporting more thoughts of escape in competition were less successful in the competition as measured by objective performance scores. These findings demonstrate that emotions are important for cognitive interference and concentration disruption, and provide some initial evidence that cognitive interference is important for performance in youth sport.

  10. Widespread nanoparticle-assay interference: implications for nanotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kimberly J; MacCormack, Tyson J; Clark, Rhett J; Ede, James D; Ortega, Van A; Felix, Lindsey C; Dang, Michael K M; Ma, Guibin; Fenniri, Hicham; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Goss, Greg G

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of engineered nanomaterial safety has been hindered by conflicting reports demonstrating differential degrees of toxicity with the same nanoparticles. The unique properties of these materials increase the likelihood that they will interfere with analytical techniques, which may contribute to this phenomenon. We tested the potential for: 1) nanoparticle intrinsic fluorescence/absorbance, 2) interactions between nanoparticles and assay components, and 3) the effects of adding both nanoparticles and analytes to an assay, to interfere with the accurate assessment of toxicity. Silicon, cadmium selenide, titanium dioxide, and helical rosette nanotubes each affected at least one of the six assays tested, resulting in either substantial over- or under-estimations of toxicity. Simulation of realistic assay conditions revealed that interference could not be predicted solely by interactions between nanoparticles and assay components. Moreover, the nature and degree of interference cannot be predicted solely based on our current understanding of nanomaterial behaviour. A literature survey indicated that ca. 95% of papers from 2010 using biochemical techniques to assess nanotoxicity did not account for potential interference of nanoparticles, and this number had not substantially improved in 2012. We provide guidance on avoiding and/or controlling for such interference to improve the accuracy of nanotoxicity assessments.

  11. Widespread nanoparticle-assay interference: implications for nanotoxicity testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Ong

    Full Text Available The evaluation of engineered nanomaterial safety has been hindered by conflicting reports demonstrating differential degrees of toxicity with the same nanoparticles. The unique properties of these materials increase the likelihood that they will interfere with analytical techniques, which may contribute to this phenomenon. We tested the potential for: 1 nanoparticle intrinsic fluorescence/absorbance, 2 interactions between nanoparticles and assay components, and 3 the effects of adding both nanoparticles and analytes to an assay, to interfere with the accurate assessment of toxicity. Silicon, cadmium selenide, titanium dioxide, and helical rosette nanotubes each affected at least one of the six assays tested, resulting in either substantial over- or under-estimations of toxicity. Simulation of realistic assay conditions revealed that interference could not be predicted solely by interactions between nanoparticles and assay components. Moreover, the nature and degree of interference cannot be predicted solely based on our current understanding of nanomaterial behaviour. A literature survey indicated that ca. 95% of papers from 2010 using biochemical techniques to assess nanotoxicity did not account for potential interference of nanoparticles, and this number had not substantially improved in 2012. We provide guidance on avoiding and/or controlling for such interference to improve the accuracy of nanotoxicity assessments.

  12. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-10-01

    The performance of a generalized single-stream transmit beamforming scheme employing receive co-channel interference -steering algorithms in slowly varying and flat fading channels is analyzed. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information (CSI) for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels is considered. Both dominant interference cancelation and adaptive arbitrary interference cancelation algorithms for closely spaced receive antennas are used. The impact of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact formulas for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are derived, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and best transmit channel selection schemes can be deduced as limiting cases. The results presented herein can be used to obtain quantitative measure for various performance metrics, and in addition to investigate the performance-complexity tradeoff for different multiple-antenna system models. © 2010 IEEE.

  13. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Escaping the recent past: which stimulus dimensions influence proactive interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kimberly S; Berman, Marc G; Jonides, John; Lustig, Cindy

    2013-07-01

    Proactive interference occurs when information from the past disrupts current processing and is a major source of confusion and errors in short-term memory (STM; Wickens, Born, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2:440-445, 1963). The present investigation examines potential boundary conditions for interference, testing the hypothesis that potential competitors must be similar along task-relevant dimensions to influence proactive interference effects. We manipulated both the type of task being completed (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and dimensions of similarity irrelevant to the current task (Experiments 4 and 5) to determine how the recent presentation of a probe item would affect the speed with which participants could reject that item. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 contrasted STM judgments, which require temporal information, with semantic and perceptual judgments, for which temporal information is irrelevant. In Experiments 4 and 5, task-irrelevant information (perceptual similarity) was manipulated within the recent probes task. We found that interference from past items affected STM task performance but did not affect performance in semantic or perceptual judgment tasks. Conversely, similarity along a nominally irrelevant perceptual dimension did not affect the magnitude of interference in STM tasks. Results are consistent with the view that items in STM are represented by noisy codes consisting of multiple dimensions and that interference occurs when items are similar to each other and, thus, compete along the dimensions relevant to target selection.

  15. Role of dressed-state interference in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sumanta; Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of dressed-state interference is investigated on lambda, ladder and vee type EIT systems. • The effect of interference decreases with increasing Rabi frequency of the control laser. • Dressed-state interference plays an important role in lambda system and a negligible role in ladder and vee systems. - Abstract: Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level systems uses a strong control laser on one transition to modify the absorption of a weak probe laser on a second transition. The control laser creates dressed states whose decay pathways show interference. We study the role of dressed-state interference in causing EIT in the three types of three-level systems—lambda (Λ), ladder (Ξ), and vee (V). In order to get realistic values for the linewidths of the energy levels involved, we consider appropriate hyperfine levels of "8"7Rb. For such realistic systems, we find that dressed-state interference causes probe absorption—given by the imaginary part of the susceptibility—to go to zero in a Λ system, but plays a negligible role in Ξ and V systems.

  16. Cross Layer Interference Management in Wireless Biomedical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil G. Spanakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference, in wireless networks, is a central phenomenon when multiple uncoordinated links share a common communication medium. The study of the interference channel was initiated by Shannon in 1961 and since then this problem has been thoroughly elaborated at the Information theoretic level but its characterization still remains an open issue. When multiple uncoordinated links share a common medium the effect of interference is a crucial limiting factor for network performance. In this work, using cross layer cooperative communication techniques, we study how to compensate interference in the context of wireless biomedical networks, where many links transferring biomedical or other health related data may be formed and suffer from all other interfering transmissions, to allow successful receptions and improve the overall network performance. We define the interference limited communication range to be the critical communication region around a receiver, with a number of surrounding interfering nodes, within which a successful communication link can be formed. Our results indicate that we can achieve more successful transmissions by adapting the transmission rate and power, to the path loss exponent, and the selected mode of the underline communication technique allowing interference mitigation and when possible lower power consumption and increase achievable transmission rates.

  17. Role of dressed-state interference in electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sumanta; Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-12-16

    Highlights: • Role of dressed-state interference is investigated on lambda, ladder and vee type EIT systems. • The effect of interference decreases with increasing Rabi frequency of the control laser. • Dressed-state interference plays an important role in lambda system and a negligible role in ladder and vee systems. - Abstract: Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level systems uses a strong control laser on one transition to modify the absorption of a weak probe laser on a second transition. The control laser creates dressed states whose decay pathways show interference. We study the role of dressed-state interference in causing EIT in the three types of three-level systems—lambda (Λ), ladder (Ξ), and vee (V). In order to get realistic values for the linewidths of the energy levels involved, we consider appropriate hyperfine levels of {sup 87}Rb. For such realistic systems, we find that dressed-state interference causes probe absorption—given by the imaginary part of the susceptibility—to go to zero in a Λ system, but plays a negligible role in Ξ and V systems.

  18. Quantum theory of two-photon wavepacket interference in a beamsplitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kaige

    2006-01-01

    A general theory is derived for the interference of a two-photon wavepacket in a beamsplitter. The theory is presented in the Schroedinger picture so that the quantum nature of the two-photon interference is explicitly revealed. We find that the topological symmetry of the probability-amplitude spectrum of the two-photon wavepacket dominates the nature of the two-photon interference, which may be distinguished by the increase or decrease of the coincidence probability in the absence of interference. However, two-photon entanglement can be identified by the nature of the interference. We demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for perfect two-photon interference. It is shown that a two-photon entangled state with an anti-symmetric spectrum passes through a 50/50 beamsplitter with perfect transparency. The theory provides us with a unified understanding of the various two-photon interference effects. (topical review)

  19. Satellite interference analysis and simulation using personal computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Anil

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the complete analysis and formulas necessary to quantify the interference experienced by a generic satellite communications receiving station due to an interfering satellite. Both satellites, the desired as well as the interfering satellite, are considered to be in elliptical orbits. Formulas are developed for the satellite look angles and the satellite transmit angles generally related to the land mask of the receiving station site for both satellites. Formulas for considering Doppler effect due to the satellite motion as well as the Earth's rotation are developed. The effect of the interfering-satellite signal modulation and the Doppler effect on the power received are considered. The statistical formulation of the interference effect is presented in the form of a histogram of the interference to the desired signal power ratio. Finally, a computer program suitable for microcomputers such as IBM AT is provided with the flowchart, a sample run, results of the run, and the program code.

  20. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.